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Encyclopedia > Kostroma
Fire-observation watchtower in Kostroma (1825-28).
Fire-observation watchtower in Kostroma (1825-28).

Kostroma (Russian: Кострома́) is a historic city in central Russia, administrative centre of the Kostroma Oblast. A part of the Golden ring of the Russian towns, it is located at the confluence of the rivers Volga and Kostroma, 65 km east of Yaroslavl. Population: 278,750 (2002); 288,400 (2000). Image File history File linksMetadata Kostroma_watchtower. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Kostroma_watchtower. ... Kostroma Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ... The Golden Ring (Russian: Золото́е Кольцо́) is a ring of cities northeast of Moscow, the capital of the Russian Federation. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ... Kostroma (Кострома́) is a river in Russia, left tributary of Volga. ... A public building in Yaroslavl Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... This article is about the year 2000. ...

Contents

Kostroma under the Rurikids

The city was first recorded in the chronicles for the year 1213, but historians believe it could have been founded by Yury Dolgoruky more than half a century earlier. Like other towns of the Eastern Rus, Kostroma was sacked by the Mongols in 1238. It then constituted a small principality, under leadership of Prince Vasily the Drunkard, a younger brother of the famous Alexander Nevsky. Upon inheriting the grand ducal title in 1271, Vasily didn't leave the town for Vladimir, and his descendants ruled Kostroma for another half a century, until the town was bought by Ivan I of Moscow. May 30 - Battle of Damme; English fleet under William Longsword destroyes a French fleet off the Belgian port in the first major victory for the fledgling Royal Navy. ... Monument to Yury Dolgoruky in Moscow. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су&#769... Mongols (Mongolian: Монгол Mongol) are an ethnic group that originated in what is now Mongolia, Russia, and China or more specifically on the Central Asian plateau north of the Gobi desert and south of Siberia. ... Events In the Iberian peninsula, James I of Aragon captures the city of Valencia September 28 from the Moors; the Moors retreat to Granada. ... Vasily Yaroslavich (1241 - 1276) was one of the least remarkable Grand Dukes of Vladimir. ... Statue in Pereslavl, just in front of the cathedral Alexander was baptised in. ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude 56°09´N 40°25´E Vladimir (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Vladimir Oblast. ... Ivan I Danilovich Kalita (Ivan the Moneybag) (Ива́н I Дани́лович Калита́ in Russian)(1288 - March 31, 1340), Prince of Moscow (since 1325), Grand Prince of Vladimir (since 1328), son of Daniil...


As one of the northernmost towns of Muscovy, Kostroma served for grand dukes as a place of retreat when enemies besieged Moscow in 1382, 1408, and 1433. In 1375, the town was looted by Novgorod pirates ("ushkuiniki"). The spectacular growth of the city in the 16th century may be attributed to the establishment of trade connections with English and Dutch merchants (Muscovy Company) through the northern port of Archangel. Boris Godunov had the Ipatievsky and Epiphany monasteries rebuilt in stone. The construction works were finished just in time for the city to witness some of the most dramatic events of the Time of Troubles. Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... The ushkuiniks (Russian: ушкуйники) were medieval Novgorodian pirates who led the Viking-like life of fighting, killing, and robbery. ... Ivan IV of Russia demonstrates his treasures to the English ambassador (1875) Muscovy Company (also called Russian Company or Muscovy Trading Company, Polish Kompania Moskiewska, Russian: Московская компания), was a trading company chartered in 1555. ... Arkhangelsk (Russian: ), formerly called Archangel in English, is a city in and the administrative center of Arkhangelsk Oblast, Russia. ... Tsar Boris I Boris Feodorovich Godunov (Бори́с Фёдорович Годуно́в) (c. ... The Time of Troubles (Russian: Смутное время, Smutnoye Vremya) was a period of Russian history comprising the years of interregnum between the death of the last of Moscow Rurikids, Tsar Feodor Ivanovich, in 1598 and the establishment of the Romanov Dynasty in 1613. ...

Our Lady of St Theodore (10th century), the holy protectress of Kostroma
Our Lady of St Theodore (10th century), the holy protectress of Kostroma

Kostroma was twice ravaged by the Poles; it took a 6-month siege to expel them from the Ipatievsky monastery. The heroic peasant Ivan Susanin became a symbol of the city's resistance to foreign invaders; several monuments to him may be seen in Kostroma. The future tsar, Michael Romanov, also lived at the monastery. It was here that an embassy from Moscow offered him the Russian crown in 1612. The 10th-century Fedorovskaya icon from Kostroma. ... The 10th-century Fedorovskaya icon from Kostroma. ... A crowd at the Hypatian Monastery imploring Mikhail Romanovs mother to let him go to Moscow and become their tsar (1673). ... Ivan Susanin (15?? - 1613) was a Russian folk hero and martyr of the early 17th centurys Time of Troubles. ... Mikhail at the Ipatiev Monastery by Grigory Ugryumov Mikhail Feodorovich Romanov (In Russian Михаи́л Фёдорович Рома́нов) (July 12, 1596 – July 13, 1645) was the first Russian tsar of the house of Romanov, being the son of Feodor Nikitich Romanov, afterwards the Patriarch Filaret, and Xenia (of disputed family), afterwards the great nun Martha. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Events January 20 - Mathias becomes Holy Roman Emperor. ...


Kostroma under the Romanovs

It is understandable why the Romanov tsars regarded Kostroma as their special protectorate. The Ipatievsky monastery was visited by many of them, including Nicholas II, the last Russian tsar. The monastery had been founded in the early 14th century by a Tatar prince, ancestor of the Godunov family. The Romanov tsars had the magnificent Trinity cathedral rebuilt in 1652; its frescoes and iconostasis are a thing of beauty. A wooden house of Mikhail Romanov is still preserved in the monastery. There are also several old wooden structures transported to the monastery walls from distant districts of the Kostroma Oblast. The Ipatievsky monastery in Kostroma contains buildings from 16th to 19th centuries. ... The Ipatievsky monastery in Kostroma contains buildings from 16th to 19th centuries. ... The Ipatiev Monastery (Ипатьевский монастырь in Russian) is a male monastery in Kostroma. ... The Hypatian Codex (Hypatian Chronicle, Ipatiev Chronicle, Russian: ) is a compendium of three chronicles: Primary Chronicle, Kiev Chronicle, and Halych-Volhynian Chronicle. ... The Russian Primary Chronicle (Russian: Повесть временных лет, Povest vremennykh let, which is often translated in English as Tale of Bygone Years), is a history of the early East Slavic state, Kievan Rus, from... The House of Romanov (Рома́нов, pronounced Ro-MAH-nof), the second and last royal dynasty of Russia, which ruled Muscovy and the Russian Empire for five generations from 1613 to 1762. ... Nicholas II of Russia (May 18, 1868–July 17, 1918)[1] (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[2] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Kostroma Oblast (Russian: ) is a federal subject of Russia (an oblast). ...


In 1773, Kostroma was devastated by a great fire. Afterwards the city was rebuilt with streets radiating from a single focal point near the river. They say that Empress Catherine dropped her fan on the city map, and told the architects to follow her design. One of the best preserved examples of the 18th century town planning, Kostroma retains some elegant structures in a "provincial neoclassical" style. These include a governor's palace, a fire tower, a rotunda on the Volga embankment, and an arcaded central market with a merchant church in the center. Image File history File linksMetadata Yarplan. ... Catherine II of Russia Catherine II of Russia, called the Great (Russian: Екатерина II Великая, Yekaterina II Velikaya; 2 May 1729–17 November 1796 [O.S. 6 November]) — sometimes referred to as an epitome of the enlightened despot — reigned as Empress of Russia for some 34 years, from June 28, 1762 until... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Urban, city, or town planning, deals with design of the built environment from the municipal and metropolitan perspective. ... Neoclassicism (sometimes rendered as Neo-Classicism or Neo-classicism) is the name given to quite distinct movements in the decorative and visual arts, literature, theatre, music, and architecture. ... Embankment can be: An artificial slope which can be made out of earth, stones or bricks, or a combination of these. ... Great Gostiny Dvor in St Petersburg, 1802. ...


Sights and landmarks

The Resurrection church (1652) is a superb example of the 17th-century Russian art.
Enlarge
The Resurrection church (1652) is a superb example of the 17th-century Russian art.

Built in 1559-65, the 5-domed Epiphany Cathedral was the first stone edifice in the city; its medieval frescoes perished during a fire several years ago. The minster houses the city's most precious relic, a 10th-century Byzantine icon called Our Lady of St. Theodore (Russian: Федоровская Богоматерь). It was with this icon that Mikhail Romanov was blessed by his mother when he left for Moscow to claim the Russian throne. They say that just before the Revolution the icon blackened so badly that the image was hardly visible; it was interpreted as a bad sign for the Romanov dynasty. Image File history File links Kostroma-resurrection. ... Image File history File links Kostroma-resurrection. ... John the Baptist baptizes Jesus Christ as Angels look on in wonder in an Eastern Orthodox icon of the Theophany This article is about the Christian feast. ... Fresco by Dionisius representing Saint Nicholas. ... Eastern Orthodoxy (also called Greek Orthodoxy and Russian Orthodoxy) is a Christian tradition which represents the majority of Eastern Christianity. ... Christ the Redeemer (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) An icon (from Greek , eikon, image) is an image, picture, or representation; it is a sign or likeness that stands for an object by signifying or representing it, or by analogy, as in semiotics; in computers an icon is a symbol on the... A 1703 copy of the original icon. ... The Russian Revolution of 1917 was a series of political events in Russia, involving first the overthrow of the system of autocracy, and then the overthrow of the liberal Provisional Government (Duma), resulting in the establishment of the Soviet power under the control of the Bolshevik party. ...


The Ipatievsky monastery survives mostly intact, with its 16th-century walls, towers, belfry, and the 17th-century cathedral. The term Belfry has a variety of uses: For the architectural term see:Belfry (architecture) For the U.S. town in Montana see Belfry, Montana For the English golf club see The De Vere Belfry There is also a German Epic Metal band called Belfry. ... A cathedral is a Christian church building, specifically of a denomination with an episcopal hierarchy, such as the Anglican, Catholic and some Lutheran churches, which serves as the central church of a diocese, and thus as a bishops seat. ...


Apart from the monasteries, most of the city churches were either rebuilt or demolished during the Soviet years. The only city church that survives from the 17th-century "golden age" is the of gold instead. He resolved that the unearned gold was the devil's gift and decided to spend it on building a church, beautiful within and without. Two other 17th-century temples, of rather conventional architecture, may be seen on the opposite side of the Volga. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700 in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Among the vestiges of the Godunov rule, a fine tent-like church in the village Krasnoe-on-the-Volga (formerly an estate of Boris Godunov's brother) may be recommended. The rocket-like church at Ostrov near Moscow is considered typical for Boris Godunovs reign. ...

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Кострома

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ...

Sister Cities

Golden Ring of Russia

Alexandrov | Bogolyubovo | Gorokhovets | Gus-Khrustalny | Ivanovo | Kalyazin | Kideksha | Kostroma | Moscow | Murom | Palekh | Pereslavl-Zalessky | Plyos | Rostov | Rybinsk | Sergiyev Posad | Suzdal | Tutayev | Uglich | Vladimir | Yaroslavl | Yuryev-Polsky Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan_(bordered). ... Toyama (富山市; -shi) is the capital city of Toyama Prefecture, Japan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Finland_(bordered). ... Hyvinkää (IPA: /ˈhyÊ‹iÅ‹kæː/; Hyvinge in Swedish) is a small town in the province of Uusimaa, approximately 50 km north of the capital Helsinki. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_England_(bordered). ... Statistics Population: 42,939 (2001) Ordnance Survey OS grid reference: NZ274424 Administration District: City of Durham Shire county: Durham Region: North East England Constituent country: England Sovereign state: United Kingdom Other Ceremonial county: Durham Historic county: Durham Services Police force: County Durham Ambulance service: North East Post office and telephone... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_States. ... Durham skyline Nickname: City of Medicine Official website: http://www. ... The Golden Ring (Russian: ) is a ring of cities northeast of Moscow, the capital of Russia. ... Alexandrov (Russian: ) is a town in Vladimir Oblast, Russia. ... Bogolyubovo (Russian: Боголюбово) is an urban type settlement in the Vladimir Oblast in Russia, located some 10 km northeast of Vladimir. ... Gorokhovets coat of arms combines Vladimirs heraldic lion with peas, alluding to the plant which gave rise to the towns name. ... Gus Khrustalny (Гусь-Хрустальный in Russian) is a town in the Vladimir Oblast in Russia, located on the Gus River (a tributary of the Oka River) 63 km south of Vladimir. ... Ivanovo (Russian: Ива́ново) is the administrative center of Ivanovo Oblast, Russia. ... Kalyazin (Russian: ) is a small town in Tver Oblast, Russia. ... Location Position of Moscow in Europe Government Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Geographical characteristics Area  - City 1,081 km² Population  - City (2005)    - Density 10,415,400   8537. ... Murom downtown sprawls along the bank of the Oka Murom (Russian: ; Old Norse: Moramar) is a historic city in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, which sprawls majestically along the left bank of Oka River, about 300 km east of Moscow, at 55°34′N 42°02′E. Population is 145,500 (2002). ... Village of Palekh Palekh miniature (Палехская миниатюра in Russian) is a Russian folk handicraft of miniature painting, which is done with tempera paints on varnished articles made of papier-mâché (small boxes, cigarette and powder cases etc. ... Pereslavls most famous ruler, Alexander Nevsky, was baptized at the Saviour Cathedral (1152-57). ... Plyos (Russian: ) is a town in and the administrative center of Privolzhsky District of Ivanovo Oblast, Russia, situated on the right bank of the Volga River some 70 km northeast of Ivanovo. ... Rostov (Russian: Росто́в; Old Norse: Rostofa) is one of the oldest towns in Russia and an important tourist centre of the so called Golden ring. ... Rybinsk (Ры́бинск), with population exceding 250,000, is the second largest city of the Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia. ... Monument to St. ... St. ... Tutayev (Тута́ев) is a town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia. ... Transfiguration cathedral in the kremlin Uglich (Russian: У́глич, pronounced ooglitch) is a historic town in Yaroslavl Oblast, Russia, on the Volga River. ... Population 315,954 (2002) Time zone Moscow (MSK/MSD), UTC +0300 (MSK)/+0400 (MSD) Latitude/Longitude 56°09´N 40°25´E Vladimir (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, an administrative center of Vladimir Oblast. ... A public building in Yaroslavl Yaroslavl (Russian: ) is a city in Russia, the administrative center of Yaroslavl Oblast, located 250 km north-east of Moscow at . ... Yuryev-Polsky, or Yuriev Polskoy (Russian: ), is an old town in Vladimir Oblast, Russia, located in the upper reaches of the Koloksha River, 68 km northwest of Vladimir. ...

Russian coat of arms This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ...

External links

  • History and sights of Kostroma (in Russian)

Coordinates: 57°46′″N, 40°56′″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kostroma (English) (1383 words)
The group of sixteenth- and seventeenth-century monuments in the territory of Kostroma and its vicinity include the Church of the Manifestation of Christ, the complex of the Ipatievsky Monastery, the church in the village of Krasnoye, the Church of the Resurrection-on-the-Debra and the Church of St. John the Baptist.
Among the exhibits, the Church of the Synaxis of the Virgin (1552) from the village of Kholm and the Church of the Transfiguration (1713) from the Vezhi pogost command particular attention.
Many residential houses in Kostroma are built in a neo-classical style but in the provinces this style has none of the clear-cut austerity of the metropolis, serving to accentuate the unpretentious harmony of the building and to impart to it an air of intimacy.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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