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Encyclopedia > Kosovo
Косово и Метохија (Космет)
Kosovë / Kosova
Kosovo
Location of Kosovo, Serbia.
Location of Kosovo (dark orange) and Serbia (light orange)
on the European continent
Capital Priština (Prishtinë)
Official languages Albanian, Serbian, English
Ethnic groups (2007) 92% Albanians
  5.3% Serbs
  2.7% others [1]
Government Interim1
 -  Special Representative of the Secretary-General
Joachim Rücker
 -  Transitional President Fatmir Sejdiu
 -  Transitional Prime Minister Agim Çeku
Status within Serbia
 -  Autonomous Region
of Kos-Met

1945 
 -  Autonomous Province
of Kosovo and Metohija

1963 
 -  Socialist Autonomous
Province of Kosovo

1974 
 -  Autonomous Province
of Kosovo-Metohija

1990 
 -  United Nations Interim Administration Mission
1999 
Area
 -  Total 10,887 km² 
4,203 sq mi 
 -  Water (%) n/a
Population
 -  2005 estimate 2.2 million 
 -  Density 220/km² 
500/sq mi
Currency Euro (€)2 (EUR)
Time zone (UTC+1)
1 United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo
Provisional Institutions of Self-Government
2 The Serbian dinar is used in Serbian enclaves and North Kosovo.

Kosovo (Serbian: Косово и Метохија / Kosovo i Metohija, transliterated Kosovo i Metohija; also Космет / Kosmet, transliterated Kosmet, Albanian: Kosova or Kosovë) is a province of Serbia which has been under United Nations administration since 1999. While Serbia's sovereignty is recognised by the international community, in practice Serbian governance in the province is virtually non-existent (see also Constitutional status of Kosovo). The province is governed by the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) with the help of the local Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG), as well as security provided by the NATO-led Kosovo Force (KFOR). Map of placenames in the world starting with Kosov- Kosovo is a widely used place name in Slavic countries, stemming from the word kos, which means blackbird. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Image File history File links The_position_of_Kosovo_within_Serbia. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... UNMIK Head Quarters - PriÅ¡tina. ... An official language is a language that is given a special legal status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Joachim Rücker (born 30 May 1951, Germany) is an international civil servant from Germany. ... The President of Kosovo is elected by the Assembly of Kosovo. ... Fatmir Sejdiu President of Kosovo Fatmir Sejdiu (born October 23, 1951) is the president of Kosova. ... Prime Minister of Kosovo is the head of the Government of Kosovo. ... Agim Çeku (born 29 October 1960 in the village of ĆuÅ¡ka [1] near Peć, in Kosovo, Yugoslavia), is the current Prime Minister of Kosovo, a Serbian province under United Nations administration. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... For other uses, see 1963 (disambiguation). ... Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo within SFRY (number 5a) Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo, Albanian: Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës) was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the physical quantity. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 10,000 km² and 100,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ... Population density per square kilometre by country, 2006 Population density map of the world in 1994. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... ISO 4217 is the international standard describing three letter codes (also known as the currency code) to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... UTC redirects here. ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ... The Coat of Arms of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) are institutions runing Kosovo in cooperation with the United Nations Interim Administrative Mission in Kosovo UNMIK. Resolution 1244 of the United Nations Security Council authorized the Secretary-General to establish an international civil... ISO 4217 Code RSD User(s) Serbia (including parts of Kosovo) Inflation 6. ... Ethnic composition of Kosovo in 2005 according to the OSCE showing Serb-populated parts of Kosovo Kosovo Serb Enclaves are the areas of Kosovo where Serbs live. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Serbian (; ) is one of the standard versions of the Shtokavian dialect, used primarily in Serbia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Montenegro, Croatia, and by Serbs in the Serbian diaspora. ... Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ... This article is about the year. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... The constitutional status of Kosovo has been the subject of repeated political disputes since the region was incorporated into Serbia in 1912. ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ... The Coat of Arms of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) are institutions runing Kosovo in cooperation with the United Nations Interim Administrative Mission in Kosovo UNMIK. Resolution 1244 of the United Nations Security Council authorized the Secretary-General to establish an international civil... This article is about the military alliance. ... For other uses, see KFOR (disambiguation). ...


Kosovo borders Montenegro, Albania, and the Republic of Macedonia. It has a population of just over two million people, predominantly ethnic Albanians, with smaller populations of Serbs, Turks, Bosniaks, Romani people, and other ethnic groups. Priština is the capital and largest city. This article is about the country in Europe. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: BoÅ¡njaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Romani people (as a noun, singular Rom, plural Roma; sometimes Rrom, Rroma) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ... UNMIK Head Quarters - PriÅ¡tina. ...


The province is the subject of a long-running political and territorial dispute between the Serbian (and previously, the Yugoslav) government and Kosovo's largely ethnic-Albanian population. International negotiations began in 2006 to determine the final status of Kosovo (See Kosovo status process). Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kosovo is the subject of a long-running political and territorial dispute between the Serbian (and previously, the Yugoslav) government and Kosovos largely ethnic-Albanian population. ...

Contents

Geography

Main article: Geography of Kosovo
Physical map of Kosovo.
Physical map of Kosovo.
Political map of Kosovo.
Political map of Kosovo.

With an area of 10,887 square kilometers[1] (4,203 sq mi) and a population of nearly two million, Kosovo internationally borders Montenegro to the northwest, the Republic of Macedonia to the south, and Albania to the south west, while internally Central Serbia to the north and east. The Kosovo present borders were established in 1999. For other uses, see Kosovo (disambiguation). ... Download high resolution version (973x1181, 144 KB)Relief map of Kosovo (1992) Political map of Kosovo (1998) This comes from the University of Texas site, [1], and the copyright notice reads: # Are the maps copyrighted? Most of the maps scanned by the General Libraries and served from this web site... Download high resolution version (973x1181, 144 KB)Relief map of Kosovo (1992) Political map of Kosovo (1998) This comes from the University of Texas site, [1], and the copyright notice reads: # Are the maps copyrighted? Most of the maps scanned by the General Libraries and served from this web site... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 415 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1806 × 2610 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 415 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1806 × 2610 pixel, file size: 1. ... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A square mile is an English unit of area equal to that of a square with sides each 1 statute mile (≈1,609 m) in length. ... This article is about the country in Europe. ... For an explanation of terms related to Macedonia, see Macedonia (terminology). ... The term Serbia proper is often used in English to refer to the part of Serbia that lies outside the northern and southern autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. ... This article is about the year. ...


The largest cities are Priština, the capital, with an estimated 600,000 inhabitants, Prizren in the south west with a population of 165,000, Peja in the west with 154,000, and Mitrovica in the north. Five other towns have populations in excess of 97,000. UNMIK Head Quarters - PriÅ¡tina. ... View of Prizren. ... ... Mitrovica may refer to more than one place in Serbia and Montenegro: Kosovska Mitrovica Sremska Mitrovica This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The climate in Kosovo is continental, with warm summers and cold and snowy winters.


There are two main plains in Kosovo. The Metohija basin is located in the western part of the Kosovo, and the Plain of Kosovo occupies the eastern part.


Much of Kosovo's terrain is rugged. The Šar Mountains are located in the south and south-east, bordering Macedonia. This is one of the region's most popular tourist and skiing resorts, with Brezovica and Prevalac as the main tourist centres. Kosovo's mountainous area, including the highest peak Gjeravica, at 2656 m above sea level, is located in the south-west, bordering Albania and Montenegro. The Å ar mountain (Macedonian, Serbian and Bulgarian: Шар Планина, Å ar Planina ; Albanian: Malet e Sharrit, Mali i Sharrit, Sharr) is a mountain located on the southern border of Serbia (in Kosovo) and the northwest part of the Republic of Macedonia. ... 300px|center|Brezovica Area: 91,2 km² Population  - males  - females 9. ... Đeravica (also Djeravica, Gjerovica) is the highest mountain in Serbia with an altitude of 2,656 m. ...


The Kopaonik mountain is located in the north, bordering. The central region of Drenica, Carraleva and the eastern part of Kosovo, known as Golak, are mainly hilly areas. Tourist Center Kopaonik Is The Most Popular Ski Resort in Serbia Visit website: www. ... This article is about a region in Kosovo. ...


There are several notable rivers and lakes in Kosovo. The main rivers are the White Drin, running towards the Adriatic Sea, with the Erenik among its tributaries), the Sitnica, the Morava in the Golak area, and Ibar in the north. The main lakes are Gazivoda (380 million m³) in the north-western part, Radonic (113 million m³) in the south-west part, Batlava (40 million m³) and Badovac (26 million m³) in the north-east part. The Beli Drim (Albanian: Drini i Bardhë; Serbian Cyrillic: Бели Дрим) is a river in southern Serbia and northern Albania, a 175 km-long headstream of the Drin. ... A satellite image of the Adriatic Sea. ... The Erenik (Albanian: Erenik; Serbian Cyrillic: Ереник) is a river in southern Serbia, in the Metohijan part of the Kosovo and Metohija, a 51 km-long right tributary to the Beli Drim river. ... Look up tributary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Sitnica (Albanian: Sitnicë; Serbian Cyrillic: Ситница), is a 90 km long river in Kosovo and Metohija province of Serbia (Serbia and Montenegro). ... Morava may refer to: Moravia, eastern part of the territory of the Czech Republic; Morava River (Central Europe), a river in the Czech Republic, Austria and Slovakia; Great Moravia, early-medieval Empire in Central Europe; Great Morava (Velika Morava), a river in central Serbia; South Morava (Južna Morava), a... Saint Ibar was an early Irish bishop. ...


History

Main article: History of Kosovo
See also: Demographic history of Kosovo

The region of Kosovo has been inhabited by Illyrian tribes since the Bronze Age. In ancient times, the area was known as Dardania and was settled by a tribe with the same name. The south of Kosovo was ruled by Macedonia since Alexander the Great's reign in the 4th century BC. The local Dardani were of Illyrian stock. Illyrians resisted rule by the Greeks and Romans for centuries but after the long periods of conflict between Illyrian tribes and invading imperial powers, the region was eventually occupied by the Roman Empire under Emperor Augustus in 28 BC and became part of the Roman province of Moesia. After AD 85 it was part of Moesia Superior. Emperor Diocletian later c. 284 made Dardania into separate province with its capital at Naissus (Niš). Illyrians were among the first people to accept Christianity as they were evangelized by St. Paul himself. Illyria is twice mentioned in the Bible. When the Roman Empire split in A.D. 395, the area of Kosovo came under the Eastern Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire. Many inhabitants of Dardania became leaders in Rome and Constantinopolis, including Justinian the Great.[citation needed] Kosovo was formed in 1945. ... // Ottoman Rule 14th century The Dečani Charter from 1330[citation needed] contained detailed list of households and chartered villages in Metohija and northwestern Albania: 3 of 89 settlements were Albanian, the other being non-Albanian. ... Illyria (disambiguation) Illyrians has come to refer to a broad, ill-defined Indo-European[1] group of peoples who inhabited the western Balkans (Illyria, roughly from northern Epirus to southern Pannonia) and even perhaps parts of Southern Italy in classical times into the Common era, and spoke Illyrian languages. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... Ancient Dardania Dardania (Albanian: Dardania;) was an ancient country encompassing southern parts of present-day Kosova (including the area of the modern-day province of Kosovo, since 1999 under UN administration), mostly, but not entirely, western parts of the present-day Republic of Macedonia, and parts of present-day north... For the film of the same name, see Alexander the Great (1956 film). ... Albani (Albanoi), tribe in ancient Illyria, from Alexander G. Findlays Classical Atlas to Illustrate Ancient Geography, New York, 1849 The Dardani were an ancient Indo-European tribe that lived in Dardania (largely corresponding to present day Kosovo, as well as other parts of present day southern Serbia) and was... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Events Roman Empire Dacians under Decebalus engaged in two wars against the Romans from this year to AD 88 or 89. ... Moesia (Greek: , Moisia; Bulgarian: Мизия, Miziya; Serbian: Мезија, Mezija) is an ancient province situated in the areas of modern Serbia and Bulgaria. ... Gaius Aurelius Valerius Diocletianus (c. ... For other uses, see number 284. ... Nis redirects here. ... AD redirects here. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Dardania in Greek mythology is the name of a city founded on Mount Ida by Dardanus from which also the region and the people took their name. ... Map of Constantinople. ... Justinian I, depicted on a contemporary coin Flavius Petrus Sabbatius Iustinianus or Justinian I (May 11, 483–November 13/14, 565), was Eastern Roman Emperor from AD August 1, 527 until his death. ...


Kosovo in the Middle-Ages

See also: History of Medieval Kosovo
Map: "Kosovo: History of a Balkan Hot Spot", 1998
Map: "Kosovo: History of a Balkan Hot Spot", 1998

// Slavic peoples According to most historians, Slavs entered the Balkans around the late 6th or early 7th century AD, possibly migrating from the northern Caucasus where Ptolemy placed the Serboi in the 2nd century AD. The initial spread of the Slavic population of the Balkans was much larger than today... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 572 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (655 × 686 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The above picture is false: The Ottomans conquered Kosovo in 1389. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 572 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (655 × 686 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The above picture is false: The Ottomans conquered Kosovo in 1389. ...

Great migrations and interregnums

Slavs came to the territories that form modern Kosovo in the seventh-century migrations of White Serbs, with the largest influx of migrants in the 630s; although the region was increasingly populated by Slavs since the sixth or even fifth century. These Slavs were Christianized in several waves between the seventh and ninth century, with the last wave taking place between 867 and 874. The northwestern part of Kosovo, Hvosno, became a part of the Byzantine Serb vassal state the Principality of Rascia, with Dostinik as the principality's capital. The Slavic peoples are the most numerous ethnic and linguistic body of peoples in Europe. ... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... White Serbs were a Slavic tribe, which lived in the region around river Elbe (today in eastern Germany and western Poland) in the early medieval ages. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... The 7th century is the period from 601 - 700 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... As a means of recording the passage of time the 9th century was the century that lasted from 801 to 900. ... September — Basil I becomes sole ruler of the Byzantine Empire. ... Events March 13 - The bones of Saint Nicephorus are interred in the Church of the Apostles, Constantinople. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... RaÅ¡ka (Raschka, Rascia, Rassa) was the central and most successful medieval Serbian state (or župa, area ruled by a župan) that unified neighboring Serbian tribes into the main medieval Serbian state in Balkans. ...


In the late 800s, the whole of Kosovo was seized by the First Bulgarian Empire. Although Serbia restored control over Metohija throughout the tenth century, the rest of Kosovo was returned to the Byzantine Empire in a period of Bulgarian decline. However, Tsar Samuil of Bulgaria reconquered the whole of Kosovo in the late tenth century until the Byzantines restored their control over the area as they subjugated the Bulgarian Empire. In 1040-1041, Bulgarians, led by the Samuil of Bulgaria's grandson Petar Delyan staged a rebellion against the Eastern Roman Empire that temporarily encompassed Kosovo. After the rebellion was crushed, the Byzantine control over the region continued. Imperial Emblem Bulgarian Empire at its greatest extent c. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Metohija (Serbian: Метохија) also spelled Metohia, is a large western basin in Kosovo. ... As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... Samuil redirects here. ...


In 1072, local Bulgarians, under George Voiteh, pushed a final attempt to restore Imperial Bulgarian power and invited the last heir of the House of Comitopuli - Duklja's prince Konstantin Bodin of the House of Vojislavljevic, son of the Serbian King Mihailo Voislav - to assume power. The Serbs decided to conquer the entire Byzantine region of Bulgaria. King Mihailo dispatched his son with three hundred elite Serb fighters led by Duke Petrilo. Constantine Bodin was crowned in Prizren as Petar III, Tsar of the Bulgarians by George Voiteh and the Slavic Boyars. The Empire swept across Byzantine territories in months, until the significant losses on the south had forced Czar Petar to withdraw. In 1073, the Byzantine forces chased Constantine Bodin, defeated his army at Pauni, and imprisoned him. The Comitopuli dynasty (Bulgarian: Династията на комитопулите) was the last royal dynasty in the First Bulgarian Empire, ruling from ca. ... Duklja according to De administrando imperio. ... Constantin Bodin (Konstantin Bodin), king of Duklja 1081–1101, and Peter III (Petăr III) as emperor (tsar) of Bulgaria for a short time in 1072. ... House of Vojislavljevic (ca 1050- ca 1160) Serb ruling Dynasty of Zeta/Duklja. ... This is the list of Serbian monarchs. ... Mihailo of the House of Voislav was the ruler of Duklja as Grand Prince (1050-1077) and King (1077-1082). ... View of Prizren. ... This is a list of Bulgarian monarchs from the earliest records in the Nominalia of the Bulgarian khans to 1946, when the monarchy in the country was abolished. ... Pauni is a city and a municipal council in Bhandara district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. ...


In the second half of the 14th century the Serbian Empire fell into feudal anarchy on the death of Tsar Stefan Dušan and local fiefdoms rose to power and prominence in their respective lands, with Kosovo becoming a Lordship under the Branković dynasty. The Ottoman Emirate took the opportunity to exploit Serbian weakness and invaded, with the Battle of Kossovo occurring in 1389. In 1455, the Ottoman Empire conquered Kosovo from Serbia. Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... DuÅ¡an Silni Tsar Stefan UroÅ¡ IV DuÅ¡an Silni (the mighty) (Serbian: Цар Стефан Душан Силни) (circa 1308 – December 20, 1355) was a Serb king (September 8, 1331 – 1346) and tsar (1346 – December 5, 1355). ... House of Branković or Brankovići was a dynasty ruling over Serbs from 1427 to 1459. ... Battle on Kosovo, by Adam Stefanović, oil, 1870 The Battle of Kosovo Polje was fought on St. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... ... no changes . ...


Incorporation into Serbia

The full Serbian takeover was carried out under a branch of the House of Voislav Grand Princes of Rascia. In 1093, Prince Vukan advanced on Lipljan, burned it down and raided the neighbouring areas. The Byzantine Emperor himself came to Zvečan for negotiations. Zvečan served as the Byzantine line-of-defence against constant invasions from the neighboring Serbs. A peace agreement was made, but Vukan broke it and defeated the army of John Comnenus, the Emperor's nephew. Vukan's armies stormed Kosovo. In 1094, Byzantine Emperor Alexius attempted to renew peace negotiations in Ulpiana. A new peace agreement was concluded and Vukan handed over hostages to the Emperor, including his two nephews Uroš and Stefan Vukan. Prince Vukan renewed the conflict in 1106, once again defeating John Comnenus's army. However, his death halted the total Serb conquest of Kosovo. The House of Vojislav was a medieval dynasty that inherited the claims over Duklja of the old ruling House of Saint Vladimir and the Serbian House of Vlastimir dynasty. ... The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikÅ¡tis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ... Raška (Raschka, Rascia, Rassa) was the central and most successful medieval Serbian state (or župa, area ruled by a župan) that unified neighboring Serbian tribes into the main medieval Serbian state in Balkans. ... // Events Donald III of Scotland comes to the throne of Scotland. ... Lipljan (Albanian: Lipjan, Serbian: Lipljan or Липљан) is a city in central Kosovo, a Serbian province under UN administration. ... Zvečan/Звечан (Serbian) or Zveçan/Zveçani (Albanian) is a town and municipality in Kosovo (under UN administration, formally part of Serbia). ... // May - El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. ... Byzantine emperor Alexius I Comnenus Alexius I (1048–August 15, 1118), Byzantine emperor (1081–1118), was the third son of John Comnenus, the nephew of Isaac I Comnenus (emperor 1057–1059). ... Events September 28 - Henry I of England defeats his older brother Robert Curthose, duke of Normandy, at the Battle of Tinchebrai, and imprisons him in Cardiff Castle; Edgar Atheling and William Clito are also taken prisoner. ...


In 1166, a Serbian nobleman from Zeta, Stefan Nemanja, the founder of the House of Nemanja ascended to the Rascian Grand Princely throne and conquered most of Kosovo, in an uprising against the Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus. He defeated the previous Grand Prince of Rascia Tihomir's army at Pantino, near Pauni. Tihomir, who was Stefan's brother, was drowned in the Sitnica river. Stefan was eventually defeated and had to return some of his conquests. He pledged to the Emperor that he would not renew hostilies, but in 1183, Stefan Nemanja embarked on a new offensive with the Hungarians after the death of Manuel I Comnenus in 1180, marking the end of Byzantine domination of Kosovo. // Events Marko III succeeds Yoannis V as patriarch of Alexandria. ... Zeta was one of the first Montenegrin states in the Middle Ages. ... Stefan Nemanja (Old Church Slavonic: Стѣфань, Serbian: Стефан Немања, pronounced ) (1109-13 February 1199) was a Medieval Serb nobleman, descended from the Vukanović who was Grand Prince (Serbian: Велики Жупан) of the medieval Serb state of Rascia (Рашка) in 1166-1199. ... Nemanjić dynasty insignia Nemanjić (Serbian Немањић; in English formerly Nemanjid) was a medieval Serbian ruling dynasty. ... Manuel I Comnenus (Greek: Μανουήλ Α ο Κομνηνός; November 28, 1118 – September 24, 1180), was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. ... The Sitnica (Albanian: Sitnicë; Serbian Cyrillic: Ситница), is a 90 km long river in Kosovo and Metohija province of Serbia (Serbia and Montenegro). ... Events Three-year old Emperor Go-Toba ascends to the throne of Japan after the forced abdication of his brother Antoku during the Genpei War William of Tyre excommunicated by the newly appointed Heraclius of Jerusalem, firmly ending their struggle for power Andronicus I Comnenus becomes the Byzantine emperor Births... Manuel I Comnenus (Greek: Μανουήλ Α ο Κομνηνός; November 28, 1118 – September 24, 1180), was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. ... Events April 13 - Frederick Barbarossa issues the Gelnhausen Charter November 18 - France Emperor Antoku succeds Emperor Takakura as emperor of Japan Afonso I of Portugal is taken prisoner by Ferdinand II of Leon Artois is annexed by France Prince Mochihito amasses a large army and instigates the Genpei War between...


Nemanja's son, Stefan II, recorded that the border of the Serbian realm reached the river of Lab. Grand Prince Stephen II completed the inclusion of the Kosovo territories under Serb rule in 1208, by which time he had conquered Prizren and Lipljan, and moved the border of territory under his control to the Šar mountain. Stefan Prvovenčani (lit. ...


Kingdom of the Serbs

In 1217, the Serbian Kingdom achieved recognition. In 1219, an autocephalous Serbian Orthodox Church was created, with Hvosno, Prizren and Lipljan being the Orthodox Christian Episcopates on Kosovo. By the end of the 13th century, the centre of the Serbian Church was moved to Peć from Žiča. April 9 - Peter of Courtenay crowned emperor of the Latin Empire of Constantinople at Rome, by Pope Honorius III May 20 - First Barons War, royalist victory at Lincoln. ... One of the first Serbian states, RaÅ¡ka, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Archont, the founder of the House of Vlastimirović; it evolved into the Serbian Empire under the House of Nemanjić. In the modern era Serbia has been... // Events Saint Francis of Assisi introduces Catholicism into Egypt, during the Fifth Crusade The Flag of Denmark fell from the sky during the Battle of Lyndanisse Ongoing events Fifth Crusade (1217-1221) Births Christopher I of Denmark (died 1259) Frederick II of Austria (died 1246) Guillaume de Gisors, supposedly the... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... It has been suggested that episcopal be merged into this article or section. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... Peć (Albanian: Pejë / Peja; Serbian: Пећ / Peć) is a city located in the western part of Kosovo (under UN-administration, formally part of Serbia). ... Žiča (Serbian: Жича) is a Serb Orthodox monastery near Kraljevo, Serbia. ...


In the thirteenth century, Kosovo became the heart of the Serbian political and religious life, with the Šar mountain becoming the political center of the Serbian rulers. The main chatteu was in Pauni. On an island was Svrčin, and on the coast Štimlji, and in the mountains was the Castle of Nerodimlje. The Complexes were used for counciling, crowning of rulers, negotiating, and as the rulers' living quarters. After 1291, the Tartars broke all the way to Peć. Serbian King Stefan Milutin managed to defeat them and then chase them further. He raised the Temple of the Mother of Christ of Ljeviška in Prizren around 1307, which became the seat of the Prizren Bishopric, and the magnificent Gračanica monastery in 1335, the seat of the Lipljan Bishopric. In 1331, the juvenile King Dušan attacked his father, Serbian King Stefan of Dechani at his castle in Nerodimlje. King Stefan closed in his neighbouring fortress of Petrič, but Dušan captured him and closed him with his second wife Maria Palaiologos and their children in Zvečan, where the dethroned King died on 11 November 1331. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Shtime, Kosovo 2006 Shtime (Albanian) or Å timlje/Штимље (Serbian) is a town located in central Kosovo and the seat of the Shtime municipality. ... This is the list of Serbian monarchs. ... Stephen Uros II Milutin of Serbia was king of Serbia from 1282 to 1321. ... Theotokos of Kazan Theotokos (Greek Θεοτόκος) is a title of Mary, the mother of Jesus. ... Gračanica (Serbian: Грачаница) is a Serbian Orthodox monastery located near the village of Gračanica in municipality of Lipljan in Kosovo. ... Petrich (Петрич) is a town in Blagoevgrad Province in southwestern Bulgaria, located at the foot of the Belasitsa. ... is the 315th day of the year (316th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events September 8 - Stefan Dusan declares himself king of Serbia Start of the reign of Emperor Kogon of Japan, first of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Births Coluccio Salutati, Florentine political leader (died 1406) Deaths January 14 - Odoric, Italian explorer October 27 - Abulfeda, Arab historian and geographer (born 1273) Categories: 1331...


In 1327 and 1328, Serbian King Stefan of Dechani started forming the vast Dečani domain, although, Serbian King Dušan would finish it in 1335. Stefan of Dechani issued the Dechani Charter in 1330, listing every single citizen in every household under the Church Land's demesne.


Serbian Empire and Despotate

King Stefan Dušan founded the vast Monastery of Saint Archangel near Prizren in 13421352. The Kingdom was transformed into an Empire in 1345 and officially in 1346. Stefan Dušan received John VI Cantacuzenus in 1342 in his Castle in Pauni to discuss a joint War against the Byzantine Emperor. In 1346, the Serbian Archepiscopric at Peć was upgraded into a Patriarchate, but it was not recognized before 1370. For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... DuÅ¡an Silni Tsar Stefan UroÅ¡ IV DuÅ¡an Silni (the mighty) (Serbian: Цар Стефан Душан Силни) (circa 1308 – December 20, 1355) was a Serb king (September 8, 1331 – 1346) and tsar (1346 – December 5, 1355). ... Events May - Pope Clement VI elected John III Comnenus becomes emperor of Trebizond Louis becomes king of Sicily and duke of Athens Constantine IV becomes king of Armenia Patriarch of Antioch transferred to Damascus under Ignatius II Kitzbühel becomes part of Tyrol Louis I becomes king of Hungary Births... Events June 4 - Glarus joins the Swiss Confederation. ... The Serbian Empire (Serbian: Српско Царство, Srpsko Carstvo) was a medieval empire in the Balkans that emerged from the medieval Serbian kingdom in the 14th century. ... John VI Cantacuzenus (c. ... Events May - Pope Clement VI elected John III Comnenus becomes emperor of Trebizond Louis becomes king of Sicily and duke of Athens Constantine IV becomes king of Armenia Patriarch of Antioch transferred to Damascus under Ignatius II Kitzbühel becomes part of Tyrol Louis I becomes king of Hungary Births... Pauni is a city and a municipal council in Bhandara district in the Indian state of Maharashtra. ... // Events Serbian Empire was proclaimed in Skopje by Dusan Silni, occupying much of the South-Eastern Europe Foundation of the University of Valladolid Foundation of Pembroke College, University of Cambridge August 26 Battle of Crecy after which Edward the Black Prince honored the bravery of John I, Count of Luxemburg... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop heading a diocese of particular importance due to either its size, history, or both, called an archdiocese. ... A patriarchate is the office or jurisdiction of a patriarch. ... Events Beginning of the rule of Poland by Capet-Anjou family. ...


After the Empire fell into disarray prior to Dušan's death in 1355, feudal anarchy caught up with the country during the reign of Tsar Stefan Uroš V. Kosovo became a domain of the House of Mrnjavčević, but Prince Voislav Voinović expanded his demesne further into Kosovo. The armies of King Vukašin Mrnjavčević from Pristina and his allies defeated Voislav's forces in 1369, putting a halt to his advances. After the Battle of Marica on 26 September 1371, in which the Mrnjavčević brothers lost their lives, Đurađ I Balšić of Zeta took Prizren and Peć in 1372. A part of Kosovo became the demesne of the House of Lazarević. Events January 7 - Portuguese king Afonso IV sends three men to kill Ines de Castro, beloved of his son prince Pedro - Pedro revolts and incites a civil war. ... Stefan UroÅ¡ V nejaki (The Weak) (Стефан Урош V нејаки) (1336-1371) was Serb king (1346-1355) as co-ruler of his father DuÅ¡an and tzar (1355-1371). ... Vukashin (Влъкашинъ; Serbian Вукашин Мрњавчевић, VukaÅ¡in Mrnjavčević; Bulgarian Вълкашин, Valkashin) (around 1320—1371) was a Serbian medieval ruler in modern-day central and northwestern Macedonia, who ruled from 1365 to 1371. ... Vukashin (Влъкашинъ; Serbian Вукашин Мрњавчевић, VukaÅ¡in Mrnjavčević; Bulgarian Вълкашин, Valkashin) (around 1320—1371) was a Serbian medieval ruler in modern-day central and northwestern Macedonia, who ruled from 1365 to 1371. ... Prishtinë/Prishtina (Albanian indefinite/definite form) or Priština (Приштина) (Serbian) is the capital city of Kosovo, a landlocked province of Serbia located at 42°65′ N 21°17′ E. It is estimated that the current population of Prishtina is... Events King Charles V of France renounces the treaty of Brétigny and war is declared between France and England. ... The Battle of Maritsa was a battle that took place at the Maritsa River on September 26, 1371 between the forces of the Ottoman sultan Murad Is lieutenant LalaÅŸahin and a coalition of Serbian, Bulgarian and Macedonian forces numbering 70,000 men under the command of the Serbian... is the 269th day of the year (270th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Kogon of Japan, fourth of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Start of the reign of Emperor Go-Enyu of Japan, fifth and last of the Northern Ashikaga Pretenders Charterhouse Carthusian Monastery founded in Aldersgate, London. ... The House of BalÅ¡ić was a Serbian medieval dynasty that ruled Zeta. ... Zeta was one of the first Montenegrin states in the Middle Ages. ... In this year, the city of Aachen, Germany begins adding a Roman numeral Anno Domini date to a few of its coins. ... Prince Lazar, Photo courtesy of freesrpska. ...


The Ottomans invaded and met the Serbian Army under Prince Lazar on 28 June 1389, near Pristina, at Gazi Mestan. The Serbian Army was assisted by various allies. The epic Battle of Kosovo followed, in which Prince Lazar himself lost his life. Prince Lazar amassed 70,000 men on the battlefield and the Ottomans had 140,000. Through the cunning of Miloš Obilić, Sultan Murad was murdered and the new Sultan Beyazid had, despite winning the battle, to retreat to consolidate his power. The Ottoman Sultan was buried with one of his sons at Gazi Mestan. Both Prince Lazar and Miloš Obilić were canonized by the Serbian Orthodox Church for their efforts in the battle. The local House of Branković came to prominence as the local lords of Kosovo, under Vuk Branković, with the temporary fall of the Serbian Despotate in 1439. Another great battle occurred between the Hungarian troops supported by the Albanian ruler Gjergj Kastrioti Skanderbeg on one side, and Ottoman troops supported by the Brankovićs in 1448. Skanderbeg's troops that were going to help John Hunyadi were stopped by the Branković's troops, who was more or less a Turkish Vassal. Hungarian King John Hunyadi lost the battle after a two-day fight, but essentially stopped the Ottoman advance northwards. Kosovo then became vassalaged to the Ottoman Empire, until its direct incorporation after the final fall of Serbia in 1459. Ottoman redirects here. ... Prince Lazar, Photo courtesy of freesrpska. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events February 24 - Margaret I defeats Albert in battle, thus becoming ruler of Denmark, Norway and Sweden June 28 - Battle of Kosovo between Serbs and Ottomans. ... Prishtinë/Prishtina (Albanian indefinite/definite form) or Priština (Приштина) (Serbian) is the capital city of Kosovo, a landlocked province of Serbia located at 42°65′ N 21°17′ E. It is estimated that the current population of Prishtina is... Combatants Ottoman Empire Serbia Commanders Murad I †, Bayezid I, Yakub † Lazar Hrebeljanović †, Vuk Branković, Vlatko Vuković Strength ~ 27,000-40,000[4][5][6] ~ 12,000-30,000[4][5][6][7] Casualties Extremely high; Sultan Murad I killed Extremely high; most of Serbian nobility including Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic killed... MiloÅ¡ Obilić According to Serbian and South Slavic oral tradition, and historical and legendary sources, MiloÅ¡ Obilić (Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Обилић) - also known by the names: MiloÅ¡ Kobilić; Kobila, Kobilović; Koviljić; Obilović or Dragilović - was the name of the Serbian hero who, at the Battle of Kosovo, between Serbia and the Ottoman... For other uses, see Sultan (disambiguation). ... Sultan Murad I (มู้หลัดที่หนึ่ง) Murad I (nick-named Hüdavendigâr, the God-liked one) (1319 (or 1326) – 1389) was the ruler of the Ottoman Empire from 1359 to 1389. ... Beyazid, also spelt Bayezid, Bajazet, Beyazit, or Bayazit, was the name of two sultans of the Ottoman Empire in Turkey. ... Prince Lazar, Photo courtesy of freesrpska. ... MiloÅ¡ Obilić According to Serbian and South Slavic oral tradition, and historical and legendary sources, MiloÅ¡ Obilić (Serbian Cyrillic: Милош Обилић) - also known by the names: MiloÅ¡ Kobilić; Kobila, Kobilović; Koviljić; Obilović or Dragilović - was the name of the Serbian hero who, at the Battle of Kosovo, between Serbia and the Ottoman... Flag of the Serbian Orthodox Church Unknown flag, seen offten in public. ... Vuk Branković (in Serbian Cyrillic Вук Бранковић) (dead 6. ... Vuk Branković (in Serbian Cyrillic Вук Бранковић) (dead 6. ... One of the first Serbian states, RaÅ¡ka, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Archont, the founder of the House of Vlastimirović; it evolved into the Serbian Empire under the House of Nemanjić. In the modern era Serbia has been... Events Battle of Grotnik, which ended the hussite movement in Poland Eric of Pomerania, King of Sweden, Denmark and Norway is declared deposed in Sweden. ... Skanderbeg and the people, sculpture by Janaq Paço and Genc Hajdari in the National Museum, Krujë, Albania. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Events January 5/ 6 - Christopher of Bavaria, King of Denmark, Norway and Sweden dies with no designated heir leaving all three kingdoms with vacant thrones. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... John Hunyadi, as imagined by a 17th century artist John Hunyadi (Medieval Latin: Ioannes Corvinus, German: Johann Hunyadi; Hungarian: Hunyadi János, Romanian: Iancu or Ioan de Hunedoara) (c. ...


In 1455, new castles rose to prominence in Priština and Vučitrn, centres of the Ottoman vassalaged House of Branković. Vučitrn (Вучитрн; Albanian: Vushtrri), is the name of a town, which is the seat of a municipality, situated in north-eastern part of the province of Serbia called Kosovo. ...


Ottoman Empire

See also: Vilayet of Kosovo
See also: History of Ottoman Serbia

The Ottomans brought Islamisation with them, particularly in towns, and later also created the Vilayet of Kosovo as one of the Ottoman territorial entities. Kosovo was taken by the Austrian forces during the Great War of 16831699 with help of 5,000 Albanians and their leader, a Catholic Archbishop Pjetër Bogdani. The archbishop died of plague during the war. In 1690, the Serbian Patriarch of Peć Arsenije III, who previously escaped a certain death, led 37,000 families from Kosovo, to evade Ottoman wrath since Kosovo had just been retaken by the Ottomans. The people that followed him were mostly Serbs and Albanians abandoned—but they were likely followed by other ethnic groups. Due to the oppression from the Ottomans, other migrations of Orthodox people from the Kosovo area continued throughout the 18th century. It is also noted that some Serbs adopted Islam, while some even gradually fused with other groups, predominantly Albanians, adopting their culture and even language. Vilayet of Kosovo, 1875-1878 Vilayet of Kosovo, 1881-1912 The Vilayet of Kossovo was how the present region of Kosovo was known to English speakers before becoming a part of the independent Serbia just a few years before the beginning of World War I. The word Vilayet in Turkish... Categories: Possible copyright violations ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Islamicization is a neologism coined to describe the process of a societys conversion to the religion of Islam, or the increase in observance by an already Muslim society. ... Vilayet of Kosovo, 1875-1878 Vilayet of Kosovo, 1881-1912 The Vilayet of Kossovo was how the present region of Kosovo was known to English speakers before becoming a part of the independent Serbia just a few years before the beginning of World War I. The word Vilayet in Turkish... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... Events January 26 - Treaty of Karlowitz signed March 30 - the tenth Sikh Master, Guru Gobind Singh created the Khalsa. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... Pjetër Bogdani (ca. ... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... This is a list of Patriarchs of Serbia, the person known officially as Patriarch of all Serbia, Archbishop of Pec, Metropolitan of Belgrade and Karlovci. ... Arsenije III Arsenije III ÄŒarnojević (Serbian Cyrillic: Арсеније III Чарнојевић, 1633, Bajice, Cetinje, Montenegro - 1706, Vienna, Habsburg Monarchy) was the Archbishop of Peć and Patriarch of Serbs from 1674 to 1691 and Metropolitan of Sentandreja from 1691 to his death in 1706. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ...


In 1766, the Ottomans abolished the Patriarchate of Peć and the position of Christians in Kosovo was greatly reduced. All previous privileges were lost, and the Christian population had to suffer the full weight of the Empire's extensive and losing wars, even having blame forced upon them for the losses. The main reason for the conversion of Orthodox Albanians into Muslim Albanians was for the greater benefit of less taxes. Remnants of Orthodox Albanians, in Kosovo, went to live in mountains or in parts of Montenegro. The Patriarchate of Peć is a Serbian Orthodox monastery located near Peć, Kosovo, a Serbian province under UN administration. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ...


Modern era

See also: History of Modern Kosovo
Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War
Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War

In 1871, a massive Serbian meeting was held in Prizren at which the possible retaking and reintegration of Kosovo and the rest of "Old Serbia" was discussed, as the Principality of Serbia itself had already made plans for expansions towards Ottoman territory. // 20th century Following the First Balkan War of 1912, Kosovo was internationally recognised as a part of Serbia and Metohia as a part of Montenegro at the Treaty of London in May 1913. ... Download high resolution version (1044x1471, 281 KB)Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War. ... Download high resolution version (1044x1471, 281 KB)Boundaries on the Balkans after the First and the Second Balkan War. ... Combatants Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Romania Ottoman Empire Commanders Mihail Savov, Nikola Ivanov, Vasil Kutinchev, Radko Dimitriev King Constantine, Radomir Putnik, Crown Prince Ferdinand, Alexandru Averescu Strength 500,000 men Serbia 220,000 men, Romania 300,000 men, Greece 150,000 men, Montenegro 12,000 men The Second Balkan War... One of the first Serbian states, Raška, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Archont, the founder of the House of Vlastimirović; it evolved into the Serbian Empire under the House of Nemanjić. In the modern era Serbia has been...


Albanian refugees from the territories conquered in the 18761877 Serbo-Turkish war and the 18771878 Russo-Turkish war are now known as 'muhaxher' (which means 'refugee', from Arabic muhajir). Their descendants still have the same surname, Muhaxheri. It is estimated that 200,000 to 400,000 Serbs were cleansed out of the Vilayet of Kosovo between 1876 and 1912, especially during the Greek-Ottoman War in 1897. Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1877 (MDCCCLXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Muhajir (or mohajir), in Albanian-populated regions including Albania and Kosovo, refers to Albanians from Chameria (Greece) and parts of Vilayet of Kosova (Sanjak of Nis, Sanjak of Yenibazar etc. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... Muhajir or Mohajir (Arabic: مهاجر) is an Arabic word meaning refugee or immigrant or emigrant. ... Vilayet of Kosovo, 1875-1878 Vilayet of Kosovo, 1881-1912 The Vilayet of Kossovo was how the present region of Kosovo was known to English speakers before becoming a part of the independent Serbia just a few years before the beginning of World War I. The word Vilayet in Turkish... Year 1876 Pick up Sticks(MDCCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Greco-Turkish War of 1897, also called the Thirty Days War, was a war between Greece and the Ottoman Empire, under its ruler Sultan Hamid. ... 1897 (MDCCCXCVII) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


In 1878, a Peace Accord was drawn that left the cities of Priština and Kosovska Mitrovica under civil Serbian control, and outside the juristiction of the Ottoman authorities, while the rest of Kosovo would be under Ottoman control. As a response, the Albanians formed the nationalistic and conservative League of Prizren in Prizren later the same year. Over three hundred Albanian leaders from Kosovo and western Macedonia gathered and discussed the urgent issues concerning protection of Albanian populated regions from division among neighbouring countries. The League was supported by the Ottoman Sultan because of its Pan-Islamic ideology and political aspirations of a unified Albanian people under the Ottoman umbrella. The movement gradually became anti-Christian and spread great anxiety among Christian Albanians and especially among Christian Serbs. As a result, more and more Serbs left Kosovo northwards. Serbia complained to the World Powers that the promised territories were not being held because the Ottomans were hesitating to do that. The World Powers put pressure on the Ottomans and in 1881, the Ottoman Army began fighting the Albanian forces. The Prizren League created a Provisional Government with a President, Prime Minister (Ymer Prizreni) and Ministries of War (Sylejman Vokshi) and Foreign Ministry (Abdyl Frashëri). After three years of war, the Albanians were defeated. Many of the leaders were executed and imprisoned. The subsequent Treaty of San Stefano in 1878 restored most Albanian lands to Ottoman control, but the Serbian forces had to retreat from Kosovo along with some Serbs that were expelled as well. By the end of the 19th century the Albanians replaced the Serbs as the dominant people in Kosovo. Mitrovica or Mitrovicë (Albanian) or Kosovska Mitrovica/Косовска Митровица (Serbian) is a city located in the north of Kosovo at 42. ... The League of Prizren (Albanian: Lidhja e Prizrenit) was created on June 10, 1878 in a mosque in Prizren, Kosovo by 300 Albanian nationalist leaders, mostly from Kosovo, Western former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia, and Muslim leaders from Bosnia-Hercegovina and the Sandzak, in order to achieve an autonomous Albanian... View of Prizren. ... The term Greater Albania or Great Albania refers to land which is outside the borders of Albania and Albanian nationalists claim as their own. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


In 1908, the Sultan brought a new democratic decrete that was valid only for Turkish-speakers. As the vast majority of Kosovo spoke Albanian or Serbian, the Kosovar population was very unhappy. The Young Turk movement supported a centralist rule and opposed any sort of autonomy desired by Kosovars, and particularely the Albanians. In 1910, an Albanian uprising spread from Priština and lasted until the Ottoman Sultan's visit to Kosovo in June of 1911. The Aim of the League of Prizren was to unite the four Albanian Vilayets by merging the majority of Albanian inhabitants within the Ottoman Empire into one Albanian State. However, at that time Serbs have consisted about 25% of the whole Vilayet of Kosovo's overall population and were opposing the Albanian rule along with Turks and other Slavs in Kosovo, which disabled the Albanian movements to occupy Kosovo.

See also: Serbia in WWI

In 1912, during the Balkan Wars, most of Kosovo was taken by the Kingdom of Serbia, while the region of Metohija (Albanian: Dukagjini Valley) was taken by the Kingdom of Montenegro. An exodus of the local Albanian population occurred. This is best described by Leon Trotsky, who was a reporter for the Pravda newspaper at the time. The Serbian authorities planned a recolonization of Kosovo.[2] Numerous colonist Serb families moved-in to Kosovo, equalizing the demographic balance between Albanians and Serbs. Many Albanians fled into the mountains and numerous Albanian and Turkish houses were razed. The reconquest of Kosovo was noted as a vengeance for the 1389 Battle of Kossovo. At the Conference of Ambassadors in London in 1912 presided over by Sir Edward Grey, the British Foreign Secretary, the Kingdoms of Serbia and Montenegro were acknowledged sovereignty over Kosovo. KaraÄ‘orÄ‘e Petrović, leader of Serbian uprising in 1804 Serbia gained its autonomy from the Ottoman Empire in two revolutions in 1804 and 1815, though Turkish troops continued to garrison the capital, Belgrade until 1867. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Combatants  Ottoman Empire Balkan League: Bulgaria Greece Serbia Montenegro Commanders Ottoman Empire: Nizam PaÅŸa, Zeki PaÅŸa, Esat PaÅŸa, Abdullah PaÅŸa, Ali Rıza PaÅŸa Bulgaria: Vladimir Vazov, Vasil Kutinchev, Nikola Ivanov, Radko Dimitriev Greece:Crown Prince Constantine, Panagiotis Danglis, Pavlos Kountouriotis Serbia:Radomir Putnik, Petar... One of the first Serbian states, RaÅ¡ka, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Archont, the founder of the House of Vlastimirović; it evolved into the Serbian Empire under the House of Nemanjić. In the modern era Serbia has been... Metohija (Serbian: Метохија) also spelled Metohia, is a large western basin in Kosovo. ... The history of Montenegro begins in the early Middle Ages, after the arrival of the Slavs into that part of the former Roman province of Dalmatia that forms present-day Montenegro. ... Leon Trotsky (Russian:  , Lev Davidovich Trotsky, also transliterated Leo, Lyev, Trotskii, Trotski, Trotskij, Trockij and Trotzky) (November 7 [O.S. October 26] 1879 – August 21, 1940), born Lev Davidovich Bronstein (), was a Ukrainian-born Bolshevik revolutionary and Marxist theorist. ... Battle on Kosovo, by Adam Stefanović, oil, 1870 The Battle of Kosovo Polje was fought on St. ...


In the winter of 19151916, during World War I, Kosovo saw a large exodus of Serbian army which became known as the Great Serbian Retreat. Defeated and worn out in battles against Austro-Hungarians, they had no other choice than to retreat, as Kosovo was occupied by Bulgarians and Austro-Hungarians. The Albanians joined and supported the Central Powers. As opposed to Serbian schools, numerous Albanian schools were opened during the 'occupation' (the majority Albanian population considered it a liberation). Allied ships were awaiting for Serbian people and soldiers at the banks of the Adriatic sea and the path leading them there went across Kosovo and Albania. Tens of thousands of soldiers have died of starvation, extreme weather and Albanian reprisals as they were approaching the Allies in Corfu and Thessaloniki, amassing a total of 100,000 dead retreaters. Transported away from the front lines, Serbian army managed to heal many wounded and ill soldiers and get some rest. Refreshed and regrouped, it decided to return to the battlefield. In 1918, the Serbian Army pushed the Central Powers out of Kosovo. During liberation of Kosovo, the Serbian Army committed atrocities against the population in revenge. Serbian Kosovo was unified with Montenegrin Metohija as Montenegro subsequently joined the Kingdom of Serbia. After the World War I ended, the Monarchy was then transformed into the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians (Albanian: Mbretëria Serbe, Kroate, Sllovene, Serbo-Croatian: Kraljevina Srba, Hrvata i Slovenaca) on 1 December 1918, gathering territories gained in victory. Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Official languages In Cisleithenia, German and minority tongues. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... Look up ally in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the Greek island Kerkyra known in English as Corfu or Corcyra. ... Thessaloniki or Salonica (Greek: ) is Greeces second-largest city and the capital of Macedonia, the largest Region of Greece. ... European military alliances in 1914. ... The Kingdom of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state which existed from December 1, 1918 to mid-April 1941. ... is the 335th day of the year (336th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ...


Kingdom of Yugoslavia and World War II

The 1918–1929 period of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians witnessed a raise of the Serbian population in the region and a decline in the non-Serbian. In the Kingdom Kosovo was split onto four counties—three being a part of the entity of Serbia: Zvečan, Kosovo and southern Metohija; and one of Montenegro: northern Metohija. However, the new administration system since 26 April 1922 split Kosovo among three Areas of the Kingdom: Kosovo, Rascia and Zeta. In 1921 the Albanian elite lodged an official protest of the government to the League of Nations, claiming that 12,000 Albanians had been killed and over 22,000 imprisoned since 1918 and seeking a unification of Albanian-populated lands. As a result, an armed Kachak resistance movement was formed whose main goal was to unite Albanian-populated areas of the Kingdom to Albania. is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1922 (MCMXXII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Raška (Raschka, Rascia, Rassa) was the central and most successful medieval Serbian state (or župa, area ruled by a župan) that unified neighboring Serbian tribes into the main medieval Serbian state in Balkans. ... Zeta or ZETA can refer to: // Zeta (letter), of the Greek alphabet Zeta functions, in mathematics Riemann zeta function Tropical Storm Zeta (2005), formed in December 2005 and lasted through January 2006 Z-pinch, in fusion power Zeta (Mexico), a magazine from Tijuana, Mexico Zeta River, in Montenegro Zeta plain... The term Greater Albania or Great Albania refers to land which is outside the borders of Albania and Albanian nationalists claim as their own. ...


In 1929, the Kingdom was transformed into the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. The territories of Kosovo were split among the Banate of Zeta, the Banate of Morava and the Banate of Vardar. The Kingdom lasted until the World War II Axis invasion of 1941. Motto: One nation, one king, one country Anthem: Medley of Bože pravde, Lijepa naÅ¡a domovino, and Naprej zastava slave Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croato-Slovenian (see: Serbo-Croat and Slovenian) [1] Government Value specified for government_type does not comply King  - 1918-1921 Peter I  - 1921-1934 Alexander... Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Zeta Banovina is coloured pink, in the central part of the map) The Zeta Banovina or Zeta Banate (Serbian Bosnian, and Croatian: Зетска бановина Zetska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ... Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Zeta Banovina is coloured yellow, on the right part of the map) The Morava Banovina or Morava Banate (Serbian: Моравска бановина Moravska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ... Map of the Vardar Banovina Map showing Yugoslav banovinas in 1929 (The Vardar Banovina is coloured green, on the lower right part of the map) The Vardar Banovina or Vardar Banate or in Serbian: Вардарска бановина/Vardarska banovina) was a province (banovina) of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia between 1929 and 1941. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the independent states that comprised the Axis powers. ...


The greatest part of Kosovo became a part of Italian-controlled Fascist Albania, and smaller bits by the Tsardom of Bulgaria and Nazi German-occupied Kingdom of Serbia. During the fascist occupation of Kosovo by Albanians, until August 1941 alone, over 10,000 Serbs were killed and between 80,000 and 100,000 Serbs were expelled, while roughly the same number of Albanians from Albania were brought to settle in these Serbian lands. [3] Motto Ti Shqipëri më jep nder më jep emrin shqipëtar Anthem Rreth flamurit të përbashkuar (United Around the Flag) Albania() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital TiranÑ‘ Largest city Tiranë Official languages Albanian (Shqip) Demonym Albanian Government Parliamentary republic  -  President Bamir Topi  -  Prime Minister Sali Berisha Independence from... Borders of Bulgaria according to the Treaty of San Stefano Greater Bulgaria territory would include the plain between the Danube and the Balkan mountain range (Stara Planina), Northern and Southern Dobruja, the region of Sofia, Pirot and Vranje in the Morava valley, Northern Thrace, parts of Eastern Thrace and nearly... Nazism in history Nazi ideology Nazism and race Outside Germany Related subjects Lists Politics Portal         Nazism or National Socialism (German: Nationalsozialismus), refers primarily to the ideology and practices of the Nazi Party (National Socialist German Workers Party, German: Nationalsozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterpartei or NSDAP) under Adolf Hitler. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... For other uses, see August (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


Mustafa Kruja, the Prime Minister of Albania, was in Kosovo in June 1942, and at a meeting with the Albanian leaders of Kosovo, he said: "We should endeavor to ensure that the Serb population of Kosovo be – the area be cleansed of them and all Serbs who had been living there for centuries should be termed colonialists and sent to concentration camps in Albania. The Serb settlers should be killed." [4][5] A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link will display the full 1942 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Prior to the surrender of Fascist Italy in 1943, the German forces took over direct control of the region. After numerous uprisings of Partisans led by Fadil Hoxha, Kosovo was liberated after 1944 with the help of the Albanian partisans of the Comintern, and became a province of Serbia within the Democratic Federal Yugoslavia. United in 1861, Italy has significantly contributed to the cultural and social development of the entire Mediterranean area, deeply influencing European culture as well. ... Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Partisan may refer to: A member of a lightly-equipped irregular military force formed to oppose control of an area by a foreign power or by an army of occupation. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Year 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Comintern (Russian: Коммунистический Интернационал, Kommunisticheskiy Internatsional – Communist International, also known as the Third International) was an international Communist organization founded in March 1919, in the midst of the war communism period (1918-1921), by Vladimir Lenin and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik), which intended to fight by all available means, including... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ... Yugoslavia (Jugoslavija in the Latin alphabet, Југославија in Cyrillic; English: South Slavia, or literary The Land of South Slavs) describes three political entities that existed one at a time on the Balkan Peninsula in Europe, during most of the 20th century. ...


Kosovo in the second Yugoslavia

The province was first formed in 1945 as the Autonomous Kosovo-Metohian Area to protect its regional Albanian majority within the People's Republic of Serbia as a member of the Federal People's Republic of Yugoslavia under the leadership of the former Partisan leader, Josip Broz Tito, but with no factual autonomy. After Yugoslavia's name change to the Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and Serbia's to the Socialist Republic of Serbia in 1953, Kosovo gained inner autonomy in the 1960s. In the 1974 constitution, the Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo's government received higher powers, including the highest governmental titles — President and Premier and a seat in the Federal Presidency which made it a de facto Socialist Republic within the Federation, but remaining as a Socialist Autonomous Province within the Socialist Republic of Serbia. Tito had pursued a policy of weakening Serbia, as he believed that a "Weak Serbia equals a strong Yugoslavia". To this end Vojvodina and Kosovo became autonomous regions and were given the above entitled privileges as defacto republics. Serbo-Croatian, Albanian and Turkish were defined as official languages on the provincial level marking the two largest linguistic Kosovan groups: Albanians and Serbs. In the 1970s, an Albanian nationalist movement pursued full recognition of the Province of Kosovo as another Republic within the Federation, while the most extreme elements aimed for full-scale independence. Tito's arbitrary regime dealt with the situation swiftly, but only giving it a temporary solution. The ethnic balance of Kosovo witnessed unproportional increase as the number of Albanians tripled gradually rising from almost 75% to over 90%, but the number of Serbs barely increased and dropped in the full share of the total population from some 15% down to 8%. Even though Kosovo was the least developed area of the former Yugoslavia, the living and economic prospects and freedoms were far greater then under the totalitarian Maoist regieme in Albania. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 685 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (941 × 824 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 685 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (941 × 824 pixel, file size: 21 KB, MIME type: image/png) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo within SFRY (number 5a) Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo, Albanian: Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës) was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the... Anthem: Bože pravde (English: God of Justice) Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Serbian written with the Cyrillic alphabet1 Government Republic  - Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica  - President Boris Tadić Establishment    - Formation 814   - First Serbian Uprising 1804   - Internationally recognized July 13, 1878   - Kingdom of SCS created December 1, 1918   - SCG dissolved... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... One of the first Serbian states, RaÅ¡ka, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Archont, the founder of the House of Vlastimirović; it evolved into the Serbian Empire under the House of Nemanjić. In the modern era Serbia has been... The Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia was a Balkan state that existed from 1945 to 1992. ... Josip Broz Tito (Cyrillic: Јосип Броз Тито, May 7, 1892 [May 25th according to official birth certificate] – May 4, 1980) was the leader of the Second Yugoslavia, which lasted from 1943 until 1991. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... One of the first Serbian states, RaÅ¡ka, was founded in the first half of the 7th century on Byzantine territory by the Unknown Archont, the founder of the House of Vlastimirović; it evolved into the Serbian Empire under the House of Nemanjić. In the modern era Serbia has been... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... Year 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the 1974 Gregorian calendar. ... Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo within SFRY (number 5a) Socialist Autonomous Province of Kosovo (Serbo-Croatian: Социјалистичка Аутономна Покрајина Косово, Socijalistička Autonomna Pokrajina Kosovo, Albanian: Krahina Socialiste Autonome e Kosovës) was one of the two socialist autonomous provinces of the Socialist Republic of Serbia and one of the federal units of the... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in...


Beginning in March 1981, Kosovar Albanian students organized protests seeking that Kosovo become a republic within Yugoslavia. Those protests rapidly escalated into violent riots "involving 20,000 people in six cities"[6] that were harshly contained by the Yugoslav government. During the 1980s, ethnic tensions continued with frequent violent outbreaks against Serbs and Yugoslav state authorities resulting in increased emigration of Kosovo Serbs and other ethnic groups.[7][8] The Yugoslav leadership tried to suppress protests of Kosovo Serbs seeking protection from ethnic discrimination and violence.[9] Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ...


In 1986, the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts (SANU) was working on a document which later would be known as the SANU Memorandum, a warning to the Serbian President and Assembly of the existing crisis and where it would lead. An unfinished edition was filtered to the press. In the essay, SANU criticised the state of Yugoslavia and made remarks that the only member state contributing at the time to the development of Kosovo and Macedonia (by then, the poorest territories of the Federation) was Serbia. According to SANU, Yugoslavia was suffering from ethnic strife and the disintegration of the Yugoslav economy into separate economic sectors and territories, which was transforming the federal state into a loose confederation.[10] On the other hand, some think that Slobodan Milošević used the discontent reflected in the SANU memorandum for his own political goals, during his rise to power in Serbia at the time.[11], Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Memorandum of the Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts was a draft document produced by a committee of the Serbian Academy from 1985 to 1986. ... MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Not to be confused with Republika Srpska. ...


Milošević was initially sent there as a member of the Communist party. Initially Milošević did not talk to the Serbian nationalists who were at that point demonstrating for rights and freedoms that had been denied to them. During these meetings he agreed to listen to their grievances. During the meeting, outside the building where this forum was taking place police started fighting the locals who had gathered there, mostly Serbs eager to voice their grievances. After hearing about the police brutality outside of the halls, Milošević came out and in an emotional moment promised the local Serbs that "No one is allowed to beat you." This newsbite was then seen on evening news and catapulted a then unknown Milošević to the forefront of the current debate about the problems on Kosovo.


Since the 1974 Constitution, the Albanian controlled Kosovo communist officials in Kosovo had instituted a campaign of discrimination against non-Albanians, Serbs and other non-Albanians like the Roma, Turks and Macedonians, were fired from jobs and positions within the regional government apparatus. These repressions and grievances had been swept conveniently under the carpet with the pretense of "Brotherhood and Unity" policy instituted by Tito. Any reasoning to the contradictory was quickly silenced. To the party leadership's chagrin, Milošević insisted on finding a solution for the Kosovo situation, but was quickly labeled as a reactionary.


In order to save his skin, Milošević fought back and established a political coup d'état. He gained effective leadership and control of the Serbian Communist party and pressed forward with the one issue that had catapulted him to the forefront of the political limelight, which was Kosovo. This By the end of the 1980s, calls for increased federal control in the crisis-torn autonomous province were getting louder. Slobodan Milošević pushed for constitutional change amounting to suspension of autonomy for both Kosovo and Vojvodina.[12] MiloÅ¡ević redirects here. ... Vojvodina (red) is one of Serbias two autonomous provinces Capital (and largest city) Novi Sad Official languages Ethnic groups  2. ...


Kosovo and the breakup of Yugoslavia

Inter-ethnic tensions continued to worsen in Kosovo throughout the 1980s. In particular, Kosovo's ethnic Serb community, a minority of Kosovo population, complained about mistreatment from the Albanian majority. Milosevic capitalized on this discontent to consolidate his own position in Serbia. In 1987, Serbian President Ivan Stambolić sent Milošević to Kosovo to "pacify restive Serbs in Kosovo." On that trip, Milošević broke away from a meeting with ethnic Albanians to mingle with angry Serbians in a suburb of Pristina. As the Serbs protested they were being pushed back by police with batons, Milošević told them, "No one is allowed to beat you."[13] This incident was later seen as pivotal to Milošević's rise to power.


On June 28, 1989, Milošević delivered a speech in front of a large number of Serb citizens at the main celebration marking the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo, held at Gazimestan. Many think that this speech helped Milošević consolidate his authority in Serbia.[14] Combatants Ottoman Empire Serbia Commanders Murad I †, Bayezid I, Yakub † Lazar Hrebeljanović †, Vuk Branković, Vlatko Vuković Strength ~ 27,000-40,000[4][5][6] ~ 12,000-30,000[4][5][6][7] Casualties Extremely high; Sultan Murad I killed Extremely high; most of Serbian nobility including Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic killed... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


In 1989, Milošević, employing a mix of intimidation and political maneuvering, drastically reduced Kosovo's special autonomous status within Serbia. Soon thereafter Kosovo Albanians organized a non-violent separatist movement, employing widespread civil disobedience, with the ultimate goal of achieving the independence of Kosovo. Kosovo Albanians boycotted state institutions and elections and established separate Albanian schools and political institutions. On July 2, 1990, an unconstitutional Kosovo parliament declared Kosovo an independent country, although this was not recognized by Belgrade or any foreign states. Two years later, in 1992, the parliament organized an unofficial referendum which was observed by international organizations but was not recognized internationally. With an 80% turnout, 98% voted for Kosovo to be independent. is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ...


Kosovo War

Main article: Kosovo War

One of the events that contributed to Milošević's rise of power was the Gazimestan Speech, delivered in front of 100,000 Serb citizens at the central celebration marking the 600th anniversary of the Battle of Kosovo, held at Gazimestan on 28 June, 1989. Soon afterwards the autonomy of Kosovo was reduced. After Slovenia's secession from Yugoslavia in 1991, Milošević used the seat to attain dominance over the Federal government, outvoting his opponents. The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Serbia Commanders Murad I †, Bayezid I, Yakub † Lazar Hrebeljanović †, Vuk Branković, Vlatko Vuković Strength ~ 27,000-40,000[4][5][6] ~ 12,000-30,000[4][5][6][7] Casualties Extremely high; Sultan Murad I killed Extremely high; most of Serbian nobility including Prince Lazar Hrebeljanovic killed... This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this. ...


Albanians organized a peaceful separatist movement. State institutions and elections were boycotted and separate Albanian schools and political institutions were established. On July 2, 1990 Kosovo Parliament declared Kosovo an independent country, this was only recognized by Albania. In September of that year, the parliament, meeting in secrecy in the town of Kaçanik, adopted the Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo. Two years later, in 1992, the parliament organized an unofficial referendum which was observed by international organizations but was not recognized internationally. With an 80% turnout, 98% voted for Kosovo to be independent. is the 183rd day of the year (184th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Kaçanik, Kosovo 2000 The town Kaçaniku in Kosovo was founded by Koxha Sinan Pasha, who erected the town mosque which exists even today, a public kitchen for the poor known as Imaret, a school near the mosque, two Hane (Inns), one Turkish bath known as Hamam, the town...


With the events in Bosnia and Croatia coming to an end, the Serb government started relocating Serbian refugees from Croatia and Bosnia all over Serbia, including in Kosovo. In a number of cases, Albanian families were expelled from their apartments to make room for the refugees. This article is about the country of Bosnia and Herzegovina. ...


After the Dayton Agreement in 1995, some Albanians organized into the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA), employing guerrilla-style tactics against Serbian police forces and civilians. Violence escalated in a series of KLA attacks and Serbian reprisals into the year 1999, with increasing numbers of civilian victims. In 1998 western interest increased and the Serbian authorities were forced to sign a unilateral cease-fire and partial retreat. Under an agreement devised by Richard Holbrooke, OSCE observers moved into Kosovo to monitor the ceasefire, while Yugoslav military forces partly pulled out of Kosovo. However, the ceasefire was systematically broken shortly thereafter by KLA forces, which again provoked harsh counterattacks by the Serbs. On 16 January 1999, the bodies of 45 Albanian civilians were found in the town of Racak. The victims had been executed by Serb forces [15][16]. The so-called Racak Massacre was instrumental in increasing the pressure on Serbia in the following conference at Rambouillet. After more than a month of negotiations Yugoslavia refused to sign the prepared agreement, primarily, it has been argued, because of a clause giving NATO forces access rights to not only Kosovo but to all of Yugoslavia (which the Yugoslav side saw as tantamount to military occupation). Dayton, a surname and place name, may refer to: // Elias Dayton (1737-1807), Colonel and father of Jonathan and builder of Fort Dayton Jonathan Dayton (1760-1824), son of Elias, signer of the United States Constitution, and Speaker of the House Dayton Clarence Miller (1866-1941), an American physicist and... Ushtria Çlirimtare e Kosovës. ... Richard Charles Albert Holbrooke (born April 24, 1941) is an American diplomat, magazine editor, author, Peace Corps official, and investment banker. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Racak (Recak in Albanian) is a village in central Kosovo, Serbia and Montenegro, located at 42° 25′ 46″ N 21° 00′ 59″ E. It became notorious in January 1999 after 45 people were killed in the village during the conflict between state security forces and Albanian guerrillas. ... Rambouillet is a commune in the metropolitan area of Paris, France. ...


This triggered a 78-day NATO campaign in 1999. At first limited to military targets in Kosovo proper, the bombing campaign was soon extended to cover targets all over Yugoslavia, including bridges, power stations, factories, broadcasting stations, post offices, and various government buildings. This article is about the military alliance. ... This article is about the year. ...


During the conflict roughly a million ethnic Albanians fled or were forcefully driven from Kosovo, several thousand were killed (the numbers and the ethnic distribution of the casualties are uncertain and highly disputed). An estimated 10,000-12,000 ethnic Albanians and 3,000 Serbs are believed to have been killed during the conflict. Some 3,000 people are still missing, of which 2,500 are Albanian, 400 Serbs and 100 Roma.[17]


Women even though they were not combatants experienced many atrocities during Kosovo war, especially Albanian women. Serbian army and police who had used rape as a weapon during the war in Bosnia, used rape also in Kosovo and the intention was to weaken the morale of Albanians. It is believed some 20,000 Albanian women were raped during the Kosovo war, but since rapes are associated with shame, many women after reporting this to different international humanitarian organizations have kept it secret. Some of the raped women have committed suicide after the war [18] [19] .


Some of the worst massacres against civilian Albanians occurred after that NATO started the bombing of Yugoslavia. Cuska massacre[20], Podujevo massacre [21], Velika Krusa massacre[22] are some of the massacres committed by Serbian army, police and paramilitary.


During the Kosovo War, Serbs also engaged in a deliberate campaign of cultural destruction and rampage. According to a report compiled by the Kosovo Cultural Heritage Project, Serbian forces tried to wipe out all Albanian culture and traditions. Of the 500 mosques that were in use prior to the war, 200 of them were completely destroyed or desecrated. The report concludes that most mosques were deliberately set on fire with no sign of fighting around the area. Among numerous other things, the following important objects were destroyed because they represented Albanian as well as Muslim and Catholic cultures:


Sinan Pasha Mosque in Prizren, the Prizren League Museum, the Hadum Mosque complex in Gjakova (Serbian: Djakovica); the historic bazaars in Gjakova and Peć (Albanian: Peja); the Roman Catholic church of St. Anthony in Gjakova; and two old Ottoman bridges, Ura e Terzive (Terzijski most) and Ura e Tabakeve (Tabacki most), near Gjakova.[23]


Kosovo after the war

After the war ended, the UN Security Council passed Resolution 1244 that placed Kosovo under transitional UN administration (UNMIK) and authorized KFOR, a NATO-led peacekeeping force. Almost immediately, returning Kosovo Albanians attacked Kosovo Serbs [2], causing some 200,000-280,000[24] Serbs and other non-Albanians[25] to flee (note: the current number of internally displaced persons is disputed,[26][27][28][29] with estimates ranging from 65,000[30] to 250,000[31][32][33]). Many displaced Serbs are hesitant to return to their homes, even with UNMIK protection. Around 120,000-150,000 Serbs remain in Kosovo. The United Nations Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration of the Serbian province (as part of Serbia and Montenegro) called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), under the authority of the United Nations. ... For other uses, see KFOR (disambiguation). ... Tailor in Labuje IDP camp in Uganda An internally displaced person (IDP) is someone who has been forced to leave their home for reasons such as religious or political persecution, war or natural disaster, but has not crossed an international border. ... The United Nations Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration of the Serbian province (as part of Serbia and Montenegro) called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), under the authority of the United Nations. ...


In 2001, UNMIK promulgated a Constitutional Framework for Kosovo that established the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG), including an elected Kosovo Assembly, Presidency and office of Prime Minister. Kosovo held its first free, Kosovo-wide elections in late 2001 (municipal elections had been held the previous year). UNMIK oversaw the establishment of a professional, multi-ethnic Kosovo Police Service. The Coat of Arms of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) are institutions runing Kosovo in cooperation with the United Nations Interim Administrative Mission in Kosovo UNMIK. Resolution 1244 of the United Nations Security Council authorized the Secretary-General to establish an international civil...


In March 2004, Kosovo experienced its worst inter-ethnic violence since the Kosovo War. The unrest in 2004 was sparked by a series of minor events that soon cascaded into large-scale riots. Kosovo Albanians mobs burned hundreds of Serbian houses, Serbian Orthodox Church sites (including some medieval churches and monasteries) and UN facilities. Kosovo Police established a special investigation team to handle cases related to the 2004 unrest and according to Kosovo Judicial Council by the end of 2006 the 326 charges filed by municipal and district prosecutors for criminal offenses in connection with the unrest had resulted in 200 indictments: convictions in 134 cases, and courts acquitted eight and dismissed 28; 30 cases were pending. International prosecutors and judges handled the most sensitive cases[34]. Violent unrest in Kosovo (a United Nations-administered province of Serbia) broke out on March 17, 2004. ...


Politics and governance

Main article: Politics of Kosovo
See also: United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo and Provisional Institutions of Self-Government
Kosovo

This article is part of the series:
Politics and government of
Kosovo
Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ... The Coat of Arms of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) are institutions runing Kosovo in cooperation with the United Nations Interim Administrative Mission in Kosovo UNMIK. Resolution 1244 of the United Nations Security Council authorized the Secretary-General to establish an international civil... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


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In 1999, UN Security Council Resolution 1244 placed Kosovo under transitional UN administration pending a determination of Kosovo's future status. This Resolution entrusted the United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo (UNMIK) with sweeping powers to govern Kosovo, but also directed UNMIK to establish interim institutions of self-governance. Resolution 1244 permits Serbia no role in governing Kosovo and since 1999 Serbian laws and institutions have not been valid in Kosovo. NATO has a separate mandate to provide for a safe and secure environment. Kosovo is the subject of a long-running political and territorial dispute between the Serbian (and previously, the Yugoslav) government and Kosovos largely ethnic-Albanian population. ... The Standards for Kosovo is a document setting out the standards Kosovo needs to reach, in compliance with United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244. ... The constitutional status of Kosovo has been the subject of repeated political disputes since the region was incorporated into Serbia in 1912. ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ... For other uses, see KFOR (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with UN General Assembly Resolution 1244. ... The Kosovo Police Service (KPS) was created in 1999, in the aftermath of the NATO bombing campaign and subsequent withdrawal of the FRY and Serbian forces from Kosovo. ... Kosovo Protection Corps (KPC or TMK in Albanian) Logo The Kosovo Protection Corps is a civilian emergency services organization in Kosovo. ... The Coat of Arms of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) are institutions running Kosovo in cooperation with the United Nations Interim Administrative Mission in Kosovo UNMIK. Resolution 1244 of the United Nations Security Council authorized the Secretary-General to establish an international civil... The President of Kosovo is elected by the Assembly of Kosovo. ... Fatmir Sejdiu President of Kosovo Fatmir Sejdiu (born October 23, 1951) is the president of Kosova. ... Prime Minister of Kosovo is the head of the Government of Kosovo. ... Agim Çeku (born 29 October 1960 in the village of ĆuÅ¡ka [1] near Peć, in Kosovo, Yugoslavia), is the current Prime Minister of Kosovo, a Serbian province under United Nations administration. ... Assembly of Kosovo (Serbian Скупштина Косова; Albanian Kuvendi i Kosovës) is the highest provisional self-government and representative and law making institution of Kosovo. ... Kryetari i Kuvendit të Kosovës or Kryeparlamentari chairs the sessions of the Assembly of Kosovo. ... Political parties in Kosovo lists political parties in Kosovo. ... Politics of Kosovo Categories: Election related stubs | Elections in Kosovo ... Category: ... Parliamentary elections to the unicameral Assembly of Kosovo (Albanian: , Serbian: , transliterated ) will be held on 17 November 2007, together with municipal elections. ... Territory of Kosovo is divided into districts, while districts are further divided into municipalities. ... Municipalities of Kosovo Municipality (Serbian: opÅ¡tina or општина, Albanian: komuna e) is the basic administrative division of Kosovo. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with UN General Assembly Resolution 1244. ... The United Nations Interim Administration Mission in Kosovo or UNMIK is an interim civilian administration in Kosovo, under the authority of the United Nations. ...


In May 2001, UNMIK promulgated the Constitutional Framework, which established Kosovo's Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG). Since 2001, UNMIK has been gradually transferring increased governing competencies to the PISG, while reserving some powers that are normally carried out by sovereign states, such as foreign affairs. Kosovo has also established municipal government and an internationally-supervised Kosovo Police Service. The Coat of Arms of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) are institutions runing Kosovo in cooperation with the United Nations Interim Administrative Mission in Kosovo UNMIK. Resolution 1244 of the United Nations Security Council authorized the Secretary-General to establish an international civil...

The Approved Logo of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government.
The Approved Logo of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government.

According to the Constitutional Framework, Kosovo shall have a 120-member Kosovo Assembly. The Assembly includes twenty reserved seats: ten for Kosovo Serbs and ten for non-Serb minorities (Bosniaks, Roma, etc.). The Kosovo Assembly is responsible for electing a President and Prime Minister of Kosovo. Image File history File links Kosovo_pisg_logo. ... Image File history File links Kosovo_pisg_logo. ... The United Nations administration in Kosovo has established an approved logo of the Provisional Institutions of Self Government in Kosovo. ... The Coat of Arms of the Provisional Institutions of Self-Government Provisional Institutions of Self-Government (PISG) are institutions runing Kosovo in cooperation with the United Nations Interim Administrative Mission in Kosovo UNMIK. Resolution 1244 of the United Nations Security Council authorized the Secretary-General to establish an international civil...


The largest political party in Kosovo, the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK), has its origins in the 1990s non-violent resistance movement to Milosevic's rule. The party was led by Ibrahim Rugova until his death in 2006. The two next largest parties have their roots in the Kosovo Liberation Army (KLA): the Democratic Party of Kosovo (PDK) led by former KLA leader Hashim Thaci and the Alliance for the Future of Kosovo (AAK) led by former KLA commander Ramush Haradinaj. Kosovo publisher Veton Surroi formed his own political party in 2004 named "Ora." Kosovo Serbs formed the Serb List for Kosovo and Metohija (SLKM) in 2004, but have boycotted Kosovo's institutions and never taken their seats in the Kosovo Assembly.


In November 2001, the OSCE supervised the first elections for the Kosovo Assembly. After that election, Kosovo's political parties formed an all-party unity coalition and elected Ibrahim Rugova as President and Bajram Rexhepi (PDK) as Prime Minister. The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... Ibrahim Rugova (December 2, 1944 – January 21, 2006) was the first President of Kosovo and of its leading political party, the Democratic League of Kosovo (LDK). ...


After Kosovo-wide elections in October 2004, the LDK and AAK formed a new governing coalition that did not include PDK and Ora. This coalition agreement resulted in Ramush Haradinaj (AAK) becoming Prime Minister, while Ibrahim Rugova retained the position of President. PDK and Ora were critical of the coalition agreement and have since frequently accused the current government of corruption. Ramush Haradinaj (born 3 July 1968 in the village of Glodjane near Dečani, in Kosovo, Yugoslavia) is a former guerrilla leader and prime minister of Kosovo. ...


Ramush Haradinaj resigned the post of Prime Minister after he was indicted for war crimes by the International Criminal Tribunal for the former Yugoslavia (ICTY) in March 2005. He was replaced by Bajram Kosumi (AAK). But in a political shake-up after the death of President Rugova in January 2006, Kosumi himself was replaced by former Kosovo Protection Corps commander Agim Ceku. Ceku has won recognition for his outreach to minorities, but Serbia has been critical of his wartime past as military leader of the KLA and claims he is still not doing enough for Kosovo Serbs. The Kosovo Assembly elected Fatmir Sejdiu, a former LDK parliamentarian, president after Rugova's death. Slaviša Petkovic, Minister for Communities and Returns, was previously the only ethnic Serb in the government, but resigned in November 2006 amid allegations that he misused ministry funds.[35][36] Today two of the total thirteen ministries in Kosovo's Government have ministers from the minorities. Branislav Grbic, ethnic Serb, leads Minister of Returns and Sadik Idriz, ethnic Bosnjak, leads Ministry of Health[37] NATO Secretary-General Lord Robertson (left) and Agim Ceku (right) Agim Ceku is a Kosovo Albanian soldier who commanded the Kosovo Liberation Army during the 1999 Kosovo War and now commands the Kosovo Protection Corps. ... Fatmir Sejdiu President of Kosovo Fatmir Sejdiu (born October 23, 1951) is the president of Kosova. ...


Parliamentary elections were held on 17 November 2007. After early results, Hashim Thaçi who was on course to gain 35 per cent of the vote, claimed victory for PDK, the Albanian Democratic Party, and stated his intention to declare independence. Thaci is likely to form a coalition with current President Fatmir Sejdiu's Democratic League which was in second place with 22 percent of the vote. The turnout at the election was particularly low with most Serbs refusing to vote.[38] Parliamentary elections to the unicameral Assembly of Kosovo (Albanian: , Serbian: , transliterated ) will be held on 17 November 2007, together with municipal elections. ... Hashim Thaci Leader of KLA. Hashim Thaçi (Albanian: Hashim Thaçi, sometimes Thaqi, Serbian: Хашим Тачи or HaÅ¡im Tači; often referred to as Thaci in English-language media) (born 24 April 1968 in Burojë/Broćna in the municipality of Srbica -northwest of Drenica valley-, in Kosovo, Serbia, Yugoslavia... The Democratic Party of Kosovo (Albanian: Partia Demokratike e Kosovës - short PDK; is the second largest political party in Kosovo, a province currently under UN administration. ... Fatmir Sejdiu President of Kosovo Fatmir Sejdiu (born October 23, 1951) is the president of Kosova. ... The Democratic League of Kosovo (Lidhja Demokratike e Kosovës) is the largest political party in Kosovo. ...


Kosovo status process

Main article: Kosovo status process
See also: Constitutional status of Kosovo

International negotiations began in 2006 to determine the final status of Kosovo, as envisaged under UN Security Council Resolution 1244 which ended the Kosovo conflict of 1999. Whilst Serbia's continued sovereignty over Kosovo is recognised by the international community, a clear majority of the province's population would prefer independence. Kosovo is the subject of a long-running political and territorial dispute between the Serbian (and previously, the Yugoslav) government and Kosovos largely ethnic-Albanian population. ... The constitutional status of Kosovo has been the subject of repeated political disputes since the region was incorporated into Serbia in 1912. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 1244 defined the legal status of Kosovo as a UN protectorate, under its administration, while being legally an autonomous constituency of Serbia and Montenegro. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ...


The UN-backed talks, lead by UN Special Envoy Martti Ahtisaari, began in February 2006. Whilst progress was made on technical matters, both parties remained diametrically opposed on the question of status itself.[39] In February 2007, Ahtisaari delivered a draft status settlement proposal to leaders in Belgrade and Pristina, the basis for a draft UN Security Council Resolution which proposes 'supervised independence' for the province. As of early July 2007 a draft resolution, backed by the United States, the United Kingdom and other European members of the Security Council, had been rewritten four times to try to accommodate Russian concerns that such a resolution would undermine the principle of state sovereignty.[40] Russia, which holds a veto in the Security Council as one of five permanent members, had stated that it would not support any resolution which was not acceptable to both Belgrade and Kosovo Albanians.[41] Whilst most observers had, at the beginning of the talks, anticipated independence as the most likely outcome, others have suggested that a rapid resolution might not be preferable.[42] This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ... Martti Oiva Kalevi Ahtisaari (IPA: ) (born June 23, 1937 Viipuri, Finland) is a former President of Finland (1994–2000) and a United Nations diplomat and mediator, noted for his international peace work. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ...


After many weeks of discussions at the UN, the United States, United Kingdom and other European members of the Security Council formally 'discarded' a draft resolution backing Ahtisaari's proposal on 20 July 2007, having failed to secure Russian backing. Beginning in August, a "Troika" consisting of negotiators from the United States (Frank Wisner), the EU (Wolfgang Ischinger) and Russia (Alexander Botsan-Kharchenko) launched a new effort to reach a status outcome acceptable to both Belgrade and Pristina. Despite Russian disapproval, the U.S., Britain, and France appear likely to recognize Kosovar independence[43] if it is declared after December 10, 2007, the date upon which the Contact Group will report on the Troika's efforts to UN Secretary General Ban Ki-moon[44]. is the 201st day of the year (202nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... For other uses, see United States (disambiguation) and US (disambiguation). ... is the 344th day of the year (345th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Contact Group is the name for an informal grouping of influential countries that have a significant interest in policy developments in the Balkans. ... The United Nations Secretary-General is the head of the Secretariat, one of the principal divisions of the United Nations. ... IPA pronunciation: This is a Korean name; the family name is Ban Ban Ki-moon (born June 13, 1944)[1] is a South Korean diplomat and the current Secretary-General of the United Nations. ...


Health

Access to health care is free for all residents of Kosovo. Currently there is no health insurance, however, the Ministry of Health is in the process of preparing a legislative infrastructure, which is scheduled to be implemented in 2008.


There are hospitals in all major cities. A total of 6 regional hospitals provide tertiary health care, and family centers in small municipalities.


Medical Education is available at the University Clinical Center of Kosovo (UCCK), in Priština.


Economy

Main article: Economy of Kosovo
Postage stamp from Kosovo issued after the 1999 Kosovo War.

Kosovo has one of the most under-developed economies in Europe, with a per capita income estimated at 1,565 (2004).[45] Despite substantial development subsidies from all Yugoslav republics, Kosovo was the poorest province of Yugoslavia.[46] Additionally, over the course of the 1990s a blend of poor economic policies, international sanctions, poor external commerce and ethnic conflict severely damaged the economy.[47] The economy of Kosovo is one of the poorest in Europe, with Kosovo having a per capita income estimated at 1,565 Euro (2004). ... Image File history File links Kosovo_stamp. ... Image File history File links Kosovo_stamp. ... A selection of Hong Kong postage stamps A postage stamp is evidence of pre-paying a fee for postal services. ... For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ...


Kosovo's economy remains weak. After a jump in 2000 and 2001, growth in Gross Domestic Product (GDP) was negative in 2002 and 2003 and is expected to be around 3 percent 2004-2005, with domestic sources of growth unable to compensate for the declining foreign assistance. Inflation is low, while the budget posted a deficit for the first time in 2004. Kosovo has high external deficits. In 2004, the deficit of the balance of goods and services was close to 70 percent of GDP. Remittances from Kosovars living abroad accounts for an estimated 13 percent of GDP, and foreign assistance for around 34 percent of GDP.[48] This article is about GDP in the context of economics. ...


Most economic development since 1999 has taken place in the trade, retail and the construction sectors. The private sector that has emerged since 1999 is mainly small-scale. The industrial sector remains weak and the electric power supply remains unreliable, acting as a key constraint. Unemployment remains pervasive, at around 40-50% of the labor force.[49][50]


UNMIK introduced de-facto an external trade regime and customs administration on September 3, 1999 when it set customs border controls in Kosovo. All goods imported in Kosovo face a flat 10% customs duty fee.[51] These taxes are collected from all Tax Collection Points installed at the borders of Kosovo, including those between Kosovo and Serbia.[52] UNMIK and Kosovo institutions have signed Free Trade Agreements with Croatia,[53] Bosnia and Herzegovina,[54] Albania[55] and Macedonia.[56] is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


Macedonia is Kosovo's largest import and export market (averaging €220 million and €9 million, respectively), followed by Serbia-Montenegro (€111 million and €5 million), Germany and Turkey.[57]


The Euro is the official currency of Kosovo and used by UNMIK and the government bodies.[58] The Serbian Dinar is used in the Serbian populated parts. For other uses, see Euro (disambiguation). ... A 25,000 Iraqi dinar note printed after the fall of Saddam Hussein. ...


The economy is hindered by Kosovo's still-unresolved international status, which has made it difficult to attract investment and loans.[59] The province's economic weakness has produced a thriving black economy in which smuggled petrol, cigarettes and cement are major commodities. The prevalence of official corruption and the pervasive influence of organised crime gangs has caused serious concern internationally. The United Nations has made the fight against corruption and organised crime a high priority, pledging a "zero tolerance" approach.[60]


Demographics

Ethnic composition of Kosovo in 2005 according to the OSCE.
Ethnic composition of Kosovo in 2005 according to the OSCE.

According to the Kosovo in Figures 2005 Survey of the Statistical Office of Kosovo,[61][62][63] Kosovo's total population is estimated between 1.9 and 2.2 million in the following ethnic proportions (but many pre-1999 Kosovar Serbs and individuals from other ethnic groups originally from Kosovo now live in Central Serbia, about 250.000-350.000). The estimate from 2000-2002-2003 goes (a 1,900,000 strong population): Image File history File links Kosovo_ethnic_2005. ... Image File history File links Kosovo_ethnic_2005. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ... // Ottoman Rule 14th century The Dečani Charter from 1330[citation needed] contained detailed list of households and chartered villages in Metohija and northwestern Albania: 3 of 89 settlements were Albanian, the other being non-Albanian. ... The term Serbia proper is often used in English to refer to the part of Serbia that lies outside the northern and southern autonomous provinces of Kosovo and Vojvodina. ...

Sunni Muslims account for more than 90% of the population in Kosovo[64] Catholicism and Orthodoxy are also practiced by the people. Languages Serbian Religions Predominantly Serbian Orthodox Christian Related ethnic groups Other Slavic peoples, especially South Slavs See Cognate peoples below (* many Serbs opted for Yugoslav ethnicity) [27] Serbs (Serbian: Срби or Srbi) are a South Slavic people who live mainly in Serbia, Montenegro, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and, to a lesser extent, in... Language(s) Bosnian Religion(s) Predominantly Islam Related ethnic groups Slavs (South Slavs) The Bosniaks or Bosniacs[1] (Bosnian: Bošnjaci, IPA: ) are a South Slavic people, living mainly in Bosnia and Herzegovina (Bosnia) and the Sandžak region of Serbia and Montenegro, with a smaller autochthonous population also present... This article is about Gorani, an ethnic group in the Balkans. ... Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


Ethnic Albanians in Kosovo have the largest population growth in Europe. [3] [4] The people’s growth rate in Kosovo is 1.3%. Over an 82-year period (1921-2003) the population grew 4.6 times. If growth continues at such a pace, based on some estimations, the population will be 4.5 million by 2050. [5]


Administrative divisions

See also: Municipalities of Kosovo

Kosovo is divided into seven districts: Territory of Kosovo is divided into districts, while districts are further divided into municipalities. ... Municipalities of Kosovo Municipality (Serbian: opština or општина, Albanian: komuna e) is the basic administrative division of Kosovo. ...

North Kosovo maintains its own government, infrastructure and institutions by its dominant ethnic Serb population in the Mitrovica District, viz. in the Leposavic, Zvecan and Zubin Potok municipalities and the northern part of Kosovska Mitrovica. Đakovica District (Serbian language: Ђаковички округ, Đakovički okrug), or Gjakova District (Albanian) is a district in Kosovo (a Serbian province under UN administration) with seat in Đakovica / Gjakova. ... Gjilani District (Albanian) or Gnjilane District (Serbian) is a district in Kosovo with seat in Gjilani/Gnjilane. ... Mitrovica District (Albanian) or Kosovska Mitrovica District (Serbian) is a district in Kosovo with seat in Mitrovica/Kosovska Mitrovica. ... Peć District (Serbian: Пећки округ or Pećki okrug) or Peja District (Albanian) is a district in Kosovo with seat in Peć. // It include the municipalities of: Peć Istok Klina All 3 municipalities in the district have Albanian majority. ... Prishtina District (Albanian) or PriÅ¡tina District (Serbian) is a district in Kosovo, with seat in Prishtina/PriÅ¡tina. ... Prizreni District or Prizren District is a district in Kosovo with seat in Prizreni/Prizren. ... Ferizaji District (Albanian) or UroÅ¡evac District (Serbian) is a district in Kosovo with seat in Ferizaji/UroÅ¡evac. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Serbs (in the Serbian language Срби, Srbi) are a south Slavic people living chiefly in Serbia and Montenegro and Bosnia and Herzegovina. ... Kosovo, Mitrovica District Mitrovica District (Kosovska Mitrovica District) is a district in Kosovo with municipalities : Mitrovicë / Kosovska Mitrovica Vushtrri / Vučitrn Zubin Potok / Zubin Potok Zvečan / Zveçan Leposavić / Leposaviq Skenderaj / Srbica External links Municipality Of Mitrovica Category: ... Leposavić (Serbian: Leposavić or Лепосавић, Albanian: Leposavqi or Leposaviq) is a town and municipality in Kosovo. ... Zvečan (Serbian: Zvečan or Звечан, Albanian: Zveqan or Zveqani) is a town and municipality in Kosovo. ... Zubin Potok (Зубин Поток) is a town and municipality in Kosovo. ... Mitrovica or Mitrovicë (Albanian) or Kosovska Mitrovica/Косовска Митровица (Serbian) is a city located in the north of Kosovo at 42. ...


Cities

Priština.
Priština.

List of largest cities in Kosovo (with population figures for 2006):[65] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 769 KB) With permission of the author Hipi Zhdripi-Gimi. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 769 KB) With permission of the author Hipi Zhdripi-Gimi. ...

UNMIK Head Quarters - Priština. ... View of Prizren. ... Saint Uroš Cathedral, June 1999. ... Gjakova, also Djakovica, (Serbian cyrillic: Ђаковица, Albanian Gjakova) is a city located in Kosovo, at 42. ... Peć (Albanian: Pejë / Peja; Serbian: Пећ / Peć) is a city located in the western part of Kosovo (under UN-administration, formally part of Serbia). ... Gnjilane (Serbian: Гњилане, or Gnjilane; Albanian: Gjilani or Gjilan) is a city and municipality in eastern Kosovo, a Serbian province under UN administration. ... Mitrovica or Mitrovicë (Albanian) or Kosovska Mitrovica/Косовска Митровица (Serbian) is a city located in the north of Kosovo at 42. ... Podujevo/Podujeva (Serbian: Подујево or Podujevo; Albanian: Podujevë, Podujeva or Besiana) is a town, and seat of a municipality, north-east Kosovo (under UN administration, formally part of Serbia). ...

Culture

Music

See also: Albanian and Kosovo, Albanian musicians, Music of Kosovo, Music of Serbia, List of Serbian musicians

Music has always been a part of the Albanian and Serbian culture. Although in Kosovo music is diverse (as it got mixed with the cultures of different regimes dominating in Kosovo), authentic Albanian music (see World Music) and Serbian music do still exist. The Albanian one is characterized by use of çiftelia (an authentic Albanian instrument), mandolin, mandola and percussion. In Kosovo, along with modern music, folk music is very popular. There are many folk singers and ensembles (both Albanian and Serbian). Classical music is also well known in Kosovo and has been taught at universities (at the University of Prishtina Faculty of Arts and the University of Priština at Kosovska Mitrovica Faculty of Arts) and several pre-college music schools The modern music in Kosovo has its origin from the Western countries. The main modern genres include: Pop, Hip Hop, Rock and Jazz. The most notable rock bands are: Gjurmët, Troja, Votra, Diadema, Humus, Asgjë Sikur Dielli, Kthjellu, Cute Babulja, Babilon, etc. Ilir Bajri is a notable jazz and electronic musician. Most notable hip-hop performers are the rap-group called NR (urbaNRoots) who also introduced a new type of rap different to the G-Funk that was widely spread before. Rebel a.k.a. Unikkatil is another artist who revolutionized albanian hip-hop by bringing hardcore rap lyrics to the scene of albanian hip-hop, a change from the heavily club influenced hip-hop being produced at the time by groups such as Etno Engjujt. Other hip-hop artists include Tingulli 3, Ritmi I Rrugës, Double G Army ,Mad Lion, K-OS and many more. –This is a list of historical or current Albanians who are famous or notable, sorted by occupation and name: // Adrian Morina Aleksander Moisiu Agim Kaba - Actor Anisa Ismaili - Actress Bekim Fehmiu - Acto Enver Petrovci - Actor Eliza Dushku - Actress (partly albanian descent Fatmir Doga - Actor & Director Nate Dushku - Actor (older brother... Kosovo is a region of Serbia and Montenegro inhabited mostly by ethnic Albanians as well as Serbs and Montenegrins. ... Serbia and Montenegro is a Balkan country, recently ravaged by war that has caused widespread migration and cultural oppression. ... Main article: List of Serbs List of Serbian musicians. ... For other uses, see Music (disambiguation). ... Serbian culture refers to the culture of Serbia as well as the culture of Serbs in other parts of the former Yugoslavia and elsewhere in the world. ... World music is, most generally, all the music in the world. ... Serbia and Montenegro is a Balkan country, recently ravaged by war that has caused widespread migration and cultural oppression. ... Çiftelia Çiftelia is an Albanian authentic string instrument. ... Folk can refer to a number of different things: It can be short for folk music, or, for folksong, or, for folklore; it may be a word for a specific people, tribe, or nation, especially one of the Germanic peoples; it might even be a calque on the related German... In music a singer or vocalist is a type of musician who sings, i. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ... A university is an institution of higher education and of research, which grants academic degrees. ... University logo University logo (UNMIK) University of PriÅ¡tina (Serbian: Приштински универзитет, Albanian: Universiteti i Prishtinës) was opened in 1970 in PriÅ¡tina, the capital of Kosovo. ... University logo University logo (UNMIK) University of PriÅ¡tina (Serbian: Приштински универзитет, Albanian: Universiteti i Prishtinës) was opened in 1970 in PriÅ¡tina, the capital of Kosovo. ... Faculty of Arts of PriÅ¡tina (Serbian: Факултет уметности у Приштини or Fakultet umetnosti u PriÅ¡tini) is the faculty of arts of the University of PriÅ¡tina. ... College (Latin collegium) is a term most often used today to denote an educational institution. ... // France Conservatoire National de Région de Paris Maîtrise Notre Dame de Paris Sweden Södra Latins Gymnasium [1] United Kingdom Chethams School of Music St. ... Depending on context, pop music is either an abbreviation of popular music or, more recently, a term for a sub-genre of it. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles, however saxophones have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since the 90s. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... // Asgjë Sikur Dielli is one of the most known alternative rock bands in Kosovo, Serbia[1]. The band was created in mid 90 when Alban Nimani (vocal) and Bujar Honduzi (guitar) meet and decided to work together. ... Babilon was formed in 1986 in Prishtina by: Uran Bajrami - Bass Guitar (1968 - 1989), Besim Hajdini - Lead Guitar , B.B. Poqi - Vocals and Mentor Haziri - Drums. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Electronic music (disambiguation). ...


Leonora Jakupi and Adelina Ismajli are two of the most popular commercial singers in Kosovo today. | There are some notable music festivals in Kosovo: Leonora Jakupi was born on 3 March 1978 in Srbica (Skënderaj), Kosovo, Yugoslavia, and is an ethnic Albanian singer. ... Adelina Ismajli is a pop singer from Kosovo. ...

  • Rock për Rock - contains rock and metal music
  • Polifest - contains all kinds of genres (usually hip hop, commercial pop, unusually rock and never metal)
  • Showfest - contains all kinds of genres (usually hip hop, commercial pop, unusually rock and never metal)
  • Videofest - contains all kinds of genres
  • Kush Këndon Lutet Dy Herë - contains christian music
  • North City Jazz & Blues festival, an international music festival held annually in Zvečan (Albanian: Zveçani), near Kosovska Mitrovica,

Kosovo Radiotelevisions like RTK, 21 and KTV have their musical charts. Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles, however saxophones have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since the 90s. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Depending on context, pop music is either an abbreviation of popular music or, more recently, a term for a sub-genre of it. ... Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles, however saxophones have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since the 90s. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... Hip hop music is a style of music which came into existence in the United States during the mid-1970s, and became a large part of modern pop culture during the 1980s. ... Depending on context, pop music is either an abbreviation of popular music or, more recently, a term for a sub-genre of it. ... Rock is a form of popular music, usually featuring vocals (often with vocal harmony), electric guitars, and a strong back beat; other instruments, such as the saxophone, are common in some styles, however saxophones have been omitted from newer subgenres of rock music since the 90s. ... Heavy metal redirects here. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A music festival is a festival oriented towards music that is sometimes presented with a theme such as musical genre, nationality or locality of musicians, or holiday. ... Zvečan/Звечан (Serbian) or Zveçan/Zveçani (Albanian) is a town and municipality in Kosovo (under UN administration, formally part of Serbia). ...


Gallery

See also

Assembly of Kosovo (Serbian Скупштина Косова; Albanian Kuvendi i Kosovës) is the highest provisional self-government and representative and law making institution of Kosovo. ... The Government of Kosovo is the body that governs Kosovo under UNMIKs overview and it is elected by the Assembly of Kosovo. ... Prime Minister of Kosovo is the head of the Government of Kosovo. ... The President of Kosovo is elected by the Assembly of Kosovo. ... Serbs are the second largest ethnic group in Kosovo, a province of Serbia currently under UN administration. ... Albanians in Kosovo in 1991 The Albanians are the largest ethnic group in Kosovo. ... Post and Telecom of Kosovo (Albanian: Posta dhe Telekomi i Kosovës) is the national postal and telecommunications authority of Kosovo. ... National awakening and the birth of Albania (1876-1918) By the 1870s, the Sublime Portes reforms aimed at checking the Ottoman Empires disintegration had clearly failed. ... // Ottoman Rule 14th century The Dečani Charter from 1330[citation needed] contained detailed list of households and chartered villages in Metohija and northwestern Albania: 3 of 89 settlements were Albanian, the other being non-Albanian. ... Violent unrest in Kosovo (a United Nations-administrated province of Serbia officially called Kosovo and Metohija) broke out on March 17, 2004. ... Metohija (Serbian: Метохија) also spelled Metohia, is a large western basin in Kosovo. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... DioGuardi proposal for a new flag of Kosovo. ... Vidovdan (Видовдан) is a religious holiday, St. ...

References

  1. ^ Welcome to the Independent Commission for Mines and Minerals (ICMM), Kosovo
  2. ^ Elsie, R. (ed.) (2002): "Gathering Clouds. The roots of ethnic cleansing in Kosovo. Early twentieth-century documents". Dukagjini Balkan Books, Peja (Kosovo, Serbia). ISBN 9951-05-016-6
  3. ^ Krizman, Serge. "Massacre of the innocent Serbian population, committed in Yugoslavia by the Axis and its Satellite from April 1941 to August 1941". Map. Maps of Yugoslavia at War, Washington, 1943
  4. ^ Bogdanović, Dimitrije. "The Book on Kosovo". 1990. Belgrade: Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts, 1985. page 2428.
  5. ^ Genfer, Der Kosovo-Konflikt, Munich: Wieser, 2000. page 158.
  6. ^ New York Times 1981-04-19, "One Storm has Passed but Others are Gathering in Yugoslavia"
  7. ^ Reuters 1986-05-27, "Kosovo Province Revives Yugoslavia's Ethnic Nightmare"
  8. ^ Christian Science Monitor 1986-07-28, "Tensions among ethnic groups in Yugoslavia begin to boil over"
  9. ^ New York Times 1987-06-27, "Belgrade Battles Kosovo Serbs"
  10. ^ SANU (1986): Serbian Academy of Sciences and Arts Memorandum. GIP Kultura. Belgrade.
  11. ^ http://www.opendemocracy.net/articles/ViewPopUpArticle.jsp?id=2&articleId=3361 Julie A Mertus: "Slobodan Milošević: Myth and Responsibility"
  12. ^ Reuters 1988-07-30, "Yugoslav Leaders Call for Control in Kosovo, Protests Loom"
  13. ^ http://www.cnn.com/SPECIALS/2000/kosovo/stories/past/milosevic/
  14. ^ The Economist, June 05, 1999, U.S. Edition, 1041 words, What's next for Slobodan Milošević?
  15. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/1812847.stm
  16. ^ http://www.hrw.org/press/1999/jan/yugo0129.htm
  17. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/781310.stm
  18. ^ http://observer.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,6903,194119,00.html
  19. ^ http://www.vajzat.com/eng.htm
  20. ^ http://americanradioworks.publicradio.org/features/kosovo/cuska/cuska_frameset.html
  21. ^ http://www.cbc.ca/news/background/balkans/crimesandcourage.html
  22. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/hi/english/static/inside_kosovo/velika_krusa.stm
  23. ^ http://www.haverford.edu/relg/sells/kosovo/herscherriedlmayer.htm
  24. ^ "Kosovo: The Human Rights Situation and the Fate of Persons Displaced from Their Homes (.pdf) ", report by Alvaro Gil-Robles, Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, Strasbourg, October 16, 2002, p. 30.
  25. ^ Note: Including Roma, Egyptian, Ashkalli, Turks and Bosniaks. – Sources:
  26. ^ UNHCR, Critical Appraisal of Responsee Mechanisms Operating in Kosovo for Minority Returns, Pristina, February 2004, p. 14.
  27. ^ U.S. Committee for Refugees (USCR), April 2000, Reversal of Fortune: Yugoslavia's Refugees Crisis Since the Ethnic Albanian Return to Kosovo, p. 2-3.
  28. ^ "Kosovo: The human rights situation and the fate of persons displaced from their homes (.pdf) ", report by Alvaro Gil-Robles, Council of Europe Commissioner for Human Rights, Strasbourg, October 16, 2002.
  29. ^ International Relations and Security Network (ISN): Serbians return to Kosovo not impossible, says report (.pdf) , by Tim Judah, June 7, 2004.
  30. ^ European Stability Initiative (ESI): The Lausanne Principle: Multiethnicity, Territory and the Future of Kosovo's Serbs (.pdf) , June 7, 2004.
  31. ^ Coordinating Centre of Serbia for Kosovo-Metohija: Principles of the program for return of internally displaced persons from Kosovo and Metohija .
  32. ^ UNHCR: 2002 Annual Statistical Report: Serbia and Montenegro, pg. 9
  33. ^ U.S. Committee for Refugees and Immigrants (USCRI): Country report: Serbia and Montenegro 2006.
  34. ^ U.S State Department Report, published in 2007
  35. ^ "Kosovo: Serb minister resigns over misuse of funds ", Adnkronos international (AKI), November 27, 2006
  36. ^ "Sole Kosovo Serb cabinet minister resigns: PM ", Agence France-Presse (AFP), November 24, 2006.
  37. ^ http://www.ks-gov.net/pm/?menuid=2&subid=20&subs=56&lingo=1
  38. ^ EuroNews: Ex-guerrilla chief claims victory in Kosovo election. Retrieved 18 November 2007.
  39. ^ "UN frustrated by Kosovo deadlock ", BBC News, October 9, 2006.
  40. ^ http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/newsbriefs/setimes/newsbriefs/2007/06/29/nb-07
  41. ^ http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/newsbriefs/setimes/newsbriefs/2007/07/10/nb-02
  42. ^ http://www.ft.com/cms/s/985caa90-de5a-11db-afa7-000b5df10621.html
  43. ^ http://www.guardian.co.uk/international/story/0,,2209907,00.html
  44. ^ http://www.nytimes.com/2007/10/02/world/europe/02kosovo.html?_r=1&oref=slogin
  45. ^ worldbank.org
  46. ^ Christian Science Monitor 1982-01-15, "Why Turbulent Kosovo has Marble Sidewalks but Troubled Industries"
  47. ^ worldbank.org
  48. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/enlargement_papers/2005/elp26en.pdf
  49. ^ http://www.eciks.org/english/lajme.php?action=total_news&main_id=386
  50. ^ http://ec.europa.eu/economy_finance/publications/enlargement_papers/2005/elp26en.pdf
  51. ^ http://www.buyusa.gov/kosovo/en/doingbusinessinkosovo.html
  52. ^ http://www.seerecon.org/kosovo/documents/wb_econ_report/wb-kosovo-econreport-2-2.pdf
  53. ^ Croatia, Kosovo sign Interim Free Trade Agreement, B92, 2 October 2006
  54. ^ euinkosovo.org
  55. ^ http://www.kosovo-eicc.org/oek/index.php?page_id=64
  56. ^ http://www.buyusa.gov/kosovo/en/doingbusinessinkosovo.html
  57. ^ Kosovo Economic Briefing (April), worldbank.org
  58. ^ http://www.euinkosovo.org/uk/invest/invest.php
  59. ^ "Brussels offers first Kosovo loan", BBC News Online, 3 May 2005.
  60. ^ Transparency Initiative for Kosovo (TIK), UN Development Programme in Kosovo.
  61. ^ http://www.ks-gov.net/esk/esk/pdf/english/general/kosovo_figures_05.pdf
  62. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/4385768.stm
  63. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/world/europe/country_profiles/3524092.stm
  64. ^ http://www.crisisgroup.org/home/index.cfm?id=1591&l=1
  65. ^ http://www.world-gazetteer.com/wg.php?x=&men=gcis&lng=en&dat=32&srt=npan&col=aohdq&geo=-244

Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... Alvaro Gil-Robles (born in September 9, 1944 in Lissabon, Portugal) is a Spanish jurist and human rights activist. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Alvaro Gil-Robles (born in September 9, 1944 in Lissabon, Portugal) is a Spanish jurist and human rights activist. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... Alvaro Gil-Robles (born in September 9, 1944 in Lissabon, Portugal) is a Spanish jurist and human rights activist. ... Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Headquartered in Geneva, Switzerland, the Office of the UN High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) (established December 14, 1950) protects and supports refugees at the request of a government or the United Nations and assists in their return or resettlement. ... B92 (Б92) is a radio and television station in Belgrade, Serbia. ...

External links

Find more information on Kosovo by searching Wikipedia's sister projects
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Images and media from Commons
News stories from Wikinews
Learning resources from Wikiversity
  • New Kosova Report - Kosovo News and Views Portal
  • UNHCR - Balkans: Kosovo
  • OSCE Mission in Kosovo
  • EU Commission report on economic development in Accession countries, including Kosovo
  • http://www.unosek.org/unosek/index.html UN Special Envoy's Office Website
  • Kosovo travel guide from Wikitravel
  • [6] Human Rights Watch - Serbia
  • RTK - Kosovo's public television - news in Albanian, Serbian, Turkish and Roma
  • KosovaKosovo A source of information reflecting both sides’ claims in the dispute
  • UNMIK UN led civilian administration in Kosovo.
  • EU EU Pillar in Kosovo.
  • Otvoreno A place where Serbian politicians speak openly on the Kosovo issue. In Serbian language only.
  • KIM-Info News Service, News from Kosovo in English and Serbian
  • (ICG) International Crisis Group, a source of independent analysis on Kosovo issues.
  • Kosovo Roma Oral History Project An advocacy website for Kosovo's Roma/ Gypsies, with significant details on Kosovo's contested history.
  • ECIKS Economic Initiative for Kosovo, information on investment opportunities.
  • US State Dept. fact sheet "The Ethnic Cleansing of Kosovo"
  • Kosovo Blog Online" Kosovo Search Challenge: Helping people find information for Kosovo, the positive side of Kosovo.
  • KFOR Kosovo Forces (KFOR) NATO peacekeeping forces

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... Wikitravel is a project to create an open content, complete, up-to-date, and reliable world-wide travel guide. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...

Pro-Albanian

  • Kosovo Assembly (Kuvendi i Kosovës) English version
  • The Official Webportal of Tourism in Kosovo
  • The office of Prime Minister of Kosovo English version
  • http://www.ess.uwe.ac.uk/kosovo/contents.htm
  • Alliance for a New Kosovo A Policy Resource on Kosovo Independence.
  • Economic Initiative for Kosovo - "...latest news, analysis and publications from the Kosovar economy"
  • Kosovo Crisis Center A collection of articles on Kosovo, in English.
  • AACL Albanian American Civic League.
  • KosovaLive Kosovo Albanian independent news agency (this section in English).
  • [ http://www.hrw.org/reports/2001/kosovo/] War Crimes in Kosovo

The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

Pro-Serbian

  • Kosovo and Metohija - Serbian Government Website
  • News from Kosovo
  • Kosovo Compromise Presentation on Kosovo issue of 4S Institute, Brussels
  • Rastko Project - dedicated to Serbia and Serb-related arts, humanities and Orthodox religion (in English)
  • Terror in Kosovo Terror in Kosovo (in English)
  • Coordination Center of SCG and the Republic of Serbia for Kosovo (in English, Serbian and Albanian)
  • Kosovo-The Land of the Living past (in English)
  • American Council for Kosovo - U.S. nonprofit organization dedicated to promoting a better American understanding of the Serbian province of Kosovo and Metohija and of the critical American stake in the province’s future.
Geographic locale
International membership and history

  Results from FactBites:
 
Nasdaq 100 Flash Quotes (320 words)
Officers in Kosovo acted after a request for help from Serbian police investigating Islamic extremists in the tense Muslim-populated region, said a police official who requested anonymity because he wasn't allowed to publicly discuss the case.
Kosovo is formally part of Serbia but under the control of the United Nations and NATO since 1999 when NATO bombed Serbia to stop a military campaign.
A spokesman for the force in Kosovo confirmed an ethnic Albanian, arrested in the northern town of Kosovska Mitrovica on Wednesday, was being held for the alleged unauthorized sale of weapons, but declined to comment further.
Kosovo - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6126 words)
On an island was Svrčin, and on the coast Štimlji, and in the mountains was the Castle of Nerodimlje.
The 1918-1929 period of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenians witnessed a raise of the Serbian population in the region and a decline in the non-Serbian.
The territories of Kosovo were split among the Banate of Zeta, the Banate of Morava and the Banate of Vardar.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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