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Encyclopedia > Kraal
A South African cattle kraal (Photo by Richard Jones)
A South African cattle kraal (Photo by Richard Jones)

Kraal (also spelt craal or kraul) is an Afrikaans and South African English word for an enclosure for cattle or other livestock, located within an African homestead or village surrounded by a palisade, mud wall, or other fencing, roughly circular in form. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... South African English is a dialect of English spoken in South Africa and in neighbouring countries with a large number of Anglo-Africans living in them, such as Botswana, Namibia, and Zimbabwe. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle (often called cows in vernacular and contemporary usage, or kye as the Scots plural of cou) are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... An English translation of terms for small, dispersed settlements, primarily among the Nguni-speaking peoples of southern Africa, now commonly used by ethnographers and historians; cf. ... Palisade and Moat A palisade is a Medieval wooden fence or wall of variable height, used as a defensive structure. ... Rolled sod Sod is turf and the part of the soil beneath it held together by the roots, or a piece of this material. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Separation barrier. ...


In the Dutch language a kraal is a bead, but the term in the described meaning derives from the Portuguese curral[1], similar to the Spanish corral. Beads Cloisonné beads Dichroic beads (10 mm) A bead is a small, decorative object that is pierced for threading or stringing. ... This article has been sent for reconstruction. ...


The term primarily refers to the type of dispersed homestead characteristic of the Nguni-speaking peoples of southern Africa. Although from the period of colonization white South Africans commonly referred to the entire homestead as a kraal, ethnographers have long recognized that its proper referent is the animal pen area within a homestead, and that it is incorrect to speak of persons living in kraals. The several human dwellings within a homestead (Xhosa umzi, Zulu umuzi, Swati umuti) are called houses (singular indlu; plural Xhosa and Zulu 'izindlu', Swati 'tindlu') by modern ethnographers. For the cattle breed see Nguni cattle. ... Ethnography (from the Greek ethnos = nation and graphe = writing) refers to the qualitative description of human social phenomena, based on months or years of fieldwork. ... Xhosa (IPA: ) is one of the official languages of South Africa. ... Zulu (isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... Swati (siSwati in the language itself; Swazi in Zulu) is a Bantu language of the Nguni group spoken in Swaziland and South Africa. ... Xhosa (IPA: ) is one of the official languages of South Africa. ... Zulu (isiZulu in Zulu), is a language of the Zulu people with about 10 million speakers, the vast majority (over 95%) of whom live in South Africa. ... Swati (siSwati in the language itself; Swazi in Zulu) is a Bantu language of the Nguni group spoken in Swaziland and South Africa. ...


Folds for animals and enclosures made specially for defensive purposes are also called kraals.


In Eastern and Central Africa, the equivalent word for a livestock enclosure is boma, but this has taken on wider meanings.  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... A boma in the forest. ...

A South African homestead with a cattle kraal in the foreground (Photo by Richard Jones)
A South African homestead with a cattle kraal in the foreground (Photo by Richard Jones)

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Other

The term Kraal is also used in Scouting to name the team of Scout Leaders of a group. The Kraal is where the main decisions are taken. Scouting, also known as the Scout Movement, is a worldwide youth movement with the stated aim of supporting young people in their physical, mental and spiritual development, so that they may play constructive roles in society. ...


References

  1. ^ Random House Unabridged Dictionary: Kraal: "Origin: 1725–35; < Afrik < Pg curral pen"

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kraal - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (139 words)
Kraal (also spelt craal or kraul) is an Afrikaans word for either an enclosure for horses, cattle and the like, or a native village surrounded by a palisade, mud wall, or other fencing, roughly circular in form.
The term has been more broadly used to describe the way of life associated with the kraal that is found among some African, especially South African, peoples.
Among certain peoples of KwaZulu Natal, for example, the kraal consists of a collection of huts.
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