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Encyclopedia > Korean civilization
Korea
Location of Korea
Entrance to Gyeongbokgung
Joseon dynasty royal throne
Korea Portal

Korea (Korean: (조선 or 한국, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. The peninsula is currently divided into North Korea and South Korea, and borders China to the northwest and Russia to the northeast, with Japan situated to the southeast across the Korea Strait. This map shows the location of the Korean peninsula. ... Image File history File links Korean_royal_palace_entrance. ... Image File history File links Choseon_royal_throne. ... Image File history File links Portal. ... Hangul also refers to a word processing application widely used in Korea. ... Hangul also refers to a word processing application widely used in Korea. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... East Asia is a subregion of Asia that can be defined in either geographical or cultural terms. ... The Korea Strait is a sea passage between South Korea and Japan, connecting the East China Sea and the Sea of Japan (East Sea) in northwest Pacific Ocean. ...


One of the world's oldest civilizations [1], Korea began with the founding of Gojoseon in 2333 BC, according to the Dangun legend. Limited linguistic evidence suggests possible Altaic-Tungusic origins of these people, whose northern Mongolian Steppe culture absorbed refugees and invaders from northern China. In the 4th century, the adoption of Buddhism and the Chinese writing system ("hanja" in Korean) had a profound effect on its society. Koreans later passed on these, as well as their own advances, to Japan. [2][3][4][5] Korea (Korean: (조선 or 한국, see below) is a geographic area, civilization, and former state situated on the Korean Peninsula in East Asia. ... Gojoseon (ancient Joseon, to distinguish the later Joseon Dynasty) was the first Korean kingdom. ... Dangun is the mythical founder of Korea. ... Altaic is a putative language family which would include 60 languages spoken by about 250 million people, mostly in and around central Asia. ... Tungusic languages (or Manchu-Tungus languages) are spoken in Eastern Siberia and Manchuria. ... A steppe in Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, a steppe (Russian: - step, Ukrainian: - step), pronounced in English as step, is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally considered as being dominated by... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Various styles of Chinese calligraphy. ... It has been suggested that Sino-Korean be merged into this article or section. ...


After the unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea by Silla in 676, Korea was ruled by a single government and maintained political and cultural independence, despite the Mongol invasions of the Goryeo Dynasty in the 13th century and Japanese invasions of the Joseon Dynasty in the 16th century. In the 15th century, during the reign of King Sejong the Great, the Korean alphabet hangul was created and in the 15th century the turtle ships, possibly the world's first ironclad warships, were deployed. During the latter part of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea's isolationist policy earned it the Western nickname the "Hermit Kingdom". By the late 19th century, the country became the object of colonial designs by the imperial aggressors of Japan and Europe. In 1910, Korea was forcibly annexed by Japan and remained occupied until the end of World War II in 1945. The Three Kingdoms of Korea were Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of northeastern China for much of the 1st millennium CE. The Three Kingdoms period in Korea is usually considered to run from the 1st century BCE until Sillas triumph over Goguryeo in... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... Combatants Joseon Dynasty Korea, Ming Dynasty China Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea: Yi Sun-sin, Gwon Yul, Won Gyun, Kim Myung Won, Yi Il, Sin Lip, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Shi-min China: Li Rusong , Li Rubai, Ma Gui , Qian Shi-zhen, Ren Ziqiang, Yang Yuan, Zhang Shijue, Chen... The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) (also Choson), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye in what is modern day Korea, and lasted for five centuries as one of the worlds longest running monarchies. ... Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 – May 18, 1450, r. ... Hangul also refers to a word processing application widely used in Korea. ... The Turtle Ship (also known as Geobukson or Kobukson by its Korean name) was a large ironclad warship belonging to Panokseon class in Korea under the Joseon Dynasty between the 15th century and 18th century . ... Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were ships sheathed with thick iron plates for protection. ... Hermit kingdom is a term applied to any country or society which walls itself off (metaphorically or physically) from the rest of the world. ... Imperialism is a policy of extending control or authority over foreign entities as a means of acquisition and/or maintenance of empires. ... World map showing Europe Political map (neighboring countries in Asia and Africa also shown) Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of the Earth. ... Korea was occupied and under Japanese rule during the period of Japans administrative control of the Korean peninsula in the early 20th century from 1910 to 1945. ... This article is becoming very long. ...


In 1945, Soviet Union and United States troops occupied the northern and southern halves of the country, respectively. The two Cold War enemies helped establish governments sympathetic to their own ideologies, leading to Korea's current division into two political entities: North Korea and South Korea. The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Holodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between a worldwide military alliance of capitalist states led by the United States and a rival alliance of communist states led by the Soviet Union. ...

Contents

Names of Korea

Main article: Names of Korea
Goguryeo tomb mural
Goguryeo tomb mural

The name "Korea" derives from the Goryeo period of Korean history, which in turn referred to the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo. It is now commonly used in English contexts by both North and South Korea. There are three names of Korea (referring to North Korea and South Korea together) in use today. ... Image File history File links Goguryeo_tomb_mural. ... Image File history File links Goguryeo_tomb_mural. ... Goguryeo (traditional dates 37 B.C. – A.D. 668) was a kingdom in northern Korea and a large part of Manchuria. ... The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... This article is about the history of Korea. ... Goguryeo (traditional dates 37 B.C. – A.D. 668) was a kingdom in northern Korea and a large part of Manchuria. ...


In the Korean language, Korea as a whole is referred to as Chosŏn (Korean chosŏn'gŭl: 조선; hanja: 朝鮮; McCune-Reischauer: Chosǒn; revised: Joseon ) by North Korea and Han-guk (Korean hangul: 대한민국; hanja: 大韓民國; revised: Hanguk; McCune-Reischauer: Han'guk) by South Korea. The Korean language (, see below) is the official language of both North and South Korea. ... Hangul also refers to a word processing application widely used in Korea. ... It has been suggested that Sino-Korean be merged into this article or section. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean (Korean: 국어의 로마자 표기법; 國語의 로마字 表記法) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... Hangul also refers to a word processing application widely used in Korea. ... It has been suggested that Sino-Korean be merged into this article or section. ... The Revised Romanization of Korean (Korean: 국어의 로마자 표기법; 國語의 로마字 表記法) is the official Korean language romanization system in South Korea. ... McCune-Reischauer romanization is one of the two most widely used Korean language romanization systems, along with the Revised Romanization of Korean, which replaced (a modified) McCune-Reischauer as the official romanization system in South Korea in 2000. ...

See also: Korean romanization

Korean romanization means using letters of the Latin alphabet to write Korean language, which in Korea is written using Hangul, and sometimes Hanja. ...

History

Buryeongsa
Buryeongsa
Main article: History of Korea
History of Korea

Gojoseon, Jin
Proto-Three Kingdoms:
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan
Three Kingdoms:
 Goguryeo
 Baekje
 Silla, Gaya
Unified Silla, Balhae
 Later Three Kingdoms
Goryeo
  Khitan wars
  Mongol invasions
Joseon
 Hideyoshi's Invasions of Korea
 Korean Empire
Japanese Occupation
 Provisional Gov't
Divided Korea
 Korean War
North, South Korea Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1017 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1536x2048, 1017 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Joseon dynasty court architecture This article is about the history of Korea, through the division of Korea before the Korean War. ... Image File history File links Korea_unified_vertical. ... Joseon dynasty court architecture This article is about the history of Korea, through the division of Korea before the Korean War. ... Gojoseon (ancient Joseon, to distinguish the later Joseon Dynasty) was the first Korean kingdom. ... Jin was an early Iron Age state which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, bordering the Korean kingdom Gojoseon to the north. ... Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea (원삼국시대, 原三國時代) refers to the period after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into full-fledged kingdoms. ... Buyeo (Fuyu in Chinese) was a kingdom established in Northern Manchuria, from about 2nd century BC to 494. ... Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ... Dongye was a state which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula from roughly 150 BCE to around 400 CE. It bordered Goguryeo and Okjeo to the north, Jinhan to the south, and Chinas Lelang Commandery to the west. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... The Three Kingdoms of Korea were Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of northeastern China for much of the 1st millennium CE. The Three Kingdoms period in Korea is usually considered to run from the 1st century BCE until Sillas triumph over Goguryeo in... Goguryeo (traditional dates 37 B.C. – A.D. 668) was a kingdom in northern Korea and a large part of Manchuria. ... Baekje (18 BC (legendary) – AD 660) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Goguryeo and Silla. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy and later annexed by Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (Korean) or Bohai (Chinese) was a kingdom in northeast Asia from AD 698 to 926, occupying parts of Manchuria, northern Korea, and Russian Far East. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... The Goryeo-Khitan Wars were a series of 10th- and 11th-century conflicts between the kingdom of Goryeo and Khitan forces near what is now the border between China and North Korea. ... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) (also Choson), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye in what is modern day Korea, and lasted for five centuries as one of the worlds longest running monarchies. ... Combatants Joseon Dynasty Korea, Ming Dynasty China Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea: Yi Sun-sin, Gwon Yul, Won Gyun, Kim Myung Won, Yi Il, Sin Lip, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Shi-min China: Li Rusong , Li Rubai, Ma Gui , Qian Shi-zhen, Ren Ziqiang, Yang Yuan, Zhang Shijue, Chen... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Korea was occupied and under Japanese rule during the period of Japans administrative control of the Korean peninsula in the early 20th century from 1910 to 1945. ... The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a government in exile based in Shanghai, China and later in Chongqing. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... Combatants United Nations: Republic of Korea Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung Il Kwon Douglas MacArthur Mark W. Clark Matthew Ridgway Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-kun Peng Dehuai Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ... History of North Korea: Following World War II, Korea, which had been a colonial possession of Japan since 1910, was occupied by the Soviet Union (in the north) and the United States (in the south). ...

Timeline
Military history
List of Monarchs This is a timeline of Korean history. ... Korea has a long military history going back several thousand years, with an extensive series of wars that involved invasions, civil discord, counter-piracy actions against medieval Japan, the first use of armoured battleships in seabattles, and the devastation of rebellions against the Joseon era Japanese invasions, the forced peace... Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their fall. ...

Korea Portal

There is archaeological evidence that people were living on the Korean Peninsula around 700,000 years ago, during the Lower Paleolithic. The earliest known Korean pottery dates to around 8000 BC, and the Neolithic period begins around 6000 BC. The Jeulmun Pottery Period spans from 3500 BC to 2000 BC. The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... The Lower Paleolithic (or Lower Palaeolithic) is the earliest subdivision of the Paleolithic or Old Stone Age. ... An array of Neolithic artefacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools Excavated dwellings at Skara Brae Scotland, Europes most complete Neolithic village. ... The Jeulmun pottery period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 8000-1500 B.C. (Bale 2001; Choe and Bale 2002; Crawford and Lee 2003; Lee 2001, 2006). ...


Gojoseon

Main article: Gojoseon

Gojoseon was founded in 2333 BC, according to the Dangun legend. [6] It was known as Joseon but is called Gojoseon ("Old Joseon") today to distinguish it from the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910). The original capital was Asadal, in southern Manchuria, but later moved to today's Pyongyang in North Korea. Gojoseon cultural artifacts and walled cities are found throughout Korea and Manchuria. Gojoseon (ancient Joseon, to distinguish the later Joseon Dynasty) was the first Korean kingdom. ... Dangun is the mythical founder of Korea. ... Joseon or Chosun (Korean: 조선; Hanja: 朝鮮; Revised: Joseon; McCune-Reischauer: Chosŏn; Chinese: Cháoxiǎn; Japanese: Chōsen) is a name for Korea, as used in the following cases: As part of the name of several ancient kingdoms (including Gojoseon, Gija Joseon, and Wiman Joseon); During most of the Joseon... Gojoseon (ancient Joseon, to distinguish the later Joseon Dynasty) was the first Korean kingdom. ... The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) (also Choson), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye in what is modern day Korea, and lasted for five centuries as one of the worlds longest running monarchies. ... It was a capital city of Gojoseon, which is the first kingdom of Korea. ... Manchuria (Manchu: Manju; Traditional Chinese: 滿洲; Simplified Chinese: 满洲; pinyin: Mǎnzhōu, Russian: ) is a vast territorial region in northeast Asia. ... Pyongyang is the capital city of North Korea, located on the Taedong River, at (39. ...


Archaeological and contemporary written records indicate it likely developed from a federation of walled cities into a centralized state sometime between the 7th and 4th centuries BC, when it declared itself a kingdom and warred with northern Zhou dynasty kingdoms of China. [7] The Zhou Dynasty (Chinese: 周朝; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: chou chao; 11th century BC to 256 BC) followed the Shang (Yin) Dynasty and preceded the Qin Dynasty in China. ...


In 108 BC, the Chinese Han dynasty defeated Gojoseon and installed four commanderies in the area of Liaoning. By 75 BC, three of those commanderies had fallen to Korean resistance. One commandery remained under Chinese control until 313 AD. In Manchuria, several states such as Buyeo, Okjeo and Dongye were established, and on the Korean peninsula, Samhan is established. The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese: ; Simplified Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Han Chau; 206 BC–AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... Buyeo can mean: An ancient kingdom in Manchuria, also called Puyŏ or Fuyu. ... Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ... Dongye was a state which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula from roughly 150 BCE to around 400 CE. It bordered Goguryeo and Okjeo to the north, Jinhan to the south, and Chinas Lelang Commandery to the west. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ...


A state called Jin existed in southern Korea prior to Gojoseon's fall, as evidenced by written records and bronze artifacts from the 3rd and 2nd centuries BC. Receiving refugees from Gojoseon, Jin developed into three loose confederacies called the Samhan. Jin was an early Iron Age state which occupied some portion of the southern Korean peninsula during the 2nd and 3rd centuries BCE, bordering the Korean kingdom Gojoseon to the north. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ...


The Three Kingdoms

The Three Kingdoms of Korea.
The Three Kingdoms of Korea.

The three kingdoms Goguryeo, Silla, and Baekje were founded around the time of Gojoseon's fall. They competed with each other both economically and militarily. Buddhism eventually became the chief religion of all three kingdoms. The Three Kingdoms of Korea were Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of northeastern China for much of the 1st millennium CE. The Three Kingdoms period in Korea is usually considered to run from the 1st century BCE until Sillas triumph over Goguryeo in... Download high resolution version (658x827, 14 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Three Kingdoms of Korea User:Chris 73/Gallery 003 Talk:Tsushima Islands/Archive 1 ... Download high resolution version (658x827, 14 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Three Kingdoms of Korea User:Chris 73/Gallery 003 Talk:Tsushima Islands/Archive 1 ... Goguryeo (traditional dates 37 B.C. – A.D. 668) was a kingdom in northern Korea and a large part of Manchuria. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Baekje (18 BC (legendary) – AD 660) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Goguryeo and Silla. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ...


Goguryeo was founded in 37 BC by Jumong (posthumously called King Dongmyeongseong). Goguryeo united Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye and other states in the former Gojoseon territory, in addition to destroying the last Chinese commandery in 313 AD.[8] Goguryeo was the most dominant power, but was at constant war with the Sui and Tang dynasties of China. Goguryeo's defeat of Sui invasion forces contributed to the collapse of the Sui Dynasty, but the Tang Dynasty continued attacks against Goguryeo. Goguryeo (traditional dates 37 B.C. – A.D. 668) was a kingdom in northern Korea and a large part of Manchuria. ... King Dongmyeongseong of Goguryeo (r. ... Buyeo (Fuyu in Chinese) was a kingdom established in Northern Manchuria, from about 2nd century BC to 494. ... Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ... Dongye was a state which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula from roughly 150 BCE to around 400 CE. It bordered Goguryeo and Okjeo to the north, Jinhan to the south, and Chinas Lelang Commandery to the west. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: suí cháo; 581-618) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Baekje was founded in 18 BC by Jumong's third son, Onjo, around modern-day Seoul. It occupied the southwest of the peninsula, and at its height, controlled much of the western half. Baekje (18 BC (legendary) – AD 660) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, together with Goguryeo and Silla. ... Onjo (reigned 18 BCE–28 CE) is the legendary founder and first king of the ancient Korean kingdom of Baekje. ... Seoul (Sŏul 서울) ) is the capital and largest city of South Korea (Republic of Korea). ...


Silla was founded by Bak Hyeokgeose in 57 BC. Although later records claim Silla was the oldest of the three kingdoms, it is believed to be the last kingdom to develop into a centralized kingdom. Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Categories: 1st century deaths | 4 deaths | Korean rulers ...


Unified Silla and Balhae

Main articles: Unified Silla and Balhae

Silla first annexed the adjacent Gaya confederacy. By the 660s, Silla formed an alliance with the Tang Dynasty of China to conquer Baekje and later Goguryeo. After repelling Chinese forces, Silla established the first unified state in Korea, often called Unified Silla. Silla expanded its sea power and battled Japanese pirates, especially during the Unified Silla period. Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (Korean) or Bohai (Chinese) was a kingdom in northeast Asia from AD 698 to 926, occupying parts of Manchuria, northern Korea, and Russian Far East. ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy and later annexed by Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ...


After Silla's unification, former Goguryeo general Dae Joyeong led a group of Koreans to the Jilin area in Manchuria and founded Balhae (698 AD - 926 AD) as the successor to Goguryeo. Eventually, Balhae's territory extended from the Sungari and Amur Rivers in northern Manchuria down to the northern provinces of Korea. Balhae was destroyed by the Khitans in 926. Dae Joyeong, also known as Emperor Go, established the empire of Barhae, reigning from 699 to 719. ...   (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Jílín; Wade-Giles: Chi-lin; Postal System Pinyin: Kirin; Manchu: Girin ula), is a province of the Peoples Republic of China located in the northeastern part of the country. ... Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (Korean) or Bohai (Chinese) was a kingdom in northeast Asia from AD 698 to 926, occupying parts of Manchuria, northern Korea, and Russian Far East. ... The Songhua River (松花江 song4 hua1 jiang1) is the largest tributary of the Amur River, flowing about 1,800 km from Changbai Mountains. ... The Amur (Russian: Амур) (Simplified Chinese: 黑龙江; Traditional Chinese: 黑龍江; Hēilóng Jiāng, literally meaning Black Dragon River) (Mongolian: Хара-Мурэн, Khara-Muren or Black River) (Manchu: Sahaliyan Ula, literal meaning Black... The Khitan, in Chinese Qidan (契丹 Pinyin: Qìdān), were an ethnic group which dominated much of Manchuria and was classified in Chinese history as one of the Tungus ethnic groups (東胡族 dōng hú zú). They established the Liao dynasty in 907, which was then conquered in 1125 by the...


Goryeo Dynasty

Main article: Goryeo

In the late 9th century, Unified Silla gave way to the brief Later Three Kingdoms period. The Goryeo Dynasty (918-1392) replaced Silla. Many members of the Balhae ruling class joined the newly founded Goryeo, which established its boundaries to an area slightly larger than the Korean peninsula (See the Gando region, now a part of China). During this period, laws were codified, a civil service system was introduced, and Buddhism flourished.[9] The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... Gando, Jiandao, and Kantō are the Korean, Chinese, and Japanese pronunciations of a name (間島) that refers to parts of Manchuria populated by Koreans. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ...


In the 10th and 11th centuries, Korea continued to be plagued by attacks from Jurchen and Khitan tribes on the northern borders. Conflict increased between civil and military officials as the latter were degraded and poorly paid. This led to an uprising by military and forced some military officials to migrate from the country. The Jurchens (Chinese: 女真, pinyin: nǚzhēn) were a Tungusic people who inhabited parts of Manchuria and northern Korea until the seventeenth century, when they became the Manchus. ...


In 1238, the Mongolian Empire invaded. After nearly thirty years of war, the two sides signed a treaty that favored the Mongols. Korea requested the Japan conquest to Mongolia in 1279.[10] When Mongolia started invading in Japan, Korea was engaged in a Mongolian army. In the 1340s, the Mongol Empire declined rapidly due to internal strife, and Korea was able to pursue political reform without Mongol interference. At this time, General Yi Seong-gye distinguished himself by repelling Japan-based pirates, known as Wokou. [11] The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was an empire founded by Genghis Khan in 1206. ... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... The Samurai Suenaga facing Mongol arrows and bombs. ... Mongol Empires approximate largest extent coloured in blue, excluding largely uninhabited northern Siberia The Mongol Empire (Mongolian: Их Монгол Улс, meaning Great (Их) Mongol Nation (Улс)) (1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in world history, covering over 36 million km² [1] at its peak, with an estimated population of over 100 million people... Taejo of Joseon (1335-1408; r. ... 16th century Japanese pirate raids. ...


Joseon Dynasty

Main article: Joseon Dynasty

In 1392, Yi Seong-gye established the Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) with a coup, moving the capital to Hanseong (now Seoul) and built the Gyeongbokgung. The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) (also Choson), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye in what is modern day Korea, and lasted for five centuries as one of the worlds longest running monarchies. ... Taejo of Joseon (1335-1408; r. ... The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) (also Choson), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye in what is modern day Korea, and lasted for five centuries as one of the worlds longest running monarchies. ... Seoul is the capital of South Korea and was, until 1945, the capital of all of Korea. ... Seoul (Sŏul 서울) ) is the capital and largest city of South Korea (Republic of Korea). ... Gyeongbokgung (Gyeongbok Palace) is a palace located in northern Seoul, South Korea. ...


King Sejong the Great (1418-1450) promulgated Hangul, the Korean alphabet, and reigned over cultural and technological advances. After several weak kings, King Seongjong's rule (1457-1494) saw a economic and cultural revival. Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 – May 18, 1450, r. ... Hangul also refers to a word processing application widely used in Korea. ... King Seongjong of Joseon (1457-1494) was the 9th Ruler of Korea of the Joseon Dynasty. ...


Between 1592-1598, Japan invaded Korea under Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Facing intervention from Ming China and the Korean naval fleet cutting off their troop supply line, the Japanese withdrew. Especially important for Korea in this period were the turtle ships of Admiral Yi Sun-sin and the hwacha weaponry. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Hideyoshi in old age. ... Ming redirects here. ... The Turtle Ship (also known as Geobukson or Kobukson by its Korean name) was a large ironclad warship belonging to Panokseon class in Korea under the Joseon Dynasty between the 15th century and 18th century . ... Yi Sun-sin (April 28, 1545 – December 16, 1598), also commonly transliterated Yi Sun-shin or Yi Soon Shin, was a Korean naval leader noted for his victories against the Japanese navy during the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592-1598) during the Joseon Dynasty. ... A Hwacha in the grounds of Deoksu Palace Hwacha or Hwacha [1] is a Korean anti-personnel gunpowder weapon. ...


In the 1620s and 1630s Joseon suffered invasion by the Qing Dynasty of Manchu, who eventually conquered Ming China. Korea promised to becomes a tributary of the Qing Dynasty by Second Manchu invasion of Korea. Korea then enjoyed over two centuries of peace, but isolated itself so much that it was often called the "Hermit Kingdom". The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; Pinyin: Qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, is a Chinese term for the Empire of the Great Qing (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: dàqīngguó), founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what... The second Manchu invasion of Korea occurred in 1637, when the Manchu Qing Empire brought Koreas Joseon dynasty into submission. ... Hermit kingdom is a term applied to any country or society which walls itself off (metaphorically or physically) from the rest of the world. ...


The Joseon Dynasty is believed to have been the longest-lived actively ruling dynasty in East Asia.


Japanese occupation

Beginning in the 1870s, Japan began to force Korea to move out of China's sphere of influence into its own. In 1895, Empress Myeongseong of Korea was assassinated by the Japanese under Miura Goro's directive (Kim et al. 1976).[12] After the first Sino-Japanese war, China recognized the total independence of Korea and renounced any claims to that country by Treaty of Shimonoseki. [13] After the Russo-Japanese War, Japan gained control of Korea. In 1910, Japan forced Korea to sign the Japan-Korea Annexation Treaty, although executed by Korean ministers and advisors rather than the Korean head of state, the emperor.[14] Korea was occupied and under Japanese rule during the period of Japans administrative control of the Korean peninsula in the early 20th century from 1910 to 1945. ... Her Imperial Majesty Empress Myeongseong of Korea (October 19, 1851 – October 8, 1895), more commonly known as Queen Min (明成皇后), was the last empress of Korea. ... Miura Goro (1846-1926) Born in Yamaguchi, Japan in 1846, he was appointed foriegn minister to Korea in 1895, where he as involve in the murder of Empress Min of Korea. ... Combatants Qing Empire (China) Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army, Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army, Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino–Japanese War (Traditional Chinese: ; pinyin: Zh... The Shunpanrō hall where the Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed The Treaty of Shimonoseki (Japanese: 下関条約, Shimonoseki Jōyaku), known as the Treaty of Maguan (T. Chinese: 馬關條約, S. Chinese: 马关条约;) in China, was signed at the Shunpanrō hall on April 17, 1895 between the Empire of Japan and the Qing Empire. ... Combatants Imperial Russia Empire of Japan Commanders N/A N/A Strength 500,000 Soldiers 400,000 Soldiers Casualties 134,817+ KIA/POW, 170,000 MIA etc. ... The Treaty of Annexation of Korea by Japan was signed on August 22, 1910 by the representatives of the Korean and Japanese Imperial Governments. ...


Korean resistance to Japanese brutal occupation was manifested in the massive March 1st Movement of 1919. This movement was suppressed by force and about 7,000 were killed by Japanese soldiers and police.[15] In Manchuria of Changbai Mountains, Kim Il-sung engaged in frequent battles with the Japanese troops and tens of thousands of Koreans joined The National Revolutionary Army and The Peoples Liberation Army to fight against the Japanese. Kim returned in triumph to Wonsan with a Soviet army on September 19, 1945. Syngman Rhee escaped to Shanghai(in 1919), Hawaii(in 1920), and did lobbying to the United States. Rhee returned home to Seoul that the United States occupied in October, 1945. The March First Movement, or the Samil Movement, was one of the earliest displays of Korean nationalism during the Japanese rule. ... The Changbai (Changbaek) Mountains are a mountain range on the border between China and North Korea. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the leader of North Korea from its founding in 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ... The National Revolutionary Army (NRA) (Chinese: 國民革命軍; pinyin: guo2 min2 ge2 ming4 jun1) was the national army of the Republic of China. ... Alternate meaning: Shining Path The Peoples Liberation Army (PLA) (Traditional Chinese: 人民解放軍, Simplified Chinese: 人民解放军, pinyin: Rénmín Jiěfàng Jūn), which includes an army, navy, air force, and strategic nuclear forces, serves as the military... Wonsanis a port city and naval base in southeastern North Korea. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Syngman Rhee Syngman Rhee or Lee Seungman (March 26, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was the first president of South Korea. ... Shanghai (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; Shanghainese: ), stuated on the banks of the Yangtze River Delta in East China, is the largest city of the Peoples Republic of China. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Seoul (Sŏul 서울) ) is the capital and largest city of South Korea (Republic of Korea). ...


During the colonial period, Japan significantly developed the infrastructure and industry of Korea, using the peninsula as a source of raw materials such as timber and minerals, and integrating the Korean labor force into the Japanese economy. [16] Traditional Korean culture was suppressed. The Korean language was banned in official documents and Koreans were obligated to adopt Japanese names.[17] Numerous Korean cultural artifacts were numbered and managed (this numbering system has been left in South Korea), destroyed[18] or taken to Japan.[19] To this day, valuable Korean artifacts can often be found in Japanese museums or among private collectors. [20] One investigation by the South Korea government identified 75,311 cultural assets that were taken from Korea, 34,369 of which are in Japan, and 17,803 of which are in the United States. [21] The traditional culture of Korea is shared by South Korea and North Korea, but there are regional differences. ...


During World War II, more than 100,000 Koreans served in the Japanese army as officers and soldiers, many of whom were conscripted. There were two Korean Lt. Generals in the Japanese Army.[22] Tens of thousands of men [23] were recruited into Japan's military. Approximately 200,000 girls and women [24], mostly from Japan, Korea and China, were pressed into work as prostitutes, euphemistically called "comfort women",[25]. This article is becoming very long. ... Japans honor guard often marches to greet the arrival of foreign dignitaries. ... Comfort women ) or military comfort women ) is a euphemism for women who were forced to work as sex slaves in military brothels in Japanese-occupied countries during World War II. The majority of the women were Korean and Chinese. ...


Anti-Japanese sentiment is still fairly strong in Korea, as a result of Japanese war crimes and continuing Korean-Japanese disputes. Animosity over the loss of cultural treasures during the occupation has even led to present-day South Korean people stealing back Korean historical materials from Japan. [26] Anti-Japanese sentiment refers to the view of the Japanese people or of the Japanese nation with suspicion or hostility. ... The term Japanese war crimes refers to events which occurred during the period of Japanese imperialism, from the late 19th century until 1945. ... Korea (both North and South) and Japan have had disputes on many issues over the years. ...


Division and War

Main articles: Division of Korea and Korean War

With the defeat of Japan in 1945, the United Nations developed plans for a trusteeship administration, the Soviet Union administering the peninsula north of the 38th parallel and the United States effectively administering the south. The politics of the Cold War resulted in the 1948 establishment of two separate governments. The Soviets helped Kim Il Sung become Prime Minister of North Korea in 1948. US troops briefly occupied South Korea from 1945 to 1948. On May 10, 1948, the South Korean Parliament elected Syngman Rhee, a long-time resident of the United States, The rule of Syngman Rhee was more brutal than Japanese occupation. He ordered the Jeju massacre, which slaughtered between 30,000 to 80,000 South Korean citizens. And Rhee massacred communist's suspect in Korean War.And Rhee massacred communist's suspect in Korean War. He approved the National Security Act in 1948, and suppressed the citizens who criticized the government. The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... Combatants United Nations: Republic of Korea Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung Il Kwon Douglas MacArthur Mark W. Clark Matthew Ridgway Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-kun Peng Dehuai Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The 38th parallel north is a line of latitude that cuts across Asia, the Mediterranean and the United States. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Holodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between a worldwide military alliance of capitalist states led by the United States and a rival alliance of communist states led by the Soviet Union. ... Kim Il-sung (April 15, 1912–July 8, 1994) was a Korean Communist politician and the ruler of the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (North Korea) from 1948 until his death. ... Syngman Rhee Syngman Rhee or Lee Seungman (March 26, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was the first president of South Korea. ... Syngman Rhee Syngman Rhee or Lee Seungman (March 26, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was the first president of South Korea. ... Korea was occupied and under Japanese rule during the period of Japans administrative control of the Korean peninsula in the early 20th century from 1910 to 1945. ... The Jeju massacre or the Cheju April 3rd massacre happened as a result of suppression against armed rebellion in Jeju island, South Korea, during the period of April 3, 1948 to September 21, 1954. ... Combatants United Nations: Republic of Korea Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung Il Kwon Douglas MacArthur Mark W. Clark Matthew Ridgway Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-kun Peng Dehuai Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ... Combatants United Nations: Republic of Korea Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung Il Kwon Douglas MacArthur Mark W. Clark Matthew Ridgway Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-kun Peng Dehuai Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ... -1... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ...


The Korean War began in June 1950 and lasted until 1953. The North Korean army launched a full-scale attack on the South on June 25, 1950, after years of frequent minor bloody conflicts along the border. The well-equipped and trained North Korean Army easily overwhelmed the South Korean forces, prompting a hasty defense by U.S. forces, later reinforced by U.N. forces. When the allied forces pushed the North Koreans back to the Chinese-North Korean border, the Chinese entered the war. Millions of civilians died and the United States waged a bombing campaign over North Korea that effectively destroyed most cities (Cumings 1997: 298). Combatants United Nations: Republic of Korea Democratic People’s Republic of Korea People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Syngman Rhee Chung Il Kwon Douglas MacArthur Mark W. Clark Matthew Ridgway Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-kun Peng Dehuai Strength Note: All figures may vary according to source. ...


The war ended in a ceasefire agreement at approximately the same boundary. North Korea army and the United States signed Armistice in Panmunjeom. Both Korean states proclaim eventual reunification as a goal, and discourses on a united Korea are very much a part of Korean ethno-cultural identity. The Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea, more commonly known as North Korea, is technically still at war with the Republic of Korea and according to western estimates now has the fifth-largest military in the world albeit because it has the largest percentage of citizens in the world who... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... Panmunjeom (Panmunjŏm) in Gyeonggi province is a village on the de facto border between North and South Korea, where the 1953 armistice that halted the Korean War was signed. ... Unification Flag of Korea Korean reunification is the possible future unification of North Korea and South Korea under a single government. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


In June 2000, a historic first North-South summit took place between the South's President Kim Dae Jung and the North's leader Kim Jong Il. Kim Dae-Jung during a visit of George W. Bush in Seoul, February 20, 2002 Kim Dae-jung (born January 6, 1926) is a former South Korean president and the 2000 Nobel Peace Prize recipient. ... Kim Jong-il (born February 16, 1942) has been the leader of North Korea since 1994. ...

See also: History of North Korea and History of South Korea

History of North Korea: Following World War II, Korea, which had been a colonial possession of Japan since 1910, was occupied by the Soviet Union (in the north) and the United States (in the south). ... The History of South Korea traces the development of South Korea from the division of the Korean Peninsula in 1945 to the present day. ...

Geography

Main article: Korean Peninsula
A view of Seoraksan Mountain.
A view of Seoraksan Mountain.

Korea is located on the Korean Peninsula in North-East Asia. It is bound by two countries and three seas. To the northwest, the Yalu River separates Korea from China and to the northeast, the Tumen River separates Korea from Russia. The Yellow Sea is to the west, the East China Sea is to the south, and the Sea of Japan (East Sea) is to the east of Korea. Notable islands include Jeju-do, Ulleung-do, and Dokdo. The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 658 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Korea Mt. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 658 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Korea Mt. ... Seorak-san is the highest mountain in the Taebaek mountain range in the Gangwon province in eastern South Korea. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... The Amnok River, or the Yalu River, is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ... The Tumen River, also known as the Duman River (in Korean), is a river in northeast Asia, on the border between China and North Korea in its upper reaches, and between North Korea and Russia in its lower stretches. ... ... The East China Sea is a marginal sea and part of the Pacific Ocean. ... The Sea of Japan (East Sea) is a marginal sea of the western Pacific Ocean. ... The dispute concerns the international name of this body of water There is a dispute over the name of the sea bordered by Russia, Japan, North Korea, and South Korea. ... Jeju is the smallest province of South Korea, situated on its largest island. ... Ulleung-do is a Korean island in the Sea of Japan (East Sea). ... Dokdo and Takeshima is one of several names used to describe disputed islets in the Sea of Japan currently controlled by South Korea, but also claimed by Japan (where they are known as Takeshima). ...


The southern part and western part of the Korean mainland have well developed plains, while the eastern and northern parts are mountainous. The highest mountain in Korea is Mt. Baekdu (2744 m, Changbaishan in Chinese). The border with China runs through the mountain. The southern extension of Mt. Baekdu is a highland called Gaema Gowon. This highland was mainly raised during the Cenozoic orogeny and partly covered by volcanic matter. To the south of Gaema Gowon, successive high mountains are located along the eastern coast of the peninsula. This series of mountains is named Baekdudaegan. Some significant mountains include Sobaeksan (2,184 m), Baeksan (1,724 m), Geumgangsan (1,638 m), Seoraksan (1,708 m), Taebaeksan (1,567 m), and Jirisan (1,915 m). There are several lower, secondary mountain series whose direction is almost perpendicular to that of Baekdudaegan. They are developed along the tectonic line of Mesozoic orogeny and their directions are NW, NWW. Baekdu Mountain is a volcanic mountain on the border between China and North Korea, located at . At 2,750 m, it is the highest mountain of the Changbai Mountains to the north and Baekdudaegan to the south. ... The Cenozoic Era (sen-oh-ZOH-ik; sometimes Caenozoic Era in the United Kingdom) meaning new life (Greek kainos = new + zoe = life) is the most recent of the three classic geological eras. ... The Baekdudaegan is a mountain range which runs most of the length of the Korean Peninsula, from Baekdusan in the north to Jirisan in the south. ...


Unlike most older mountains on the mainland, many important islands in Korea were formed by volcanic activity in the Cenozoic orogeny. Jeju-do, situated off the southern coast, is a large volcanic island whose main mountain Mt. Halla (1950 m) is the highest in South Korea. Ulleung-do is a volcanic island in the Sea of Japan, who's composition is more feslic than Jeju-do. The volcanic islands tend to be younger as one moves westward. Halla-san (한라산) is an extinct volcano on Jeju Island of South Korea. ...


Because the mountainous region is mostly on the eastern part of the peninsula, the main rivers tend to flow westwards. Two exceptions are the southward-flowing Nakdong River and the Seomjin River. Important rivers running westward include the Yalu, the Cheongcheon River, the Daedong River, the Han River, the Geum River, and the Yeongsan River. These rivers have vast flood plains and they provide an ideal environment for wet-rice cultivation. The Nakdong River (Rakdong in North Korean) is the longest river in South Korea, and passes through major cities such as Daegu and Busan. ... The Taedong River runs through the capital of North Korea, Pyongyang. ... The Han River located in South Korea, is the confluence of the South Han River, which originates in Mount Daedeok-san, and the North Han, which originates in Mount Geumgang-san. ... The Geum River is a river in South Korea. ... The Yeongsan River is a river in south-western South Korea. ...


The southern and southwestern coastlines of Korea form a well-developed Lias coastline, known as Dadohae in Korean. Its complicated coastline provides mild seas, and the resulting calm environment allows for safe navigation, fishing, and seaweed farming. In addition to the complex coastline, the western coast of the Korean peninsula has an extremely high tidal amplitude (at Incheon, around the middle of the western coast. It can get as high as 9 m). Vast tidal flats have been developing on the south and west coastlines. Lias may refer to: Lias, the lower Jurassic period which saw much deposition of clay followed by limestone. ... Incheon Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city and major seaport on the west coast of South Korea, near Seoul. ...

See also: Geography of North Korea, Geography of South Korea, and Provinces of Korea

Map of North Korea North Korea is located in eastern Asia, on the northern half of the Korean Peninsula. ... Map of South Korea South Korea is located in Eastern Asia, on the southern half of the Korean Peninsula jutting out from the far east of the Asian land mass. ... This article describes the historical evolution of Koreas provinces (Do ; Hangul: 도; Hanja: 道). For detailed information on current administrative divisions, please see Administrative divisions of North Korea and Administrative divisions of South Korea. ...

Demographics

Korea is populated by a highly homogeneous ethnic group, the Koreans, who speak a distinct language called Korean. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... // Population 48,846,823 (July 2006 est. ... The Korean Peninsula was first populated by Tungusic people who migrated from the northwestern regions of Asia. ... An ethnic group is a group of people who identify with one another, or are so identified by others, on the basis of a boundary that distinguishes them from other groups. ...


A minority of ethnic Chinese (about 20,000)[27] live in South Korea and small communities of ethnic Chinese and Japanese live in North Korea.[28]


The combined population of the Koreas is about 72 million.


Language

Main articles: Korean language and Hangul

The Korean language (, see below) is the official language of both North and South Korea. ... Hangul also refers to a word processing application widely used in Korea. ...

Culture and Arts

Main article: Culture of Korea
Korean Buddhist architecture
Korean Buddhist architecture

In ancient Chinese texts, Korea is referred to as "Rivers and Mountains Embroidered on Silk" (錦繡江山) and "Eastern Nation of Decorum" (東方禮儀之國). During the 7th and 8th centuries, land and sea trading networks connected Korea to Arabia. As early as 845, Arab traders mentioned Korea saying, "Over the sea beyond China lies a mountainous country called 'Silla', rich in gold. Muslims who arrive there by accident are so attracted by its character that they stay there forever and do not want to leave." Joseon dynasty court architecture The traditional culture of Korea is shared by South Korea and North Korea, but there are regional differences. ... Gyongpodae in Gangneung, South Korea. ... Gyongpodae in Gangneung, South Korea. ... The Silk Road in the 1st century CE. For other uses, see Silk Road (disambiguation). ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ...


Korean festivities often showcase vibrant colors, which have been attributed to Mongolian influences: bright red, yellow, and green often mark traditional Korean motifs.[29] These bright colors are sometimes seen in the traditional dress known as hanbok. Hanbok is the traditional Korean dress (known as chosŏn-ot (조선옷) in North Korea). ...

See also: Korean art, Korean pottery, and Korean martial arts

Landscape of Kumgangsan in Korea. ... Korean pottery appeared later than south Chinese pottery, and required a reasonably stable village culture before domestic Korean potters wheels and kilns could be produced. ... Korean martial arts, referred to in Korean as Musul (무술 hanja: 武術) or Muye (무예 hanja:武藝), are the various martial arts that originated or were modified in Korea. ...

Literature

Main article: Korean literature

Korean literature is traditionally divided into two categories. The literature written until the end of the Joseon Dynasty is called "Classical". The literary production posterior to this era is called named "New" or "Modern" literature. Unlike their predecessors, writers of modern literature are largely influenced by Western authors. This article needs copyediting (checking for proper English spelling, grammar, usage, etc. ... The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) (also Choson), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye in what is modern day Korea, and lasted for five centuries as one of the worlds longest running monarchies. ...


Korea's classical literature came into being in the context of local beliefs, and the in the wake of Taoism, Confucianism and Buddhism, with a dominance of the latter. Recorded in Chinese characters, literature of the "Classical" Age produced innovative poetic forms such as hyangga.


Religion and education

Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s
Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s

Confucian tradition has dominated Korean thought, along with contributions by Buddhism, Taoism, and Korean Shamanism. Since the middle of the 20th century, however, Christianity has competed with Buddhism in South Korea, while religion has been suppressed in North Korea. Image File history File links Goryeo_Buddhist_painting. ... Image File history File links Goryeo_Buddhist_painting. ... Korean Confucianism is the form of Confucianism developed in Korea. ... The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ... St. ... Confucianism (儒家 Pinyin: rújiā The School of the Scholars), sometimes translated as the School of Literati, is an East Asian ethical, religious and philosophical system originally developed from the teachings of Confucius. ... A replica of an ancient statue of Gautama Buddha, found in Sarnath, near Varanasi. ... Taoism (sometimes written as Daoism) is the English name for: (a) a philosophical school based on the texts the Tao Te Ching (ascribed to Laozi and alternately spelled Dào Dé JÄ«ng) and the Zhuangzi. ... There are a number of shamanistic practices that are developed in Korea, where the role of a shaman is most frequently taken by women. ...


According to 2003 statistics compiled by the South Korean government, about 46% of citizens profess to follow no particular religion. Christians account for 27.3% of the population and Buddhists 25.3%. St. ... The grounds of Koreas Buryeongsa Temple. ...


Koreans valued scholarship and rewarded education and study of Chinese classic texts; Yangban boys were highly educated in Hanja. A man's "bone rank" (determined by the rank of his father and his mother) defined his social status, in addition to his performance in civil service examination which evaluated what government post he would be appointed to. The Yangban were a well educated scholarly class of male Confucian scholars who were part of the ruling elite within Korea prior to 1945 and the republics period of Korean history. ... It has been suggested that Sino-Korean be merged into this article or section. ...


Cuisine

Main article: Korean cuisine

Korean cuisine is probably best known for kimchi, which uses a distinctive fermentation process of preserving vegetables. Chili peppers are also commonly used, which has given it a reputation for being spicy. Fish, generally grilled or stewed, is the primary source of protein. Bulgogi (roasted marinated beef, chicken, or pork), galbi (ribs), and samgyeopsal (pork fatback) are popular meat entrees. Korean meals are usually accompanied by a soup or stew, often made with dwenjang bean paste. Popular dishes are bibimbap (mixed rice), naengmyeon (cold noodles), galbitang (stewed ribs), and dwenjang jjigae (bean paste soup). Korean cuisine is the traditional food of Korea. ... Kimchi, also known as gimchi or kimchee is a traditional Korean dish of fermented chili peppers and vegetables, usually based on Chinese cabbage. ... Fermentation typically refers to the conversion of sugar to alcohol using yeast. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ... Bulgogi is one of Koreas most popular beef dishes. ... Galbi (or kalbi) is a Korean dish made from beef short ribs, though it can also be made with pork ribs. ... Samgyupsal is a popular Korean dish. ... Pronounced [DWEN-jahng], it is a traditional bean paste similar in texture and consistency to Greek humus. ... Bibimbap is a popular Korean dish. ... Naengmyeon, literally cold noodles, is a Korean dish that is extremely popular during the summer. ... A stew made from Korean dwenjang. ...

See also: Korean tea ceremony and Korean royal court cuisine

A typical setting for a Korean tea ceremony disregarding a contemporary tiled rather than paper covered floor The Korean tea ceremony is a unique form of tea ceremony practiced in Korea for more than a thousand years. ... Korean royal court cuisine is the cuisine traditionally consumed at the court of the Joseon Dynasty, which ruled Korea from 1392 to 1910. ...

Science and technology

Cheomseongdae, oldest surviving astronomical observatory in East Asia
Cheomseongdae, oldest surviving astronomical observatory in East Asia

One of the best known artifacts of Korea's history of science and technology is Cheomseongdae, a 9-meter high observatory built in 633. It is considered to be the world's oldest surviving astronomical observatory. Image File history File linksMetadata Cheomseongdae. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Cheomseongdae. ... Cheomseongdae is a stone tower that seems to have been built in the middle 7th century in Gyeongju by Silla. ... Cheomseongdae is a stone tower that seems to have been built in the middle 7th century in Gyeongju by Silla. ...


The world's earliest known block printed document is thought to be a Buddhist scripture (a copy of the Jikji) believed printed in Korea in 750-751 CE which, if correct, would make it older than the Diamond Sutra. The world's first metal movable type was developed in Korea in 1232, modeled after widespread Chinese clay (Bi Sheng in 1041) and wooden movable type invented by Koreans from Unified Silla , before Johann Gutenberg developed his metal letterset type (Cumings 1997: 65). Though the block printing was used much earlier, metal movable type marked a significant development in printing allowing the same tools to be used for more diverse printings. Jikji is the abbreviated title of a Buddhist document, whose full title can be translated Baegun Hwasangs Anthology of the Great Priests Teachings on Identification of the Buddha’s Spirit by the Practice of Seon. ... The Diamond Sutra (Vajracchedika-prajñāpāramitā-sūtra), The Perfection of Wisdom Sutra that Cuts like a Thunderbolt, is a short Mahayana sutra of the Perfection of Wisdom genre, which teaches the practice of the avoidance of abiding in extremes of mental attachment. ... Pì Shēng (畢昇, died 1052) was the inventor of movable type printing in between 1041 to 1048 in China. ... Unified Silla is the name often applied to the Korean kingdom of Silla after 668. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Woodblock printing. ...


Some Chinese thought Korean porcelains were of the finest quality before and during the Goryeo Dynasty. During the Goryeo period, Korea advanced traditional arts and crafts, such as white celadon glazes, fine silk, paper and Sword making. The state of Goryeo ruled Korea from the fall of Silla in 935 until the founding of Joseon in 1392. ... Alternate meaning: Celadon (color) Celadon funerary jar from the Three Kingdoms period Celadon is a type of pottery having a pale green glaze. ...


The apex of astronomical and calendarial advances made under King Sejong was the Ch'ilchongsan, developed in 1442. This work made it possible for scientists to calculate and accurately predict all the major heavenly phenomena, such as solar eclipses and other stellar movements. Hangul, perhaps the most scientifically designed script in widespread use, is attributed to King Sejong the Great in 1443. An automated water clock was invented in 1434 by Jang Yeong-sil, who later developed a more complicated water-clock with additional astronomical devices, water gauge, and the rain gauge. Hangul also refers to a word processing application widely used in Korea. ... King Sejong the Great (May 6, 1397 - May 18, 1450), born I Do, was the fourth ruler of the Joseon Dynasty of Korea from 1418 to 1450. ... A water clock or clepsydra is a device for measuring time by letting water regularly flow out of a container usually by a tiny aperture. ... Jang Yeong-sil was a Korean scientist and astronomer during the Joseon Dynasty under King Sejong. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Standard Rain Gauge Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder Close up of a Tipping Bucket Rain Gauge Recorder chart A rain gauge is a type of instrument used by meteorologists and hydrologists to gather and measure the amount of liquid or solid (snow, sleet, hail) precipitation over a set period of...

Satellite image of the Korean peninsula.
Satellite image of the Korean peninsula.

During the Joseon period, Korean silk was highly regarded by China and Korean pottery made with blue-green celadon were of the highest quality in the world. Also, during this time, the early ironclad warships, the Geobukseon (Turtle Ship) were invented,[30] as well as other weapons such as the Bikeokjinchonlae and the hwacha. Image File history File links Korean_peninsula. ... Image File history File links Korean_peninsula. ... The Joseon Dynasty (1392-1910) (also Choson), sometimes known as the Yi Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by General Yi Seonggye in what is modern day Korea, and lasted for five centuries as one of the worlds longest running monarchies. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... Alternate meaning: Celadon (color) Celadon funerary jar from the Three Kingdoms period Celadon is a type of pottery having a pale green glaze. ... Ironclad warships, frequently shortened to just ironclads, were wooden ships or ships of composite construction (wooden planking on iron frames) sheathed with thick iron plates for protection against gunfire. ... The Turtle Ship, which is also known as Kobukson or Geobukseon (거북선), is a galley that was invented in the 15th century. ... The Turtle Ship (also known as Geobukson or Kobukson by its Korean name) was a large ironclad warship belonging to Panokseon class in Korea under the Joseon Dynasty between the 15th century and 18th century . ... A Hwacha in the grounds of Deoksu Palace Hwacha or Hwacha [1] is a Korean anti-personnel gunpowder weapon. ...


References

  • Cumings, Bruce. Korea's Place in the Sun, Norton, 1997. ISBN 0-393-31681-5
  • Kim, et al. Women of Korea: A History from Ancient Times to 1945, Ewha Womans University Press, 1976. ISBN 89-7300-116-7.
  • Asian Info website
  • Park's Associates

Notes

  1. ^ Ancient civilizations
  2. ^ "Yayoi Period History Summary," BookRags.com; Jared Diamond, "Japanese Roots," Discover 19:6 (June 1998); Thayer Watkins, "The Genetic Origins of the Japanese"; "Shinto - History to 1900," Encyclopædia Britannica; "The Yayoi period (c. 250 BC–c. AD 250)," Encyclopædia Britannica.
  3. ^ "Korean Buddhism Basis of Japanese Buddhism," Seoul Times, June 18, 2006; "Buddhist Art of Korea & Japan," Asia Society Museum; "Kanji," JapanGuide.com; "Pottery," MSN Encarta; "History of Japan," JapanVisitor.com.
  4. ^ (1993) Delmer M. Brown (ed.) The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge University Press, 140-149.; George Sansom, A History of Japan to 1334, Stanford University Press, 1958. p. 47. ISBN 0-8047-0523-2
  5. ^ From Paekche to Origin of Yamato
  6. ^ Go-Choson
  7. ^ http://www.library.ucla.edu/eastasian/korea.htm
  8. ^ Koguryo
  9. ^ http://www.asianinfo.org/asianinfo/korea/history/koryo_dynasty.htm
  10. ^ Book of Goryeo (高麗史) [1] 惟彼日本 未蒙聖化 故発詔。使継糴軍容 戦艦兵糧 方在所須。儻以此事委臣 勉尽心力 小助王師
  11. ^ http://152.99.71.184/warp/webapp/content/view?meta_id=english&id=62
  12. ^ Murder of Empress Myeongseong
  13. ^ 第一條 清國ハ朝鮮國ノ完全無缺ナル獨立自主ノ國タルコトヲ確認ス因テ右獨立自主ヲ損害スヘキ朝鮮國ヨリ清國ニ對スル貢獻典禮等ハ將來全ク之ヲ廢止スヘシ [2]
  14. ^ Forced Annexation
  15. ^ March 1st Movement
  16. ^ OFFSPRING OF EMPIRE : The Koch'ang Kims and the Colonial Origins of Korean Capitalism 1876-1945〈Eckert, Carter J.> ISBN 4794212755
  17. ^ 宮田 節子 [Miyata, Setsuko]. "創氏改名" [(Creating Surnames and Changing Given Names}, 明石書店 [Akashi-shoten], 1992, al. ISBN 4-7503-0406-9
  18. ^ http://www.lifeinkorea.com/Travel2/66
  19. ^ Newsweek.com. Who rightfully owns Korean artifacts looted by Japan?
  20. ^ Newsweek.com. Who rightfully owns Korean artifacts looted by Japan?
  21. ^ [3]
  22. ^ A Brief History of the US-Korea Relations Prior to 1945 [4]
  23. ^ 山脇 啓造 [Yamawaki, Keizo]. 近代日本と外国人労働者―1890年代後半と1920年代前半における中国人・朝鮮人労働者問題 [Modern Japan and Foreign Laborers: Chinese and Korean Laborers in the late 1890s and early 1920s], 明石書店[Akashi-shoten], 1994, et al. ASIN: 4750305685
  24. ^ Yoshimi Yoshiaki, Comfort Women. Sexual Slavery in the Japanese Military During World War II. Translated by Suzanne O'Brien. Columbia University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-231-12032-X, originally published by 岩波書店, 1995. ASIN: 4004303842
  25. ^ Comfort-Women.org
  26. ^ http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/6919593/site/newsweek/
  27. ^ https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/ks.html
  28. ^ https://www.cia.gov/cia/publications/factbook/geos/kn.html
  29. ^ http://www.pacificasiamuseum.org/calendar/kcostumes.htm
  30. ^ First Ironclad Warships

Images

Further reading

  • Chun, Tuk Chu. "Korea in the Pacific Community." Social Education 52 (March 1988), 182. EJ 368 177.
  • Cumings, Bruce. The Two Koreas. New York: Foreign Policy Association, 1984.
  • Focus On Asian Studies. Special Issue: "Korea: A Teacher's Guide." No. 1, Fall 1986.
  • Lee Ki-baik. A New History Of Korea. Cambridge: Harvard UP, 1984.
  • Lee Sang-sup. "The Arts and Literature of Korea." The Social Studies 79 (July-August 1988): 153-60. EJ 376 894.
  • Dennis Hart, From Tradition to Consumption: Construction of a Capitalist Culture in South Korea. Seoul:Jimoondang Pub. 2003.

Bruce Cumings is an historian, and professor at the University of Chicago, specializing in modern Korean history and contemporary international relations in East Asia. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... This article describes the historical evolution of Koreas provinces (Do ; Hangul: 도; Hanja: 道). For detailed information on current administrative divisions, please see Administrative divisions of North Korea and Administrative divisions of South Korea. ... Joseon dynasty court architecture This article is about the history of Korea, through the division of Korea before the Korean War. ... Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their fall. ... This is a list of famous Koreans or famous people of Korean descent. ... The Korean name Hong Gildong (a common anonymous name, like John Doe in American English). ... There are 50 designated national treasures of North Korea. ... The Buddha statue at Seokguram Grotto, the 24th Korean national treasure. ... Traditional Korean thought There are a number of religious and philosophical thought-systems that have influenced life in Korea. ... This is a list of nations, which have been divided. ... The military of South Korea (Korean: 대한민국 êµ­êµ°) is one of the largest standing armed forces in the world. ...

External links

Coordinates: 37°00′N 127°00′E DjVu (pronounced deja-vu) is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned images, especially those containing text and line drawings. ... DjVu (pronounced deja-vu) is a computer file format designed primarily to store scanned images, especially those containing text and line drawings. ... The Open Directory Project (ODP), also known as DMoz (from Directory. ... Wikia logo, based on the old Wikicities logo by Christoph Struber. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


 
 

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