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Encyclopedia > Kosovo War
Kosovo War
Part of Yugoslav wars

Clockwise from top: Yugoslav Army Headquarters building destroyed, a car covered in rubble, grave of killed KLA militants, a USAF F-15 takes off
Date 1996–June 11, 1999
Location Kosovo (then a part of FR Yugoslavia)
Result NATO victory (Yugoslav troops pulled out, KFOR peacekeepers entered Kosovo)
Territorial
changes
Yugoslav borders according to UNSCR Resolution 1244, Kosovo a de-facto state up to 2007 under UN administration, declared independence in 2008, now de facto sovereign state (de jure still part of Serbia)
Belligerents
NATO+
Active participation:
Flag of Belgium Belgium
Flag of Canada Canada
Flag of Denmark Denmark
Flag of France France
Flag of Germany Germany
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands
Flag of Norway Norway
Flag of Portugal Portugal
Flag of Spain Spain
Flag of Turkey Turkey
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the United States United States
Kosovo Liberation Army, including foreign fighters
Flag of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia FR Yugoslavia
Flag of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Yugoslav Army
Flag of Serbia Serbian police
Serb paramilitary forces, including foreign fighters
Commanders
Wesley Clark-(SACEUR)
Javier Solana-(Secretary General)
Adem Jashari-(1996-1998) KLA Chief Commander
Suleiman Selimi-(KLA Chief of Staff, until May 1999)
Agim Çeku-(KLA Chief of Staff, from May 1999)
Flag of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Slobodan Milošević (Supreme Commander, Army of Yugoslavia)
Flag of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of the General Staff)
Flag of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Svetozar Marjanović (Deputy Chief of Staff),
Flag of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia Nebojša Pavković (Commander, FRY 3rd Army)
Strength
NATO: 1,031+ aircraft[1]
KLA: 12,000-20,000 men[2]
Kosovo total: 50,000
(10,000 regulars, 30,000 police, 10,000 irregulars)[1]
Casualties and losses
NATO: 2 non-combat deaths*[3]
KLA: Unavailable
(March 24 to June 11, 1999)
576 servicemen killed[1]
between 7,449 and 13,627 Albanian killed by Serb forces**[4]
~600 Serb civilians killed by ethnic Albanian forces[5]
~500 Yugoslav civilians killed by NATO (mainly Serbs)[6]
(*) Military losses according to each side's official figures
(**) As of 2001, 3,525 people were remaining missing from the conflict - the vast majority of them ethnic Serbs (but also a small number of other nationalities including Albanians)
(+)[4]

The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts in Kosovo: Image File history File links Acap. ... Belligerents Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo Liberation Army, NATO, UCPMB SFR Yugoslavia, Republic of Srpska Serbian Krajina FR Yugoslavia, Paramilitary forces from Serbia Commanders Milan Kučan Janez JanÅ¡a, Franjo TuÄ‘man, Mate Boban Janko Bobetko, Alija Izetbegović, Sefer Halilović, Hashim Thaci, Wesley Clark, Javier Solana Bill Clinton... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 355 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (473 × 798 pixel, file size: 63 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... For other uses, see KFOR (disambiguation). ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wikisource. ... UN redirects here. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... This article is about the military alliance. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Portugal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Spain. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Serbo-Croatian Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA, Macedonian Jugoslovenskata narodna armija, JNA) was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Serbia_1991-2004. ... MUP or Serbian Ministry of the Interior (Ministarstvo UnutraÅ¡njih Polsova/Mинистарство Uиутрашњих Послова) is the Serbian Ministry of the Interior bureau that deals with internal security of the Republic of Serbia and the apprehension of dangerous criminals. ... Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... NATO military is divided into two commands, Atlantic and Europe. ... Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer meeting President George W. Bush on March 20, 2006 The Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is the chair of the North Atlantic Council, the supreme decision-making organisation of the defence alliance. ... Adem Jashari (November 28, 1955 – March 6, 1998) was born in Drenica, Kosovo. ... Agim Çeku (born 29 October 1960 in the village of ĆuÅ¡ka [1] near Peć, in Kosovo, Yugoslavia), is the current Prime Minister of Kosovo, a Serbian province under United Nations administration. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... Dragoljub Ojdanić (Serbian Cyrillic: Драгољуб Ојданић) (born Jun 1, 1941 in Užice, Kingdom of Yugoslavia) was former Chief of the General Staff and Defence minister of FRY. He is currently indicted with crimes against humanity and violations of the laws or customs of war by the ICTY.[1] 1958 he joined... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_FR_Yugoslavia. ... NebojÅ¡a Pavković (Serbian Cyrillic: Небојша Павковић; born in the village of Senjski Rudnik near Ćuprija in April 10, 1946) was former Chief of the General Staff of FRY. He graduated in every military school with avrage evaluation (10,00). ... In ordinary English, regular is an adjective or noun used to mean in accordance with the usual customs, conventions, or rules, or frequent, periodic, or symmetric. ... Look up irregular in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Belligerents Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Kosovo Liberation Army, NATO, UCPMB SFR Yugoslavia, Republic of Srpska Serbian Krajina FR Yugoslavia, Paramilitary forces from Serbia Commanders Milan Kučan Janez JanÅ¡a, Franjo TuÄ‘man, Mate Boban Janko Bobetko, Alija Izetbegović, Sefer Halilović, Hashim Thaci, Wesley Clark, Javier Solana Bill Clinton... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... Combatants  Bosnia and Herzegovina Volunteers from Islamic countries Croatian Community of Herzeg-Bosnia  Croatia Volunteers from Western Europe  Republika Srpska  Yugoslavia Various paramilitary units from FR Yugoslavia Volunteers from Eastern Europe Commanders Alija Izetbegović (President of Bosnia and Herzegovina) Sefer Halilović (Army chief of staff 1992-1993) Rasim Delić (Army... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Strength 2 F-16C, 1 Mirage aircraft 2 SAMs Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft 2 pilots POW 1 F-16C Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted... Combatants NATO (USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and allied Serb paramilitary and foreign volunteer forces[1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army), Vojislav Å eÅ¡elj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ...

  1. 1996–1999: War between Serbian and Yugoslav security forces and the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), an ethnic Albanian guerilla group seeking secession from the former Yugoslavia.
  2. 1999: 1999 NATO bombing of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia between March 24 and June 10, 1999,[7] during which NATO attacked Yugoslav targets, Albanian guerrillas continued battles with Yugoslav forces, amidst a massive displacement of population in Kosovo.[8]

Contents

Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ... Combatants NATO (USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and allied Serb paramilitary and foreign volunteer forces[1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan Milošević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army), Vojislav Šešelj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...

Pre-NATO Intervention

Kosovo in Tito's Yugoslavia (1945–1986)

Tensions between the two communities had been simmering throughout the 20th century and had occasionally erupted into major violence, particularly during the First Balkan War, World War I and World War II. The Socialist government of Josip Broz Tito systematically repressed nationalist manifestations throughout Yugoslavia, seeking to ensure that no Yugoslav republic or nationality gained dominance over the others. In particular, the power of Serbia—the largest and most populous republic—was diluted by the establishment of autonomous governments in the province of Vojvodina in the north of Serbia and Kosovo in the south. Kosovo's borders did not precisely match the areas of ethnic Albanian settlement in Yugoslavia (significant numbers of Albanians were left in the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia, while the far north of Kosovo remained largely ethnic Serbian). Nonetheless, the majority of its inhabitants since at least the 1921 census were Albanian. Belligerents Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Essad Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Ivan Fichev, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev, Georgi Todorov Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Socialism is a social and economic system (or the political philosophy advocating such a system) in which the economic means of production are owned and controlled collectively by the people. ... Tito redirects here. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ... For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Albanians in the Republic of Macedonia, according to the 1981 census. ... Ethnic map of Montenegro according to the 2003 census An Albanian minority living in Montenegro constitutes 5. ... There is an Albanian minority living in Central Serbia. ...


Kosovo's formal autonomy, established under the 1945 Yugoslav constitution, initially meant relatively little in practice. Tito's secret police cracked down hard on nationalists. In 1956, a number of [Albanians] were put on trial in Kosovo on charges of espionage and subversion. The threat of separatism was in fact minimal, as the few underground groups aiming for union with Albania were politically insignificant. Their long-term impact was substantial, though, as some—particularly the Revolutionary Movement for Albanian Unity, founded by Adem Demaci—were much later to form the political core of the Kosovo Liberation Army. Demaci himself was imprisoned in 1964 along with many of his followers. UDBA or Uprava državne bezbednosti/sigurnosti/varnosti (Serbian Cyrillic: УДБА or Управа државне безбедности) (State Security Administration, literally state security directorate) was the secret police organization of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Adem Demaci (Born 1936 in Pristina Kosovo) is a Kosovo Albanian politician and a longtime political prisoner who spent a total of 28 years in prison for speaking out against the poor treatment of the Albanian minority in Yugoslavia as well as criticizing communism and the Tito regime. ... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ...


Yugoslavia underwent a period of economic and political crisis in 1969, as a massive government program of economic reform widened the gap between the rich north and poor south of the country. Student demonstrations and riots in Belgrade in June 1968 spread to Kosovo in November the same year, but were put down by the Yugoslav security forces. However, some of the students' demands—particularly for real representative powers for Albanians on both Serbian and Yugoslav state bodies, and better recognition of the Albanian language—were conceded by Tito. University of Priština was established as an independent institution in 1970, ending a long period when the institution had been run as an outpost of Belgrade University. The Albanianisation of education in Kosovo was hampered by the lack of Albanian-language educational materials in Yugoslavia, so an agreement was struck with Albania itself to supply textbooks. For other uses, see Belgrade (disambiguation). ... Albanian ( IPA ) is a language spoken by 8 million people, primarily in Albania and Serbia (province of Kosovo-Metohija), but also in other parts of the Balkans with an Albanian population (parts of the Republic of Macedonia, and some parts in Montenegro and Serbia), along the eastern coast of Italy... The University of Prishtina or University of PriÅ¡tina (Serbian: Универзитет у Приштини, Albanian: Universiteti i Prishtinës, Latin: Universitas Studiorum Prishtiniensis) is a public university located in Kosovo. ... University of Belgrade is the highest educational institution in Belgrade and Serbia. ...


In 1974, Kosovo's political status was improved still further when a new Yugoslav constitution granted an expanded set of political rights. Along with Vojvodina, it was declared a province and gained many of the powers of a fully-fledged republic: a seat on the federal presidency and its own assembly, police force and national bank. Power was still exercised by the Communist Party, but it was now devolved mainly to ethnic Albanian communists.


Tito's death on May 4, 1980 ushered in a long period of political instability, worsened by growing economic crisis and nationalist unrest. The first major outbreak occurred in Kosovo's main city, Pristina, in March 1981 when Albanian students rioted over long queues in their university canteen. This seemingly trivial dispute rapidly spread throughout Kosovo and took on the character of a national revolt, with massive popular demonstrations in many Kosovo towns. The protesters demanded that Kosovo should become the seventh republic of Yugoslavia. However, this was politically unacceptable to Serbia and the Republic of Macedonia. Some Serbs (and possibly some Albanian nationalists as well) saw the demands as being a prelude to a "Greater Albania" which could encompass parts of Montenegro, the Republic of Macedonia and Kosovo itself. The Communist Yugoslav presidency quelled the disturbances by sending in riot police and the army and proclaiming a state of emergency, although it did not repeal the province's autonomy as some Serbian Communists demanded. The Yugoslav press reported that about 11 people had been killed (although others claimed a death toll as high as 1,000) and another 4,200 were imprisoned. is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ... Prishtinë/Prishtina (Albanian indefinite/definite form) or Priština (Приштина) (Serbian) is the capital city of Kosovo, a landlocked province of Serbia located at 42°65′ N 21°17′ E. It is estimated that the current population of Prishtina is as high as 500,000. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The term Greater Albania or Great Albania refers to land which is outside the borders of Albania and Albanian nationalists claim as their own. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ...


Kosovo's Communist Party also suffered purges, with several key figures (including its president) expelled. Hardliners instituted a fierce crackdown on nationalism of all kinds, Albanian and Serbian alike. Kosovo endured a heavy secret police presence throughout most of the 1980s that ruthlessly suppressed any unauthorised nationalist manifestations, both Albanian and Serbian. According to a report quoted by Mark Thompson, as many as 580,000 inhabitants of Kosovo were arrested, interrogated, interned or reprimanded. Thousands of these lost their jobs or were expelled from their educational establishments. This article is about the Director-General of the BBC. For other individuals with the same name, see Mark Thompson (disambiguation) Mark Thompson (born July 31, 1957) is Director-General of the BBC, a post he has held since 2004, and a former chief executive of Channel 4. ...


During this time, tension between the Albanian and Serbian communities continued to escalate. In 1969, the Serbian Orthodox Church had ordered its clergy to compile data on the ongoing problems of Serbs in Kosovo, seeking to pressure the government in Belgrade to do more to protect the Serbian faithful. In February 1982, a group of priests from Serbia proper petitioned their bishops to ask "why the Serbian Church is silent" and why it did not campaign against "the destruction, arson and sacrilege of the holy shrines of Kosovo". Such concerns did attract interest in Belgrade. Stories appeared from time to time in the Belgrade media claiming that Serbs and Montenegrins were being persecuted. There was a genuine perception among Serbian nationalists in particular that Serbs were being driven out of Kosovo. A significant fact contributing to fear and instability was large-scale drug trafficking by mafias of Kosovar Albanians. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Eastern Christianity. ...


An additional factor was the worsening state of Kosovo's economy, which made the province a poor choice for Serbs seeking work. Albanians, as well as Serbs tended to favour their compatriots when employing new recruits, but the number of jobs was in any case too few for the population. To that end, it is believed that a large number of those declaring Albanian ethnicity are in fact from the Roma community who happen to be of Islamic faith. Kosovo was the poorest part of Yugoslavia: in 1979 the average per capita income was $795, compared with the national average of $2,635 (and $5,315 in Slovenia)... Per capita income means how much each individual receives, in monetary terms, of the yearly income generated in their country. ...


Kosovo and the rise of Slobodan Milošević (1986–1990)

History of Kosovo
Early history (before 850)
Prehistoric Balkans
Moesia (AD 6 to 850)
Middle Ages (850 to 1455)
First Bulgarian Empire (850 to 1180)
Medieval Serbia
Battle of Kosovo
Ottoman Kosovo (1455 to 1912)
Eyalet of Rumelia
Vilayet of Kosovo
Albanian nationalism
20th century
First Balkan War
Kosovo in the Kingdoms of Serbia and SHS/Yugoslavia
AP Kosovo and Metohija (1946 to 1974)
SAP Kosovo (1974 to 1990)
Kosovo War (1996 to 1999)
UN administration (1999 to 2008)
Republic of Kosovo (since 2008)
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In Kosovo growing Albanian nationalism and separatism led to growing ethnic tensions between Serbs and Albanians. An increasingly poisonous atmosphere led to wild rumours being traded and otherwise trivial incidents being blown out of proportion. Kosovo was formed in 1945. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... // Slavic peoples According to most historians, Slavs entered the Balkans around the late 6th or early 7th century AD, possibly migrating from the northern Caucasus where Ptolemy placed the Serboi in the 2nd century AD. The initial spread of the Slavic population of the Balkans was much larger than today... Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Тhe Serbian medieval history begins in the 5th century AD with the coming of the slavs on the Balkans, and ends with the occupation of Serbia by the Ottoman Empire in 1459 with the fall of the Serbian capital Smederevo. ... This page is about the Battle of Kosovo of 1389; for other battles, see Battle of Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Kosovo from 1455 to 1912 The territory of todays province was for centuries ruled by the Ottoman Empire. ... Map of Rumelia as of 1801 Rumelia (turkish: Rum: Roman El: Land Rumeli: Lands of Rome), the area that was the East Roman or Byzantine Empire, a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... The Province of Kosovo Albanian: Vilajeti i Kosovës; (Turkish: Kosova Vilayeti; Serbian: Косовски вилајет or Kosovski vilajet; Macedonian: Покраина на Косово or Pokraina na Kosovo) was a vilayet of the Ottoman Empire in the Balkan Peninsula only roughly corresponding to the current region of Kosovo. ... // 20th century Following the First Balkan War of 1912, Kosovo was internationally recognised as a part of Serbia and Metohia as a part of Montenegro at the Treaty of London in May 1913. ... Belligerents Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Montenegro Serbia Commanders Nazim Pasha, Zekki Pasha, Essad Pasha, Abdullah Pasha, Ali Rizah Pasha Ivan Fichev, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev, Georgi Todorov Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis King Nicholas I, Prince Danilo Petrović, Mitar Martinović, Janko Vukotić Radomir Putnik... Anthem: Bože Pravde [[Image:|250px|center|Location of the Kingdom of Serbia]] Capital Belgrade Largest city Belgrade Serbian Government Monarchy  - King Milan (1882-1889)  - King Aleksandar (1889-1903)  - King Peter I (1903-1918) Proclamation March 6, 1882 Area  - Total  km² ([[List of countries and outlying territories by area|]])  sq... Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo within SFRY (number 5a) Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo, Albanian: Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës) was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


It was against this tense background that the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SANU, from its Serbian initials, САНУ) conducted a survey under Serbs who had left Kosovo in 1985/1986.[9] The report concluded that a considerable part of those who had left had been under pressure by Albanians to do so. The Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (Serbian: Српска академија наука и уметности) was founded in 1886 as the Serbian Royal Academy of Sciences and Arts. ...


Sixteen prominent members of the SANU began work in June 1985 on a draft document that was leaked to the public in September 1986. The SANU Memorandum, as it has become known, was hugely controversial. It focused on the political difficulties facing Serbs in Yugoslavia, pointing to Tito's deliberate hobbling of Serbia's power and the difficulties faced by Serbs outside Serbia proper. The Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts was a draft document produced by a committee of the Serbian Academy from 1985 to 1986. ...


The Memorandum paid special attention to Kosovo, arguing that the province's Serbs were being subjected to "physical, political, legal and cultural genocide" in an "open and total war" that had been ongoing since the spring of 1981. It claimed that Kosovo's status in 1986 was a worse historical defeat for the Serbs than any event since liberation from the Ottomans in 1804, thus ranking it above such catastrophes as the Nazi occupation or the First World War occupation of Serbia by the Austro-Hungarians. The Memorandum's authors claimed that 200,000 Serbs had moved out of the province over the previous twenty years and warned that there would soon be none left "unless things change radically." The remedy, according to the Memorandum, was for "genuine security and unambiguous equality for all peoples living in Kosovo and Metohija [to be] established" and "objective and permanent conditions for the return of the expelled [Serbian] nation [to be] created." It concluded that "Serbia must not be passive and wait and see what the others will say, as it has done so often in the past." Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ...


The SANU Memorandum met with many different reactions. The Albanians saw it as a call for Serbian supremacism at a local level. They claimed that all Serb emigrants had left Kosovo for economic reasons. Other Yugoslav nationalities—notably the Slovenes and Croats—saw a threat in the call for a more assertive Serbia. Serbs themselves were divided: many welcomed it, while the Communist old guard strongly attacked its message. One of those who denounced it was a Serbian Communist Party official named Slobodan Milošević. MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ...


In November 1988, Kosovo's head of the provincial committee was arrested. In March 1989, Milošević announced an "anti-bureaucratic revolution" in Kosovo and Vojvodina, curtailing their autonomy and imposing a curfew and a state of emergency in Kosovo due to violent demonstrations, resulting in 24 deaths (including two policemen). Milošević and his government claimed that the constitutional changes were necessary to protect Kosovo's remaining Serbs against harassment from the Albanian majority. The term Anti-bureaucratic revolution refers to a series of mass protests against governments of Yugoslavian republics and autonomous provinces during 1988 and 1989, which lead to resignation of leaderships of Kosovo, Vojvodina and Montenegro, and capture of power of politicians close to Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević. While its name is...


Kosovo under direct Serbian rule (1990–1996)

Slobodan Milošević took the process of retrenchment a stage further in 1990 when he revoked the autonomy of Kosovo and Vojvodina and replaced locally chosen leaders with his sympathizers. Crucially, as both provinces had a vote in the eight member Yugoslav Presidency, this gave Milosevic an automatic four votes when combined with Serbia and Montenegro (which was closely allied to Serbia). Slovenia, Croatia, Bosnia and Macedonia thus had to maintain an uneasy alliance to prevent Milošević from driving through constitutional changes. Serbia's political changes were ratified in a 5 July 1990 referendum across the entire republic of Serbia, including Kosovo. As a result of these measures more than 80,000 Kosovo Albanians were expelled from their state jobs in Kosovo. A new Serb curriculum was imposed in all higher education in Kosovo-- a move which was rejected by Albanians who responded by creating their parallel education system. This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


The impact on Kosovo was drastic. The reduction of its autonomy was accompanied by the abolition of its political institutions (including the League of Communists of Kosovo), with its assembly and government being formally disbanded. As most of Kosovo's industry was state-owned, the changes brought a wholesale change of corporate cadres. Technically, few were sacked outright: their companies required them to sign loyalty pledges, which most Albanians would not sign, although a few did and remained employed in Serbian state companies right up to 1999. The League of Communists of Kosovo was the Kosovar branch of the League of Communists of Yugoslavia, the sole legal party of Yugoslavia from 1945 to 1990. ...


Albanian cultural autonomy was also drastically reduced. The only Albanian-language newspaper, Ridilin, was banned and TV and radio broadcasts in Albanian ceased. Albanian was no longer an official language of the province. University of Prishtina, seen as a hotbed of Albanian nationalism, was purged: 800 lecturers at Pristina University were sacked and 22,500 of the 23,000 students expelled. Some 40,000 Yugoslav troops and police replaced the original Albanian-run security forces. A punitive regime was imposed that was harshly condemned as a "police state". Poverty and unemployment reached catastrophic levels, with about 80% of Kosovo's population becoming unemployed. As many as a third of adult male Albanians chose to go abroad (particularly to Germany and Switzerland) to find work. University logo University of Prishtina (Albanian: Universiteti i Prishtinës, Serbian: Univerzitet u Prištini) was opened in 1970 in Prishtina, the capital of southern Serbian province of Kosovo. ... A police state is a political condition where the government maintains strict control over society, particularly through suspension of civil rights and often with the use of a force of secret police. ...


With Kosovo's Communist Party effectively broken up by Milošević's crackdown, the dominant Albanian political party position passed to the Democratic League of Kosovo, led by the writer Ibrahim Rugova. It responded to the abolition of Kosovo's autonomy by pursuing a policy of peaceful resistance. Rugova took the very practical line that armed resistance would be futile given Serbia's military strength and would lead only to a bloodbath in the province. He called on the Albanian populace to boycott the Yugoslav and Serbian states by not participating in any elections, by ignoring the military draft (compulsory in Yugoslavia) and most important by not paying any taxes or duties to the State. He also called for the creation of parallel Albanian schools, clinics and hospitals. In September 1991, the shadow Kosovo Assembly organized a referendum on independence for Kosovo. Despite widespread harassment and violence by Serbian security forces, the referendum achieved a reported 90% turnout among the province's Albanians, and a 98% vote—nearly a million votes in all—which approved the creation of an independent "Republic of Kosovo". In May 1992, a second referendum elected Rugova as President of Kosovo. The Serbian government declared that both referendums were illegal and their results null and void. The Democratic League of Kosovo (Lidhja Demokratike e Kosovës) is the largest political party in Kosovo. ... Prof. ... Conscription is a general term for forced labor demanded by some established authority, e. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural referendums or referenda), ballot question, or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


The slide to war (1996–1998)

The Kosovo War
Prior to the NATO intervention

Kosovo Liberation Army insurgency
Račak killings Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ...

NATO intervention

NATO intervention
Civilian casualties Combatants NATO (USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and allied Serb paramilitary and foreign volunteer forces[1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan Milošević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army), Vojislav Šešelj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of... The targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force have been a major component in the conflict. ...

Other articles

Legitimacy
Humanitarian bombing The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia took place during the Kosovo War. ... Humanitarian bombing is a phrase first appearing in 1999, referring to the NATO bombing campaign during the Kosovo War (24 March - 10 June 1999). ...


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Rugova's policy of passive resistance succeeded in keeping Kosovo quiet during the war with Slovenia, and the wars in Croatia and Bosnia during the early 1990s. However, as evidenced by the emergence of the KLA, this came at the cost of increasing frustration among the Albanian population of Kosovo. In the mid-1990s, Rugova pleaded for a United Nations peacekeeping force for Kosovo. In 1997, Milošević was promoted to the presidency of the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia (comprising Serbia and Montenegro since its inception in April 1992). This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... UN redirects here. ... Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbian Government Republic President  - 1992 - 1993 Dobrica Ćosić  - 1993 - 1997 Zoran Lilić  - 1997 – 2000 Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević  - 2000 - 2003 Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Prime Minister  - 1992 - 1993 Milan Panić  - 1993 - 1998 Radoje Kontić  - 1998 - 2000 Momir Bulatović  - 2000 - 2001 Zoran Žižić  - 2001 - 2003 DragiÅ¡a Pe...


Continuing Serbian repression had radicalized many Albanians, some of whom decided that only armed resistance would effect a change in the situation. On April 22, 1996, four attacks on Serbian security personnel were carried out virtually simultaneously in several parts of Kosovo. A hitherto unknown organization calling itself the "Kosovo Liberation Army" (KLA) subsequently claimed responsibility. The nature of the KLA was at first highly mysterious. In fact, it was initially a small, mainly clan-based but not very well organised group of radicalised Albanians, many of whom came from the Drenica region of western Kosovo. The KLA at this stage consisted mainly of local farmers and displaced and unemployed workers.[citation needed] is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ...


It is widely believed that the KLA received financial and material support from the Kosovo Albanian diaspora, [10] and from Albanian drug lords established elsewhere in Europe. [11] In early 1997, Albania collapsed into chaos following the fall of President Sali Berisha. Military stockpiles were looted with impunity by criminal gangs, with much of the hardware ending up in western Kosovo and so boosting the growing KLA arsenal. Bujar Bukoshi, shadow Prime Minister in exile (in Zürich, Switzerland), created a group called FARK (Armed Forces of the Republic of Kosova) which was reported to have been disbanded and absorbed by the KLA in 1998.[citation needed]  (born October 15, 1944) is the Prime Minister of the Republic of Albania. ... Bujar Bukoshi (b. ... For other uses of Zurich, see Zurich (disambiguation). ... Screenshot Fark. ... Forcat e Armatosura të Republikës së Kosovës or FARK, The Armed Forces of the Republic of Kosova (AFRK) was a guerilla group in Kosovo created by Bujar Bukoshi. ...


Most Albanians saw the KLA as legitimate "freedom fighters" whilst the Yugoslav government labelled them as "terrorists" attacking police and civilians. The Contras were often referred to as Freedom Fighters by US President Ronald Reagan. ...


In 1998, the U.S. State Department listed the KLA as a terrorist organization, [11], and 1999 the Republican Policy Committee of the U.S. Senate has expressed its troubles with the alliance of the Clinton administration with the KLA due to numerous reports from reputable unofficial sources that the KLA is closely involved with "the extensive Albanian crime network" and with "terrorist organizations motivated by the ideology of radical Islam, including assets of Iran and of the notorious Osama Bin Laden". [12] On 2000, a BBC article stated that Nato at War shows how the United States, which had described the KLA as "terrorist", now sought to form a relationship with it. [13] The United States Senate is the upper house of the U.S. Congress, smaller than the United States House of Representatives. ... Osama bin Muhammad bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: ‎; born March 10, 1957[1]), most often mentioned as Osama bin Laden or Usama bin Laden, is a Saudi Arabian militant Islamist and is widely believed to be one of the founders of the organization called al-Qaeda. ... For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ...


The U.S. envoy Robert Gelbard referred to the KLA as terrorists. [14] Respoding to criticism, he later clarified to the House Committee on International Relations that "while it has committed 'terrorist acts,' it has 'not been classified legally by the U.S. Government as a terrorist organization.'" [12]. On June 2008, he held talks with two men who claim they are political leaders. [14]


It should also be noted that neither the United States nor the other influential powers made any serious effort to stop money or weapons being channeled into Kosovo.[citation needed][weasel words]


Meanwhile, the U.S. held an "outer wall of sanctions" on Yugoslavia which had been tied to a series of issues, Kosovo being one of them. These were maintained despite the agreement at Dayton to end all sanctions. The Clinton administration claimed that Dayton bound Yugoslavia to hold discussions with Rugova over Kosovo.


The crisis escalated in December 1997 at the Peace Implementation Council meeting in Bonn, where the International Community (as defined in the Dayton Agreement) agreed to give the High Representative in Bosnia sweeping powers, including the right to dismiss elected leaders. At the same time, Western diplomats insisted that Kosovo be discussed, and that Serbia and Yugoslavia be responsive to Albanian demands there. The delegation from Serbia stormed out of the meetings in protest.[citation needed] The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14...


This was followed by the return of the Contact Group that oversaw the last phases of the Bosnian conflict and declarations from European powers demanding that Serbia solve the problem in Kosovo.


KLA attacks had suddenly intensified, centered on the Drenica valley area, with the compound of one Adem Jashari being a particular focal point. Days after Robert Gelbard described the KLA as a terrorist group, Serbian police responded to the KLA attacks in the Likosane area, and pursued some of the KLA to Cirez, resulting in the deaths of 30 Albanian civilians and four Serbian policemen.[15] The first serious action of the war had begun. This article is about a region in Kosovo. ... Adem Jashari (November 28, 1955 – March 6, 1998) was born in Drenica, Kosovo. ...


Despite some accusations of summary executions and killings of civilians, condemnations from Western capitals were not as voluble as they would become later. Serb police began to pursue Jashari and his followers in the village of Donje Prekaz. A massive firefight at the Jashari compound led to the killing of a further 60 Albanians, of which eighteen were women and ten were under the age of sixteen.[16] This March 5 event provoked massive condemnation from the western capitals. Madeleine Albright stated that "this crisis is not an internal affair of the FRY". This article is about the day. ... Madeleine Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová on May 15, 1937) was the first woman to become United States Secretary of State. ...

A Yugoslav Army T-55 tank during a fight

On the 24th of March, Serbian forces surrounded the village of Glodjane, in the Dukagjin operational zone, and attacked a rebel compound there.[17] Despite their superior firepower, the Serbian forces failed to destroy the KLA unit which had been their objective. Although there were deaths and severe injuries on the Albanian side, the insurgency in Glodjane was far from stamped out. It was in fact to become one of the strongest centers of resistance in the upcoming war. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Serbo-Croatian Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA, Macedonian Jugoslovenskata narodna armija, JNA) was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ...


Another centre of KLA activity was a part of northern Albania near the border, centered in the town of Tropoje. Following the 1997 Albanian civil conflict, parts of Albania ended up beyond the reach of national authorities. Moreover, the Albanian army's armories were looted. Many of these looted weapons ended up in the hands of the KLA whilst the KLA took over the border area. This was a staging ground for attacks and for shipping weapons to the Drenica stronghold. The path between these areas crossed Djakovica, the plains of Metohija, and to the Klina opstina, and were those areas hardest hit by KLA activity in the beginning.[citation needed] ...


The KLA's first goal was thus to merge its Drenica stronghold with their stronghold in Albania proper, and this would shape the first few months of the fighting. It also appealed for support from the Western and Islamic worlds, including from mujahedin.[citation needed] Mujahideen (مجاهدين; also transliterated as mujāhidīn, mujahedeen, mujahedin, mujahidin, mujaheddin, etc. ...


The Serbs also continued their efforts at diplomacy, attempting to arrange talks with Ibrahim Rugova's staff (talks which Rugova and his staff refused to attend). After several failed meetings, Ratko Marković, chairman of the Serbian delegation to the meetings, invited representatives of Kosovo minority groups to attend and maintained his invitation to the Albanians. Serbian President Milan Milutinović attended one of the meetings, though Rugova did not. He and his staff insisted on talking to Yugoslav officials, not Serbian ones, and only to discuss the modalities of Kosovo independence.[citation needed] Milan Milutinović (Милан Милутиновић), born 19 December 1942, is a former President of Serbia. ...


A new Serbian government was also formed at this time, led by the Socialist Party of Serbia and the Serbian Radical Party. Ultra-nationalist Radical Party chairman Vojislav Šešelj became a deputy prime minister. This increased the dissatisfaction with Serbia's position among Western diplomats and spokespersons. The Socialist Party of Serbia (Serbian: Социјалистичка партија Србије or Socijalistička partija Srbije) is a political party in Serbia. ... For other uses, see Serbian Radical Party (disambiguation). ... A poster for the 2004 presidential elections, for which Å eÅ¡elj himself was not running, due to the fact that he was awaiting trial in The Hague. ...


In early April, Serbia arranged for a referendum on the issue of foreign interference in Kosovo. Serbian voters decisively rejected foreign interference in this internal affair. Meanwhile, the KLA claimed much of the area in and around Decani and ran a territory based in the village of Glodjane, encompassing its surroundings. So, on May 31, 1998, the Yugoslav army and the Serb Ministry of the Interior police began an operation to clear the border of the KLA. This lasted several days and led to bomb threats from the western capitals, including reports which claimed summary executions and killings of civilians. NATO's response to this offensive was mid-June's Operation Determined Falcon, an air show over the Yugoslav borders.[citation needed] Christ Carrying the Cross. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...


During this time, the Yugoslav President Milošević reached an arrangement with Boris Yeltsin of Russia to stop offensive operations and prepare for talks with the Albanians, who, through this whole crisis, refused to talk to the Serbian side, but not the Yugoslav. In fact, the only meeting between Milošević and Ibrahim Rugova took place on 15 May, in Belgrade, two days after Richard Holbrooke announced that it would take place. One month later, Holbrooke, after a trip to Belgrade where he threatened to Milosevic that if he did not obey "what's left of your country will implode", he visited the border areas affected by the fighting in early June; there he was famously photographed with the KLA. The publication of these images sent a signal to the KLA, its supporters and sympathisers, and to observers in general, that the U.S. was decisively backing the KLA. Richard Charles Albert Holbrooke (born April 24, 1941) is an American diplomat, magazine editor, author, Peace Corps official, and investment banker. ...


The Yeltsin agreement included Milosevic's allowing international representatives to set up a mission in Kosovo-Metohija to monitor the situation there. This was the Kosovo Diplomatic Observer Mission (KOM) that began operations in early July. The American government welcomed this part of the agreement, but denounced the initiative's call for a mutual cease fire. Rather, the Americans demanded that the Serbian-Yugoslavian side should cease fire "without linkage...to a cessation in terrorist activities". Kosovo (known in Albanian as Kosova, in Serbian as Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, and in English simply as Kosovo) is a province in southern Serbia. ... The Kom are one of the principal tribes of the North-West province of Cameroon, where traditional government institutions are very important. ...


All through June and into mid July, the KLA maintained its advance. KLA surrounded Peć, Djakovica, and had set up an interim capital in the town of Mališevo (to the north of Orahovac). The KLA troops were infiltrating Suva Reka, and north to the area west of Priština. They threatened the Belacevec coal pits and captured them in late June, threatening energy supplies in the region. Peć (Albanian: Pejë / Peja; Serbian: Пећ / Peć) is a city located in the western part of Kosovo (under UN-administration, formally part of Serbia). ... Đakovica (Cyrillic: Ђаковица) (in Albanian Gjakova or Gjakovë) is a city located in Kosovo, at 42. ... MaliÅ¡evo (Serbian Малишево; Albanian Malishevë or Malisheva) is a town and municipality in the Prizren District of Kosovo (under UN-administration, formally part of Serbia). ... Orahovac (Serbian Cyrillic: Ораховац or Latin alphabet: Orahovac, Albanian: Rahovec or Rahoveci) is a town and municipality in western Kosovo, a Serbian province under UN administration. ... Suhareka, Kosovo 2000 Suva Reka ( Albanian Suharekë or Suhareka in Serbian: Suva Reka or Сува Река) is a town and municipality in Kosovo. ...


The tide turned in mid-July when the KLA captured Orahovac. On the 17th of July 1998 in the two close by villages to Orahovac, Retimlije and Opteruša, all the Serb males were kidnapped and later found dead. Similar, even if less systematic incidents took place in the town of Orahovac and the larger Serb village Velika hoċa. The Orthodox monastery of Zociste 5 km from Orehovac - famous for the relics of the Saints Kosmas and Damianos and revered also by local Albanians - was robbed, its monks deported to a KLA prison camp, and, while empty, the monastery church and all its buildings were leveled to the ground by mining. This led to a series of Serb and Yugoslav offensives which would continue into the beginning of August.


A new set of KLA attacks in mid-August triggered Yugoslavian operations in south-central Kosovo-Metohija south of the Pristina-Pec road. This wound down with the capture of Klecka on 23 August and the discovery of a KLA-run crematorium in which some of their victims were found. The 1st of September featured a KLA offensive around Prizren, causing Yugoslavian military activity there. In Metohija, around Pec, another offensive caused condemnation as international officials expressed fear that a large column of displaced people would be attacked. This followed the fall of Donji Ratis where the KLA kept a mass grave; about 60 bodies were found there of recently "disappeared" Serbs and other Kosovo citizens. View of Prizren. ... PEC can have the following meanings Punjab Engineering College, Chandigarh Pakistan Engineering Concil Pakistan Engineering Congress Prince Engineering Center at Oklahoma Christian University This page concerning a three-letter acronym or abbreviation is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


In early mid-September, for the first time, some KLA activity was reported in northern Kosovo around Podujevo. Finally, in late September, a determined effort was made to clear the KLA out of the northern and central parts of Kosovo and out of the Drenica valley itself. During this time many threats were made from Western capitals but these were tempered somewhat by the elections in Bosnia, as they did not want Serbian Democrats and Radicals to win. Following the elections, however, the threats intensified once again but a galvanising event was needed. They got it on September 28, when the mutilated corpses of a family were discovered by KDOM outside the village of Gornje Obrinje; the bloody doll from there became the rallying image for the ensuing war. Podujevo/Podujeva (Serbian: Подујево or Podujevo; Albanian: Podujevë, Podujeva or Besiana) is a town, and seat of a municipality, north-east Kosovo (under UN administration, formally part of Serbia). ... is the 271st day of the year (272nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The other major issue for those who saw no option but to resort to the use of force was the estimated 250,000 displaced Albanians, 30,000 of whom were out in the woods, without warm clothing or shelter, with winter approaching.


Meanwhile, the U.S. Ambassador to the Republic of Macedonia, Christopher Hill, was leading shuttle diplomacy between an Albanian delegation, led by Rugova, and the Yugoslav and Serbian authorities. It was these meetings which were shaping what was to be the peace plan to be discussed during a period of planned NATO occupation of Kosovo. For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Assistant Secretary Christopher R. Hill Christopher R. Hill is an American diplomat who currently serves as the Assistant Secretary of State for East Asian and Pacific Affairs. ...


During a period of two weeks, threats intensified, culminating in NATO's Activation Order being given. All was ready for the bombs to fly; Richard Holbrooke went to Belgrade in the hope of reaching an agreeming with Milošević with regards to deploying a NATO presence in Kosovo. With him came General Michael Short, who threatened to destroy Belgrade. Long and painful discussions led to the Kosovo Verification Agreement on October 12, 1998. is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ...

Yugoslav T-55 tank next OSCE vehicle
Yugoslav T-55 tank next OSCE vehicle

Officially, the international community demanded an end to fighting. It specifically demanded that the Serbs end its offensives against the KLA, (without mention of an end to KLA-perpetrated attacks), whilst attempting to convince the KLA to drop its bid for independence. Moreover, attempts were made to persuade Milošević to permit NATO peacekeeping troops to enter Kosovo. This, they argued, would allow for the Christopher Hill peace process to proceed and yield a peace agreement. A ceasefire was brokered, commencing on October 25, 1998. It feaured the Kosovo Verification Mission (KVM), which was large contingent of unarmed OSCE peace monitors (officially known as verifiers) moved into Kosovo. Their inadequacy was evident from the start. They were nicknamed the "clockwork oranges" in reference to their brightly coloured vehicles (in English, a "clockwork orange" signifies a useless object.) The ceasefire broke down within a matter of weeks and fighting resumed in December 1998 after the KLA occupied some bunkers overlooking the strategic Priština-Podujevo highway, not long after the Panda Bar Massacre, when the KLA shot up a cafe in Peć. A couple of days after the massacre, the KLA assassinated the mayor of Kosovo Polje. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Kosovo Polje (Косово поље, Albanian: Fushë Kosovë) is a municipal located in Kosovo, at 42. ...


The January to March 1999 phase of the war brought increasing insecurity in urban areas, including bombings and murders. Such attacks took place during the Rambouillet talks in February and as the Kosovo Verification Agreement unravelled in March. Killings on the roads continued and increased and there were military confrontations in, among other places, the Vucitrn area in February and the heretofore unaffected Kacanik area in early March.


Račak massacre

Column of Yugoslav army vehicles. In front are two UAZ-469 jeeps, in middle is M53/59 Praga, and on the end is TAM-150 truck

KLA attacks and Serbian reprisals continued throughout the winter of 1998–1999, culminating on January 15, 1999 with the Račak massacre. The incident was immediately (before the investigation) condemned as a massacre by the Western countries and the United Nations Security Council, and later became the basis of one of the charges of war crimes leveled against Milošević and his top officials. The details of what happened at Račak were revealed shortly after Serb paramilitaries left the scene of the massacre. Rolling TV cameras featured United States Ambassador William Walker walking through mutilated bodies of Albanians. Shortly after that he held a press conference where he stated that he had just witnessed Serbian crimes against civilians[2]. The massacre was the turning point of the war. NATO decided that the conflict could only be settled by introducing a military peacekeeping force under the auspices of NATO, to forcibly restrain the two sides. A carefully coordinated set of diplomatic initiatives was announced simultaneously on January 30, 1999: Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... UAZ-469 The UAZ-469 is an all-terrain vehicle manufactured by UAZ. It was used by the Red Army and other Warsaw Pact forces, as well as paramilitary units in Eastern Bloc countries. ... M53/59 Praga, self-propelled anti-aircraft gun of Serbian Army. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The Račak incident (also called the Račak massacre or Račak operation) was a clash in the village of Račak, Kosovo, (known as Reçak in Albanian) on January 15, 1999 between Yugoslav security forces and Kosovo Liberation Army guerillas, in which 45 Albanian civilians died. ... For alternative meanings for The West in the United States, see the U.S. West and American West. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... William G. Walker was the U.S. Ambassador to El Salvador from 1988 to 1992. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...

  • NATO issued a statement announcing that it was prepared to launch air strikes against Yugoslav targets "to compel compliance with the demands of the international community and [to achieve] a political settlement". While this was most obviously a threat to the Milošević government, it also included a coded threat to the Albanians: any decision would depend on the "position and actions of the Kosovo Albanian leadership and all Kosovo Albanian armed elements in and around Kosovo." In effect, NATO was saying to the Serbs "make peace or we'll bomb you" and to the Albanians "make peace or we'll abandon you to the Serbs[citation needed]."
  • The Contact Group issued a set of "non-negotiable principles" which made up a package known as "Status Quo Plus"—effectively the restoration of Kosovo's pre-1990 autonomy within Serbia, plus the introduction of democracy and supervision by international organisations. It also called for a peace conference to be held in February 1999 at the Château de Rambouillet, outside Paris.

The Château de Rambouillet, which is the summer residence of the Presidents of France, is located in the town of Rambouillet, Yvelines département, France, 50 km (30 miles) southwest of Paris. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...

The Rambouillet Conference (January–March 1999)

The Rambouillet talks began on February 6, with NATO Secretary General Javier Solana negotiating with both sides. They were intended to conclude by February 19. The Serbian delegation was led by then president of Serbia Milan Milutinović, while Milošević himself remained in Belgrade. This was in contrast to the 1995 Dayton conference that ended war in Bosnia, where Milošević negotiated in person. The absence of Milošević was interpreted as a sign that the real decisions were being made back in Belgrade, a move that aroused criticism in Serbia as well as abroad; Kosovo's Serbian Orthodox bishop Artemije traveled all the way to Rambouillet to protest that the delegation was wholly unrepresentative. The Rambouillet Agreement is the name of a proposed peace agreement between Yugoslavia and the Kosovo Albanian delegation. ... is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Secretary General Jaap de Hoop Scheffer meeting President George W. Bush on March 20, 2006 The Secretary General of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO) is the chair of the North Atlantic Council, the supreme decision-making organisation of the defence alliance. ... Javier Solana Madariaga, Ph. ... [[Media:Italic text]]{| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 50th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Milan Milutinović (Милан Милутиновић), born 19 December 1942, is a former President of Serbia. ... The General Framework Agreement for Peace in Bosnia and Herzegovina, also known as the Dayton Agreement, Dayton Accords, Paris Protocol or Dayton-Paris Agreement, is the peace agreement reached at the Wright-Patterson Air Force Base near Dayton, Ohio in November 1995, and formally signed in Paris on December 14...


The first phase of negotiations was successful as can be seen in the historical evidence. In particular, the statement by the Contact Group co-chairmen on the 23 February 1999 that the negotiations have led to a consensus on substantial autonomy for Kosovo, including on mechanisms for free and fair elections to democratic institutions, for the governance of Kosovo, for the protection of human rights and the rights of members of national communities; and for the establishment of a fair judicial system. They went on to say that a political framework is now in place leaving the further work of finalizing the implementation Chapters of the Agreement, including the modalities of the invited international civilian and military presence in Kosovo. During the next month, however, NATO, under the influence of US diplomats Rubin and Albright, sought to impose a forced, as opposed to invited, military presence. The tilting of NATO towards the KLA organisation is chronicled in the BBC Television "Moral Combat: NATO at War" program.[18] This happened despite the fact, quoting General Klaus Naumann (Chairman of NATO Military Committee), that Ambassador Walker stated in the NAC (North Atlantic Council) that the majority of [ceasefire] violations was caused by the KLA. is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Klaus Naumann (born May 25, 1939 in Munich) is a German general, who was General Inspector of the German military from 1991 to 1996 and Chair of the Military Committee of the NATO from 1996 to 1999, succeeding the British general Richard Frederick Vincent, Baron Vincent of Coleshill. ...


In the end, on 18 March 1999, the Albanian, American and British delegation signed what became known as the Rambouillet Accords while the Serbian and Russian delegations refused. The accords called for NATO administration of Kosovo as an autonomous province within Yugoslavia; a force of 30,000 NATO troops to maintain order in Kosovo; an unhindered right of passage for NATO troops on Yugoslav territory, including Kosovo; and immunity for NATO and its agents to Yugoslav law. The American and British delegations must have known that the new version would never be accepted by the Serbs or the Contact Group. These latter provisions were much the same as had been applied to Bosnia for the SFOR (Stabilisation Force) mission there. is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The Rambouillet Agreement is the name of a proposed peace agreement between Yugoslavia and the Kosovo Albanian delegation. ... Members of the Dutch, French, German and U.S. military watch as an Italian honour guard hoists the new Stabilisation Force flag during the Stabilisation Force (SFOR) activation ceremony in Sarajevo, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on the 20 of December 1996. ...


While the accords did not fully satisfy the Albanians, they were much too radical for the Serbs, who responded by substituting a drastically revised text that even the Russians, traditional allies of the Serbs, found unacceptable. It sought to reopen the painstakingly negotiated political status of Kosovo and deleted all of the proposed implementation measures. Among many other changes in the proposed new version, it eliminated the entire chapter on humanitarian assistance and reconstruction, removed virtually all international oversight and dropped any mention of invoking "the will of the people [of Kosovo]" in determining the final status of the province. Even the word "peace" was deleted[citation needed].


Events proceeded rapidly after the failure at Rambouillet.


In the week before the start of NATO bombing, Arkan appeared at the Hyatt hotel in Belgrade where most of Western journalists were staying and ordered all of them to leave Serbia.[19] Željko Ražnatović or in Serbian Cyrillic writing Жељко Ражњатовић, (April 17, 1952 - January 15, 2000), widely known as Arkan or Аркан, was a Serbian paramilitary leader, nationalistic politician, assembly representative, folk hero, owner of a soccer club, shady businessman, mafia boss and war profiteer. ... Looking up inside the 32-story atrium of the Shanghai Grand Hyatt, part of the Jin Mao Building. ... Occident redirects here. ...


The international monitors from the OSCE withdrew on March 22, for fear of the monitors' safety ahead of the anticipated NATO bombing campaign. On March 23, the Serbian assembly accepted the principle of autonomy for Kosovo[20] and non-military part of the agreement. But the Serbian side had objections to the military part of the Rambouillet agreement, appendix B in particular,[21] which it characterized as "NATO occupation". The full document was described "fraudulent" because the military part of the agreement was offered only at the very end of the talks without much possibility for negotiation, and because the other side, condemned in harshest terms as a "separatist–terrorist delegation", completely refused to meet delegation of FRY and negotiate directly during the Rambouillet talks at all. The following day, March 24, NATO bombing began. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The NATO bombing campaign

A Tomahawk cruise missile launches from the aft missile deck of the USS Gonzalez on March 31, 1999
A Tomahawk cruise missile launches from the aft missile deck of the USS Gonzalez on March 31, 1999
An U.S. F-117 Nighthawk taxis to the runway before taking off from Aviano Air Base, Italy, on March 24, 1999
An U.S. F-117 Nighthawk taxis to the runway before taking off from Aviano Air Base, Italy, on March 24, 1999
Post-strike bomb damage assessment photograph of the Sremska Mitrovica Ordnance Storage Depot, Serbia
Post-strike bomb damage assessment photograph of the Sremska Mitrovica Ordnance Storage Depot, Serbia

NATO's bombing campaign lasted from March 24 to June 11, 1999, involving up to 1,000 aircraft operating mainly from bases in Italy and aircraft carriers stationed in the Adriatic. Tomahawk cruise missiles were also extensively used, fired from aircraft, ships and submarines. All of the NATO members were involved to some degree—even Greece, despite publicly opposing the war. Over the ten weeks of the conflict, NATO aircraft flew over 38,000 combat missions. For the German Air Force (Luftwaffe) it was the first time it had participated in a conflict since World War II. Combatants NATO (USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and allied Serb paramilitary and foreign volunteer forces[1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army), Vojislav Å eÅ¡elj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force The Grdelica train bombing occurred on April 12, 1999 (it was the second day of Easter holidays that year, according to the Serbian Orthodox Church), when two missiles fired by NATO warplanes hit a train while it was passing across... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force The NATO bombing of Albanian refugees near Đakovica occurred on April 14, 1999 when NATO planes repeatedly bombed refugee movements over a twelve-mile stretch of road between Đakovica and Dečani in western Kosovo, killing 73 civilians. ... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force The NATO bombing of the Serb Radio and Television headquarters occurred on April 23, 1999, during the Kosovo War, when NATO destroyed the headquarters of Radio Television of Serbia (RTS) network in Belgrade. ... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force In NATO air raid May 1, 1999, on the central Belgrade residential area Vračar, family house in Vardarska street were completely destroyed. ... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force The Lužane bus bombing occurred on May 1, 1999, when NATO missiles targeting a bridge in Kosovo hit a bus. ... The Cluster bombing of NiÅ¡ was an event that occurred on May 7, 1999 during the Kosovo War. ... On May 12, the flag at the United States Consulate General in Hong Kong was lowered in respect and sorrow for the Chinese people for a day as the plane carrying the bodies of victims of the embassy bombing came home to Beijing. ... Main article: Targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force The NATO bombing of Albanian refugees near Korisa occurred on May 14, 1999 when NATO planes struck two convoys of ethnic Albanians trying to flee Kosovo, killing as many as 100 people. ... Combatants NATO (USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and allied Serb paramilitary and foreign volunteer forces[1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army), Vojislav Å eÅ¡elj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of... A Tomahawk cruise missile The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile with stubby wings. ... USS Gonzalez (DDG-66) is an Arleigh Burke-class destroyer in the United States Navy. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... This article is about the stealth fighter. ... US F-16s at Aviano Aviano Air Base is a base of the United States Air Force, in the northeastern part of Italy, at the foot of the Italian Alps, about 20 miles (32 kilometers) north of Pordenone. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 762 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1171 × 922 pixel, file size: 668 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Post-strike bomb damage assessment photograph of the Sremska Mitrovica Ordnance Storage Depot, Serbia, used by Joint Staff Vice Director for Strategic Plans... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 762 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1171 × 922 pixel, file size: 668 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Post-strike bomb damage assessment photograph of the Sremska Mitrovica Ordnance Storage Depot, Serbia, used by Joint Staff Vice Director for Strategic Plans... Sremska Mitrovica (Сремска Митровица) is a city located in the Vojvodina province of Serbia at 44. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ... The Tomahawk Land Attack Missile (TLAM) is a long-range, all-weather, subsonic cruise missile. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ...


The proclaimed goal of the NATO operation was summed up by its spokesman as "Serbs out, peacekeepers in, refugees back". That is, Yugoslav troops would have to leave Kosovo and be replaced by international peacekeepers in order to ensure that the Albanian refugees could return to their homes. The campaign was initially designed to destroy Yugoslav air defences and high-value military targets. It did not go very well at first, with bad weather hindering many sorties early on. NATO had seriously underestimated Milošević's will to resist: few in Brussels thought that the campaign would last more than a few days, and although the initial bombardment was more than just a pin-prick, it was nowhere near the concentrated bombardments seen in Baghdad in 1991. On the ground, the ethnic cleansing campaign by the Serbians was stepped up and within a week of the war starting, over 300,000 Kosovo Albanians had fled into neighboring Albania and Macedonia, with many thousands more displaced within Kosovo. By April, the United Nations was reporting that 850,000 people—the vast majority of them Albanians—had fled their homes. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


NATO military operations switched increasingly to attacking Yugoslav units on the ground—hitting targets as small as individual tanks and artillery pieces—as well as continuing with the strategic bombardment. This activity was, however, heavily constrained by politics, as each target needed to be approved by all nineteen members states. Montenegro was bombed on several occasions but NATO eventually desisted in order to prop up the precarious position of its anti-Milošević leader, Đukanović. So-called "dual-use" targets, of use to both civilians and the military, were attacked: this included bridges across the Danube, factories, power stations, telecommunications facilities and—particularly controversially—the headquarters of Yugoslavian Leftists, a political party led by Milošević's wife, and the Serbian state television broadcasting tower. Some saw these actions as violations of international law and the Geneva Conventions in particular. NATO however argued that these facilities were potentially useful to the Yugoslav military and that their bombing was therefore justified. This article is about the country in Europe. ... Milo Đukanović (Serbian Cyrillic: Мило Ђукановић) (born 15 February 1962 in NikÅ¡ić, Montenegro, Yugoslavia) is a former four mandate Prime Minister (1991 - 1992, 1992-1996, 1996-1998 and 2003 - 2006), president (1998 - 2002) of the Republic of Montenegro and an alleged criminal tycoon. ... Dual-use is a term often used in politics and diplomacy to refer to technology which can be used for both peaceful and military aims, usually in regard to the proliferation of nuclear weapons. ... This article is about the Danube River. ... JUL symbol Yugoslav Left (Serbo-Croat: Југословенска Левица оr Jugoslovenska Levica, ЈУЛ or JUL) is a political organization, formed in 1994 as is a coalition of 23 leftwing and communist parties, led by the League of Communists - Movement for Yugoslavia (SK-PJ). ... Original document. ...


At the start of May, a NATO aircraft attacked an Albanian refugee convoy, believing it was a Yugoslav military convoy, killing around 50 people. NATO admitted its mistake 5 days later, but the Serbs accused NATO of deliberately attacking the refugees. On May 7, NATO bombs hit the Chinese Embassy in Belgrade, killing three Chinese journalists and outraging Chinese public opinion. NATO claimed they were firing at Yugoslav positions. The United States and NATO later apologized for the bombing, saying that it occurred because of an outdated map provided by the CIA. This was challenged by a joint report from The Observer (UK) and Politiken (Denmark) newspapers[22] which claimed that NATO intentionally bombed the embassy because it was being used as a relay station for Yugoslav army radio signals. The bombing strained relations between China and NATO countries and provoked angry demonstrations outside Western embassies in Beijing. is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... On May 12, the flag at the United States Consulate General in Hong Kong was lowered in respect and sorrow for the Chinese people for a day as the plane carrying the bodies of victims of the embassy bombing came home to Beijing. ... The CIA Seal The Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) is an American intelligence agency, responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and individuals, and reporting such information to the various branches of the U.S. Government. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Politiken building on RÃ¥dhuspladsen, Copenhagen. ... Peking redirects here. ...


In another major incident - Dubrava prison in Kosovo - the Yugoslav government attributed 85 civilian deaths to NATO bombing. Human Rights Watch research in Kosovo determined that an estimated 18 prisoners were killed by NATO bombs on May 21 (three prisoners and a guard were killed in an earlier attack on May 19. Dubrava could mean any of the following: Dubrava is one of the largest neighbourhoods of Zagreb, Croatia. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ... is the 141st day of the year (142nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By the start of April, the conflict seemed little closer to a resolution and NATO countries began to think seriously about a ground operation—an invasion of Kosovo. This would have to be organised very quickly, as there was little time before winter set in and much work would have to be done to improve the roads from the Greek and Albanian ports to the envisaged invasion routes through Macedonia and northeastern Albania. U.S. President Bill Clinton was however extremely reluctant to commit American forces for a ground offensive. At the same time, Finnish and Russian negotiators continued to try to persuade Milošević to back down. He finally recognised that NATO was serious in its resolve to end the conflict one way or another and that Russia would not intervene to defend Serbia despite Moscow's strong anti-NATO rhetoric. Faced with little alternative, Milošević accepted the conditions offered by a Finnish–Russian mediation team and agreed to a military presence within Kosovo headed by the UN, but incorporating NATO troops.


Yugoslav withdrawal and entry of KFOR

US Army M1 Abrams and Yugoslav army T-55 tanks during YA withdrawal
US Army M1 Abrams and Yugoslav army T-55 tanks during YA withdrawal

On June 12, after Milosevic accepted the conditions, KFOR began entering Kosovo. KFOR, a NATO force, had been preparing to conduct combat operations but in the end its mission was only peacekeeping. It was based upon the Allied Rapid Reaction Corps headquarters commanded by then Lieutenant General Mike Jackson of the British Army. It consisted of British forces (a brigade built from 4th Armoured and 5th Airborne Brigades), a French Army Brigade, a German Army brigade, which entered from the west while all the other forces advanced from the south, and Italian Army and United States Army brigades. The U.S. contribution, known as the Initial Entry Force, was led by the 1st Armored Division. Subordinate units included TF 1-35 Armor from Baumholder Germany, the 2nd Battalion, 505th Parachute Infantry Regiment from Fort Bragg, N.C; the 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit from Camp Lejeune, North Carolina; the 1st Battalion, 26th Infantry Regiment from Schweinfurt Germany, and Echo Troop, 4th Cavalry Regiment, also from Schweinfurt, Germany. Also attached to the U.S. force was the Greek Army's 501st Mechanized Infantry Battalion. The initial U.S. forces established their area of operation around the towns of Urosevic, the future Camp Bondsteel, and Gnjilane, at Camp Monteith, and spent four months—the start of a stay which continues to date—establishing order in the south east sector of Kosovo. During the initial incursion the U.S. soldiers were greeted by Albanians cheering and throwing flowers as U.S. soldiers and KFOR rolled through their villages. Although no resistance was met, three U.S. soldiers from the Initial Entry Force lost their lives in accidents.[23] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... The M1 Abrams is a military tank produced in the United States. ... The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see KFOR (disambiguation). ... The Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps, (HQ ARRC or ARRC) was created in 1992 in Bielefeld based on the former British I Corps (or I (BR) Corps ). It was originally created as the rapid reaction corps sized land force of the Reaction Forces Concept that emerged after the... General Sir Michael Mike Jackson, GCB, CBE, DSO, ADC Gen (born 21 March 1944) is a British army officer, currently Chief of the General Staff. ... The British Army is the land armed forces branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The French Army, officially the Armée de Terre (Army of the land), is the land-based component of the French Armed Forces and the largest. ... The German Army (German: [1], [IPA: heɐ]  ) is the land component of the Bundeswehr (Federal Defence Forces) of the Federal Republic of Germany. ... Coat of Arms of the Italian Army Dardo IFV on exercise in Capo Teulada Soldiers of the 33rd Field Artillery Regiment Acqui on parade The Italian Army (Esercito Italiano) is the ground defense force of the Italian Republic. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... The 26th Marine Expeditionary Unit (26th MEU) is one of seven Marine Expeditionary Units currently in existence in the United States Marine Corps. ... Marine Corps Base Camp Lejeune is near Jacksonville, North Carolina, on the Atlantic seaboard of the United States. ... Official language(s) English Demonym North Carolinian Capital Raleigh Largest city Charlotte Largest metro area Charlotte metro area Area  Ranked 28th in the US  - Total 53,865 sq mi (139,509 km²)  - Width 150 miles (340 km)  - Length 560[1] miles (900 km)  - % water 9. ... The Hellenic Army, (Greek: Ελληνικός Στράτος) is the land force of Greece (The Hellenic Republic). ... Camp Bondsteel, Kosovo Davidson SEAhuts Big Duke (Mt. ... A blindfolded KLA prisoner awaits interrogation at Camp Monteith, June 1999 Camp Monteith is a military base near Gnjilane, Kosovo. ...


Following the military campaign, the involvement of Russian peacekeepers proved to be tense and challenging to the NATO Kosovo force. The Russians expected to have an independent sector of Kosovo, only to be unhappily surprised with the prospect of operating under NATO command. Without prior communication or coordination with NATO, Russian forces entered Kosovo from Bosnia and seized the Pristina airport. Eventually a deal was struck whereby Russian forces operated as a unit of KFOR but not under the NATO command structure.[24]


Reaction to the war

The legitimacy of NATO's bombing campaign in Kosovo has been the subject of much debate. NATO did not have the backing of the United Nations Security Council because the war was opposed by permanent members with ties to Yugoslavia, China and, in particular Russia, who had threatened to veto any resolution authorising force. NATO argued that their defiance of the Security Council was justified based on the claims of an "international humanitarian emergency". Criticism was also drawn by the fact that the NATO charter specifies that NATO is an organization created for defence of its members, but in this case it was used to attack a non-NATO country which was not directly threatening any NATO member. NATO claimed that instability in the Balkans was a direct threat to the security interests of NATO members, and military action was therefore justified by the NATO charter; however, the only NATO member country to which the instability was a direct threat was Greece. The NATO bombing of Yugoslavia took place during the Kosovo War. ... “Security Council” redirects here. ... Balkan redirects here. ...


Many on the left of Western politics saw the NATO campaign as U.S. aggression and imperialism, while critics on the right considered it irrelevant to their countries' national security interests. Veteran anti-war campaigners such as Noam Chomsky, Edward Said, Justin Raimondo, and Tariq Ali were prominent in opposing the campaign. However, in comparison with the anti-war protests against the 2003 invasion of Iraq, the campaign against the war in Kosovo aroused much less public support. The television pictures of refugees being driven out of Kosovo made a vivid and simple case for NATO's actions, and the ulterior motives of Western powers as well as alleged atrocities committed by the KLA went relatively unreported.[neutrality disputed] The personalities were also very different—the NATO nations were mostly led by centre-left and moderately liberal leaders, most prominently U.S. President Bill Clinton, British Prime Minister Tony Blair, Canadian Prime Minister Jean Chretien, German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder and the Italian Prime Minister Massimo D'Alema. Anti-war protests were generally from the libertarian right, the far-left and Serbian émigrés, with many other left-wingers supporting the campaign on humanitarian grounds. The German participation in the aggression against Belgrade (the third in the course of the 20th century) was one of the reasons for Oskar Lafontaine's resignation from the post of Federal Minister of Finance and the chairman of the SPD. Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author and lecturer. ... Edward Wadie Saïd, Arabic: , , (1 November 1935 – 25 September 2003) was a Palestinian-American literary theorist and Palestinian activist. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Tariq Ali Tariq Ali (Urdu: طارق علی) (born October 21, 1943) is a British-Pakistani historian, novelist, filmmaker, political campaigner, and commentator. ... This article is about the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... For other people of the same name, see Tony Blair (disambiguation) Anthony Charles Lynton Blair (born May 6, 1953)[1] is the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, First Lord of the Treasury, Minister for the Civil Service, Leader of the Labour Party, and Member of Parliament for the constituency... The Right Honourable Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, PC (born January 11, 1934, Shawinigan, Quebec) was the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada, serving from November 4, 1993, to December 12, 2003. ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... Massimo DAlema (born April 20, 1949) is an Italian politician, currently Italian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Vice President of the Council of Ministers of Italy. ... Oskar Lafontaine (born September 16, 1943 in Saarlouis-Roden) is a left-wing German politician and a leading member of the Left Party. ... SPD redirects here. ...


There was, however, criticism from all parts of the political spectrum for the way that NATO conducted the campaign. NATO officials sought to portray it as a "clean war" using precision weapons. The U.S. Department of Defense claimed that, up to June 2, 99.6% of the 20,000 bombs and missiles used had hit their targets. However, the use of technologies such as depleted uranium ammunition and cluster bombs was highly controversial, as was the bombing of oil refineries and chemical plants, which led to accusations of "environmental warfare". The slow pace of progress during the war was also heavily criticised. Many believed that NATO should have mounted an all-out campaign from the start, rather than starting with a relatively small number of strikes and combat aircraft. The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium which contains a reduced proportion of the fissile isotope U-235 and (usually) the highly radioactive but rare isotope U-234, compared to natural uranium. ... Cluster bomb exploding A cluster bomb is an air-dropped bomb that ejects multiple small submunitions (bomblets). ...


Targets of the NATO bombing campaign

Post-strike bomb damage assessment photograph of the Kragujevac Armor and Motor Vehicle Plant Crvena Zastava, Serbia
Post-strike bomb damage assessment photograph of the Kragujevac Armor and Motor Vehicle Plant Crvena Zastava, Serbia

The choice of targets was highly controversial. The destruction of bridges over the Danube greatly disrupted shipping on the river for months afterwards, causing serious economic damage to countries along the length of the river. Industrial facilities were also attacked, damaging the economies of many towns. In fact, as the Serbian opposition later complained, the Yugoslav military was using civilian factories as weapons plants: the Sloboda vacuum cleaner factory in the town of Čačak also housed a tank repair facility, while the Zastava plant in Kragujevac made both cars and Kalashnikov rifles, although in completely separate buildings and locations. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1169x919, 323 KB)Post-strike bomb damage assessment photograph of the Kragujevac Armor and Motor Vehicle Plant Crvena Zastava, Serbia, used by Joint Staff Director of Intelligence Rear Adm. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1169x919, 323 KB)Post-strike bomb damage assessment photograph of the Kragujevac Armor and Motor Vehicle Plant Crvena Zastava, Serbia, used by Joint Staff Director of Intelligence Rear Adm. ... Location of Kragujevac within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District Å umadija Municipalities 5 Founded 1476 Government  - Mayor Veroljub Stevanović (SDPO)  - Ruling parties SDPO Area  - City 835 km²  (322. ... ÄŒačak (Serbian Cyrillic: Чачак) is a city located 140 km south from Belgrade in Serbia at 43°50 North, 20°20 East. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Zastava Auto. ... Location of Kragujevac within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District Å umadija Municipalities 5 Founded 1476 Government  - Mayor Veroljub Stevanović (SDPO)  - Ruling parties SDPO Area  - City 835 km²  (322. ...


Only state owned factories were targeted, leading many to suspect that the bombing campaign was partly designed to prepare the way for a free market-based reconstruction by wealthy foreign powers.[25] No private or foreign owned industrial sites were bombed. Perhaps the most controversial deliberate attack of the war was that made against the headquarters of Serbian television on April 23, which killed at least fourteen people. NATO justified the attack on the grounds that the Serbian television headquarters was part of the Milošević regime's "propaganda machine". Opponents of Milošević inside Serbia charged that the managers of the state TV station had been forewarned of the attack but ordered staff to remain inside the building despite an air raid alert. is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Within Yugoslavia, opinion on the war was (unsurprisingly) split between highly critical among Serbs and highly supportive among Albanians—although not all Albanians felt that way; some appear to have blamed NATO for not acting quickly enough. Although Milošević was increasingly unpopular, the NATO campaign created a mood of national unity. Milošević did not leave matters entirely to chance, however. Many opposition supporters feared for their lives, particularly after the murder of the dissident journalist Slavko Curuvija on April 11, an act widely blamed on Milošević's secret police. In Montenegro, President Milo Đukanović—who opposed both the NATO bombardment and Serbian actions in Kosovo—publicly expressed fear of a "creeping coup" by Milošević supporters. Slavko Ćuruvija Slavko Ćuruvija, born August 9, 1949 in Zagreb, Federal Peoples Republic of Yugoslavia was a Serbian journalist. ... is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Coup redirects here. ...


Opinion in Yugoslavia's neighbours was much more mixed. Macedonia was the only Yugoslav republic apart from Montenegro not to have fought a war with Serbia and had tense relations between the Macedonian majority and a large Albanian minority. Its government did not approve of Milošević's actions, but it was also not very sympathetic towards the Albanian refugees. Albania was wholly supportive of NATO's actions, as might be expected given the ethnic ties between Albanians on both sides of the border. Croatia, Romania and Bulgaria granted overflight rights to NATO aircraft. Hungary was a new member of NATO and supported the campaign. Across the Adriatic, Italian public and political opinion was against the war, but the Italian government nonetheless allowed NATO full use of Italian air bases. In Greece, popular opposition to the war reached 96%.[26] The Adriatic Sea is an arm of the Mediterranean Sea separating the Apennine peninsula (Italy) from the Balkan peninsula, and the system of the Apennine Mountains from that of the Dinaric Alps and adjacent ranges. ...


Criticism of the case for war

Some critics have accused the coalition of leading a war in Kosovo under the false pretense of genocide.[27] President Clinton of the United States, and his administration, were accused of inflating the number of Kosovar Albanians killed by Serbians.[28] Clinton's Secretary of Defense William Cohen, giving a speech, said, "The appalling accounts of mass killing in Kosovo and the pictures of refugees fleeing Serb oppression for their lives makes it clear that this is a fight for justice over genocide."[29] On CBS' Face the Nation Cohen claimed, "We've now seen about 100,000 military-aged men missing... they may have been murdered."[30] Clinton, citing the same figure, spoke of "at least 100,000 (Kosovar Albanians) missing".[31] Later, talking about Yugoslav elections, Clinton said, "they're going to have to come to grips with what Mr. Milošević ordered in Kosovo... they're going to have to decide whether they support his leadership or not; whether they think it's OK that all those tens of thousands of people were killed...". Clinton also claimed, in the same press conference, that "NATO stopped deliberate, systematic efforts at ethnic cleansing and genocide."[32] Clinton compared the events of Kosovo to the Holocaust. CNN reported, "Accusing Serbia of 'ethnic cleansing' in Kosovo similar to the genocide of Jews in World War II, an impassioned President Clinton sought Tuesday to rally public support for his decision to send U.S. forces into combat against Yugoslavia, a prospect that seemed increasingly likely with the breakdown of a diplomatic peace effort."[33] Clinton's State Department also claimed Yugoslav troops had committed genocide. The New York Times reported, "the Administration said evidence of 'genocide' by Yugoslav forces was growing to include 'abhorrent and criminal action' on a vast scale. The language was the State Department's strongest yet in denouncing Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević."[34] The State Department also gave the highest estimate of dead Albanians. The New York Times reported, "On April 19, the State Department said that up to 500,000 Kosovar Albanians were missing and feared dead."[35] For other uses, see Genocide (disambiguation). ... Kosovar is a noun derived from Kosovo. ... The United States Secretary of Defense is the head of the United States Department of Defense, concerned with the armed services and The Secretary is a member of the Presidents Cabinet. ... William Sebastian Cohen (1940- ) is an author and American politician from the U.S. state of Maine. ... For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... is the 109th day of the year (110th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The United Nations Charter does not allow military interventions in other sovereign countries with few exceptions which in general need to be decided upon by the United Nations Security Council. The issue was brought before the UN Security Council by Russia, in a draft resolution which - inter alia - would affirm "that such unilateral use of force constitutes a flagrant violation of the United Nations Charter". China, Namibia and Russia voted for the resolution, the other members against, thus it failed to pass.[36]


On April 29, 1999 Yugoslavia filed a complaint at the International Court of Justice (ICJ) at The Hague against ten NATO member countries (Belgium, Germany, France, Great Britain, Italy, Canada, The Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, and the USA). The Court did not decide upon the case because Yugoslavia was not a member of the UN during the war. is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Hague redirects here. ...


In Western countries, opposition to NATO's intervention was mainly from the libertarian right, and from most of the far left. In Britain, the war was opposed by many prominent conservative figures including former UK Foreign Secretary Sir Malcolm Rifkind, former Chancellor of the Exchequer Norman Lamont, and journalists Peter Hitchens and Simon Heffer, whereas opposition on the left was confined to The Morning Star newspaper and left wing MPs like Tony Benn and Alan Simpson. However, the Communist Party of Great Britain (Provisional Central Committee), a Leninist splinter-group, backed the Kosovo Liberation Army (while opposing NATO's intervention, seeing it as American-led imperialist opportunism) and support the complete secession of Kosovo from Serbia. The term far left refers to the relative position a person or group occupies within the political spectrum. ... The Secretary of State for Foreign and Commonwealth Affairs (colloquially called the Foreign Secretary) is a member of the British Government responsible for relations with foreign countries, heading the Foreign and Commonwealth Office (often called simply the Foreign Office). ... Sir Malcolm Leslie Rifkind, KCMG, QC (born 21 June 1946) is a Scottish Conservative and Unionist politician and Member of Parliament for the constituency of Kensington and Chelsea. ... The Chancellor of the Exchequer is the title held by the British Cabinet minister responsible for all economic and financial matters. ... Norman Stewart Hughson Lamont, Baron Lamont of Lerwick, PC (born 8 May 1942) was Conservative Member of Parliament for Kingston-upon-Thames, England from 1972 until 1997. ... Peter Hitchens Peter Jonathan Hitchens (born 28 October 1951 in Sliema, Malta) is a British journalist, author and broadcaster. ... Simon James Heffer (born July 18, 1960) is an English journalist and writer. ... Left wing redirects here. ... For other uses, see Morning Star. ... Anthony Tony Neil Wedgwood Benn (born 3 April 1925), formerly 2nd Viscount Stansgate, is a British socialist politician. ... Alan John Simpson (born 20 September 1948 in Bootle, Liverpool) is a British Labour politician and Member of Parliament for Nottingham South. ... The Communist Party of Great Britain (Provisional Central Committee), which commonly calls itself the Communist Party of Great Britain (CPGB), is a British Leninist political grouping, which publishes the Weekly Worker newspaper. ... Vladimir Lenin in 1920 Leninism refers to various related political and economic theories elaborated by Bolshevik revolutionary leader Vladimir Lenin, and by other theorists who claim to be carrying on Lenins work. ... For the computer game, see Imperialism (computer game). ...


When the war ended on June 11, 1999, it left Kosovo in chaos and Yugoslavia as a whole facing an unknown future. is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...


The war inflicted many casualties. Already by March 1999, the combination of fighting and the targeting of civilians had left an estimated 1,500-2,000 civilians and combatants dead.[37] Final estimates of the casualties are still unavailable for either side.


Casualties

Civilians killed by NATO airstrikes

Yugoslavia claimed that NATO attacks caused between 1,200 and 5,700 civilian casualties. NATO acknowledged killing at most 1,500 civilians. Human Rights Watch counted a minimum of 488 civilian deaths (90 to 150 of them killed from cluster bomb use) in 90 separate incidents. Attacks in Kosovo overall were more deadly - a third of the incidents account for more than half of the deaths.[38] The targeting of civilian areas during Operation Allied Force have been a major component in the conflict. ... Human Rights Watch Banner Human Rights Watch is a United States-based international non-government organization that conducts research and advocacy on human rights. ...


Civilians killed by Yugoslav ground forces

Various estimates of the number of killings attributed to Yugoslav ground forces have been announced through the years.


In June 2000 the Red Cross reported that 3,368 civilians (2,500 Albanians, 400 Serbs, and 100 Roma) were still missing, nearly one year after the conflict. [39] The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...


In August 2000 the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) announced that it had exhumed 2,788 bodies in Kosovo, but declined to say how many were thought to be victims of war crimes.[40] Earlier however, KFOR sources told Agence France Presse that of the 2,150 bodies that had been discovered up until July 1999, about 850 were thought to be victims of war crimes.[41] The Tribunal building in The Hague. ...


Some of the missing civilians were re-buried in mass graves in Serbia-proper. In July 2001, the Serbian authorities announced the discovery of four mass graves containing nearly 1,000 bodies.[37] The largest grave was found on a Serbian Police training ground in Batajnica just outside of Belgrade.


Although it far exceeds the 4,400 killings reported to human rights groups, statistical experts working on behalf of the ICTY prosecution estimate that the total number of dead is about 10,000.[42] Their higher estimate was based on the controversial assumption that most people wouldn't report the killing or disappearance of a loved one.[43] The International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia is a body of the United Nations established to prosecute war crimes in the former Yugoslavia. ...


The estimate of 10,000 deaths is also used by the U.S. State Department, which cited human rights abuses as its main justification for attacking Yugoslavia.[44]


A study by researchers from the Centre for Disease Control and Prevention in Atlanta, Georgia published in 2000 in medical journal the Lancet estimated that "12,000 deaths in the total population" could be attributed to war.[45] This number was achieved by surveying 1197 households from February, 1998, through June, 1999. 67 out of the 105 deaths reported in the sample population were attributed to war-related trauma, which extrapolates to be 12,000 deaths if the same war-related mortality rate is applied to Kosovo's total population. The highest mortality rates were in men between 15-49 accounting for 5421 victims of war as well as for the man over 50 accounting for total of 5176 victims of the war. For persons younger than 15 the estimates were 160 victims for males and 200 for females. For the woman between 15-49 the estimate is that there was 510 victims and for the woman older than 50 years the estimate is 541 victims. The authors stated that it is not "possible to differentiate completely between civilian and military casualties". Atlanta redirects here. ... The Lancet is one of the oldest and most respected peer-reviewed medical journals in the world, published weekly by Elsevier, part of Reed Elsevier. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ...


Civilians killed by the KLA

Main article: 1998-present persecution of Serbs and other non-Albanians in Kosovo

According to a Serbian government report, from January 1, 1998 to June 10, 1999 the KLA killed 988 people and kidnapped 287; in the period from June 10 1999 to November 11 2001, when NATO took control in Kosovo, 847 were reported to have been killed and 1,154 kidnapped. This comprised both civilians and security force personnel: of those killed in the first period, 335 were civilians, 351 soldiers, 230 police and 72 were unidentified; by nationality, 87 of killed civilians were Serbs, 230 Albanians, and 18 of other nationalities.[46] is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 161st day of the year (162nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ...


NATO losses

Tail and canopy of F-16C shot down on May 2, 1999. Museum of Aviation in Belgrade, Serbia
Tail and canopy of F-16C shot down on May 2, 1999. Museum of Aviation in Belgrade, Serbia

Military casualties on the NATO side were light—according to official reports the alliance suffered no fatalities as a result of combat operations. However, in the early hours of May 5, an American military AH-64 Apache helicopter crashed not far from the border between Serbia and Albania.[47] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 179 KB) Summary Tail and canopy of F-16C in Belgrade Aviation Museum, Serbia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 179 KB) Summary Tail and canopy of F-16C in Belgrade Aviation Museum, Serbia. ... ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... The Museum of Aviation in Belgrade was founded in 1957 and is located at Belgrade Nikola Tesla Airport. ... is the 125th day of the year (126th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The AH-64 Apache is an all-weather day-night military attack helicopter and is the United States Armys principal attack helicopter, and is the successor to the AH-1 Cobra. ...


An American AH-64 helicopter crashed about 40 miles (64 km) northeast of Tirana, Albania's capital, very close to the Albanian/Kosovo border.[48] According to CNN the crash happened 45 miles (72 km) northeast of Tirana.[49] The two American pilots of the helicopter, Army Chief Warrant Officers David Gibbs and Kevin L. Reichert, died in that crash. They were the only NATO casualties during the war, according to NATO official statements. Nickname: Coordinates: , Country Albania Founded 1614 Elevation 295 ft (90 m) Population (2005 est)[1]  - City 585,756  - Metro 700,000 Tirana (Albanian: Tiranë or Tirana) is the capital and largest city of the Republic of Albania. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... A warrant officer (WO) or a chief warrant officer (CWO) is a member of a military organization, with a rank subordinate to other commissioned officers and senior to noncommissioned officers. ...


There were other casualties after the war, mostly due to land mines. After the war, the alliance reported the loss of the first U.S. stealth plane (a F-117 stealth fighter) ever shot down by enemy fire.[50] Furthermore 32 unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) from different nations were lost.[citation needed] The wreckages of downed UAVs were shown on Serbian television during the war. A second F-117A was also heavily damaged, and although it made it back to its base, it never flew again.[51] The Yugoslav armed forces claimed to have shot down seven helicopters, 30 UAVs, 61 planes and 238 cruise missiles, counting only those they said crashed within the territory of Yugoslavia.[citation needed] This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... This article is about the stealth fighter. ... An RQ-2 Pioneer, a reconnaissance UAV used by the US military during the Gulf and Iraq Wars. ...


Yugoslav military losses

Wreckage of the Yugoslav MiG-29 jet fighter shot down on March 27, 1999, outside the town of Ugljevik, Bosnia and Herzegovina
Wreckage of the Yugoslav MiG-29 jet fighter shot down on March 27, 1999, outside the town of Ugljevik, Bosnia and Herzegovina

NATO did not release any official casualty estimates. The Yugoslav authorities claimed 169 soldiers were killed and 299 wounded by NATO airstrikes.[52] The names of Yugoslav casualties were recorded in a "book of remembrance". Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1268x1012, 782 KB) A U.S. Army documentation team surveys the wreckage of a Former Republic of Yugoslavia MiG-29 Fulcrum jet fighter outside the town of Ugljevik, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on March 27, 1999. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1268x1012, 782 KB) A U.S. Army documentation team surveys the wreckage of a Former Republic of Yugoslavia MiG-29 Fulcrum jet fighter outside the town of Ugljevik, Bosnia and Herzegovina, on March 27, 1999. ... The Mikoyan MiG-29 (NATO reporting name Fulcrum) is a Russian fighter aircraft used in the air superiority role. ... is the 86th day of the year (87th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... Location of Ugljevik within Bosnia and Herzegovina Coordinates: , Country Government  - Mayor Vasilije Perić (SDS) [1] Area  - Total 164 km² (63. ...


Of military equipment, NATO destroyed around 50 Yugoslav aircraft, of which many were old and unflyable and were intentionally placed as decoys to draw attention away from valuable targets. Two notable exceptions were the 11 destroyed MiG-29s, and 6 G-4 Super Galebs which were destroyed right in their hardened aircraft shelter when someone forgot to close the shelter doors. At the end of war, NATO officially claimed they destroyed 93 Yugoslav tanks. Yugoslavia admitted a total of 13 destroyed tanks. The latter figure was verified by European inspectors when Yugoslavia rejoined the Dayton accords, by noting the difference between the number of tanks then and at the last inspection in 1995. The army lost 14 tanks (9 M-84's and 5 T-55's), 18 APCs and 20 artillery pieces.[53] Most of the targets hit in Kosovo were decoys, such as tanks made out of plastic sheets with telegraph poles for gun barrels, or old World War II-era tanks which were not functional. Anti-aircraft defences were preserved by the simple expedient of not turning them on, preventing NATO aircraft from detecting them, but forcing them to keep above a ceiling of 15,000 ft (5,000 m), making accurate bombing much more difficult. Towards the end of the war, it was claimed that carpet bombing by B-52 aircraft had caused huge casualties among Yugoslav troops stationed along the Kosovo–Albania border. Careful searching by NATO investigators found no evidence of any such large-scale casualties. The M-84 is a modern, 3nd generation main battle tank manufactured by Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The T-54 and T-55 tank series was the Soviet Unions front-line main battle tank from 1947 until 1962, and remains in service throughout the world to this day, especially by former client states of the Soviet Union. ... B-52 redirects here. ...


However, the most significant loss for the Yugoslav Army was the damaged and destroyed infrastructure. Almost all military air bases and airfields (Batajnica, Lađevci, Slatina, Golubovci, Kovin, Đakovica) and other military buildings and facilities were badly damaged or destroyed. Unlike the units and their equipment, military buildings couldn't be camouflaged. Thus, defence industry and military tehnical overhaul facilities were also damaged seriously (Utva, Zastava Arms factory, Moma Stanojlović air force overhaul center, technical overhaul centers in Čačak and Kragujevac). Moreover, in an effort to weaken the Yugoslav Army, NATO targeted several important civilian facilities (Pančevo oil rafinery, bridges and railroads). The Yugoslav Peoples Army (Serbo-Croatian Jugoslavenska/Jugoslovenska narodna armija, JNA, Slovene Jugoslovanska ljudska armada, JLA, Macedonian Jugoslovenskata narodna armija, JNA) was the military of the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Batajnica Airbase (IATA: BJY, ICAO: LYBT) (Serbian Latin: Aerodrom Batajnica, Cyrillic: Аеродром БaÑ‚ajницa) is an airport in Serbia. ... Kraljevo-LaÄ‘evci Airport (Serbian Latin: Aerodrom LaÄ‘evci, Cyrillic: Аеродром ЛaÑ’eвци) (IATA: N/A, ICAO: LYKV) also known as Obrva Airport is an airport in the Kraljevo Municipality, Serbia. ... Slatina airport near Pristina was the second largest underground airport in former Yugoslavia. ... Kovin Airport (Serbian Latin: Aerodrom Kovin, Cyrillic: Аеродром Кoвин) (ICAO: LY87) is an airport in the Kovin Municipality, Vojvodina, Serbia. ... Đakovica Airfield is an airfield in Kosovo, Serbia, near the town of Đakovica. ... Utva (English wild duck) is an aircraft factory (Serbian fabrika aviona) located in Pančevo, near Belgrade, Serbia and Montenegro (ex-Yugoslavia), first founded in 1937 in Zemun, known of its light sporting and training aircraft. ... Zastava Arms is a subsidiary of Zastava, and is the sole producer of military firearms in Serbia. ... ÄŒačak (Serbian Cyrillic: Чачак) is a city located 140 km south from Belgrade in Serbia at 43°50 North, 20°20 East. ... Location of Kragujevac within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District Å umadija Municipalities 5 Founded 1476 Government  - Mayor Veroljub Stevanović (SDPO)  - Ruling parties SDPO Area  - City 835 km²  (322. ... Church of Assumption in Pančevo Pančevo Banatsko Novo Selo Kačarevo Jabuka Glogonj Dolovo Starčevo Omoljica Ivanovo Banatski Brestovac Municipality of Pančevo ● Pančevo (Панчево) is a city and municipality located in Serbia at 44. ...


KLA losses

Kosovo Liberation Army losses are difficult to analyze, and reports range from less than 1,000 on up.[citation needed] Difficulties arise in calculating an accurate figure, as KLA fighters dying in combat would sometimes be carried away by retreating KLA forces, and other times left on the battlefield and buried in mass graves by the Yugoslavs. Things are further complicated by the difficulty of determining who was a KLA member. For example, the Yugoslavs considered any armed Albanian to be a member of the KLA, regardless of whether he was officially a card-carrying member, so someone who is counted as a civilian by the Albanian side might be counted as a KLA combatant by the Serbs. Also, many members of the KLA were not wearing uniforms and the KLA tactic was to take weapons from killed members to make them appear as civilians shot by Yugoslav security forces.[citation needed]


Aftermath

A Serbian Orthodox church destroyed by Albanians after the war
A Serbian Orthodox church destroyed by Albanians after the war

Within three weeks, over 500,000 Albanian refugees had returned home. By November 1999, according to the UN High Commissioner for Refugees, 808,913 out of 848,100 had returned. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 543 pixelsFull resolution (870 × 590 pixel, file size: 161 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 543 pixelsFull resolution (870 × 590 pixel, file size: 161 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Early history The Serbs migrated to the Balkans during the reign of Byzantine emperor Heraclius (610-641). ... What is Refugees? Refugees is a simple internet community that was created as a homeland and haven for the members of the message board MegaMassMedia. ... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ...


However, an estimated 200,000 Serbs fled Kosovo.[54] Gypsies were also driven out after being harassed by Albanians. Since June 12, 1999, as many as 1,000 Serbs and Roma have been murdered or have gone missing as a result of KLA elements and possibly criminal gangs or vengeful individuals.[55][37] The Yugoslav Red Cross had also registered 247,391 mostly Serbian refugees by November. The new exodus was a severe embarrassment to NATO, which had established a peacekeeping force of 45,000 under the auspices of the United Nations Mission In Kosovo (UNMIK). Serbs are the second largest ethnic group in Kosovo, a province of Serbia currently under UN administration. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... is the 163rd day of the year (164th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events of 2008: (EMILY) Me Lesley and MIley are going to China! This article is about the year. ... A gang is a group of individuals who share a common identity and, in current usage, engage in illegal activities. ... The Anarchist Black Cross was originally called the Anarchist Red Cross. The band Redd Kross was originally called Red Cross. This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ...


Returning IDPs from the Republic of Macedonia were kept in a lead polluted refugee camp set up by KFOR / UNMIK in North Mitrovica. The charity, ran by Paul Polansky, claims 27 died from lead poisoning, denied by UNMIK who recognise only one death. For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Paul Polansky is an activist working for the rights of the Roma people (also called gypsies). ...


According to Amnesty International, the presence of peacekeepers in Kosovo led to an increase in the trafficking of women for sexual exploitation.[56][57][58] Trafficking in human beings includes recruiting, harbouring, obtaining, and transporting persons by use of force, fraud, or coercion for the purpose of subjecting them to involuntary acts, such as commercial sexual exploitation (including prostitution) or involuntary labour, i. ...


War crimes

Before the end of the bombing, Yugoslav President Slobodan Milošević, along with Milan Milutinović, Nikola Šainović, Dragoljub Ojdanić and Vlajko Stojiljković were charged by the International Criminal Tribunal for the Former Yugoslavia (ICTY) with crimes against humanity including murder, forcible transfer, deportation and "persecution on political, racial or religious grounds". Milan Milutinović (Милан Милутиновић), born 19 December 1942, is a former President of Serbia. ... Nikola Å ainović (Serbian: Никола Шаиновић; born 7 December 1948 in Bor, Serbia, Yugoslavia) is a former Prime Minister of Serbia. ... Dragoljub Ojdanić (Serbian Cyrillic: Драгољуб Ојданић) (born Jun 1, 1941 in Užice, Kingdom of Yugoslavia) was former Chief of the General Staff and Defence minister of FRY. He is currently indicted with crimes against humanity and violations of the laws or customs of war by the ICTY.[1] 1958 he joined... The Tribunal building in The Hague. ...


Further indictments were leveled in October 2003 against former armed forces chief of staff Nebojša Pavković, former army corps commander Vladimir Lazarević, former police official Vlastimir Đorđević and the current head of Serbia's public security, Sreten Lukić. All were indicted for crimes against humanity and violations of the laws or customs of war. NebojÅ¡a Pavković (Serbian Cyrillic: Небојша Павковић; born in the village of Senjski Rudnik near Ćuprija in April 10, 1946) was former Chief of the General Staff of FRY. He graduated in every military school with avrage evaluation (10,00). ... Vlastimir ĐorÄ‘ević (born in 1948 in Koznica, Serbia) is a Serbian colonel general. ...


The ICTY also leveled indictments against KLA members Fatmir Limaj, Haradin Bala, Isak Musliu and Agim Murtezi, indicted for crimes against humanity. They were arrested on February 1718, 2003. Charges were soon dropped against Agim Murtezi as a case of mistaken identity, whereas Fatmir Limaj was acquitted of all charges on 30 November 2005 and released. The charges were in relation to the prison camp run by the defendants at Lapusnik between May and July 1998. Fatmir Limaj, Isak Musliu and Haradin Bala are charged by the ICTY with a series of beatings and murders in a KLA prison camp in a family compound in Lapusnik to deal with Serbs and suspected Albanian collaborators between May and July 1998 during the Kosovo War. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Fatmir Limaj, Isak Musliu and Haradin Bala are charged by the ICTY with a series of beatings and murders in a KLA prison camp in a family compound in Lapusnik to deal with Serbs and suspected Albanian collaborators between May and July 1998 during the Kosovo War. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


War crimes prosecutions have also been carried out in Yugoslavia. Yugoslav soldier Ivan Nikolić was found guilty in 2002 of war crimes in the deaths of two civilians in Kosovo. A significant number of Yugoslav soldiers were tried by Yugoslav military tribunals during the war.


On March 2005, a U.N. tribunal indicted Kosovo Prime Minister Ramush Haradinaj for war crimes against the Serbs, on March 8 he tendered his resignation. Haradinaj, an ethnic Albanian, was a former commander who led units of the Kosovo Liberation Army and was appointed Prime Minister after winning an election of 72 votes to three in the Kosovo's Parliament in December 2004. Ramush Haradinaj (Serbo-Croatian: Рамуш Харадинај, Ramuš Haradinaj), born 3 July 1968 in the village of Glođane near Dečani in Kosovo is a former guerrilla leader of the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA) and former prime minister of Kosovo. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Serbian government and a number of international pressure groups claimed that NATO had carried out war crimes during the conflict, particularly regarding the bombing of alleged dual-use facilities such as the Serbian TV headquarters in Belgrade. The ICTY conducted an inquiry into these charges.[59] The tribunal has proclaimed that it has no mandate to press charges against NATO for war crimes against civilian population.


In 2008, Carla Del Ponte published a book in which she collected extensive evidence that right after the end of the war in 1999, Kosovo Albanians were smuggling organs of hundreds of Serbians from the province to Albania.[60] But the ICTY has found no "substantial element" to support Del Ponte's charges.[61] 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini/Common Era, in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... Procureur (Prosecutor) of the ICTY Carla del Ponte Carla Del Ponte (born February 9, 1947 in Lugano, Switzerland) is currently a Chief UN War Crimes Prosecutor. ...


Military and political consequences

Yugoslav Army M-84 tanks withdrawing from Kosovo
Yugoslav Army M-84 tanks withdrawing from Kosovo
Norwegian soldier on guard in Kosovo
Norwegian soldier on guard in Kosovo

The Kosovo war had a number of important consequences in terms of the military and political outcome. The status of Kosovo remained unresolved until 2007; international negotiations began in 2006 to determine the final status of Kosovo, as envisaged under UN Security Council Resolution 1244, and the province was administered by the United Nations until its unilateral declaration of independence on February 17, 2008. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The M-84 is a modern, 3nd generation main battle tank manufactured by Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Motto: Royal Motto: Alt for Norge (All for Norway) 1814 Eidsvoll oath: Enige og tro til Dovre faller (United and faithful until the Mountains of Dovre should crumble) Anthem: Ja, vi elsker dette landet Royal anthem: Kongesangen Capital (and largest city) Oslo Norwegian1 (BokmÃ¥l and Nynorsk) Government Constitutional monarchy... Kosovo is the subject of a long-running political and territorial dispute between the Serbian (and previously, the Yugoslav) government and Kosovos largely ethnic-Albanian population. ... The constitutional status of Kosovo has been the subject of repeated political disputes since the region was incorporated into Serbia in 1912. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 defined the legal status of Kosovo as a UN protectorate, under its administration, while being legally an autonomous constituency of Serbia and Montenegro. ... UN redirects here. ...


The UN-backed talks, lead by UN Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari, had begun in February 2006. Whilst progress was made on technical matters, both parties remained diametrically opposed on the question of status itself.[62] In February 2007, Ahtisaari delivered a draft status settlement proposal to leaders in Belgrade and Pristina, the basis for a draft UN Security Council Resolution which proposes 'supervised independence' for the province. By July 2007 the draft resolution, which was backed by the United States, United Kingdom and other European members of the Security Council, had been rewritten four times to try to accommodate Russian concerns that such a resolution would undermine the principle of state sovereignty.[63] Russia, which holds a veto in the Security Council as one of five permanent members, stated that it would not support any resolution which is not acceptable to both Belgrade and Pristina.[64]. With the February 2008 declaration of independence, the proposal became redundant. This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari (IPA: ) (born June 23, 1937 Viipuri, Finland) is a former President of Finland (1994–2000) and a United Nations diplomat and mediator, noted for his international peace work. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


Milošević survived the immediate aftermath of the war, but the effective loss of Kosovo was a major factor in provoking the popular revolt which overthrew him in 2000. He was subsequently arrested and taken to The Hague, where he died from natural causes in his cell, awaiting trial for crimes against humanity on 10 March 2006. Hague redirects here. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Despite the successful conclusion of the war, Kosovo exposed gaping weaknesses in NATO. It revealed how dependent the European members had become on the United States military—the vast majority of combat and non-combat operations were dependent on U.S. involvement—and highlighted the lack of precision weapons in European armories. Some right-wing and military critics in the U.S. also blamed the alliance's agreement-by-consensus arrangements for hobbling and slowing down the campaign. For other uses, see Consensus (disambiguation). ...


The campaign exposed significant weaknesses in the U.S. arsenal, which were later addressed for the Afghanistan and Iraq campaigns. Apache attack helicopters and AC-130 Spectre gunships were brought up to the front lines but were never actually used after two Apaches crashed during training in the Albanian mountains. Stocks of many precision missiles were run down to critically low levels; had the campaign lasted much longer, NATO would have had to revert back to using "dumb" bombs for lack of anything better. Situation was not any better with the combat aircraft; continuous operations meant skipped maintenance schedules and many aircraft were withdrawn from service awaiting spare parts and service.[65] Also, many of the precision-guided weapons proved unable to cope with Balkan weather, as the clouds blocked the laser guidance beams. This was resolved by retrofitting bombs with Global Positioning System satellite guidance devices that are immune to bad weather. Also, although pilotless surveillance aircraft were extensively used, it often proved the case that attack aircraft could not be brought to the scene quickly enough to hit targets of opportunity. This led to the fitting of missiles to Predator drones in Afghanistan, reducing the "sensor to shooter" time to virtually nil. The AH-64 Apache is an all-weather day-night military attack helicopter and is the United States Armys principal attack helicopter, and is the successor to the AH-1 Cobra. ... The AC-130 Gunship is an armed variant of the Lockheed C-130 Hercules. ... GPS redirects here. ... An RQ-2 Pioneer, a reconnaissance UAV used by the US military during the Gulf and Iraq Wars. ...


Kosovo also demonstrated that even a high-tech force such as NATO could be thwarted by quite simple tactics, according to Wesley Clark and other NATO generals who analyzed these tactics a few years after the conflict.[66] The Yugoslav army had long expected to need to resist a much stronger enemy; either Soviet or NATO; during the Cold War and had developed effective tactics of deception and concealment in response. These would have been unlikely to have resisted a full-scale invasion for long, but were probably effective in misleading overflying aircraft and satellites. Among the tactics used were: Wesley Kanne Clark (born December 23, 1944) is a retired four-star general of the United States Army. ... For other organizations known as the Red Army, see Red Army (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

  • U.S. stealth aircraft were tracked with radars operating on long wavelengths. If stealth jets got wet or started to drop bombs they would become visible on the radar screens. An F-117 Nighthawk was spotted in this way and downed with a missile.[citation needed]
  • Precision-guided missiles were often confused and unable to pinpoint radars, because radar beams were reflected off heavy farm machinery like old tractors and plows.[citation needed]
  • Many low-tech approaches were used to confuse heat-seeking missiles and infrared sensors. Decoys such as small gas furnaces were used to simulate nonexistent positions on mountainsides.
  • Dummy targets were used very extensively. Fake bridges, airfields and decoy planes and tanks were used. Tanks were made using old tires, plastic sheeting and logs, and sand cans and fuel set alight to mimic heat emissions. They fooled NATO pilots into bombing hundreds of such decoys, though General Clark's survey found that in Operation: Allied Force, NATO airmen hit just 25 decoys-an insignificant percentage of the 974 validated hits.[67] However, NATO sources claim that this was due to operating procedures, which oblige troops, in this case aircraft, to engage any and all targets however unlikely they were real. The targets needed only to look real to be shot at, if detected, of course. NATO claimed that Yugoslav air force had been decimated. "Official data show that the Yugoslav army in Kosovo lost 26 percent of its tanks, 34 percent of its APCs, and 47 percent of the artillery to the air campaign."[67]
  • Old electronic jammers were used to block U.S. bombs equipped with satellite guidance.
  • Hispano-Suiza anti-aircraft cannons from the World War II era were used effectively against slow-flying drone aircraft.

This article is about the stealth fighter. ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Hispano-Suiza is a French engineering firm best known for their engine and weapon designs in the pre-World War II period, work that developed out of their earliest work in luxury automobile design. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...

Military decorations

As a result of the Kosovo War, the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation created a second NATO medal, the NATO Medal for Kosovo Service, an international military decoration. Shortly thereafter, NATO created the Non-Article 5 Medal for Balkans service to combine both Yugoslavian and Kosovo operations into one service medal. NATO Medals for Yugoslavia and Kosovo The NATO Medal is an international military decoration which is awarded to various militaries of the world under the authority of the North Atlantic Treaty Organisation. ... An international decoration is a military award which is not bestowed by a particular country, but rather by an international organization such as the United Nations or NATO. Such awards are normally issued as service medals, for participation in various international military operations, and not for specific acts of heroism...


Due to the involvement of the United States armed forces, a separate U.S. military decoration, known as the Kosovo Campaign Medal, was established by President Bill Clinton in the year 2000. The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ... Awards and decorations of the United States military are military decorations which recognize a service members service and personal accomplishments while a member of the United States armed forces. ... The Kosovo Campaign Medal is a military decoration of the United States armed forces which was established by Presidential Order of William J. Clinton on May 3, 2000. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ...


Gallery

References

  1. ^ a b War in Europe: Facts & figures
  2. ^ Kosovo Liberation Army
  3. ^ Two die in Apache crash
  4. ^ a b UNDER ORDERS: War Crimes in Kosovo - March-June 1999: An Overview Human Rights Watch 2001
  5. ^ UNDER ORDERS: War Crimes in Kosovo - executive summary Human Rights Watch 2001
  6. ^ THE CRISIS IN KOSOVO Human Rights Watch 2000
  7. ^ Operation Allied Force. NATO.
  8. ^ Larry Minear, Ted van Baarda, Marc Sommers (2000). NATO and Humanitarian Action in the Kosovo Crisis. Brown University.
  9. ^ Ruza Petrovic, Marina Blagojevic (2000). The Migration of Serbs and Montenegrins from Kosovo and Metohija.
  10. ^ Tim Judah (1999-08-12). Kosovo: Peace Now. kosovo.net, originally from b92.net. Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
  11. ^ a b written Testimony of Ralf Mutschke Assistant Director, Criminal Intelligence Directorate International Criminal Police Organization - Interpol General Secretariat before a hearing of the Committee on the Judiciary Subcommittee on Crime (2000-12-13). The Threat Posed by the Convergence of Organized Crime, Drugs Trafficking and Terrorism.. U.S. House Judiciary Committee. Retrieved on 2008-05-31. “In 1998, the U.S. State Department listed the KLA as a terrorist organization”
  12. ^ a b The Kosovo Liberation Army: Does Clinton Policy Support Group with Terror, Drug Ties?. U.S. Senate, Republican Policy Committee (1999-03-31). Retrieved on 2008-05-31.
  13. ^ Allan Little (2000-03-12). Behind the Kosovo crisis. BBC.
  14. ^ a b Nened Sebak (1998-06-28). The KLA - terrorists or freedom fighters?. BBC.
  15. ^ Kosovo Chronology: From 1997 to the end of the conflict. British Parliament (June 1999).
  16. ^ Kosovo War Crimes Chronology. Human Rights Watch.
  17. ^ Stacy Sullivan (2005-03-11). Ramush Haradinaj. IWPR.
  18. ^ Allan Little (2000-03-12). Moral Combat:NATO at War. BBC.
  19. ^ Tony Karon (1999-03-25). Serbs Unplug CNN. TIME Magazine.
  20. ^ Conclusions of Serbian parliament. Government of Serbia (1999-03-24).
  21. ^ Interim Agreement for Peace and Self-Government in Kosovo. U.S. State Department.
  22. ^ John Sweeney, Jens Holsoe, Ed Vulliamy (1999-10-17). Nato bombed Chinese deliberately. The Guardian.
  23. ^ Sergeant William Wright - B Company 9th Engineers (17 July 1999); Specialist Sherwood Brim - B Company 9th Engineers(17 July 1999); Private First Class Benjamin McGill - C Company 1st Battalion 26th Infantry (9 August 1999).
  24. ^ Confrontation over Pristina airport. BBC (2000-03-09). Retrieved on 2008-02-08.
  25. ^ John Pilger (2004-12-13). John Pilger reminds us of Kosovo. New Statesman.
  26. ^ Macedonian Press Agency: News in English (1999-04-17).
  27. ^ Joseph Farah (1999-11-29). The Real War Crimes. WorldNetDaily.
  28. ^ Phyllis Schlafly. "Numbers Game in Kosovo", Washington Times, 1999-10-19. 
  29. ^ William Cohen (1999=04-07). Secretary Cohen's Press Conference at NATO Headquarters. U.S. Department of Defense.
  30. ^ Tom Doggett (1999-05-16). Cohen Fears 100,000 Kosovo Men Killed by Serbs. Washington Post.
  31. ^ Bill Clinton (1999-05-13). Speech by President to Veterans Organizations on Kosovo.
  32. ^ Bill Clinton (1999-06-25). Press Conference by the President.
  33. ^ Clinton: Serbs must be stopped now. CNN (1999-03-23).
  34. ^ Clines, Francis X (March 30, 1999). "NATO Hunting for Serb Forces; U.S. Reports Signs of 'Genocide'". The New York Times, p. A1.
  35. ^ Erlanger, Steven (November 11, 1999). "Early Count Hints at Fewer Kosovo Deaths". The New York Times, p. A6.
  36. ^ Security Council Rejects Demand for Cessation of Use of Force Against Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. United Nations (1999-03-26).
  37. ^ a b c Under Orders: War Crimes in Kosovo. Human Rights Watch.
  38. ^ Civilian Deaths in the NATO Air Campaign. Human Rights Watch (February 2000).
  39. ^ 3,000 missing in Kosovo. BBC (2000-06-07).
  40. ^ Jonathan Steele (2000-08-18). Serb killings 'exaggerated' by west. The Guardian.
  41. ^ Agence France Presse -- English; August 03, 1999 11:05 GMT; Top UN official in Kosovo sparks storm over mass grave body count
  42. ^ Killings and Refugee Flow in Kosovo (2002-01-03).
  43. ^ Testimony of statistical expert Patrick Ball; Milutinovic Trial Transcript (2007-02-20).
  44. ^ Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo: An Accounting. U.S. Department of State.
  45. ^ Casualties in Kosovo. The Lancet (2000-06-24).
  46. ^ Victims of the Albanian terrorism in Kosovo-Metohija (Killed, kidnapped, and missing persons, January 1998 - November 2001). Government of Serbia.
  47. ^ Officially confirmed/documented NATO helicopter losses.
  48. ^ Two die in Apache crash. BBC (1999-05-05).
  49. ^ U.S. helicopter crew killed in crash in Albania. CNN (1999-05-05).
  50. ^ Benjamin S. Lambeth (2006-06-03). Kosovo and the Continuing SEAD Challenge. 'Aerospace Power Journal'. United States Air Force. Retrieved on October 30, 2006. “"On the fourth night of air operations, an apparent barrage of SA-3s downed an F-117 at approximately 2045 over hilly terrain near Budanovci, about 28 miles northwest of Belgrade- marking the first combat loss ever of a stealth aircraft."”
  51. ^ Riccioni, Everest E., Colonel, USAF, retired (2005-03-08). Description of our Failing Defense Acquisition System (PDF). Project on government oversight.
  52. ^ David Hackworth (1999-07-02). Spinners, sinners and no winners. WorldNetDaily.
  53. ^ "The Kosovo Cover-Up" by John Barry and Evan Thomas, Newsweek, May 15, 2000.
  54. ^ Kosovo/Serbia: Protect Minorities from Ethnic Violence. Human Rights Watch.
  55. ^ Victims of the Albanian terrorism in Kosovo-Metohija (Killed, kidnapped, and missing persons, January 1998 - November 2001). Government of Serbia.
  56. ^ Kosovo UN troops 'fuel sex trade'. BBC (2004-05-06).
  57. ^ Kosovo: Trafficked women and girls have human rights. Amnesty International.
  58. ^ Ian Traynor (2004-05-07). NATO force 'feeds Kosovo sex trade'. The Guardian.
  59. ^ Final Report to the Prosecutor by the Committee Established to Review the NATO Bombing Campaign Against the Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. United Nations.
  60. ^ Organ smuggling in Wall Street Journal
  61. ^ Le Figaro - Flash actu : trafic d'organes/Kosovo: ''aucune trace''
  62. ^ UN frustrated by Kosovo deadlock. BBC (2006-10-09).
  63. ^ Russia reportedly rejects fourth draft resolution on Kosovo status. Southeast European Times (2007-06-29).
  64. ^ UN Security Council remains divided on Kosovo. Southeast European Times (2007-10-07).
  65. ^ Antony Barnett (2000-01-23). Hundreds of crippled jets put RAF in crisis.
  66. ^ NATO attack on Yugoslavia gave Iraq good lessons. Globe and Mail.
  67. ^ a b Rebecca Grant (June 2000). Nine Myths About Kosovo.

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Violent unrest in Kosovo (a United Nations-administered province of Serbia) broke out on March 17, 2004. ... The Headquarters Allied Command Europe Rapid Reaction Corps, (HQ ARRC or ARRC) was created in 1992 in Bielefeld based on the former British I Corps (or I (BR) Corps ). It was originally created as the rapid reaction corps sized land force of the Reaction Forces Concept that emerged after the... The Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts was a draft document produced by a committee of the Serbian Academy from 1985 to 1986. ... The 2001 South Serbia conflict was a struggle between the Serbian goverment and an Albanian separatist organisation Liberation Army of Preševo, Medveđa and Bujanovac (UCPMB), created with the aim of annexating this area of southern Central Serbia to Kosovo. ... Serbs are the second largest ethnic group in Kosovo, a province of Serbia currently under UN administration. ... The Serbian-Albanian Conflict is a struggle between the Serbs and Albanians that lasted through the XX century and is ongoing. ... The United Nations Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration of the Serbian province (as part of Serbia and Montenegro) called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), under the authority of the United Nations. ... Geographic distance is a key factor in military affairs. ... Kosovo from 1455 to 1912 The territory of todays province was for centuries ruled by the Ottoman Empire. ... This is a list of lists of wars, sorted by country, date, region, and type of conflict. ... The Serb propaganda is the term used before, during and after the Bosnian war to describe efforts made by Serbian media to justify, revise or deny mass war crimes committed by Serb forces during the Bosnian war on Bosniaks. ...

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Kosovo & Yugoslavia: Law in Crisis (3227 words)
Kosovo, the UN Mission in Kosovo, peacekeeping, KFOR, war crimes, the ICTY, refugees, the KLA, NATO, Slobodan Milosevic, the Serbian opposition Radio B92 Belgrade, and Yugoslavia
Information on the war crimes tribunal for Yugoslavia, the major international agreements and declarations on the definition and prosecution of "war crimes" and "crimes against humanity", and general information on alleged war crimes in Kosovo...
Letters and messages sent to JURIST during the 1999 Kosovo war by refugee academics and lawyers formerly resident in Kosovo...
Kosovo War - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (10786 words)
Kosovo's borders did not precisely match the areas of ethnic Albanian settlement in Yugoslavia (significant numbers of Albanians were left in the Republic of Macedonia, Montenegro, and Serbia, while the far north of Kosovo remained largely ethnic Serbian).
Kosovo was the poorest part of Yugoslavia: in 1979 the average per capita income was $795, compared with the national average of $2,635 (and $5,315 in Slovenia).
Kosovo also demonstrated that even a high-tech force such as NATO could be thwarted by quite simple tactics, according to Wesley Clark and other NATO generals who analyzed these tactics a few years after the conflict.
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