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Encyclopedia > Kosas

Kosas are five cases or sheaths which cover the Atman in Hinduism. Beginning with Vedantic Hindu philosophy, the Ātman — Sanskrit (masculine nominative singular: Ātmā) is regarded as an underlying metaphysical self. ... Hinduism (Sanskrit , also known as ) and ) is a worldwide religious tradition that is based on the Vedas, and is among the oldest still practiced today. ...

The five Kosas are:
  1. Annamaya kosa, the food-body
  2. pranamaya kosa, the breath
  3. manomaya kosa, or “mind-sheath”
  4. Vijnanamaya kosa, that which discriminates, determines or wills
  5. anandamaya kosa, or bliss

Contents

Prana (Devanagari: प्राण, prāNa) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath (Chinese, Chi. ... Vijñāna is Sanskrit for consciousness. ... Will, in philosophy, refers to the conscious mental act that produces physical results. ... Ananda (Ch:阿難) was one of many principal disciples of the Buddha, a devout attendant and was renowned as the Ananda was the first cousin of the Buddha, and was devotedly attached to him. ...


Corporal bodies

In the consequence of acts performed in former states of being through the actions of the fivefold elements, corporal bodies (which become the dwelling place of pleasure and pain) are formed. The soul is wrapped in five investing sheaths and seems formed of these, and is darkened like crystals on coloured cloth. As winnowed rice is purified from husk, the soul burdened with its sheaths is purified by the force of meditation. To remove his bondage the wise man should discriminate between the self and the non-self. By that alone he comes to know his own self and existence - through knowledge and bliss absolute, he becomes happy. He is free indeed who discriminates all sense-objects and the indwelling, unattached and inactive self as one separates a stalk from its enveloping sheath. Always merging every thing in it, he remains in a state of identity with that self. This article is about an emotion. ... Pain is an unpleasant sensation which may be associated with actual or potential tissue damage and which may have physical and emotional components. ... The soul, according to many religious and philosophical traditions, is a self aware ethereal substance particular to a unique living being. ... Meditation is the practice of focusing the mind, often formalized into a specific routine. ...


Covered by the five sheaths, the material one and the rest, which are the products of its own power, the self ceases to appear, like the water of the tank by accumulation of sludge. When all the five sheaths have been eliminated by the reasoning on Shruthi passages, what remains as the culminating point of the process is the witness, the knowledge absolute - the Atman. This self–effulgent Atman is distinct from the five sheaths, as witness of the three states, the real, the changeless, and the unattained everlasting bliss is to be realized by a wise man as his own self.


Five Sheaths

The five sheaths (pancha-kosas) are alluded to in the fourteen verse of the Atmabodha. It must be noted that the individualised soul, when separated from the Supreme soul, is regarded in the Vedanta as enclosed in a succession of cases (kosa) which envelope it and, as it were, folded one over the other, ‘like the coats of an onion’. The five sheaths are said to cover the self. The true self or the Atman, is none of these, nor can it’s true nature be known as long as it is identified with them. All the five sheaths have been eliminated in the self of man. It appears pure, of the essence of everlasting and an alloyed bliss, indwelling, supreme, and self-effulgent. In Hindu theology, Paramatman is Absolute Atman or Supreme Soul. ...


Annamaya Kosa

The physical body is said to be made of food or matter. It is Annamaya. The Atman is described as enclosed in a series of sheaths. First there is the Annamaya, the food-body. This is the sheath of the physical self, named from the fact that it is nourished by the food. Further it says that the food identifies himself with a mass of skin, flesh, fat, bones, and filth, while the man of discrimination knows his own self, the only reality that there is, as distinct from the body. A materialist thinks he is the body, a religious student identifies himself with the mixture of body and Soul, while a Sage who has attained realization due to discrimination looks upon the eternal Atman as his self, and thinks “I am Brahman”. Diagram of the layers of human skin In zootomy and dermatology, skin is an organ of the integumentary system composed of a layer of tissues that protect underlying muscles and organs. ... Meat is animal flesh (mainly muscle tissue) used as food, sometimes with the exception of fish, other seafood, and poultry. ... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... A miserable stubborn cantankerous old mans, whos actually quite good humoured & an enjoyable compadre to play online alongside if you catch him on a good day. ... Human anatomy or anthropotomy is a special field within anatomy. ... Brahman (ब्रह्मन् in devanagari script) in the Vedantic (and subsequently Yogic) schools of Hinduism, is the signifying name given to the concept of the unchanging, infinite, immanent and transcendent reality that is the Divine Ground of all being in this universe. ...


Pranamaya Kosa

There is another and subtle sheath, which is pranamaya, different from the body of food. Pranamaya means composed of prana. Prana is the vital principle, the force that vitalizes and holds together the body and the mind. It pervades the whole organism, its physical manifestation is the breath. As long as this vital principle exists in the organisms, life continues. The prana, with which we are all familiar, coupled with the five organs of action, forms the vital sheath, permeated by which the material sheath engages itself in all activities as if it were living. This is the sheath composed of breath and the other vital airs associated with the organs of action. In the Vivekachoodamani it is a modification of vayu, and like the air, it enters into and comes out of the body, and because it never knows in the least either it’s own weal and woo, nor those of others, being eternally dependent on the Self. Prana (Devanagari: प्राण, prāNa) is a Sanskrit word meaning breath (Chinese, Chi. ... In Hinduism, Prana is the infinite matter of which energy is born. ... In Hinduism, Vayu (also known as Pavan) is a primary god, father of Bhima and Hanuman. ... Look up air in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Manomaya Kosa

Manomaya means composed of manas or mind. It is called the manomaya or sheath composed or mere intellect, associated with the organs of action. This gives the individual soul its power of thought and judgement. The manomaya kosa, for instance or “mind-sheath” is said more truly to approximate to personhood than ‘annamaya kosa’ or the food sheath. The vital sheath knowledge together with the mind from the mental sheath the cause of the diversity of things such as ‘I’ and ‘mine’. It is powerful and endowed with the faculty of creating categorical differentiation, such as names. It manifests itself as permeating the preceding. Manas is the name of: A Kyrgyz epic poem (see Manas (epic); A commune in Drôme département, in France (see Manas, Drôme) Level of consciousness in Yogacara Buddhism, the manas-vijnana A river in the state of Assam in India. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards and appeal to a wider international audience, this article may require cleanup. ... Differentiation can mean the following: In biology: cellular differentiation; evolutionary differentiation; In mathematics: see: derivative In cosmogony: planetary differentiation Differentiation (geology); Differentiation (logic); Differentiation (marketing). ...


Sankara uses the example of clouds that are brought in by the wind and again driven away by the same agency. Similarly man’s bondage is caused by the mind, and liberation too is caused by that alone. Attaining purity through a preponderance of discrimination and renunciation, the mind makes for liberation. Hence the wise seeker after liberation must first strengthen these two. Sankara can refer to: Shiva, whom Hindus, especially Shaivaites, worship as supreme God or their Supreme Being. ...


The mind (manas) along with the five sensory organs is said to constitute the manomaya kosa.


Vijnanamaya Kosa

Vijnanamaya means composed of vijnana, or intellect, and refers to the faculty which discriminates, determines or wills. Chattampi Swamikal defines vijnanamaya as the combination of intellect and the five sense organs. It is the sheath composed of more intellection, associated with the organs of perception. This gives the personal soul its first conception of individuality. The sheath of buddhi or vijnanamaya kosa together with the pranamaya kosa compose the body. Sankara holds that the buddhi, with it’s modifications and the organs of knowledge, form the vijnanamaya kosa or knowledge sheath, of the agent, having the characteristics which are the cause of man’s transmigration. This knowledge sheath, which seems to be followed by a reflection of the power of the cit, is a modification of prakrti. It is endowed by the function of knowledge, and it always wholly identifies itself with the body, organs etc. Owing to its connection with superimpositions, the supreme self, even though naturally, perfect and eternally unchanging, assumes the qualities of the superimpositions and appears to act just like the changeless fire assuming the modifications of the iron which it turns red-hot. Vijnana is Sanskrit for consciousness. ... Will, in philosophy, refers to the conscious mental act that produces physical results. ... Chattampi Swamikal (b:1853 - d:1925) was one of Kerala’s famed social reform activists and learned men. ... Senses are the physiological methods of perception. ... Individualism, in general, is a term used to describe a theoretical or practical emphasis of the individual, as opposed to, and possibly at the expense of, the group. ... In Hinduism, Buddhi is a minor mother goddess of fertility and growth. ... Transmigration can has several meanings: Transmigration of the soul is a common term for reincarnation. ... Prakrti or Prakriti (from Sanskrit language) is, according to samkhya philosophy, the basic matter of which the universe consists. ...


This knowledge sheath cannot be the supreme self for the following reasons

  • It is subject to change.
  • It is insentient.
  • It is a limited thing.
  • It is not constantly present.

Anandamaya Kosa

Anandamaya means composed of ananda (bliss), and it’s sheath refers to the ego. In the Upanishads the sheath is known also as the ‘causal body’. In deep sleep, when the mind and senses cease functioning, there still stands the causal body between the finite world and the blissful self. As the fifth sheath is nearest of all to the blissful self it’s name in the Upanishads is anandamaya. Anandamaya or that which is composed of Supreme bliss, is also named, although not admitted, by all. It is regarded as the innermost of all, and therefore, when the five sheaths are enumerated, it is to be placed before the vijnanamaya. The blissful sheath has its fullest play during deep sleep, while in the dreaming and wakeful states it has only a partial manifestation. The blissful sheath (anandamaya kosa) is that modification nescience which manifests itself by catching a reflection of the Atman which is bliss absolute, whose attributes are pleasure and rest, and which comes into view when some object agreeable to oneself presents itself. It makes itself spontaneously felt by the fortunate during the fruition of their virtuous deeds, from which every corporeal being derives great joy without effort. Ananda(Ch:阿難) was one of many principal disciples of the Buddha, a devout attendant and was renowned as the Ananda was the first cousin of the Buddha, and was devotedly attached to him. ... eGO is a company that builds electric motor scooters which are becoming popular for urban transportation and vacation use. ... The Upanishads (उपनिषद्, Upanişad) are part of the Hindu Shruti scriptures which primarily discuss meditation and philosophy and are seen as religious instructions by most schools of Hinduism. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kosas: Realms of the mind (1639 words)
The body or annamaya kosa is developed naturally through physical labor and exercise while yoga prescribes asanas and the proper selection of food to develop the kosa.
The atimanasa kosa, or first layer of the causal mind is developed naturally through psychic clash, struggles in the realm of mind which everyone faces in the course of life.
The yogic practice for the development of the atimanasa kosa is pratyahara, the withdrawal of the senses from attachment to external objects.
Top Literature - Kosas (1189 words)
Kosas or Koshas are five cases or sheaths which cover the Atman in Hinduism.
It must be noted that the individualised soul, when separated from the Supreme soul, is regarded in the Vedanta as enclosed in a succession of cases (kosa) which envelope it and, as it were, folded one over the other, ‘like the coats of an onion’.
Sankara holds that the buddhi, with its modifications and the organs of knowledge, form the vijnanamaya kosa or knowledge sheath, of the agent, having the characteristics which are the cause of man’s transmigration.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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