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Encyclopedia > Kosciuszko Uprising

The Kościuszko Uprising took place in Poland in 1794. It was a failed attempt at freeing Poland from Russian influence after the Second Partition of Poland and the creation of Confederation of Targowica. Tadeusz Kościuszko. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Partitions of Poland ( Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... Categories: Stub | Polish confederations ...

Contents

Background

The first partition of Poland and the War in the defence of constitution resulted in serious weakening of the reformist movement in Poland, supporting the May Constitution. However, after the second partition of Poland the ruling partisans of Imperial Russia united in the Confederation of Targowica were also weakened. The people supporting Russia as the main guarantor of the golden freedoms after the second partition were seen as traitors of their country rather than heroes and opposition to their rule gained much support, both within the gentry and the burghers. The Partitions of Poland ( Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... This conflict took place in 1792 between Poland and her ally the Kingdom of Prussia, on one side, and the Russian Empire on the other. ... May 3rd Constitution (painting by Jan Matejko, 1891). ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... Categories: Stub | Polish confederations ... Szlachta ( pronounced: [ʃlaxta]) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ( Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ...


To suppress the opposition, the governments of Prussia and Russia agreed to demobilise 50% of the Polish Army and draft the remaining Polish soldiers into their own armies. On March 12, 1794, General Antoni Madaliński, the commander of 1st Greater Polish National Cavalry Brigade (1 500 men) decided to disobey the orders of demobilisation and moved his troops from Ostrołęka to Kraków. This sparked a general outbreak of anti-Russian riots throughout the country. Russian garrison of Kraków was ordered to leave the city and defeat the revolted Polish unit. This left the city completely undefended. The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... Polish Army (Polish Wojsko Polskie) is the name applied to the military forces of Poland. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in Leap years). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ...


Uprising

On March 24, 1794 in Kraków General Tadeusz Kościuszko, a veteran of the American Revolutionary War pronounced the general uprising and assumed the powers of the commander in chief of the entire Polish Army, becoming the de facto dictator of Poland. He also vowed to March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... Tadeusz Kościuszko. ... The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the American War of Independence, was a war fought primarily between Great Britain and revolutionaries within thirteen of her North American colonies. ...

use the powers not to oppress any person, but to defend the entirety of the borders of Poland, regain the independence of the nation and to strenghten the universal freedom.

In order to strenghten the Polish forces, Kościuszko issued an act of mobilisation, requiring that every 5 houses in Lesser Poland delegate at least one able male soldier equipped with carbine, pike or an axe. Kościuszko's staff estimated that by mobilising all able males between 18 and 40 years of age the army of the uprising will soon reach the number of 10 000. The difficulties with providing enough armament for the mobilised troops made Kościuszko form large units composed of people armoured with scythes. Lesser Poland voivodship since 1999 Little Poland or Lesser Poland (Polish Małopolska, Latin: Polonia Minor) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... Using a scythe A scythe is an agricultural hand tool for mowing and reaping grass or crops. ...

"Battle of Racławice", Jan Matejko, oil on canvas, 1888, National Museum in Kraków. 4th April 1794

To destroy the, still weak, opposition, the Russian tsar ordered the corps of Major General Fiodor Denisov to attack Kraków. On April 4 both armies met near the village of Racławice. In what became known as the Battle of Racławice Kościuszko's forces defeated the numerically and technically supperior opponent. After a bloody battle the Russian forces withdrew from the battlefield. Kościuszko's forces were too weak to start a successful pursuit and wipe the Russian forces out of Lesser Poland. Although the strategical importance of the victory was close to none, the news of the victory spread fast and soon other parts of Poland joined the ranks of the revolutionaries. By early April the Polish forces cencentrated in the lands of Lublin and Volhynia, ready to be sent to Russia, joined the ranks of Kościuszko's forces. On April 17 Jan Kiliński started an armed uprising against the Russian garrison of Warsaw and after two days of heavy city fights managed to completely rout the Russian forces in the area. Similar uprising was started by Jakub Jasiński in Wilno on April 22 and soon other cities and towns followed. Battle of Raclawice by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Battle of Raclawice by Jan Matejko This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Battle of Racławice Conflict Kościuszko Uprising Date April 4, 1794 Place Racławice, Lesser Poland Result Polish victory The Battle of Racławice was one of the first battles of the Polish Kościuszko Uprising against Russia. ... Categories: Stub | Polish painters | 1838 births | 1893 deaths ... Motto: none Voivodship Lesser Poland Municipal government Rada miasta Kraków Mayor Jacek Majchrowski Area 326,8 km² Population  - city  - urban  - density 757,500 (2004 est. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... Racławice is a village located in Little Poland, Poland. ... Battle of Racławice Conflict Kościuszko Uprising Date April 4, 1794 Place Racławice, Lesser Poland Result Polish victory The Battle of Racławice was one of the first battles of the Polish Kościuszko Uprising against Russia. ... Lublin (pronounce: [lublin]) is the biggest city in eastern Poland and the capital of Lublin Voivodship with a population of 355,954 (2004). ... Volhynia (Wołyń in Polish; Волинь, Volyn’ in Ukrainian; also called Volynia, Volyň in Czech) comprises the historic region in western Ukraine located between the rivers Pripyat and Western Bug. ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (108th in leap years). ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... April 22 is the 112th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (113th in leap years). ...


On May 7, 1794, Kościuszko issued an act that became known as the "Połaniec Universal Call", in which he partially abolished the serfdom in Poland, granted civil liberty to all peasants and provided them with state help against the abuses by szlachta. Although the new law never fully came into being and was boycotted by much of the szlachta, it also attracted many peasants to the ranks of the revolutionists. It was the first time in Polish history when the peasants were officially regarded as part of the nation, the word being previously equal to szlachta. May 7 is the 127th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (128th in leap years). ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Szlachta ( pronounced: [ʃlaxta]) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ( Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... Szlachta ( pronounced: [ʃlaxta]) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ( Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... A nation is an imagined community of people created by a national ideology, to which certain norms and behavior are usually attributed. ... Szlachta ( pronounced: [ʃlaxta]) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ( Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ...


Despite the promise of reforms and quick recruitment of new forces, the strategiczal situation of the Polish forces was still critical. On May 10 the forces of Prussia crossed the Polish borders and joined the Russian armies operating in northern Poland. On June 6 Kościuszko was defeated in the Battle of Szczekociny by a joint Russo-Prussian forces and on June 8 General Józef Zajączek was defeated in the Battle of Chełm. Polish forces withdrew towards Warsaw and started to fortify the city. On June 15 the Prussian army captured Kraków unopposed, but the Russian forces were defeated in a series of skirmishes near Warsaw and the defenders managed to finish the fortification efforts. Although it was besieged by Russo-Prussian forces on July 22, the siege was unsuccessful. On August 20 an uprising in Greater Poland started and the Prussians were forced to withdraw their forces from Warsaw. The siege was lifted soon afterwards, on September 5. Russian forces commanded by Ivan Fersen were withdrawn towards Pilica River. May 10 is the 130th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (131st in leap years). ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and... June 6 is the 157th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (158th in leap years), with 208 days remaining. ... June 8 is the 159th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (160th in leap years), with 206 days remaining. ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... June 15 is the 166th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (167th in leap years), with 199 days remaining. ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... A siege is a prolonged military blockade and assault of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition. ... July 22 is the 203rd day (204th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 162 days remaining. ... August 20 is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Greater Poland (also Great Poland; Polish: Wielkopolska, German: Grosspolen, Latin: Polonia Maior) is one of the historical regions of Poland. ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... Pilica is a river in central Poland, a longest left tributary of the Vistula river, with a length of 319 kilometres (8th longest) and the basin area of 9,273 sq. ...


Although the opposition in Lithuania was crushed by Russian forces (Wilno was besieged and capitulated on August 12), the uprising in Greater Poland achieved some success. A Polish corps under Jan Henryk Dąbrowski captured Bydgoszcz (October 2) and entered Pomerania almost unopposed. Thanks to the mobility of his forces, General Dąbrowski evaded being encircled by a much less mobile Prussian army and disrupted the Prussian lines, forcing the Prussians to withdraw most of their forces from central Poland. Vilnius Old Town Vilnius (sometimes Vilna; Polish Wilno, Belarusian Вільня, Russian Вильнюс, see also Cities alternative names) is the capital city of Lithuania. ... August 12 is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... Bydgoszcz (in Polish pronounce: [:bidgɔʃʧ], Latin: Bydgostia) is a city in northern Poland, on Brda and Vistula rivers, with a population of 369,151 (2004). ... October 2nd is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... Pomerania (Polish: Pomorze, German: Pommern and Pommerellen, Lithuanian Pamarė, Pomeranian (Kashubian): Pòmòrze and Pòmòrskô, Latin: Pomerania, Pomorania) is a geographical and historical region in northern Poland and Germany on the south coasts of the Baltic Sea between and on both sides of the Vistula and Oder (Odra) rivers, reaching the...


Meanwhile, the Russians equipped a new corps commanded by General Aleksandr Suvorov and ordered it to join up with the corps under Ivan Fersen near Warsaw. After the battles of Krupczyce (September 17) and Terespol (September 19), the new army started its march towards the Polish capital. To prevent both Russian armies from joining up, Kościuszko mobilised his forces in Warsaw and on October 10 started the Battle of Maciejowice. Despite Kościuszko's plans, both Russian units entered the combat simultaneously and the enemy achieved victory. Kościuszko himself was wounded in the battle and was captured by the Russians who sent him to Petersburg. Monument to Suvorov as youthful Mars, the Roman god of war (Italy (November 24, 1729 - May 18, 1800), was a Russian Generalissimo, reckoned one of a few great generals in history who never lost a battle. ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... September 17 is the 260th day of the year (261st in leap years). ... September 19 is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years). ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... October 10 is the 283rd day of the year (284th in Leap years). ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: Санкт-Петербу́рг, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as Питер (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (Ленингра́д, 1924–1991) and Petrograd (Петрогра́д, 1914–1924), is a city located in Northwestern Russia on the delta of the river Neva at the east end of the Gulf of Finland...


The new commander of the uprising, Tomasz Wawrzecki, was not able to control the spreading internal struggles for power and ultimately became only the commander of weakened military forces, while the political power was held by General Józef Zajączek, who in turn had to struggle with both the leftist liberal Jacobites and the rightist and monarchical gentry. This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ... Szlachta ( pronounced: [ʃlaxta]) was the noble class in Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania ( Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ...


On September 4 the joint Russian forces started an all-out assault on Praga, the right-bank suburb of Warsaw. After 4 hours long hand-to-hand struggle, the 24 000 men strong Russian forces broke through the Polish defences and started to loot and burn the borough. In what became known as the Massacre of Praga whole district was completely destroyed and approximately 20 000 of its inhabitants were murdered. To spare Warsaw the fate of its eastern suburb, Wawrzecki decided to withdraw his remaining forces southwards and on November 5 Warsaw was captured. September 4 is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years). ... Praga comprises a suburb of Polish capital, Warsaw - or, more accurately, names all that part of Warsaw on the right bank of the river Vistula. ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... Massacre of Praga Conflict Kościuszko Uprising Date November 4, 1794 Place Praga, Warsaw Result Russian victory Massacre of Praga (sometimes referred to as Battle of Warsaw of 1794) refers to the Russian assault of Praga, the easternmost suburb of Warsaw, during the Kościuszko Uprising in 1794. ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ... November 5 is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 56 days remaining. ... Warsaw (Polish: Warszawa, see also other names, in full The Capital City of Warsaw, Polish: Miasto Stołeczne Warszawa) is the capital of Poland and its largest city. ...


On November 16 near Radoszyce Wawrzecki surrendered. This marked an end of the uprising. The power of Poland was broken and the following year the third partition of Poland happened, after which Austria, Russia and Prussia annexed the remainder of the country. November 16 is the 320th day of the year (321st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 45 days remaining. ... The Partitions of Poland ( Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen or Preussen, Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prūsai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and...


Aftermath

The effect of the Kościuszko Uprising was a complete disaster for Poland. The country ceased to exist for 123 years and all of its institutions were gradually banned by the partitioning powers. However, the uprising also marked the start of modern political thought in Poland and Central Europe. The Kościuszko's Universal of Połaniec and the radical leftist Jacobites started the Polish leftist movement. Many prominent Polish politicians who were active during the uprising became the backbone of Polish politics, both home and abroad, in 19th century. Historical lands and provinces in Central Europe Central Europe is the region of Europe between Eastern Europe and Western Europe. ... This article is not about the Jacobite Orthodox Church, nor is it about Jacobinism or the earlier Jacobean period. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Also, Prussia had much of its forces tied up in Poland and could not field enough forces to suppress the French Revolution, which added to its success. The period of the French Revolution in the history of France covers the years between 1789 and 1799, in which democrats and republicans overthrew the absolute monarchy and the Roman Catholic Church was forced to undergo radical restructuring. ...


See also


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