FACTOID # 3: South Carolina has the highest rate of violent crimes and aggravated assaults per capita among US states.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Korean War
Korean War
Part of the Cold War

Clockwise, from top: American trucks crossing the 38th Parallel, F-86 Sabre flying over Korea, the port in Incheon where the Battle of Inchon commenced, Chinese soldiers being welcomed back after the war, and USA 2nd Lieutenant Baldomero Lopez climbing the seawall in Inchon.
Date June 25, 1950 - present.
Full-scale fighting until an armistice on July 27, 1953
Location Korean Peninsula
Result Cease-fire; establishment of Korean Demilitarized Zone (DMZ); a few territorial changes along the 38th parallel, but essentially uti possidetis and status quo ante bellum.
Belligerents
Flag of the United Nations United Nations:

Flag of South Korea Republic of Korea
Flag of Australia Australia
Flag of Belgium Belgium
Flag of Canada Canada
Flag of Colombia Colombia
Flag of Ethiopia Ethiopia
Flag of France France
Flag of Greece Greece
Flag of Luxembourg Luxembourg
Flag of the Netherlands Netherlands
Flag of New Zealand New Zealand
Flag of the Philippines Philippines
Flag of South Africa South Africa
Flag of Thailand Thailand
Flag of Turkey Turkey
Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Flag of the United States United States
Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The 38th parallel north is a line of latitude that cuts across Asia, the Mediterranean and the United States. ... The North American F-86 Sabre (sometimes called the Sabrejet) was a transonic combat aircraft developed for the US Air Force. ... Inchon redirects here. ... Combatants  United Nations  North Korea Commanders Douglas MacArthur Arthur Dewey Struble Chesty Puller Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-Kun The Battle of Inchon (Korean spelling: Incheon) (Korean: Incheon Sangryuk Jakjeon; code name: Operation Chromite) was a decisive invasion and battle during the Korean War. ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... 1stLt Baldomero Lopez Baldomero Lopez was a First Lieutenant in the United States Marine Corps during the Korean War. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... For Panmunjom or Joint Security Area, see Joint Security Area. ... Uti possidetis (Latin: as you possess) is a principle in international law that territory and other property remains with its possessor at the end of a conflict, unless provided for by treaty. ... The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally, as things were before the war. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Nations. ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece_(1828-1978). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links US_flag_48_stars. ...


Naval Support and Military Servicing/Repairs:
Flag of Japan Japan Image File history File links Flag_of_Japan. ...


Medical staff:
Flag of Denmark Denmark
Flag of Italy Italy
Flag of Norway Norway
Flag of India India
Flag of Sweden Sweden Image File history File links Flag_of_Denmark. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Norway. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sweden. ...

Flag of North Korea DPR Korea
Flag of the People's Republic of China PR China
Flag of the Soviet Union Soviet Union Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... North Korea, known officially as the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Chosongul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

Commanders
Flag of South Korea Syngman Rhee

Flag of South Korea Chung Il-kwon
Flag of South Korea Paik Sun-yup
Flag of the United States Douglas MacArthur
Flag of the United States Matthew Ridgway
Flag of the United States Mark Wayne Clark
Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... This is a Korean name; the family name is Rhee Syngman Rhee or Lee Seungman or Yee Sung-man (March 26, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was the first president of South Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Chung Il-kwon (November 21, 1917 - January 22, 1994) was a South Korean general during the Korean War. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... General Paik Sun-yup (born November 23, 1920) is a Korean military officer of Manchukuo and the Republic of Korea. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895–July 26, 1993) was a United States Army general. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Mark Wayne Clark was an American general during World War II and the Korean War. ...

Flag of North Korea Kim Il-Sung

Flag of North Korea Choi Yong-kun
Flag of North Korea Van Len
Flag of North Korea Kim Chaek
Flag of the People's Republic of China Mao Zedong
Flag of the People's Republic of China Peng Dehuai
Flag of the Soviet Union Joseph Stalin Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the North Korean Communist leader from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Choi Yong-Kun (1900–1976-09-19 or 1903–1972) was the President of the Presidium of the Supreme Peoples Assembly of North Korea, the highest post held by a North Korean politician, from 1957 to his death in 1972. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Mao redirects here. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Peng Dehuai . Péng Déhuái (T. Chinese: 彭德懷, S. Chinese: 彭德怀, Wade-Giles: Peng Te-huai) (October 24, 1898 - November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from...

Strength
Flag of South Korea 590,911

Flag of the United States 480,000
Flag of the United Kingdom 63,000[1]
Flag of Canada 26,791[2]
Flag of Australia 17,000
Flag of the Philippines 7,430[3]
Flag of Turkey 5,455[4]
Flag of the Netherlands3,972
Flag of France 3,421,[5]
Flag of New Zealand 1,389
Flag of Thailand 1,294
Flag of Ethiopia 1,271
Flag of Greece 1,263
Flag of Colombia 1,068
Flag of Belgium 900
Flag of South Africa 826
Flag of Luxembourg 44 Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Korea. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Philippines. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Turkey. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Netherlands. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_New_Zealand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thailand. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Ethiopia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Greece. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Colombia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Belgium_(civil). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_South_Africa_1928-1994. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Luxembourg. ...


Total: 941,356–1,139,518

Flag of North Korea 260,000

Flag of the People's Republic of China 780,000
Flag of the Soviet Union 26,000 Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Korea. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Peoples_Republic_of_China. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Soviet_Union. ...


Total: 1,066,000


Note: All figures may vary according to source. This measures peak strength as sizes changed during the war.

Casualties and losses
South Korea:
58,127 combat deaths
175,743 wounded
80,000 MIA or POW[6]

United States:
36,516 dead (including 2,830 non-combat)
92,134 wounded
8,176 MIA
7,245 POW[7]
United Kingdom:
1,109 dead[8]
2,674 wounded
1,060 MIA or POW[9]
Turkey:
721 dead[10]
2,111 wounded
168 MIA
216 POW
Canada
516 dead[11]
1,042 wounded
Australia
339 dead[12]
1,200 wounded
France:
300 KIA or MIA[13]
Philippines:
112 KIA[14]
Total: Over 474,000

North Korea:
215,000 dead,
303,000 wounded,
120,000 MIA or POW[9]

China
(Chinese estimate):

114,000 killed in combat
34,000 non-combat deaths
380,000 wounded
21,400 POW[15]
(U.S. estimate):[9]
400,000+ dead
486,000 wounded
21,000 POW
Soviet Union:
315 dead
Total: 1,190,000-1,577,000+

Civilians killed/wounded (total Koreans) = Millions

The Korean War was an escalation of border clashes between two rival Korean regimes, each of which was supported by external powers, with each trying to topple the other through political and guerrilla tactics. In a very narrow sense, some may refer to it as a civil war, though many other factors were at play.[16] After failing to strengthen their cause in the free elections held in South Korea during May 1950[17] and the refusal of South Korea to hold new elections per North Korean demands, the communist North Korean Army moved south on June 25, 1950 to attempt to reunite the Korean peninsula, which had been formally divided since 1948. The conflict was then expanded by the United States and the Soviet Union's involvement as part of the larger Cold War. The main hostilities were during the period from June 25, 1950 until the armistice (ceasefire agreement) was signed on July 27, 1953. Combatants Task Force Smith(US) Korean Peoples Army 4th Division and 107th Tank Regiment Commanders LTC. Charles B. Smith Strength 406 1,100 Casualties 120 killed, 36 captured 42 killed, 85 wounded This battle was the first engagement between US and North Korean forces during the Korean War. ... The Battle of Pusan Perimeter was fought in August and September of 1950 between United Nations forces combined with South Korean forces and the forces of North Korea. ... Battle of Inchon Conflict Korean War Date September 15, 1950 – September 28, 1950 Place Inchon, Korea Result Allied victory China enters the Korean War The Battle of Inchon (code name: Operation Chromite) was a decisive 15-day invasion and battle during the Korean War. ... Combatants United Nations * Australia * United Kingdom * United States * Democratic People’s Republic of Korea * People’s Republic of China Strength 27th Commonwealth Brigade *1st Battalion, Argyll and Sutherland Highlanders *3rd Battalion, Royal Australian Regiment *Middlesex Regiment Casualties Australia KIA: 14 WIA: 32 The Battle of Pakchon was a battle in... Combatants United Nations Great Britain United States Peoples Republic of China Commanders Oliver Smith Song Shi-Lun Strength 30,000 60,000 Casualties 2,500 dead, 192 missing, 5,000 wounded, 7,500 frostbite casualties 25,000 killed, 12,500 wounded, 30,000 frostbite casualties The Battle of Chosin... Task Force Faith, also sometimes referred to as Task Force Maclean (and by its official designation, RCT 31) was a U.S. Army unit destroyed in fighting at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir during the Korean War between November 27 and December 2, 1950. ... The Battle of the Twin Tunnels took place during the Korean War. ... Operation Ripper was a military operation which was planned to repel the Chinese and North Korean troops from Seoul and to bring UN troops to the 38th Parallel. ... Combatants US Democratic Peoples Republic of North Korea Operation Courageous was designed to trap large numbers of Chinese and North Korean troops between the Han River (Korea) and Imjin Rivers north of Seoul, opposite the South Korean I Corps. ... Operation Tomahawk was an airborne military operation by the 187th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) in March 1951 at Munsan-ni as part of Operation Courageous in the Korean War. ... The Battle of Yultong Bridge was a minor battle against the Great Spring Offensive fought in the Korean War, against the United Nations Command. ... Combatants Peoples Volunteer Army United Nations forces: - United States, - United Kingdom Commanders General Peng Dehuai General Matthew Ridgway [1] Strength 10,000 (+ Divisions in waiting) 700 of the British 29th Infantry Brigade Casualties ~20,00 Chinese; 63rd Army pulled out of action. ... Combatants United Nations Australia Canada China Casualties 43 killed 87 Wounded 3 Captured 1,000+ Killed The Battle of Kapyong was waged during the Korean War. ... The Battle of Bloody Ridge took place during the Korean War from August 18th to September 5th, 1951. ... The Battle of Heartbreak Ridge was a month long battle in the Korean War. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Battle of Hill Eerie refers to several Korean War engagements between the United Nations forces and the Chinese Communist Forces (CCF) in 1952 at the infamous of Hill Eerie. ... Combatants Korean Peoples Army Soviet Air Force United Nations Command Far East Air Forces Task Force 77 Commanders unknown Lt. ... Combatants  United Nations United Nations:  South Korea [{South Korea]]  United States United States  Peoples Republic of China Peoples Republic of China Commanders Major General Kim Jong Oh General Gang Ong-hwi Strength 9th Infantry Division (South Korea) Tanks, Artillery and aircraft of the Fifth Air Force 38th Army... Combatants U.S. 45th Infantry Division U.S. 2nd Infantry Division Chinese Peoples Volunteers The Battle of Old Baldy usually refers to a series of five engagements over a period of 10 months for Hill 266 in west-central Korea, though there was also vicous fighting both before and... The Hook During the 1951-1953 Korean War, elements of the United Nations Forces were engaged in fierce fighting to prevent Chinese forces from gaining ground, prior to a possible cease fire. ... The Battle of Pork Chop Hill refers to a pair of related Korean War engagements during the spring and summer of 1953. ... Combatants 15th Infantry Regiment, 3d Infantry Division Regimental Combat Team 5 Company P, Greek Expeditionary Forces Battalion Chinese Peoples Volunteers Outpost Harry was located in what was commonly referred to as the Iron Triangle in Korea. ... Combatants South Korea North Korea Casualties 2 patrol boats damaged 2 patrol boats sunk 5 patrol boats damaged 30 kia 70 wia The First Western Sea was a skirmish between naval units of North and South Korea. ... Combatants South Korea North Korea Strength 4 patrol craft, 2 corvettes 2 patrol craft Casualties 1 patrol boat sunk 6 KIA 18 WIA 1 patrol boat severely damaged ~30 casualties The 2nd Western Sea Engagement was confrontation between North Korean and South Korean patrol boats along a disputed boundary in... This article is about the definition of the specific type of war. ... North Korea, officially the Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea (DPRK; Korean: Chosŏn Minjujuŭi Inmin Konghwaguk; Hangul: 조선민주주의인민공화국; Hanja: 朝鮮民主主義人民共和國), is a country in eastern Asia, covering the northern half of the peninsula of Korea. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ...


In South Korea, the war is often called 6·25 or 6·25 War (Korean: 6·25 전쟁), from the date of the start of the conflict or, more formally, Hanguk Jeonjaeng (Korean: 한국전쟁; Hanja: 韓國戰爭, literally “Korean War”). In North Korea, while commonly known as the Korean War, it is formally called the Fatherland Liberation War (조국해방전쟁). In the United States, the conflict was officially termed a police action — the Korean Conflict — rather than a war, largely in order to avoid the necessity of a declaration of war by the U.S. Congress. The war is sometimes called The Forgotten War because it is a major conflict of the 20th century that gets far less attention than World War II, which preceded it, and the controversial Vietnam War, which succeeded it.[18] In China, the conflict was known as the War to Resist America and Aid Korea ( ), but is today commonly called the “Korean War” (朝鮮 戰爭 Chaoxian Zhanzheng,[19] 韓國戰爭 Hanguo Zhanzheng, or simply 韓戰 Hanzhan). Korean writing systems Hangul Hanja Hyangchal Gugyeol Idu Mixed script Korean romanization Revised Romanization of Korean McCune-Reischauer Yale Romanization Hanja is the Korean name for Chinese characters. ... It has been suggested that Authorized use of force be merged into this article or section. ... A declaration of war is a formal declaration issued by a national government indicating that a state of war exists between that nation, and one or more others. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...

Contents

Last Japanese occupation

Korea had been a unified country since the 7th century. During the 19th century imperialist nations threatened Korea's long standing sovereignty. After defeating China in the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-95, the Japanese forces remained in Korea, occupying strategically important parts of the country. Ten years later, they defeated the Russian navy in the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), contributing to Japan's emergence as an imperial power.[20] The Japanese continued to occupy the peninsula against the wishes of the Korean government and people, expanded their control over local institutions through force, and finally annexed Korea in August 1910.[21] Combatants  Qing Dynasty (China)  Empire of Japan Commanders Li Hongzhang Yamagata Aritomo Strength 630,000 men Beiyang Army  Beiyang Fleet 240,000 men Imperial Japanese Army  Imperial Japanese Navy Casualties 35,000 dead or wounded 13,823 dead, 3,973 wounded The First Sino-Japanese War (simplified Chinese: ; traditional Chinese... Combatants Russian Empire Principality of Montenegro [1] Empire of Japan Commanders Emperor Nicholas II Aleksey Kuropatkin Stepan Makarov â€  Emperor Meiji Oyama Iwao Heihachiro Togo The Russo–Japanese War (Japanese: Nichi-Ro Sensō, Russian: Russko-Yaponskaya Voyna, Chinese: RìézhànzhÄ“ng, February 10, 1904–September 5, 1905) was a conflict... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi...


At the close of World War II, forces of both the Soviet Union and the United States occupied the Korean peninsula in accordance with an agreement put forth by the United States government. The Soviet forces entered the Korean peninsula on August 10, 1945, followed a few weeks later by the American forces who entered through Incheon. U.S. Army Lt. Gen. John R. Hodge formally accepted the surrender of Japanese forces south of the 38th Parallel on September 9, 1945 at the Government House in Seoul.[22] The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... The Korean Peninsula is a peninsula in East Asia. ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 252nd day of the year (253rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Many Korean people had organized politically prior to the arrival of American troops.[23]


Post-World War II division of Korea

The eventual division of Korea was considered at the Potsdam Conference,[22] boundaries weren't discussed and the wishes of the Korean people to be free of foreign interference were not considered, though Churchill, Chiang and Roosevelt had stated a determination for Korean independence and freedom at the Cairo Conference. During the earlier Yalta Conference in February 1945, Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin called for “buffer zones” in both Asia and Europe.[24] Stalin believed that Russia should have preeminence in China, and in return he would enter into the war against Japan “three months after the surrender of Germany.”[24] On August 6, 1945, the Soviet Union declared war on the Japanese Empire and, on August 8, began an attack on the northern part of the Korean Peninsula. As agreed with the United States, the USSR halted its troops at the 38th parallel on August 26. However, on September 3 Lt. Gen. John R. Hodge, commander of XXIV Corps and designated U.S. Commander in Korea, received a radio message from Lt. Gen. Yoshio Kozuki, commander of the Japanese 17th Area Army in Korea, reporting that Soviet forces had advanced south of the 38th Parallel only in the Kaesong area.[22] U.S. troops arrived in the southern part of the peninsula in early September 1945. Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Churchill redirects here. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... FDR redirects here. ... Generalissimo Chiang Kai-shek, President Franklin D. Roosevelt, and Prime Minister Winston Churchill met at the Cairo Conference in Cairo, 11/25/1943. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Josef Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili (Georgian: , Ioseb Besarionis Dze Jughashvili; Russian: , Iosif Vissarionovich Dzhugashvili) (December 18 [O.S. December 6] 1878[1] – March 5, 1953), better known by his adopted name, Joseph Stalin (alternatively transliterated Josef Stalin), was General Secretary of the Communist Party of the Soviet Unions Central Committee from... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The 38th parallel north is a line of latitude that cuts across Asia, the Mediterranean and the United States. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


On August 10, 1945, with the Japanese surrender imminent, the American government was unsure whether the Soviets would adhere to the proposal arranged by the U.S. government. A month earlier, Colonels Dean Rusk and Charles Bonesteel, after deciding that at least two major ports should be included in the U.S. zone, had drawn the dividing line at the 38th parallel in less than one-half an hour using a National Geographic map for reference.[22][25][26][27] Rusk, later U.S. Secretary of State, commented that the American military was “faced with the scarcity of U.S. forces immediately available and time and space factors which would make it difficult to reach very far north before Soviet troops could enter the area.”[24] is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... David Dean Rusk (February 9, 1909 – December 20, 1994) was the United States Secretary of State from 1961 to 1969 under presidents John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson. ... General Charles Hartwell Bonesteel III (New York City September 26, 1909 - Alexandria, Virginia October 13, 1977) was an American military commander, the son and grandson of American military officers. ... The National Geographic Society was founded in the USA on January 27, 1888, by 33 men interested in organizing a society for the increase and diffusion of geographical knowledge. ...


The USSR agreed to the 38th Parallel being the demarcation between occupation zones in the Korean peninsula, partly to better their position in the negotiations with the Allies over eastern Europe. It was agreed that the USSR would receive surrendering Japanese troops on the northern part of Korea; the U.S., on the southern side. The Soviet forces entered and liberated the northern part of the peninsula weeks prior to the entry of American forces. In accordance with the arrangements made with the American government, the Soviet forces halted their advance at the 38th parallel.


The American forces arrived in Korea in early September. One of Hodge's first directives was to restore many Japanese colonial administrators and collaborators to their previous positions of power within Korea. This policy was understandably very unpopular among Koreans who had suffered horribly under Japanese colonial rule for 35 years, and would prove to have enormous consequences for the American occupation.[17]


A second policy set forth by Hodge was to refuse to recognize the existing political organizations that had been established by the Korean people. Hodge sought to establish firm U.S. control over events through out the southern half of the peninsula.[20] These policies would help give rise to the later insurrections and guerrilla warfare that preceded the outbreak of the civil war.[20]


In December 1945, the United States and the Soviet Union agreed to administer the country under the U.S.-Soviet Joint Commission, as termed by the Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers. It was agreed that Korea would govern independently after four years of international oversight. However, both the U.S. and the USSR approved Korean-led governments in their respective halves, each of which were favorable to the occupying power's political ideology. These arrangements were largely rejected by the majority of the Korean population,[citation needed] which responded with violent insurrections in the North and protests in the South.[20] The USMGIK tried to contain civil violence by banning strikes on December 8 and outlawing the revolutionary government and the people's committees on December 12. Things spiraled quickly out of control, however, with a massive strike on September 23 1946 by 8,000 railway workers in Busan which quickly spread to other cities in the South. The Daegu uprising occurred on October 1, where police attempts to control rioters caused the death of three student demonstrators and injuries to many others, sparking a mass counter-attack killing 38 policemen. Over in Yeongcheon, a police station came under attack by a 10,000-strong crowd on October 3, killing over 40 policemen and the county chief. Other attacks killed about 20 landlords and pro-Japanese officials. The US administration responded by declaring martial law, firing into crowds of demonstrators and killing an unknown number of people[28]. The Moscow Conference of Foreign Ministers (also know as the Interim Meeting of Foreign Ministers) of the United States (James F. Byrnes), the United Kingdom (Ernest Bevin), and the Soviet Union (Vyacheslav Molotov) met between December 16 and December 26, 1945, to discuss the problems of occupation, establishing peace, and... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 266th day of the year (267th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 274th day of the year (275th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Yeongcheon is a city in North Gyeongsang Province, South Korea. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In South Korea, an anti-trusteeship right wing group known as the Representative Democratic Council emerged, this group came to oppose these U.S. sponsored agreements. Because Koreans had suffered under Japanese colonization for 35 years, most Koreans opposed another period of foreign control. This opposition caused the U.S. to abandon the Soviet supported Moscow Accords.[citation needed] The Americans did not want a communist government in South Korea so they called for elections in all of Korea. Since the population of the South was double that of the North, the Soviets knew that Kim Il-sung would lose the election.[citation needed] The Representative Democratic Council was a group that emerged in Korea after World War II. It was led by Syngman Rhee, later to be the first leader of South Korea after the failure of unification. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the North Korean Communist leader from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ...


The government that emerged was led by anti-communist U.S.-educated strongman Syngman Rhee, a Korean who had been imprisoned by the Japanese as a young man and later then fled to the United States.[29] The South’s left-wing parties boycotted the elections in part to protest U.S. support for Rhee and its suppression of indigenous political movements.[citation needed] The Soviets, in turn, approved and furthered the rise of a Communist government in the North. Bolstered by his history as an anti-Japanese fighter, his political skills, and his connections with the Soviet Union, Kim Il-sung rose to become leader of this new government and crushed any opposition to his rule by the summer of 1947.[16] In the south, those who supported Communism were driven into hiding in the hills, where they prepared for a guerrilla war against the American supported government.[16] Ideologies Communist internationals Prominent communists Related subjects Anti-communism refers to opposition to communism. ... A strongperson is a political leader who rules by force and runs an authoritarian regime. ... This is a Korean name; the family name is Rhee Syngman Rhee or Lee Seungman or Yee Sung-man (March 26, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was the first president of South Korea. ... This page is about boycott as a form of protest. ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the North Korean Communist leader from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ...

History of Korea

Prehistory
 Jeulmun period
 Mumun period
Gojoseon 2333-108 BCE
 Jin state
Proto-Three Kingdoms: 108-57 BCE
 Buyeo, Okjeo, Dongye
 Samhan: Ma, Byeon, Jin
Three Kingdoms: 57 BCE - 668 CE
 Goguryeo 37 BCE - 668 CE
  Sui wars
 Baekje 18 BCE - 660 CE
 Silla 57 BCE - 935 CE
 Gaya 42-562
North-South States: 698-935
 Unified Silla 668-935
 Balhae 698-926
Later Three Kingdoms 892-935
Goryeo 918-1392
 Khitan wars
 Mongol invasions
Joseon 1392-1897
 Japanese invasions 1592-1598
 Manchu invasions
Korean Empire 1897–1910
Japanese rule 1910–1945
 Provisional Gov't 1919-1948
Division of Korea 1945–1948
North, South Korea 1948–present
 Korean War 1950–1953 Image File history File links Korea_unified_vertical. ... This article is about the history of Korea, up to the division of Korea in the 1940s. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... This article is about the prehistory of the Korean Peninsula, from circa 500,000 BCE through 300 BCE. See History of Korea, History of North Korea and History of South Korea for more contemporary accounts of the Korean past. ... The Jeulmun pottery period is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 8000-1500 B.C. (Bale 2001; Choe and Bale 2002; Crawford and Lee 2003; Lee 2001, 2006). ... The Mumun Pottery Period (Hanja: 無文土器時代, Hangeul: 무문토기시대 Mumun togi sidae) is an archaeological era in Korean prehistory that dates to approximately 1500-300 B.C. (Ahn 2000; Bale 2001; Crawford and Lee 2003). ... Gojoseon was an ancient Korean kingdom. ... Proto-Three Kingdoms of Korea (원삼국시대, 原三國時代) refers to the period after the fall of Gojoseon and before the maturation of Goguryeo, Baekje, and Silla into full-fledged kingdoms. ... Chinese name Buyeo, Puyo, or Fuyu was an ancient kingdom located in todays North Korea and southern Manchuria, from around the 2nd century BC to 494. ... Okjeo was a small tribal state which arose in the northern Korean peninsula from perhaps 2nd century BC to 5th century AD. Dong-okjeo (East Okjeo) occupied roughly the area of the Hamgyŏng provinces of North Korea, and Buk-okjeo (North Okjeo) occupied the Duman River region. ... Dongye was a state which occupied portions of the northeastern Korean peninsula from roughly 150 BCE to around 400 CE. It bordered Goguryeo and Okjeo to the north, Jinhan to the south, and Chinas Lelang Commandery to the west. ... During the Samhan period, the three confederacies of Mahan, Jinhan, and Byeonhan dominated the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Mahan was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 3rd century CE in the southern Korean peninsula in the Chungcheong Province. ... Byeonhan, also known as Byeonjin (변진, 弁辰), was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the beginning of the Common Era to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, in the south and west of the Nakdong River valley. ... Jinhan was a loose confederacy of chiefdoms that existed from around the 1st century BC to the 4th century CE in the southern Korean peninsula, to the east of the Nakdong River valley, Gyeongsang Province. ... The Three Kingdoms Period of Korea (hangul: 삼국시대) featured the three rival kingdoms of Goguryeo, Baekje and Silla, which dominated the Korean peninsula and parts of Manchuria for much of the 1st millennium CE. Historians claim that the Three Kingdoms period ran from the 1st century BCE (specifically 57 BC) until... Chinese name Russian name Goguryeo or Koguryo was an ancient kingdom located in southern Manchuria, southern Russian Maritime province, and the northern and central parts of the Korean peninsula. ... Combatants Goguryeo (Korea) Sui Dynasty (China) Commanders King Yeongyang Eulji Mundeok Gang I sik Go Geon Mu Sui Yangdi Yuwen Shu Yu Zhongwen Lai Huer Zhou Luohou Strength approximately 200,000 1,138,000 foot soldiers and total of more than 3,000,000 in invasion of 612 The... Baekje (October 18 BCE–August 660 BCE), originally Sipje, was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... For other uses, see Silla (disambiguation). ... Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. ... North South States Period(남북국시대, 南北國時代) refers to the period from the 7th century to the 10th century when Unified Silla and Balhae coexited at the south and the north[1], [2]. Hitherto, this period had been called the period of Unified Silla. ... Unified Silla (668CE–935CE) is the name often applied to the kingdom of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea, after 668, when it conquered Baekje to unify the southern portion of the Korean peninsula. ... Korean name Hangul: Hanja: Alternate meaning: Bohai Sea Balhae (698 - 926) (Bohai in Chinese) was an ancient multiethnic kingdom established after the fall of Goguryeo. ... The Later Three Kingdoms of Korea (892-936) consisted of Silla, Hubaekje (later Baekje), and Taebong (also known as Hugoguryeo, or Later Goguryeo). ... Taegeuk is a traditional symbol of Korea Capital Gaegyeong Language(s) Korean Religion Buddhism Government Monarchy Wang  - 918 - 946 Taejo  - 949 - 975 Gwangjong  - 1259 - 1274 Wonjong  - 1351 - 1374 Gongmin Historical era 918 - 1392  - Later Three Kingdoms rise 892  - Coronation of Taejo June 15, 918  - Korea-Khitan Wars 993 - 1019  - Mongolian... The Goryeo-Khitan Wars were a series of 10th- and 11th-century conflicts between the kingdom of Goryeo and Khitan forces near what is now the border between China and North Korea. ... The Mongol invasions of Korea consisted of a series of campaigns by the Mongol Empire against Korea, then known as Koryo, from 1231 to 1259. ... Joseon redirects here. ... Combatants Korea under the Joseon Dynasty, China under the Ming Dynasty, Jianzhou Jurchens Japan under Toyotomi Hideyoshi Commanders Korea King Seonjo Crown Prince Gwanghae Yi Sun-sin†, Gwon Yul, Yu Seong-ryong, Yi Eok-gi†, Won Gyun†, Kim Myeong-won, Yi Il, Sin Rip†, Gwak Jae-u, Kim Si-min... The First Manchu invasion of Korea occurred in 1627, when Hong Taiji led the Manchu army against Koreas Joseon dynasty. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Flag of the Japanese Empire Anthem Kimi ga Yoa Korea under Japanese Occupation Capital Keijo Language(s) Korean, Japanese Religion Shintoisma Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor of Japan  - 1910–1912 Emperor Meiji  - 1912–1925 Emperor Taisho  - 1925–1945 Emperor Showa Governor-General of Korea  - 1910–1916 Masatake Terauchi  - 1916–1919 Yoshimichi... The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea was a government in exile based in Shanghai, China and later in Chongqing, during the Japanese occupation of Korea. ... The Korean peninsula, first divided along the 38th parallel, later along the demarcation line The division of Korea into North Korea and South Korea stems from the 1945 Allied victory in World War II, ending Japans 35-year occupation of Korea. ... For the history of Korea before its division, see History of Korea. ...

Korea Portal
This box: view  talk  edit

By 1949, both the Soviets and Americans had withdrawn all but advisors in Korea. Korean dynasties are listed in the order of their ruling era. ... This is a timeline of Korean history. ... Korea has a long military history going back several thousand years, with an extensive series of wars that involved invasions, civil discord, counter-piracy actions against medieval Japan, the first use of armoured battleships in seabattles, and the devastation of rebellions against the Joseon era Japanese invasions, the forced peace... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Like most other regions in the world, science and technology in Korea has experienced periods of intense growth as well as long periods of stagnation. ...


South Korean President Syngman Rhee and North Korean General Secretary Kim Il-Sung were each intent on reuniting the peninsula under his own system. Partly because of numbers of Soviet tanks and heavy arms, the North Koreans were able to escalate ongoing border clashes and go on the offensive, while South Korea, with only limited American backing, had far fewer options. The American government believed at the time that the Communist bloc was a unified monolith, and that North Korea acted within this monolith as a pawn of the Soviet Union. This is a Korean name; the family name is Rhee Syngman Rhee or Lee Seungman or Yee Sung-man (March 26, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was the first president of South Korea. ... The term General Secretary (alternatively First Secretary) denotes a leader of various unions, parties or associations. ... Kim Il-sung (15 April 1912 – 8 July 1994) was the North Korean Communist leader from its founding in early 1948 until his death, when he was succeeded by his son Kim Jong-il. ... During the Cold War, the Eastern Bloc (or Soviet Bloc) comprised the following Central and Eastern European countries: Bulgaria, Romania, Hungary, East Germany, Poland, Albania (until the early 1960s, see below), the Soviet Union, and Czechoslovakia. ...


Prelude to war

Rhee and Kim competed to reunite the peninsula, with each of them using military attacks along the border throughout 1949 and early 1950.[30][31] Although Kim and his close associates believed in unifying Korea by force, Stalin was reluctant to embark on a course that might provoke a war with the United States.[32]


On January 12, 1950, United States Secretary of State Dean Acheson gave a speech declaring that America’s Pacific defense perimeter was made up of the Aleutians, Ryukyu, Japan, and the Philippines, implying that America might not fight over Korea. Acheson said Korea’s defense would be the responsibility of the United Nations.[33] is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Seal of the United States Department of State. ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ... Looking down the Aleutians from an airplane. ... The Ryukyu Islands (琉球列島 Ryūkyū-rettō) are an island group, the southern portion belonging to Okinawa Prefecture, Japan, and the northern part belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. ...


In mid 1949, Kim Il-Sung pressed his case with Joseph Stalin that the time had come for a reunification of the Korean Peninsula. Kim needed Soviet support to successfully execute an offensive far across a rugged, mountainous peninsula. Stalin, however refused support, concerned with the relative lack of preparedness of the North Korean armed forces and with possible U.S. involvement.


Over the next year, the North Korean leadership molded its army into a relatively formidable offensive war machine modeled partly on a Soviet mechanized force but strengthened primarily by an influx of Korean veterans who had served with the Chinese People's Liberation Army since the 1930s.[citation needed] By early 1950 the time for decision could no longer be postponed by either Moscow or Pyongyang, as by this time Syngman Rhee's police forces, with the earlier help of the Americans, had violently suppressed much of the domestic opposition.[citation needed] The possibility of reunification through insurgency seemed closed, and Rhee's regime was gaining in strength if not popularity. Kim was left with the sole option of conventional invasion if he wished to unify Korea as a communist dictatorship before the Southern government became strong enough to defend itself.[32] By 1950, the North Korean military was equipped with modern Soviet weaponry, and it enjoyed substantial advantages over the Southern forces in virtually every category of equipment. On January 30, 1950, Stalin, via telegram, informed Kim Il Sung that he was willing to help Kim in his plan to unify Korea. In the discussions with Kim that followed, Stalin suggested that he wanted lead and said that a yearly minimum of 25,000 tons would help. After another visit by Kim to Moscow in March and April 1950, Stalin approved an attack.[29][34] Coincidentally, on March 9, 1950, North Korea had agreed to send to the Soviet Union 9 tons of gold, 40 tons of silver, and 15,000 tons of monazite concentrate as payment for additional Soviet arms, ammunition and military technical equipment.[35] Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ... is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Monazite powder In geology, the mineral monazite is a reddish-brown phosphate containing rare earth metals and an important source of thorium, lanthanum, and cerium. ...


Course

Invasion of South Korea

Under the guise of a counter-attack, the North Korean Army struck in the pre-dawn hours of Sunday, June 25, 1950, crossing the 38th parallel behind a firestorm of artillery. The North claimed Republic of Korea Army (ROK) troops under the “bandit traitor Syngman Rhee" had crossed the border first, and that Rhee would be arrested and executed.[22] Korean Peoples Army refers to the armed personnel of the Joseph Stalin. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Republic of Korea Army (ROK Army, ROKA, hangul: 대한민국 육군; hanja: 大韓民國 陸軍) is by far the largest of the military branches, with over 560,000 members as of 2004. ... This is a Korean name; the family name is Rhee Syngman Rhee or Lee Seungman or Yee Sung-man (March 26, 1875 – July 19, 1965) was the first president of South Korea. ...


Equipped with 594 Soviet made tanks, the North Koreans had 150 additional tanks in North Korea. The North Korean military began the war with about 357 aircraft, including several fighters and bombers. These aircraft were assigned to the invasion while 114 more planes were serving in North Korea. Their navy had several small warships, and launched attacks on the South Korean Navy. North Korea's most serious weakness was its lack of a reliable logistics system for moving supplies south as the army advanced, but the South Korean forces were weak and ill-equipped compared to the North Koreans. Thousands of Korean civilians running south were forced to hand-carry supplies, many of whom later died in North Korean air attacks.


The South Korean Army had 150,000 soldiers armed, trained, and equipped by the U.S. military, and as a force was deficient in armor and artillery. The South Korean military had only 40 tanks, 14 attack planes, and few anti-tank weapons. There were no large foreign combat units in the country when the war began, but there were large American forces stationed in nearby Japan.[22] .


The North's well-planned attack with about 415,000 troops achieved surprise and quick successes.[22] North Korea attacked a number of key places including Kaesŏng, Chuncheon, Uijeongbu and Ongjin. Kaesong city centre Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Koryo Dynasty. ... Chuncheon (Chuncheon-si) is the capital of Gangwon Province, South Korea. ... For other uses, see Uijeongbu (disambiguation). ... Ongjin is a county in southern South Hwanghae province, North Korea. ...


Within days, South Korean forces, outnumbered, outgunned, and often of dubious loyalty to the Southern regime, were in full retreat or defecting en masse to the North. As the ground attack continued, the North Korean Air Force conducted bombing of Kimpo Airport near Seoul. North Korean forces occupied Seoul on the afternoon of June 28. Gimpo Airport was the main international airport for Seoul, and therefore for South Korea, until 2001, when Incheon International Airport took over. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


However, North Korea's hope for a quick surrender by the Rhee government and the reunification of the peninsula evaporated when the United States and other foreign powers intervened with UN approval.


Foreign reaction

The invasion of South Korea came as a surprise to the United Nations. In the preceding week, Acheson had told the United States Congress on June 20 no such war was likely. Instead of pressing for a Congressional declaration of war, which he regarded as too alarmist and time-consuming when time was of the essence, Truman went to the United Nations for approval (though he ordered U.S. military forces to Korea before any resolution had been adopted).[36] Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives President of the Senate President pro tempore Dick Cheney, (R) since January 20, 2001 Robert C. Byrd, (D) since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The armed forces of the United States of America consist of the United States Army United States Navy United States Air Force United States Marine Corps United States Coast Guard Note: The United States Coast Guard has both military and law enforcement functions. ...


The same day the war had officially begun (June 25), the United Nations immediately drafted UNSC Resolution 82, which called for:[37] is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... United Nations Security Council Resolution 82, adopted on June 25, 1950, recalling General Assembly Resolution 293, which found the Government of the Republic of Korea to be the lawfully established government over the area that the United Nations Temporary Commission on Korea found to constitute Korea. ...

  1. all hostilities to end and North Korea to withdraw to the 38th Parallel;
  2. a UN Commission on Korea to be formed to monitor the situation and report to the Security Council;
  3. all UN members to support the United Nations in achieving this, and refrain from providing assistance to the North Korean authorities.
British Royal Marines on LVTs embark on a mission to disrupt enemy logistics, April 1951.
British Royal Marines on LVTs embark on a mission to disrupt enemy logistics, April 1951.

The resolution was unanimously passed in the Security Council thanks to the temporary Soviet absence from the Security Council — the Soviets were boycotting the Security Council, protesting that the Chinese seat should be transferred from the (Kuomintang-controlled) Republic of China to the Communist People's Republic. With the Soviets absent and unable to veto the resolution, and with only Yugoslavia abstaining, the UN voted to aid South Korea on June 27. The resolution led to direct action by the United States, whose forces were joined by troops and supplies from 15 other UN members: Canada, Australia, New Zealand, UK, France, South Africa, Turkey, Thailand, Greece, the Netherlands, Ethiopia, Colombia, the Philippines, Belgium, and Luxembourg. Even Japan gave military support with minesweeping and the service and repair of military equipment.[38] However, the United States provided 50% of the ground forces (South Korea provided most of the remainder), 86% of the naval power, and 93% of the air power.[39] Some historians have called the mission "a U.S. operation behind a blue international fig leaf."[36] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 738 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (740 × 601 pixels, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: LVTs embarking British Royal Marine commandos leave Fort Marion (LSD-22) for the beach at Sorye Dong, North Korea, on 7 April 1951. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 738 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (740 × 601 pixels, file size: 75 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: LVTs embarking British Royal Marine commandos leave Fort Marion (LSD-22) for the beach at Sorye Dong, North Korea, on 7 April 1951. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... Chinas seat in the United Nations has been occupied by the Peoples Republic of China since October 25, 1971. ... The Kuomintang of China (abbreviation KMT) [1], also often translated as the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Republic of China (ROC), now on Taiwan, and is currently the largest political party in terms of seats in the Legislative Yuan, and the oldest political party in the... For the Chinese civilization, see China. ... Motto Brotherhood and Unity Anthem Hey, Slavs Capital Belgrade Language(s) Serbo-Croatian (spoken throughout the territory), Slovenian, Macedonian, Albanian, Hungarian (all official), and languages of other nationalities. ... is the 178th day of the year (179th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The olive branches symbolise peace. ... Eugen Sandow as the Dying Gaul A fig leaf is the covering up of an act or an object that is embarrassing or disagreeable. ...


The Soviet Union and its allies challenged the resolution on grounds of illegality since a permanent member of the council (the Soviet Union) was absent from the voting. Against this, the view prevailed that a permanent member of the Council had to explicitly veto a resolution in order to defeat it. The North Korean government also did not concur, arguing that the conflict was a civil war, and therefore not clearly within the scope of the UN. In 1950, a Soviet resolution calling for an end of hostilities and withdrawal of foreign troops was rejected.[40]


U.S. intervention

Despite the post-World War II demobilization of U.S. and allied forces, which caused serious supply problems for American troops in the region, the United States still had substantial forces in Japan to oppose the North Korean military. These American forces were under the command of General Douglas MacArthur. Apart from British Commonwealth units, no other nation could supply sizable manpower. This article is about the United States Army rank General of the Army. ... This article is about the American general; for the municipality in the Philippines, see General MacArthur, Eastern Samar. ... British Commonwealth Forces Korea (BCFK) was the formal name, from 1952, of the Commonwealth army, naval and air units serving with the United Nations in the Korean War. ...


On being told of the outbreak of large-scale hostilities in Korea, Truman ordered MacArthur to transfer munitions to the ROK Army, while using air cover to protect the evacuation of U.S. citizens. Truman did not agree with his advisors, who called for unilateral U.S. airstrikes against the North Korean forces, but did order the Seventh Fleet to protect Chiang Kai-Shek's Taiwan. The Nationalist government (confined to Taiwan) asked to participate in the war. Their request was denied by the Americans, who felt that it would only encourage PRC intervention. The United States 7th Fleet is a naval military unit based in Yokosuka, Japan. ... Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The Kuomintang (KMT) or Nationalist Party of China (Traditional Chinese: 中國國民黨; Simplified Chinese: 中国国民党; pinyin: Zhōnggu ndǎng; Wade-Giles: Chung-kuo Kuo-min-tang; Tongyong Pinyin: Jhongguo Guomindang; literally the National Peoples Party of China) is a conservative political party currently active in the Republic of China (ROC) on...

American soldiers in Korea.
American soldiers in Korea.

The first significant foreign military intervention was the American Task Force Smith, part of the U.S. Army’s 24th Infantry Division based in Japan. On July 5, it fought for the first time at Osan and was defeated with heavy losses. The victorious North Korean forces advanced southwards, and the half-strength 24th Division was forced to retreat to Taejeon, which also fell to the Northern forces. General William F. Dean was taken prisoner. Download high resolution version (1191x798, 223 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1191x798, 223 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Korean War (Korean: 한국전쟁), from June 25, 1950 to July 27, 1953, was a conflict between North Korea and South Korea. ... The United States Army is the largest and oldest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The Hawaiian Division, now called the 24th Infantry Division (Mechanized)—also known as the Victory Division—was an infantry division of the United States Army with base of operations at Fort Riley, Kansas. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Osan is a city in Gyeonggi Province, South Korea, approximately 35 km south of Seoul. ... Daejeon (대전, 大田  ) Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city in the centre of South Korea. ... William F. Dean (August 1, 1899 - August 24, 1981) was a soldier in the U.S. Army during the Korean War. ...


By August, the South Korean forces and the U.S. Eighth Army under General Walton Walker had been driven back into a small area in the southeast corner of the Korean peninsula around the city of Pusan. As the North Koreans advanced, they rounded up and killed civil servants. On August 20, MacArthur sent a message warning Kim Il Sung that he would be held responsible for further atrocities committed against UN troops.[29] The Eighth US Army—often abbreviated EUSA—(the acronym EUSA was deemed unauthorized by LTG Charles Campbell in 2002) is the commanding formation of all US Army troops in South Korea. ... Walton Harris Walker (December 3, 1889—December 23, 1950) was an American army officer and the first commander of the U.S. Eighth Army during the Korean War. ... Pūsan is also a Vedic Hindu god. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By September, only the area around Pusan — about 10 percent of the Korean peninsula — was still in coalition hands. With the aid of massive American supplies, air support, and additional reinforcements, the UN forces managed to stabilize a line along the Nakdong River. This desperate holding action became known in the United States as the Pusan Perimeter. The Nakdong River (Rakdong in North Korean) is the longest river in South Korea, and passes through major cities such as Daegu and Busan. ... The Pusan Perimeter was the area in extreme southeast Korea that was held by US and South Korean troops during the furthest advance of the North Korean troops, in the summer and fall of 1950, during the Korean War. ...


Escalation of the Korean war

U.S. forces target rail cars south of Wonsan, North Korea, an east coast port city.
U.S. forces target rail cars south of Wonsan, North Korea, an east coast port city.

In the face of fierce North Korean attacks, the allied defense became a desperate battle called the Battle of Pusan Perimeter by Americans. However, the North Koreans failed to capture Pusan. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 779 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,367 × 1,052 pixels, file size: 897 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 779 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,367 × 1,052 pixels, file size: 897 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Battle of Pusan Perimeter was fought in August and September of 1950 between United Nations forces combined with South Korean forces and the forces of North Korea. ...


American air power arrived in force, flying 40 sorties per day in ground support actions, targeting North Korean forces.[citation needed] Strategic bombers (mostly B-29s based in Japan) closed most rail and road traffic by day, and destroyed 32 critical bridges necessary for the conduct of warfare. Trains used by military and civilians alike waited out the daylight hours in tunnels. Sortie is a term for deployment of aircraft or ships for the purposes of a specific mission. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ...


Throughout all parts of Korea, the American bombers knocked out the main supply dumps and eliminated oil refineries and seaports that handled imports to starve North Korean forces of ammunition and other martial supplies. Naval air power also attacked transportation choke points. The North Korean forces were already strung out over the peninsula, and the destruction caused by American bombers prevented needed supplies from reaching North Korean forces in the south.


Meanwhile, supply bases in Japan were pouring weapons and soldiers into Pusan. American tank battalions were rushed in from San Francisco; by late August, America had over 500 medium tanks in the Pusan perimeter. By early September, UN-ROK forces were decidedly more powerful and outnumbered the North Koreans by 180,000 to 100,000. At that point, they began a counterattack.[22] This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


South Korean and allied forces move north

Main article: Battle of Inchon

In the face of these overwhelming reinforcements, the North Korean forces found themselves undermanned and with weak logistical support. They also lacked the substantial naval and air support of the Americans. In order to alleviate pressure on the Pusan Perimeter, General MacArthur, as UN commander-in-chief for Korea, argued for an amphibious landing far behind the North Korean lines at Inchon (인천; 仁川). Combatants  United Nations  North Korea Commanders Douglas MacArthur Arthur Dewey Struble Chesty Puller Kim Il-sung Choi Yong-Kun The Battle of Inchon (Korean spelling: Incheon) (Korean: Incheon Sangryuk Jakjeon; code name: Operation Chromite) was a decisive invasion and battle during the Korean War. ... Commander-in-Chief (in NATO-lingo often C-in-C or CINC pronounced sink) is the commander of all the military forces within a particular region or of all the military forces of a state. ... It has been suggested that Landing operation be merged into this article or section. ... Incheon Metropolitan City is a metropolitan city and major seaport on the west coast of South Korea, near Seoul. ...


The violent tides and strong enemy presence made this an extremely risky operation. MacArthur had started planning a few days after the war began, but he had been strongly opposed by the Pentagon. When he finally received permission, MacArthur activated the X Corps under General Edward Almond (comprising 70,000 troops of the 1st Marine Division and the Army’s 7th Infantry Division and augmented by 8,600 Korean troops) and ordered them to land at Inchon in Operation Chromite. By the time of the attack on September 15, thanks to reconnaissance by guerrillas, misinformation and extensive shelling prior to the invasion, the North Korean military had few soldiers stationed in Inchon, so the U.S. forces met only light resistance when they landed. X Corps was a unit of the United States Army that took part in the invasion of Leyte under Sixth Army during 1944. ... Edward Mallory Almond (December 12, 1892 – June 11, 1979) was an American military officer best known as the commander of the United States Army X Corps during the Korean War. ... The 1st Marine Division is the oldest, largest (active duty), and most decorated division in the United States Marine Corps representing a combat-ready force of more than 19,000 men and women. ... The 7th Infantry Division (Light), nicknamed Lightfighters and sometimes referred to as the The Bayonet Division is a reserve combat division of the United States Army currently made up of National Guard units. ... Battle of Inchon Conflict Korean War Date September 15, 1950 – September 28, 1950 Place Inchon, Korea Result Allied victory China enters the Korean War The Battle of Inchon (code name: Operation Chromite) was a decisive 15-day invasion and battle during the Korean War. ... is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Guerilla may refer to Guerrilla warfare. ...


The landing was a decisive victory, as X Corps rolled over the few defenders and threatened to trap the main North Korean army. MacArthur quickly recaptured Seoul. The North Koreans, almost cut off, rapidly retreated northwards; about 25,000 to 30,000 made it back.[41][42]


Invasion of North Korea

The United Nations troops drove the North Koreans back past the 38th parallel. The American goal of saving South Korea’s government had been achieved, but lured by the success and the prospect of uniting all of Korea under the government of Syngman Rhee, the UN forces advanced into North Korea.[citation needed] Other issues included the psychological effects of destroying a communist dictatorship and the liberation of POWs. Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...

Urban combat in Seoul, 1950, as U.S. Marines fight North Koreans holding the city.
Urban combat in Seoul, 1950, as U.S. Marines fight North Koreans holding the city.

The UN forces crossed into North Korea in early October 1950. The U.S. X Corps made amphibious landings at Wonsan and Iwon, which had already been captured by South Korean forces advancing by land. The Eighth U.S. Army, along with the South Koreans, drove up the western side of Korea and captured Pyongyang on October 19. By the end of October, the North Korean Army was rapidly disintegrating, and the UN took 135,000 prisoners. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Wonsan is a port city and naval base in southeastern North Korea. ... Iwon can refer to: Riwon, an alternative spelling of the North Korea province iWon. ... Not to be confused with PyeongChang. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The UN offensive greatly concerned the Chinese, who worried that the UN forces would not stop at the Yalu River, the border between North Korea and China, and might extend their rollback policy into China. Many in the West, including General MacArthur, thought that spreading the war to China would be necessary and that since North Korean troops were being supplied by bases in China, those supply depots should be bombed. However, Truman and the other leaders disagreed, and MacArthur was ordered to be very cautious when approaching the Chinese border. The Amnok River, or the Yalu River, is a river on the border between China and North Korea. ...


Chinese involvement

China warned American leaders through neutral diplomats that it would intervene to protect its national security. Truman regarded the warnings as “a bald attempt to blackmail the U.N.” and did not take it seriously. [43] On October 15, 1950, Truman went to Wake Island for a short, highly publicized meeting with MacArthur. The CIA had previously told Truman that Chinese involvement was unlikely.[citation needed] MacArthur, saying he was speculating, saw little risk.[citation needed] MacArthur explained that the Chinese had lost their window of opportunity to help North Korea’s invasion. He estimated the Chinese had 300,000 soldiers in Manchuria, with between 100,000-125,000 men along the Yalu; half could be brought across the Yalu. But the Chinese had no air force; hence, “if the Chinese tried to get down to Pyongyang, there would be the greatest slaughter.”[41][44] MacArthur assumed that Chinese wished to avoid heavy casualties.[citation needed] Security measures taken to protect the Houses of Parliament in London, England. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... CIA redirects here. ...

U.S. Soldiers fire a 105 mm howitzer in an indirect fire mission on the Korean battle line, near Uirson in August 1950.
U.S. Soldiers fire a 105 mm howitzer in an indirect fire mission on the Korean battle line, near Uirson in August 1950.

On October 8, 1950, the day after American troops crossed the 38th parallel, Chairman Mao Zedong issued the order to assemble the Chinese People’s Volunteer Army. Seventy percent of the members of the PVA were Chinese regulars from the Chinese People’s Liberation Army. Mao ordered the army to move to the Yalu River, ready to cross.[citation needed] Mao sought Soviet aid and saw intervention as essentially defensive: “If we allow the U.S. to occupy all of Korea… we must be prepared for the U.S. to declare… war with China,” he told Stalin. Premier Zhou Enlai was sent to Moscow to add force to Mao’s cabled arguments. Mao delayed while waiting for substantial Soviet help, postponing the planned attack from October 13 to October 19. However, Soviet assistance was limited to providing air support no nearer than sixty miles (100 km) from the battlefront. The Soviet MiG-15s in PRC colors did pose a serious challenge to UN pilots. In one area nicknamed “MiG Alley” by UN forces, they held local air superiority against the American-made Lockheed F-80 Shooting Stars until the newer North American F-86 Sabres were deployed. The Chinese were angry at the limited extent of Soviet involvement, having assumed that they had been promised full scale air support.[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 747 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 642 pixels, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 747 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (800 × 642 pixels, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mao redirects here. ... The Chinese Peoples Volunteer Army (PVA) (Simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) was a volunteer army deployed by the Chinese government during the Korean War. ... Peoples Liberation Army redirects here. ... Zhou Enlai (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Hanyu Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chou En-lai) (March 5, 1898 – January 8, 1976), a prominent Communist Party of China leader, was Premier of the Peoples Republic of China from 1949 until his death in January 1976, and Chinas foreign minister from 1949... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (NATO reporting name Fagot) was a jet fighter developed for the USSR. History Design began under the bureau designation I-310, which first flew in 1947. ... Map showing the general location of MiG Alley. ... The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star was the first operational jet fighter used by the United States Army Air Force. ... F-86 Sabre at Oshkosh, 2003 The first proposals for the North American Aviation F-86 Sabre were made in 1944, but construction was not begun until after World War II. The XP-86 prototype, which would become the F-86 Sabre, first flew on October 1, 1947. ...


The Chinese made contact with American troops on October 25, 1950, with 270,000 PVA troops under the command of General Peng Dehuai, much to the surprise of the UN, which had disregarded evidence of such a massive force. However, after these initial engagements, the Chinese forces pulled back into the mountains. UN leaders saw the withdrawal as a sign of weakness and greatly underestimated the Chinese fighting capability.[citation needed] is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Peng Dehuai . Péng Déhuái (T. Chinese: 彭德懷, S. Chinese: 彭德怀, Wade-Giles: Peng Te-huai) (October 24, 1898 - November 29, 1974) was a prominent Chinese Communist military leader. ...


U.S. intelligence, sketchy during this phase for various reasons, did not work as well in North Korea as it had in South Korea during the days of the Pusan Perimeter.[citation needed] The Chinese march and bivouac discipline also minimized any possible detection. In a well-documented instance, a CCF army of three divisions marched on foot from An-tung in Manchuria, on the north side of the Yalu River, 286 miles (460 km) to its assembly area in North Korea, in the combat zone, in a period ranging from 16 to 19 days. One division of this army, marching at night over circuitous mountain roads, averaged 18 miles (29 km) per day for 18 days. The day's march began after dark at 19:00 and ended at 03:00 the next morning. Defense measures against aircraft were to be completed before 05:30. Every man, animal, and piece of equipment were to be concealed and camouflaged. During daylight, bivouac scouting parties moved ahead to select the next day's bivouac area. When CCF units were compelled for any reason to march by day, they were under standing orders for every man to stop in his tracks and remain motionless if aircraft appeared overhead. Officers were empowered to shoot any man who violated this order.[22] A bivouac shelter in North Canterbury, New Zealand A Bivouac (pronounced biv-oo-ak) is an encampment by night, usually without tents or covering. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ...

In late November, the Chinese struck in the west, along the Chongchon River, and completely overran several South Korean divisions and successfully landed a heavy blow to the flank of the remaining UN forces. The ensuing defeat of the U.S. Eighth Army resulted in the longest retreat of any American military unit in history.[45] In the east, at the Battle of Chosin Reservoir, a 30,000 man unit from the U.S. 7th Infantry Division and U.S. Marine Corps was also unprepared for the Chinese tactics and was soon surrounded, though they eventually managed to escape the encirclement, albeit with over 15,000 casualties, after inflicting heavy casualties on six Chinese divisions.[46] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Combatants United Nations Great Britain United States Peoples Republic of China Commanders Oliver Smith Song Shi-Lun Strength 30,000 60,000 Casualties 2,500 dead, 192 missing, 5,000 wounded, 7,500 frostbite casualties 25,000 killed, 12,500 wounded, 30,000 frostbite casualties The Battle of Chosin... Combatants United Nations Great Britain United States Peoples Republic of China Commanders Oliver Smith Song Shi-Lun Strength 30,000 60,000 Casualties 2,500 dead, 192 missing, 5,000 wounded, 7,500 frostbite casualties 25,000 killed, 12,500 wounded, 30,000 frostbite casualties The Battle of Chosin... The 7th Infantry Division (Light), nicknamed Lightfighters and sometimes referred to as the The Bayonet Division is a reserve combat division of the United States Army currently made up of National Guard units. ... The United States Marine Corps (USMC) is a branch of the United States military responsible for providing power projection from the sea,[1] utilizing the mobility of the U.S. Navy to rapidly deliver combined-arms task forces. ... Encirclement is a military term for the situation when one sides force or target is isolated and surrounded by other sides forces. ...


While the Chinese soldiers initially lacked heavy fire support and light infantry weapons, their tactics quickly adapted to this disadvantage, as explained by Bevin Alexander in his book How Wars Are Won: Bevin Alexander is a military historian and author. ...

"The usual method was to infiltrate small units, from a platoon of fifty men to a company of 200, split into separate detachments. While one team cut off the escape route of the Americans, the others struck both the front and the flanks in concerted assaults. The attacks continued on all sides until the defenders were destroyed or forced to withdraw. The Chinese then crept forward to the open flank of the next platoon position, and repeated the tactics."

Roy Appleman further clarified the initial Chinese tactics as: Platoon of the German Bundeswehr. ... A company is a military unit, typically consisting of 100-200 soldiers. ...

"In the First Phase Offensive, highly skilled enemy light infantry troops had carried out the Chinese attacks, generally unaided by any weapons larger than mortars. Their attacks had demonstrated that the Chinese were well-trained disciplined fire fighters, and particularly adept at night fighting. They were masters of the art of camouflage. Their patrols were remarkably successful in locating the positions of the UN forces. They planned their attacks to get in the rear of these forces, cut them off from their escape and supply roads, and then send in frontal and flanking attacks to precipitate the battle. They also employed a tactic which they termed Hachi Shiki, which was a V-formation into which they allowed enemy forces to move; the sides of the V then closed around their enemy while another force moved below the mouth of the V to engage any forces attempting to relieve the trapped unit. Such were the tactics the Chinese used with great success at Onjong, Unsan, and Ch'osan but with only partial success at Pakch'on and the Ch'ongch'on bridgehead."[22]

The U.S. forces in northeast Korea, who had rushed forward with great speed only a few months earlier, were forced to race southwards with even greater speed and form a defensive perimeter around the port city of Hungnam, where a major evacuation was carried out in late December 1950. Facing complete defeat and surrender, 193 shiploads of American men and material were evacuated from Hungnam Harbor, and about 105,000 soldiers, 98,000 civilians, 17,500 vehicles, and 350,000 tons of supplies were shipped to Pusan in orderly fashion. As they left, the American forces blew up large portions of the city to deny its use to the communists, depriving many Korean civilians of shelter during the winter.[41][47] Hungnam is a port city on the Eastern coast of North Korea on the Sea of Japan. ...


Fighting across the 38th Parallel (early 1951)

A-26 Invader Invaders bomb supply warehouses in Wonsan, North Korea, 1951.
A-26 Invader Invaders bomb supply warehouses in Wonsan, North Korea, 1951.

In January 1951, the Chinese and North Korean forces struck again in their 3rd Phase Offensive (also known as the Chinese Winter Offensive). The Chinese repeated their previous tactics of mostly night attacks, with a stealthy approach from positions some distance from the front, followed by a rush with overwhelming numbers, and using trumpets or gongs both for communication and to disorient their foes. Against this the UN forces had no remedy, and their resistance crumbled; they retreated rapidly to the south (referred to by UN forces as the “bug-out”). Seoul was abandoned and was captured by communist forces on January 4, 1951. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 741 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,187 × 960 pixels, file size: 301 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 741 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,187 × 960 pixels, file size: 301 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... First flown in 1942, the American Douglas A-26 Invader (after 1948, the B-26, and after 1966, the A-26A) was a twin-engined light attack bomber aircraft built during World War II and seeing service during the Cold Wars major conflicts. ... is the 4th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


To add to the Eighth Army’s difficulties, General Walker was killed in an accident. He was replaced by a World War II airborne veteran, Lieutenant-General Matthew Ridgway, who took immediate steps to raise the morale and fighting spirit of the battered Eighth Army, which had fallen to low levels during its retreat. Nevertheless, the situation was so grim that MacArthur mentioned the use of atomic weapons against China, much to the alarm of America’s allies. Matthew Bunker Ridgway (March 3, 1895–July 26, 1993) was a United States Army general. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


UN forces continued to retreat until they had reached a line south of Suwon in the west and Wonju in the center, and north of Samchok in the east, where the front stabilized. The People's Volunteer Army had outrun its supply line and was forced to recoil. The Chinese could not go beyond Seoul because they were at the end of their logistics supply line[citation needed] — all food and ammunition had to be carried at night on foot or bicycle from the Yalu River. Suwon (Suwon-si) is the provincial capital of Gyeonggi-do, South Korea. ... Wonju is a city in Gangwon province, South Korea. ... Samcheok is a city in Gangwon Province, South Korea. ...


In late January, finding the lines in front of his forces deserted, Ridgway ordered reconnaissance in force, which developed into a full-scale offensive, Operation Roundup. The operation was planned to proceed gradually, to make full use of the UN's superiority in firepower on the ground and in the air; by the time Roundup was completed in early February, UN forces had reached the Han River and re-captured Wonju. Military history records two operations called Operation Roundup: 1. ...


The Chinese struck back in mid-February with their Fourth Phase Offensive, from Hoengsong in the center against IX Corps positions around Chipyong-ni. A short but desperate siege there fought by units of the U.S. 2nd Infantry Division, including the French Battalion, broke up the offensive; in this action, the UN learned how to deal with Chinese offensive tactics and be able to stand their ground. IX Corps (Ninth Corps) was a corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War that distinguished itself in combat in multiple theaters: the Carolinas, Virginia, Kentucky, Tennessee, and Mississippi. ... Jipyeong-ri is a village in Jije-myeon, Yangpyeong County, Gyeonggi-do Province, South Korea. ... Patch of the United States Army 2nd Infantry Division. ... The French Battalion in the Korean War (Bataillon français de lONU, BF-ONU) was a battalion of volunteers made up of active and reserve French military personnel sent to the Korean Peninsula as part of the UN force fighting in the Korean War. ...


Roundup was followed in the last two weeks of February 1951, with Operation Killer, by a revitalized Eighth Army, restored by Ridgway to fighting trim. This was a full-scale offensive across the front, again staged to maximize firepower and with the aim of destroying as much of the Chinese and North Korean armies as possible. By the end of Killer, I Corps had re-occupied all territory south of the Han, while IX Corps had captured Hoengsong. The I Corps (First Corps), nicknamed Americas Corps, is a corps of the United States Army with headquarters in Fort Lewis, Washington. ...


On March 7, 1951, the Eighth Army pushed forward again, in Operation Ripper, and on March 14 they expelled the North Korean and Chinese troops from Seoul, the fourth time in a year the city had changed hands. Seoul was in utter ruins; its prewar population of 1.5 million had dropped to 200,000, with severe food shortages.[42] is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Operation Ripper was a military operation which was planned to repel the Chinese and North Korean troops from Seoul and to bring UN troops to the 38th Parallel. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


MacArthur was removed from command by President Truman on April 11, 1951 for insubordination, setting off a firestorm of protest back in the U.S. The new supreme commander was Ridgway, who had managed to regroup UN forces for the series of effective counter-offensives. Command of Eighth Army passed to General James Van Fleet. is the 101st day of the year (102nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Insubordination is the act of a subordinate deliberately disobeying a lawful order. ... James Alward Van Fleet (March 19, 1892 - September 23, 1992) was a U.S. Army general during World War II and the Korean War. ...

A Chinese soldier killed by U.S. Marines of 1st Marine Division during an attack on Hill 105 in 1951.
A Chinese soldier killed by U.S. Marines of 1st Marine Division during an attack on Hill 105 in 1951.

A further series of attacks slowly drove back the communist forces, such as Operations Courageous and Tomahawk, a combined ground- and air-assault to trap communist forces between Kaesong and Seoul. UN forces continued to advance until they reached Line Kansas, some miles north of the 38th parallel. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 740 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1610 × 1304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 740 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1610 × 1304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Combatants US Democratic Peoples Republic of North Korea Operation Courageous was designed to trap large numbers of Chinese and North Korean troops between the Han River (Korea) and Imjin Rivers north of Seoul, opposite the South Korean I Corps. ... Operation Tomahawk was an airborne military operation by the 187th Regimental Combat Team (RCT) in March 1951 at Munsan-ni as part of Operation Courageous in the Korean War. ... Kaesong city centre Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Koryo Dynasty. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of location of Seoul. ...


The Chinese were far from beaten, however; In April 1951 they launched their Fifth Phase Offensive, (also called the Chinese Spring Offensive) This was a major effort, involving three field armies (up to 700,000 men). The main blow fell on I Corps, but fierce resistance in battles at the Imjin River and Kapyong, blunted its impetus, and the Chinese were halted at a defensive line north of Seoul (referred to as the No-Name Line). Combatants Peoples Volunteer Army United Nations forces: - United States, - United Kingdom Commanders General Peng Dehuai General Matthew Ridgway [1] Strength 10,000 (+ Divisions in waiting) 700 of the British 29th Infantry Brigade Casualties ~20,00 Chinese; 63rd Army pulled out of action. ... Combatants United Nations Australia Canada China Casualties 43 killed 87 Wounded 3 Captured 1,000+ Killed The Battle of Kapyong was waged during the Korean War. ...


A further Communist offensive in the east against ROK and X Corps on May 15 also made initial gains, but by May 20 the attack had ground to a halt. Eighth Army counterattacked and by the end of May had regained Line Kansas. is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The decision by UN forces to halt at Line Kansas, just north of the 38th Parallel, and not to persist in offensive action into North Korea, ushered in the period of stalemate which typified the remainder of the conflict.


Stalemate (July 1951 - July 1953)

The rest of the war involved little territory change, large-scale bombing of the north, and lengthy peace negotiations, which began on July 10, 1951, at Kaesong. Even during the peace negotiations, combat continued. For the South Korean and allied forces, the goal was to recapture all of South Korea before an agreement was reached in order to avoid loss of any territory. The Chinese and North Koreans attempted similar operations, and later in the war they undertook operations designed to test the resolve of the UN to continue the conflict. Principal military engagements in this period were the actions around the Punchbowl, in the east, such as Bloody Ridge and Heartbreak Ridge in 1951, the battles for Old Baldy, in the center, and the Hook, in the west, during 1952–53, Battle of Hill Eerie in 1952, and the battle for Pork Chop Hill in 1953. is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kaesong city centre Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Koryo Dynasty. ... The Battle of Bloody Ridge took place during the Korean War from August 18th to September 5th, 1951. ... The Battle of Heartbreak Ridge was a month long battle in the Korean War. ... Combatants U.S. 45th Infantry Division U.S. 2nd Infantry Division Chinese Peoples Volunteers The Battle of Old Baldy usually refers to a series of five engagements over a period of 10 months for Hill 266 in west-central Korea, though there was also vicous fighting both before and... The Hook During the 1951-1953 Korean War, elements of the United Nations Forces were engaged in fierce fighting to prevent Chinese forces from gaining ground, prior to a possible cease fire. ... The Battle of Hill Eerie refers to several Korean War engagements between the United Nations forces and the Chinese Communist Forces (CCF) in 1952 at the infamous of Hill Eerie. ... The Battle of Pork Chop Hill refers to a pair of related Korean War engagements during the spring and summer of 1953. ...

Territory changed hands in the early part of the war until the front stabilized.
Territory changed hands in the early part of the war until the front stabilized.

The peace negotiations went on for two years, first at Kaesong, and later at Panmunjon. A major issue of the negotiations was repatriation of POWs. The Communists agreed to voluntary repatriation but only if the majority would return to China or North Korea, something that did not occur. Since many refused to be repatriated to the communist North Korea and China, the war continued until the Communists eventually dropped this issue.[citation needed] Image File history File links Korean_war_1950-1953. ... Image File history File links Korean_war_1950-1953. ... Panmunjeom (Panmunjŏm) in Gyeonggi province is a village on the de facto border between North and South Korea, where the 1953 armistice that halted the Korean War was signed. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ...


In October 1951, U.S. forces performed Operation Hudson Harbor intending to establish the capability to use nuclear weapons. Several B-29s conducted individual simulated bomb runs from Okinawa to North Korea, delivering “dummy” nuclear bombs or heavy conventional bombs; the operation was coordinated from Yokota Air Base in Japan. The battle exercise was intended to test “actual functioning of all activities which would be involved in an atomic strike, including weapons assembly and testing, leading, ground control of bomb aiming,” and so on. The results indicated that nuclear bombs would be less effective than anticipated, because “timely identification of large masses of enemy troops was extremely rare.”[48][49][50][51][52] The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... This article is about the prefecture. ... Yokota Air Base ), (IATA: OKO, ICAO: ROKO) is a United States Air Force base located in the city of Fussa and surrounding communities in Tokyo, Japan. ...


On November 29, 1952, U.S. President-elect Dwight D. Eisenhower fulfilled a campaign promise by going to Korea to find out what could be done to end the conflict. With the UN's acceptance of India’s proposal for a Korean armistice, a cease-fire was established on July 27, 1953, by which time the front line was back around the proximity of the 38th parallel, and so a demilitarized zone (DMZ) was established around it, presently defended by North Korean troops on one side and by South Korean, American and UN troops on the other. The DMZ runs north of the parallel towards the east, and to the south as it travels west. The site of the peace talks, Kaesong, the old capital of Korea, was part of the South before hostilities broke out but is currently a special city of the North. North Korea and the United States signed the Armistice Agreement, with Syngman Rhee refusing to sign.[53] is the 333rd day of the year (334th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dwight David Eisenhower, born David Dwight Eisenhower (October 14, 1890 – March 28, 1969), nicknamed Ike, was a five-star General in the United States Army and U.S. politician, who served as the thirty-fourth President of the United States (1953–1961). ... A white flag is traditionally used to represent a truce. ... An armistice is the effective end of a war, when the warring parties agree to stop fighting. ... is the 208th day of the year (209th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 7 - President Harry S. Truman announces the United States has developed a hydrogen bomb. ... For Panmunjom or Joint Security Area, see Joint Security Area. ... Kaesong city centre Kaesŏng (Gaeseong) is a city in North Hwanghae Province, North Korea, a former Directly Governed City, and the capital of Korea during the Koryo Dynasty. ...


Casualties

The total numbers of casualties suffered by all parties involved may never be known. In Western countries, the numbers have been subjected to numerous scholarly reviews, and in the case of one U.S. estimate, the number was revised after a clerical error was discovered.[citation needed] Each country's self-reported casualties were largely based upon troop movements, unit rosters, battle casualty reports, and medical records.


The Western numbers of Chinese and/or North Korean casulties are based primarily on battle reports of estimated casualties, interrogation of POWs and captured documents.


The Chinese estimation of UN casualties states that the joint declaration of the Chinese People's Volunteers and the Korean People's Army said their forces "eliminated 1.09 million enemy forces, including 390,000 from the United States, 660,000 from South Korean, and 29,000 from other countries." The vague "eliminated" number gave no details to that of dead, wounded and captured. Regarding their own casualties, the same source said that "the Chinese People's Volunteers suffered 148,000 deaths altogether (among which 114,000 died in combat, incidents, and winterkill, 21,000 died after being hospitalized and 13,000 died from diseases); 380,000 were wounded and 29,000 missing, including 21,400 POWs (of whom 14,000 were sent to Taiwan, 7,110 were repatriated)." This same source concluded with these numbers for North Korean casualties, "the Korean People's Army had 290,000 casualties and 90,000 POWs; there was a large number of civilian deaths in the northern part of Korea, but no accurate figures were available."[54]


The casulties of the various UN forces are listed in the infobox, along with their estimates of Chinese and North Korean forces.


Characteristics

Armored warfare

A Sherman tank fires its 76 mm gun at enemy bunkers on “Napalm Ridge,” in support of the 8th ROK Division May 11, 1952.
A Sherman tank fires its 76 mm gun at enemy bunkers on “Napalm Ridge,” in support of the 8th ROK Division May 11, 1952.

In the initial invasion stage of the war, North Korean armor was able to establish dominance using their Soviet-supplied T-34-85 medium tanks. The WW2-vintage North Korean tanks were facing a South Korean force with no tanks of their own and few modern anti-tank weapons.[citation needed] Download high resolution version (740x601, 79 KB) Photo #: SC 398704 M4A3E8 Sherman Tank Of Company B, 72nd Tank Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division, fires its 76mm gun at enemy bunkers on Napalm Ridge, in support of the 8th ROK Division. ... Download high resolution version (740x601, 79 KB) Photo #: SC 398704 M4A3E8 Sherman Tank Of Company B, 72nd Tank Battalion, 2nd Infantry Division, fires its 76mm gun at enemy bunkers on Napalm Ridge, in support of the 8th ROK Division. ... General characteristics Length: 5. ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1952 (MCMLII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The T-34 is a Soviet medium tank first produced in 1940. ...

Comparing the earlier M9 bazooka to the later, larger M20 model.
Comparing the earlier M9 bazooka to the later, larger M20 model.

The South Korean army had anti-tank rockets but these were World War II vintage 2.36 inch (60 mm) M9 bazookas. The bazooka rocket could easily penetrate the 45mm side armor of the T-34-85s at any range, but the bazooka was nonetheless found to be ineffective.[citation needed] Image File history File links Bazookas_Korea. ... Image File history File links Bazookas_Korea. ... For other uses, see Bazooka (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Bazooka (disambiguation). ...


As U.S. forces arrived in Korea, they were accompanied only by light M24 Chaffee tanks which had been left in Japan for post-WWII occupation duties (heavier tanks would have torn up Japanese roads).[citation needed] These light tanks were ineffective against the larger North Korean T-34-85 tanks.[citation needed] U.S. 105 mm howitzers were used on at least one occasion to fire HEAT ammunition over open sights.[citation needed] The Light Tank M24 was an American light tank used during World War II and in postwar conflicts including the Korean War. ... A HEAT round. ...


As the U.S. buildup continued, shipments of heavier American tanks such as the M4 Sherman, the M26 Pershing, the M46 Patton, and the British Centurion as well as American and Allied ground attack aircraft were able to reverse the Communists' tank advantage.[citation needed] The M4 Sherman was the primary tank produced by the United States for its own use and the use of its Allies during World War II. Production of the M4 Medium tank exceeded 50,000 units, and its chassis served as the basis for thousands of other armored vehicles such... The Heavy Tank M26 Pershing was an American tank used during World War II and the Korean War. ... The M46, M47, M48 and M60 Patton were the U.S armys principal main battle tanks of the Cold War, with models in service from the late 1940s to the 1990s. ... The Centurion was the primary British Main Battle Tank of the immediate post-war era, and considered by many to be one of the best British tank designs of all time. ...


However, in contrast to World War II's heavy emphasis on armor, few open tank battles actually occurred over the course of the Korean War. The country's heavily forested and mountainous terrain, as well as the poor road network, meant that tanks were able to operate only in small groups.


Air warfare

Further information: MiG Alley and United States Air Force Aircraft of the Korean War
MiG-15 shot down by a F-86 over MiG Alley.
MiG-15 shot down by a F-86 over MiG Alley.
Over the course of the war, at least 16 B-29 bombers were shot down by communist aircraft.
Over the course of the war, at least 16 B-29 bombers were shot down by communist aircraft.

The Korean War was the last major war where propeller-powered fighters such as the F-51 Mustang, F4U Corsair and aircraft carrier-based Hawker Sea Fury and Supermarine Seafire were used. Turbojet fighter aircraft such as F-80s and F9F Panthers came to dominate the skies, overwhelming North Korea’s propeller-driven Yakovlev Yak-9s and Lavochkin La-9s. Map showing the general location of MiG Alley. ... USAF Fighter Aircraft used in the Korean War The Korean War (1950-1953) was the first shooting war for the newly independent United States Air Force. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2450x1890, 799 KB)Fifth Air Force, Korea--Smoke pours from a swept-wing Russian built MIG-15 as bullets spatter from the blazing machine guns of a U.S. Air Force F-86 Sabre jet pilot. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2450x1890, 799 KB)Fifth Air Force, Korea--Smoke pours from a swept-wing Russian built MIG-15 as bullets spatter from the blazing machine guns of a U.S. Air Force F-86 Sabre jet pilot. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (NATO reporting name Fagot) was a jet fighter developed for the USSR. History Design began under the bureau designation I-310, which first flew in 1947. ... The first proposals for the North American Aviation F-86 Sabre were made in 1944, but construction was not begun until after World War II. Many elements of German jet design were implemented in the Sabre, after the American liberation troops captured a number of working Messerschmitt Me 262 experimental... Map showing the general location of MiG Alley. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (600 × 783 pixels, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Husky 1,000-pound demolition bombs hurtle from this U.S. Far East Air Forces B-29 Superfort of the 19th Bomb Group toward a Red... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 459 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (600 × 783 pixels, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Husky 1,000-pound demolition bombs hurtle from this U.S. Far East Air Forces B-29 Superfort of the 19th Bomb Group toward a Red... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... The North American P-51 Mustang was a successful long range fighter aircraft which set new standards of excellence and performance when it entered service in the middle years of World War II and is still regarded as one of the very best piston-engined fighters ever made. ... The Chance Vought F4U Corsair was an American fighter aircraft that saw service in World War II and the Korean War (and in isolated local conflicts). ... Four aircraft carriers, (bottom-to-top) Principe de Asturias, amphibious assault ship USS Wasp, USS Forrestal and light V/STOL carrier HMS Invincible, showing size differences of late 20th century carriers An aircraft carrier is a warship designed to deploy and recover aircraft, acting as a sea-going airbase. ... The Sea Fury was a British fighter aircraft developed for the Fleet Air Arm by Hawker during the Second World War. ... Seafire F XVII SX336 (Kennet Aviation) The Seafire was a naval version of the Supermarine Spitfire, specially adapted for operation from aircraft carriers. ... Turbojets are the simplest and oldest kind of general purpose jet engines. ... The Lockheed P-80 Shooting Star was the first operational jet fighter used by the United States Army Air Force. ... The American Grumman F9F Panther was the manufacturers first jet fighter and the U.S. Navys second. ... Yak-9 Yak-9D The Yakovlev Yak-9 was a single-engine fighter aircraft used by the Soviet Union in World War II. Like the Yak-3, it was a development of the earlier Yak-1. ... The Lavochkin La-9 (Also known as La-130, NATO reporting name Fritz) was a Soviet fighter aircraft. ...


From 1950, North Koreans began flying the Soviet-made MiG-15 jet fighters, some of which were piloted by experienced Soviet Air Force pilots, a casus belli deliberately overlooked by the UN allied forces who were reluctant to engage in open war with the Soviet Union and the People's Republic of China. At first, UN jet fighters, which also included Royal Australian Air Force Gloster Meteors, had some success, but the superior quality of the MiGs soon held sway over the first-generation jets used by the UN early in the war.[55] The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-15 (NATO reporting name Fagot) was a jet fighter developed for the USSR. History Design began under the bureau designation I-310, which first flew in 1947. ... The Soviet Air Force, also known under the abbreviation VVS, transliterated from Russian: ВВС, Военно-воздушные силы (Voenno-Vozdushnye Sily), formed the official designation of the air force of the Soviet Union. ... Casus belli is a modern Latin language expression meaning the justification for acts of war. ... The Royal Australian Air Force (RAAF) is the Air Force branch of the Australian Defence Force. ... The Gloster Meteor was the first British jet fighter and the Allies first operational jet. ...


In December 1950, the U.S. Air Force began using the F-86 Sabre. The MiG could fly higher, 50,000 vs. 42,000 feet (12,800 m), offering a distinct advantage at the start of combat. In level flight, their maximum speeds were comparable — about 660 mph (1,060 km/h). The MiG could climb better, while the Sabre could turn and dive better. For weapons, the MiG carried two 23 mm and one 37 mm cannon, compared to the Sabre’s six .50 (12.7 mm) caliber machine guns. The American .50 caliber machine guns, while not packing the same punch, carried many more rounds and were aimed with a superior radar-ranging gunsight. The U.S. pilots also had the advantage of G-suits, which were used for the first time in this war. However, maintenance was an issue with the Sabre, and a large proportion of the UN air strength was grounded because of repairs during the war.[citation needed] Seal of the Air Force. ... The North American F-86 Sabre (sometimes called the Sabrejet) was a transonic combat aircraft developed for the US Air Force. ... A G-suit is worn by aviators and astronauts who are subject to high levels of acceleration (G). It is designed to prevent a black-out and g-LOC (g-induced Loss Of Consciousness), due to the blood pooling in the lower part of the body when under G, thus...


Even after the United States Air Force introduced the advanced F-86, its pilots often struggled against the jets piloted by elite Soviet pilots.[citation needed] The UN gradually gained air superiority over most of Korea that lasted until the end of the war — a decisive factor in helping the UN first advance into the north, and then resist the Chinese invasion of South Korea. The Chinese and North Koreans also had jet power, but their training and experience were limited. With the introduction of the F-86F in late 1952, the Soviet and American aircraft had virtually identical performance characteristics. “The U.S. Air Force” redirects here. ... Air superiority is the dominance in the air power of one side air forces of another side during a military campaign. ...


After the war, the USAF claimed 792 MiG-15s and 108 additional aircraft shot down by Sabres for the loss of 78 Sabres, a ratio in excess of 10:1.[citation needed] Some post-war research has been able to confirm only 379 victories, although the USAF continues to maintain its official credits and the debate is possibly irreconcilable.


The Soviets claimed about 1,100 air-to-air victories and 335 combat MiG losses at that time. China’s official losses were 231 planes shot down in air-to-air combat (mostly MiG-15) and 168 other losses. The number of losses of the North Korean Air Force was not revealed. It is estimated that it lost about 200 aircraft in the first stage of the war, and another 70 aircraft after Chinese intervention. Soviet claims of 650 victories over the Sabres, and China’s claims of another 211 F-86s, are considered to be exaggerated by the USAF. According to a recent U.S. publication, the number of F-86s ever present in the Korean peninsula during the war totaled only 674 and the total F-86 losses from all causes were about 230.[56]


Direct comparison of Sabre and MiG losses seem irrelevant, since primary targets for MiGs were heavy B-29 Superfortress bombers and ground-attack aircraft, while the primary targets for Sabres were MiG-15s. The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ...


By early 1951, the battle lines hardened and did not change much for the rest of the conflict. Throughout the summer and early fall of 1951, the outnumbered Sabres (as few as 44 at one point) of the 4th FIW continued to seek battle in MiG Alley near the Yalu against an enemy fielding as many as 500 planes, although only a fraction of these were operational and active. Following Colonel Harrison Thyng’s famous message to the Pentagon, the 51st FIW reinforced the beleaguered 4th in December 1951.[57] For the next year and a half, the combat continued in generally the same fashion. The 4th Fighter Wing is a F-15E Strike Eagle unit based at Seymour Johnson Air Force Base , North Carolina. ... Map showing the general location of MiG Alley. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Harrison Reed Thyng (April 12, 1918 - September 24, 1983) was a general officer and fighter pilot in the United States Air Force, and one of only six USAF fighter pilots to be recognized as an ace in two wars. ...


Proposed use of nuclear weapons

Historian Bruce Cumings believes that Truman's allusions to the possibility of nuclear weapons use at a press conference on November 30, 1950 "was a threat based on contingency planning to use the bomb, rather than the faux pas so many assumed it to be."[58] Cumings argues that Truman sought MacArthur's removal primarily because he felt that MacArthur would not be reliable enough in a situation where Washington had decided to use atomic weapons. Cumings notes that the same day as the press conference, orders were sent between top Air Forces generals for the Strategic Air Command to "augment its capacities and that this should include “atomic capabilities."[58] According to Cumings, the U.S. reached its closest point of using nuclear weapons during the war in April 1951. At the end of March, after the Chinese had moved large amounts of new forces near the Korean border, U.S. bomb loading pits at Kadena air base in Okinawa were made operational, and bombs were assembled there "lacking only the essential nuclear cores." On April 5, the Joint Chiefs of Staff released orders for immediate retaliatory attacks using atomic weapons against Manchurian bases in the event that large numbers of new Chinese troops entered into the fights or bombing attacks originated from those bases. The same day Truman gave his approval for transfer of nine Mark IV nuclear capsules "to the air force's Ninth Bomb Group, the designated carrier of the weapons" and "the president signed an order to use them against Chinese and Korean targets." Remarking that the signed order was never sent, Cumings offers two reasons why this was the case. Firstly, Truman had used the crisis to convince the Joint Chiefs of Staff of the necessity of MacArthur's removal (announced April 10) and secondly, since the war was not thereafter escalated by the Chinese and Soviets, no necessity of using them presented itself.[58] Bruce Cumings is an historian, and professor at the University of Chicago, specializing in modern Korean history and contemporary international relations in East Asia. ... For the film of the same name, see Strategic Air Command (film) The Strategic Air Command (SAC) was the operational establishment of the United States Air Force in charge of Americas bomber-based and ballistic missile-based strategic nuclear arsenal from 1946 to 1992. ... This article is about the prefecture. ...


This viewpoint is contradicted however by the facts, as on November 30, 1950, President Truman at a press conference, remarked, no doubt extemporaneously, that the use of the atomic bomb was under active consideration, unintentionally implying to some observers that its use would be left to the discretion of General MacArthur. Even though subsequently he attempted to subdue the storm of protest and consternation which followed by pointing out that only he could authorize use of the atomic bomb and that he had not given such authorization, he could not avoid the real issue that any decision to use the bomb would be a United States, not a United Nations, decision. This led to a meeting December 4 with Clement Attlee, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (who also represented the leaders of the other Commonwealth nations and with the French Premier and Foreign Minister, to discuss their concerns over the possible use of the atomic bomb. Indian Ambassador Pannikkar recalls, "that Truman announced that he was thinking of using the atom bomb in Korea. But the Chinese seemed totally unmoved by this threat.... The propaganda against American aggression was stepped up. The 'Aid Korea to resist America' campaign was made the slogan for increased production, greater national integration, and more rigid control over anti-national activities. One could not help feeling that Truman's threat came in very useful to the leaders of the revolution to enable them to keep up the tempo of their activities."[41][59][60] is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 338th day of the year (339th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Clement Richard Attlee, 1st Earl Attlee, KG, OM, CH, PC (3 January 1883 – 8 October 1967) was Prime Minister of the United Kingdom from 1945 to 1951. ... Kavalam Madhava Panikkar (1895-1963) was a scholar, journalist, historian, administrator and diplomat. ...


Six days later, on December 6, 1950, after the Chinese intervention had forced the UN forces into a retreat from northern North Korea, General J. Lawton Collins (Army Chief of Staff), General MacArthur, Admiral C. Turner Joy, and General Stratemeyer, and with key staff officers, Hickey, Willoughby, and Wright, met in Tokyo for a full discussion of what moves to take against the Chinese. They projected three hypothetical scenarios covering the next few weeks or months.[41] is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Joseph Lawton Collins Joseph Lightning Joe Lawton Collins (1 May 1896 – 12 September 1987) was a general of the United States Army. ... Categories: United States-related stubs | United States Army | Joint Chiefs of Staff ... Vice Admiral C. Turner Joy, 1951 Charles Turner Joy (17 February 1895 – 13 June 1956) was an admiral of the United States Navy during World War II and the Korean War. ...


In the first, they theorized that if the Chinese continued their all-out attack but with the UN Command forbidden to mount air attacks against China, no blockade of China set up, no reinforcements sent to Korea by Chiang Kai-shek, and that there would be no substantial increase in MacArthur's U.S. forces until April 1951 when four National Guard divisions might be sent, then the atomic bomb might be used in North Korea.[41] Chiang Kai-shek (October 31, 1887 – April 5, 1975) was the Chinese military and political leader who assumed the leadership of the Kuomintang (KMT) after the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925. ... The United States National Guard is a reserve forces component of the United States Army (the Army National Guard) and the United States Air Force (the Air National Guard). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ...


Under the second scenario, the conferees assumed a situation in which the Chinese attack would continue but with an effective naval blockade of China put in effect, air reconnaissance and bombing of the Chinese mainland allowed, Chinese Nationalist forces exploited to the maximum, and the atomic bomb to be used if tactically appropriate. Given these conditions, General MacArthur said he should be directed to hold positions in Korea as far north as possible.[41]


Under the third scenario, in which the Chinese would agree not to cross south of the 38th Parallel, MacArthur felt the United Nations should accept an armistice. The conditions of the armistice should preclude movement of North Korean and Chinese forces below the parallel. North Korean guerrillas should withdraw into their own territory with the Eighth Army remaining in positions covering the Seoul-Inch'on area, while X Corps pulled back to Pusan. An United Nations commission should supervise the implementation of armistice terms.[41]


So, while the U.S. had contemplated using the atomic bomb in Korea, Truman did not publicly threaten to use the bomb immediately after the Chinese intervention, but instead remarked about the consideration of using the bomb around 45 days later and only after UN forces were in retreat and had suffered some serious losses. MacArthur and other military leaders did not work on scenarios for using the bomb until after Truman's inadvertent remark during a press conference 6 days earlier. The decision not to use the atomic bomb also was not due to "a disinclination by the USSR and PRC to escalate" but rather due to pressure from UN allies, notably Britain, the British Commonwealth, and France, who were concerned that if the United States became involved in a war with Communist China, American commitments to NATO would, through sheer necessity, go by the board. China then might have little difficulty in persuading Russia to move into western Europe and without U.S. resistance to this aggression, Russia could take all of Europe at little cost.[41][61]


War crimes

Crimes against civilians

Declassified U.S. document says:“It is reported that large groups of civilians, either composed of or controlled by North Korean soldiers, are infiltrating U.S. positions. The army has requested we strafe all civilian refugee parties approaching our positions. To date, we have complied with the army request in this respect.”The document goes on to recommend establishing a policy revising the practice.
Declassified U.S. document says:
It is reported that large groups of civilians, either composed of or controlled by North Korean soldiers, are infiltrating U.S. positions. The army has requested we strafe all civilian refugee parties approaching our positions. To date, we have complied with the army request in this respect.
The document goes on to recommend establishing a policy revising the practice.
Prisoners massacred by retreating North Koreans in Daejeon, South Korea, October 1950.
Prisoners massacred by retreating North Koreans in Daejeon, South Korea, October 1950.

When parts of South Korea were under North Korean control, political killings, reportedly into the tens of thousands, took place in the cities and villages. The communists systematically killed former South Korean government officials and others deemed hostile to the communists, and such killing was intensified as North Koreans retreated from the South.[62] Download high resolution version (614x824, 82 KB)This is a US National Archives now declassified document - public domain File links The following pages link to this file: Korean War Categories: United States government images ... Download high resolution version (614x824, 82 KB)This is a US National Archives now declassified document - public domain File links The following pages link to this file: Korean War Categories: United States government images ... Image File history File links Korean_War_Massacre. ... Image File history File links Korean_War_Massacre. ... Short name Statistics Location map Map of South Korea highlighting the city. ...


South Korean military, police and paramilitary forces, often with U.S. military knowledge[citation needed] and without trial, executed in turn tens of thousands of leftist inmates and alleged communist sympathizers in the incidents such as the massacre of the political prisoners from the Daejeon Prison and the bloody crackdown on the Cheju Uprising. Gregory Henderson, a U.S. diplomat in Korea at the time, put the total figure at 100,000, and the bodies of those killed were often dumped into mass graves. Recently, the South Korean Truth and Reconciliation Commission has received reports of more than 7,800 cases of civilian killings in 150 locations across the country where mass killings of civilians took place before and during the war. Paramilitary designates forces whose function and organization are similar to those of a professional military force, but which are not regarded as having the same status. ... The Cheju Uprising refers to the rebellion on Jeju island, South Korea, beginning on April 3, 1948. ... Image:Mass Grave Bergen Belsen May 1945. ... The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of Apartheid. ...


Korean forces on both sides routinely rounded up and forcibly conscripted both males and females in their area of operations; thousands of them never returned home. According to the estimate by R. J. Rummel, a professor at the University of Hawaii, some 400,000 South Korean citiziens were conscripted into the North Korean Army.[62] Before the September 1950 liberation of Seoul by the U.S. forces, an estimated 83,000 citizens of the city were taken away by retreating North Korean forces and disappeared, according to the South Korean government; their fate remains unknown.[63] North Korea insists the South Koreans defected voluntarily and were not held against their will.[64] To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article is about the University of Hawaii system. ... In politics, a defector is a person who gives up allegiance to one state or political entity in exchange for allegiance to another. ...


For a time, American troops were under orders to consider any Korean civilians on the battlefield approaching their position as hostile, and were instructed to "neutralize" them because of fears of infiltration. This led to the indiscriminate killings of hundreds of South Korean civilians by the U.S. military at places such as No Gun Ri, where many defenseless refugees — most of whom were women, children and old men — were shot at by the U.S. Army and may have been strafed by the U.S. Air Force. Recently, the U.S. admitted having a policy of strafing civilians in other places and times.[65][66] See: espionage, urban exploration, entryism, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. ... Map of South Korea with No Gun Ri area noted. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Strafing (adaptation of German strafen, to punish, specifically from the World War I humorous adaptation of the German catchphrase Gott strafe England), is the practice of firing on a static target from a moving platform. ...


Crimes against POWs

U.S soldier taken prisoner and shot in the head with his hands tied behind his back.
U.S soldier taken prisoner and shot in the head with his hands tied behind his back.

The North Koreans severely mistreated prisoners of war.[67] Historical accounts report frequent communist-imposed beatings, starvation, forced labor, summary executions, and death marches on UN prisoners.[68] North Korean and Chinese forces committed several massacres of captured U.S. troops at places such as Hill 312 and Hill 303[69] on the Pusan Perimeter, and in and around Daejeon; this occurred during early "mopping-up" actions. According to the U.S. Congressional report, "More than 5,000 American prisoners of war died because of Communist war atrocities and more than a thousand who survived were victims of war crime (...) Approximately two-thirds of all American prisoners of war in Korea died due to war crimes."[70][71] The Chinese also used brainwashing "re-education" techniques on their prisoners. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 793 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2923 × 2211 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 793 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2923 × 2211 pixel, file size: 1. ... Unfree labour is a generic or collective term for forms of work, especially in modern or early modern history, in which adults and/or children are employed without wages, or for a minimal wage. ... For the use of this term in the software development industry, see death march (software development). ... The Congress of the United States is the legislative branch of the federal government of the United States of America. ... Brainwashing (also known as thought reform or as re-education) consists of any effort aimed at instilling certain attitudes and beliefs in a person — sometimes unwelcome beliefs in conflict with the persons prior beliefs and knowledge. ...


The communists claimed having captured more than 70,000 South Korean soldiers, but they repatriated only 8,000. (In contrast, South Korea repatriated 76,000 North Korean POWs.)[72] In addition to some 12,000 deaths in captivity, some 50,000 South Korean POWs might have been press-ganged into the North Korean military.[62] According to the South Korean Ministry of Defense, by 2003 there were at least 300 POWs were still alive being held captive in North Korea. More than 30 South Korean prisoners managed to escape the North between 1994 and 2003, including a soldier captured in the war who escaped in 2003.[73] Pyongyang denied holding any POWs.


There were also reports of mistreatment, including executions, of communist military prisoners at the hands of UN forces.


Legacy

Main article: Legacy of the Korean War

The Korean War was the first armed confrontation of the Cold War and set the standard for many later conflicts. It created the idea of a limited war, where the two superpowers would fight in another country, forcing the people in that nation to suffer the bulk of the destruction and death involved in a war between such large nations. The superpowers avoided descending into an all-out war with one another, as well as the mutual use of nuclear weapons. It also expanded the Cold War, which to that point had mostly been concerned with Europe. The war eventually led to a strengthening of alliances in the Western bloc and the splitting of Communist China from the Soviet bloc. The legacy of the Korean War was such that many countries were largely impacted, especially because of the large number of countries that participated in the war. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... Superpowers redirects here. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ...


The Korean War damaged both Koreas heavily. Although South Korea stagnated economically in the decade following the war, it was later able to modernize and industrialize. In contrast, the North Korean economy recovered quickly after the war and until around 1975 surpassed that of South Korea.[citation needed] However, North Korea's economy eventually slowed. Today, the North Korean economy is virtually nonexistent while the South Korean economy is expanding. The CIA World Factbook estimates North Korea's GDP (PPP) to be $40 billion, which is a mere 3.34% of South Korea's $1.196 trillion GDP (PPP). The North's per capita income is $1,800, which is 7.35% of South Korea's $24,500 per capita income. The World Factbook (ISSN 1553-8133; also known as the CIA World Factbook)[2] is an annual publication of the Central Intelligence Agency of the United States with almanac-style information about the countries of the world. ... PPP of GDP for the countries of the world (2003). ...


A heavily guarded demilitarized zone (DMZ) on the 38th Parallel continues to divide the peninsula today. Anti-Communist and anti-North Korea sentiment still remain in South Korea today, and most South Koreans are against the North Korean government. However, a "Sunshine Policy" is used by the controlling party, the Uri Party. The Uri Party and President Roh, the South Korean president, have often disagreed with the United States in talks about North Korea. The Grand National Party (GNP), the Uri Party's main opposing party, maintains an anti-North Korea policy today. For Panmunjom or Joint Security Area, see Joint Security Area. ... The Sunshine Policy is the current South Korean doctrine towards North Korea. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Grand National Party is a conservative-leaning opposition political party in South Korea. ...


The war affected other nations as well. Turkey's participation in the war helped it become a NATO member.[citation needed] This article is about the military alliance. ...


According to a September 7, 2007 NPR report, President Bush stated that it is his administration's position that a formal peace treaty with North Korea was possible only when the north abandoned its nuclear weapons programs.[74] According to Bush, "We look forward to the day when we can end the Korean War. That will end — will happen when Kim verifiably gets rid of his weapons programs and his weapons."[75] Some have characterized this as a reversal of Mr. Bush's stated policy of regime change with respect to North Korea.[76] is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


At the second Inter-Korean Summit in October 2007, South Korean President Lee Myung Bak and North Korean leader Kim Jong-Il signed a joint declaration calling for international talks towards a peace treaty formally ending the war.[77] Inter-Korean Summits are meetings between the leaders of North Korea and South Korea. ... The President is head of state of South Korea. ... Kim Jong-il (also written as Kim Jong Il) (born February 16, 1942) is the leader of North Korea. ...


Depictions

Art

Pablo Picasso’s Massacre in Korea (1951; in the Musée Picasso, Paris).
Pablo Picasso’s Massacre in Korea (1951; in the Musée Picasso, Paris).

Artist Pablo Picasso’s painting Massacre in Korea (1951) depicted violence against civilians during the Korean War. By some accounts, killing of civilians by U.S. forces in Shinchun, Hwanghae Province was the motive of the painting. Image File history File links Pablo Picassos Massacre in Korea (1951; in the Musée Picasso, Paris) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Pablo Picassos Massacre in Korea (1951; in the Musée Picasso, Paris) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Massacre in Korea was painted by Picasso in 1951. ... Picasso redirects here. ... Massacre in Korea was painted by Picasso in 1951. ... Hwanghae (Hwanghae-do) was one of the Eight Provinces of Korea during the Joseon Dynasty, and one of the thirteen provinces of Korea during the Japanese Colonial Period. ...


Ha Jin's War Trash contains a vivid description of the beginning of the war from the point of view of a Chinese soldier and of the fear of retribution Chinese POWs felt from other Chinese prisoners if they were suspected of being unsympathetic to communism or to the war. Jīn Xuěfēi (Simplified Chinese: 金雪飞; Traditional Chinese: 金雪飛; born February 21, 1956) is a contemporary Chinese-American writer using the pen name Ha Jin (哈金). Ha Jin was born in Liaoning, China in 1956. ...


Film

Unlike World War II, there are relatively few Western movies depicting the Korean War.

  • The Bridges at Toko-Ri (1955) stars William Holden as a USAF pilot assigned to destroy the bridges at Toko Ri, while battling doubts; it is based on an eponymous James Michener novel.
  • M*A*S*H: A Novel About Three Army Doctors, by Richard Hooker (pseudonym for H. Richard Hornberger) that later was a successful film and a television series; the TV series had a total of 251 episodes, lasted 11 years, won awards, and its concluding episode was a most-watched program.[78] Yet, the sensibilities they presented were more of the Seventies than of the Fifties; the Korean War setting was an oblique and uncontroversial treatment of the then-current American war against Vietnam.[citation needed]
  • Inchon (1982) is a movie that portrays the Battle of Inchon, a turning point in the war. Controversially, the film was partially financed by Sun Myung Moon’s Unification Movement. It became a notorious financial and critical failure, losing an estimated $40 million of its $46 million budget, and remains the last mainstream Hollywood film to use the war as its backdrop. The film was directed by Terence Young, and starred an elderly Laurence Olivier as General Douglas MacArthur. According to press materials from the film, psychics hired by Moon's church contacted MacArthur in heaven and secured his posthumous approval of the casting.

There were several South Korean movies, including: Pork Chop Hill DVD cover Pork Chop Hill is a war film released in 1959, directed by Lewis Milestone and starring Gregory Peck and Woody Strode. ... Lewis Milestone (born Lev Milstein) (September 30, 1895 - September 25, 1980) was an accomplished, and award-winning motion picture director. ... Gregory Peck (April 5, 1916 – June 12, 2003) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... The Battle of Pork Chop Hill refers to a pair of related Korean War engagements during the spring and summer of 1953. ... The 7th Infantry Division (Light), nicknamed Lightfighters and sometimes referred to as the The Bayonet Division is a reserve combat division of the United States Army currently made up of National Guard units. ... The Firesign Theatre are a comedy troupe consisting of Phil Austin, Peter Bergman, David Ossman, and Philip Proctor. ... Dont Crush That Dwarf, Hand Me the Pliers is The Firesign Theatres third comedy recording for Columbia Records. ... The Bridges at Toko-Ri is a 1953 novel by James Michener, about a Korean War pilot charged with bombing a group of extremely-well-defended bridges. ... William Holden (April 17, 1918 – ca. ... James Albert Michener (February 3, 1907? - October 16, 1997) was the American author of such books as Tales of the South Pacific (for which he won the Pulitzer Prize for Fiction in 1948), Hawaii, The Drifters, Centennial, The Source, The Fires of Spring, Chesapeake, Caribbean, Caravans, Alaska, Texas and Poland. ... Spoiler warning: The Hunters (Jägarna) is a Swedish thriller from 1996 by film director Kjell Sundvall. ... The Hunters is a novel by James Salter about U.S. Air Force fighter pilots during the Korean War, first published in 1956. ... James Salter (born 1925) is an American short story writer and novelist. ... Robert Charles Durman Mitchum (August 6, 1917 – July 1, 1997) was an Academy award nominated American film actor and singer. ... For other persons named Robert Wagner, see Robert Wagner (disambiguation). ... The Manchurian Candidate is a 1959 thriller novel written by Richard Condon, later adapted into films in 1962 and 2004. ... The Manchurian Candidate (1962) is a Cold War political thriller film adapted from the 1959 thriller novel, by Richard Condon, directed by John Frankenheimer, and features Frank Sinatra, Laurence Harvey, Angela Lansbury, and Janet Leigh. ... Sinatra redirects here. ... Angela Lansbury CBE (born October 16, 1925) is a four-time Tony-winning, six-time Golden Globe-winning, three-time Oscar-nominated, and eighteen-time Emmy-nominated English actress. ... H. Richard Hornberger (February 1, 1924 – November 4, 1997) was an American writer and surgeon, born in Trenton, New Jersey, who wrote under the pseudonym Richard Hooker. ... MASH is a 1970 satirical American dark comedy film directed by Robert Altman and based on the novel MASH: A Novel About Three Army Doctors by Richard Hooker. ... M*A*S*H is an American television series developed by Larry Gelbart, inspired by the 1968 novel M*A*S*H: A Novel About Three Army Doctors by Richard Hooker (penname for H. Richard Hornberger) and its sequels, but primarily by the 1970 film MASH, and influenced by the... Inchon is a 1982 film directed by Terence Young about the Battle of Incheon during the Korean War. ... Sun Myung Moon (born February 25, 1920; lunar: January 6, 1920) founded the Unification Church (later renamed Family Federation for World Peace and Unification) on May 1, 1954, in Seoul, South Korea. ... нι уα ρєρѕ нσω я уαѕ ∂σ уα ℓкє мσιpage hpe ta do plz lve ya mssgs nuf ιη α вιzzℓє χχχχχχχχχ ... Terence Young in the 1960s Stewart Terence Herbert Young (June 20, 1915 – September 7, 1994) was a British film director, born in Shanghai, China, was public-school educated, and read Oriental History at St Catharines College in the University of Cambridge (like the fictional James Bond - see below). ... Laurence Kerr Olivier, Baron Olivier, OM, (IPA: ; 22 May 1907 – 11 July 1989) was an Academy Award, Golden Globe, BAFTA and four-time Emmy winning English actor, director, and producer. ...

  • Welcome to Dongmakgol (2005) shows the effect of the warring sides on a remote village. The movie is about an American aviator, rescued and healed by the village, which soon becomes the home to surviving North Korean and South Korean soldiers. In time, the soldiers lose their suspicion and hated for their enemies and work together to help save the village after the Americans mistakenly identify it as an enemy camp.

North Korea has made many films about the war, mostly by the government supporting forceful, armed reunification of the North and South of Korea. These have been highly propagandized to portray potential war crimes by American or South Korean soldiers while glorifying members of the North Korean military as well as North Korean ideals.[79][80] Taegukgi (known as Brotherhood - Taegukgi in Europe, Brotherhood of War in America, or 태극기 in Korea or 太極旗 in Hanja] is a 2004 film directed by Kang Je-gyu dealing with the Korean War. ... Kang Je-gyu (b. ... The Asia Pacific Film Festival, first held in 1946, is a major film festival in Asia. ... Welcome to Dongmakgol (웰컴투 동막골) is a 2005 South Korean film about the Korean War. ...


Shangganling Battle (Shanggan Ling, Chinese: 上甘岭) is a depiction of the Korean War from the Chinese point of view, made in 1956. The movie is about a group of Chinese soldiers blocked in Shangganling mountain area for several days and survive until they are relieved. Battle on Shangganling Mountain (simplified Chinese: ; pinyin: ) is a 1956 Chinese movie, set during the Korean War in early 1950s. ...


Games

  • Sabre Ace, Conflict Over Korea: 25 June 1950-27 July 1953 London: Eagle Interactive/Virgin Interactive, 1997. Players use a U.S. F-86 Sabre in the Korean War.
  • MiG Alley (1999-Empire Interactive, Rowan Software) MiG Alley is a combat flight simulator of Korean War.
  • Korea: Forgotten Conflict (2003-Plastic Reality) A squad based strategy game. Players take command of a UN unit consisting of several specialists such as a Ranger, Medic, Demolitions Expert, Sniper, or Korean to fight against the Communist forces.
  • Rise of Nations: Thrones and Patriots (2004-Big Huge Games) The player fights the Korean War in the Cold War campaign, in which he or she is also given the choice to extend the war after 1953.
  • The Korean War (1986-Victory Games): An operational board wargame by Joseph Balkoski, covering the first year of the conflict.

Mentions in popular culture

The star of the BBC sitcom Fawlty Towers, Basil Fawlty, the maniacal hotel proprietor played by John Cleese says "I fought in the Korean War, you know, I killed four men" to which his wife says in an aside to a guest "he was in the Catering Corps; he used to poison them". He wears a military tie and often refers to a shrapnel injury to his leg from the war, a "bit of gyp". For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Fawlty Towers is a British sitcom made by the BBC and first broadcast on BBC2 in 1975. ... Basil Fawlty Basil Fawlty is the major character in the British sitcom Fawlty Towers, played by John Cleese. ... Cleese redirects here. ...


Notes

  1. ^ On This Day 29 August 1950. BBC. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  2. ^ Veterans Affairs Canada — The Korean War. Veterans Affairs Canada. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  3. ^ Filipino Soldiers in the Korean War (video documentary). Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
  4. ^ Walker, Jack D. A brief account of the Korean War. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  5. ^ French Participation in the Korean War. Embassy of France. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  6. ^ South Korean POWs. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  7. ^ All POW-MIA Korean War Casualties. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  8. ^ The UK & Korea, Defence Relations. Office of the Defence Attache, British Embassy, Seoul. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  9. ^ a b c Hickey, Michael. The Korean War: An Overview. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  10. ^ The Turks in the Korean War. Retrieved on 2007-08-15.
  11. ^ Canadians in Korea: Epilogue. Veterans Affairs Canada (1998-10-6). Retrieved on 2007-10-27.
  12. ^ Korean War 1950–53: Epilogue. Australian War Memorial (2007-10-16). Retrieved on 2007-11-12.
  13. ^ Departure of the French batallion. French newsreels archives (Les Actualités Françaises) (2003-11-05). Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  14. ^ Filipino Soldiers in the Korean War (video documentary). Retrieved on 2008-03-24.
  15. ^ Xu, Yan. Korean War: In the View of Cost-effectiveness. Consulate-General of the People's Republic of China in New York. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  16. ^ a b c The Korean War, 1950-1953, (an extract from American Military History, Volume 2 - revised 2005). Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  17. ^ a b Hermes, Jr., Walter (1966). Truce Tent and Fighting Front. Center of Military History, 2,6,9. 
  18. ^ Remembering the Forgotten War: Korea, 1950-1953. Naval Historical Center. Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  19. ^ War to Resist US Aggression And Aid Korea Marked in DPRK. (China's) Peoples Daily (English version). Retrieved on 2007-08-16.
  20. ^ a b c d James F, Schnabel. United by jarrid States Army in the Korean War, Policy and Direction: The First Year p. 3, 18. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  21. ^ Treaty of Annexation (Annexation of Korea by Japan). USC-UCLA Joint East Asian Studies Center. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  22. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Appleman, Roy E (1998). South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu. Dept. of the Army, p. 3, p. 15, pp 381, 545, 771, 719. ISBN 0160019184. 
  23. ^ Rustow, Dankwart A. The Changing Global Order and Its Implications for Korea's Reunification, Sino-Soviet Affairs, Vol. XVII, No. 4, Winter 1994/5]. The Institute for Sino-Soviet Studies, Hanyang University. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  24. ^ a b c Goulden, Joseph C (1983). Korea: The Untold Story of the War. McGraw-Hill, p. 17. ISBN 0070235805. 
  25. ^ McCune, Shannon C (1946-05), "Physical Basis for Korean Boundaries", Far Eastern Quarterly May 1946 (No. 5): 286-287
  26. ^ Grajdanzev, Andrew (1945-10), "Korean Divided", Far Eastern Survey XIV: 282
  27. ^ Grajdanzev, Andrew, History of Occupation of Korea, vol. I, pp. 16
  28. ^ Green Left - Features: HISTORICAL FEATURE: The Korean War - a war of counter-revolution
  29. ^ a b c The Korean War, The U.S. and Soviet Union in Korea. MacroHistory. Retrieved on 2007-08-19.
  30. ^ Henderson, Gregory (1968). Korea: The Politics of the Vortex. Harvard University Press. 
  31. ^ Lee Chong-sik (1978). Korean Workers' Party. Hoover Institute Press. 
  32. ^ a b Concharov, Sergei N; Lewis, John W. and Xue Litai (1995). Uncertain Partners: Partners: Stalin, Mao, and the Korean War. Stanford University Press. ISBN 0804725217. 
  33. ^ Acheson, Dean (1969). Present at the Creation: My Years at the State Department. W.W. Norton, Inc., 355-358. 
  34. ^ Message from Stalin to Kim Il Sung, via Shtykov, Affirmative response to Kim Il Sung’s previous requests of lead and ammunitions from the Soviet Union. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Cold War International History Project (1950-03-18). Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
  35. ^ Telegram from Shtykov to Vyshinsky, Receipt of goods and payments expected of North Korea from the Soviet Union. Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars, Cold War International History Project (1950-03-09). Retrieved on 2008-02-15.
  36. ^ a b Thomas G. Weiss, David P. Forstyhe, Roger A. Coate, "The United Nations and Changing World Politics," Westview Press, 1994
  37. ^ President Harry S. Truman (June 25, 1950). "Resolution, dated June 25, from United Nations Security Council calling for North Korea to withdraw its forces to the 38th parallel and for hostilities between North and South Korea to cease". Truman Library. Retrieved on 2007-08-20.
  38. ^ Mulgan, Aurelia George (2000). "[http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/713604482 Beyond Self-defence? Evaluating Japan's Regional Security Role under the New Defence Cooperation Guidelines]". Global Change, Peace & Security, 12:3, 223 - 246, p229 footnote 43. Retrieved on 2007-08-26.
  39. ^ LaFeber, Walter (1997). America, Russia and the Cold War, 1945-1996 (8ª ed.). The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc.. 
  40. ^ Gromyko, Andrei A. On American Intervention In Korea, 1950. Modern History Sourcebook. Retrieved on 2007-08-21.
  41. ^ a b c d e f g h i Schnabel, James F (1992). United States Army In The Korean War: Policy And Direction: The First Year. Center of Military History, pp. 155-192, p.212, pp. 283-284, pp. 288-289, p.304. ISBN 0-16-035955-4. 
  42. ^ a b Korea Institute of Military History. The Korean War: Korea Institute of Military History 3 Volume Set. Bison Books, University of Nebraska Press, vol. 1, p.730, vol. 2, pp. 512-529. ISBN 0803277946. 
  43. ^ Another Such Victory: President Truman and the Cold War, 1945-1953, Page 390, Published 2002 Stanford University Press, ISBN 0804747741
  44. ^ Donovan, Robert J (1996). Tumultuous Years: The Presidency of Harry S. Truman 1949-1953. University of Missouri Press, p 285. ISBN 0826210856. 
  45. ^ Cohen, Eliot A; Gooch, John (2005). Military Misfortunes: The Anatomy of Failure in War. Free Press, pp 165-195. ISBN 0743280822. 
  46. ^ Hopkins, William (1986). One Bugle No Drums: The Marines at Chosin Reservoir. Algonquin. 
  47. ^ Rear Admiral Doyle, James H & Mayer, Arthur J (April 1979), "December 1950 at Hungnam", U.S. Naval Institute Proceedings vol. 105 (no. 4): pp. 44-65
  48. ^ Hasbrouck, S. V (1951), memo to file (November 7, 1951), G-3 Operations file, box 38-A, Library of Congress
  49. ^ Army Chief of Staff (1951), memo to file (November 20, 1951), G-3 Operations file, box 38-A, Library of Congress
  50. ^ Watson, Robert J; Schnabel, James F. (1998). The Joint Chiefs of Staff and National Policy, 1950-1951, The Korean War and 1951-1953, The Korean War (History of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, Volume III, Parts I and II). Office of Joint History, Office of the Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, part 1, p. v; part 2, p. 614. 
  51. ^ Commanding General, Far East Air Force (1951), Memo to 98th Bomb Wing Commander, Okinawa
  52. ^ Far East Command G-2 Theater Intelligence (1951), Resumé of Operation, Record Group 349, box 752
  53. ^ Syngman Rhee Biography: Rhee Attacks Peace Proceedings. Korean War Commemoration Biographies. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  54. ^ Xu, Yan (2003-07-29). Korean War: In the View of Cost-effectiveness. Consulate General of the People's Republic of China in New York. Retrieved on 2007-08-12.
  55. ^ CW2 Sewell, Stephen L. FEAF/U.N. Aircraft Used in Korea and Losses by Type. Korean-War.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  56. ^ Korean War Aces, USAF F-86 Sabre jet pilots. AcePilots.com. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  57. ^ Harrison R. Thyng. Sabre Jet Classics. Retrieved on 24 Dec 2006.
  58. ^ a b c Cumings, Bruce (1997). Korea's Place in the Sun: A History. WW Norton & Company, pp 289-92. ISBN 0393316815. 
  59. ^ Knightley, Phillip (1982). The First Casualty: The War Correspondent as Hero, Propagandist and Myth-maker. Quartet, p 334. ISBN 080186951X. 
  60. ^ Panikkar, Kavalam Madhava (1981). In Two Chinas: Memoirs of a Diplomat. Hyperion Press. ISBN 0830500138. 
  61. ^ Truman, Harry S (1955-1956). Memoirs (2 volumes). Doubleday, vol. II, p. 394-395. ISBN 156852062X. 
  62. ^ a b c Rummel, R.J. Statistics of Democide, Chapter 10, Statistics Of North Korean Democide Estimates, Calculations, And Sources. 
  63. ^ Choe, Sang-Hun. "A half-century wait for a husband abducted by North Korea", International Herald Tribune:Asia Pacific, 2007-06-25. Retrieved on 2007-08-22. 
  64. ^ "S Korea 'regrets' refugee mix-up", British Broadcasting Corp. (BBC), 2007-01-18. Retrieved on 2008-08-22. 
  65. ^ Hanley, Charles J.; Martha Mendoza. "U.S. Policy Was to Shoot Korean Refugees", The Washington Post, Associated Press, 2006-05-29. Retrieved on 2007-04-15. 
  66. ^ Hanley, Charles J.; Martha Mendoza. "Letter reveals U.S. intent at No Gun Ri", New Orleans Times-Picayune, Associated Press, 2007-04-13. Retrieved on 2007-04-14. 
  67. ^ Potter, Charles. "Korean War Atrocities" (PDF, online), United States Senate Subcommittee on Korean War Atrocities of the Permanent Subcommittee of the Investigations of the Committee on Government Operations., US GPO, December 3, 1953. Retrieved on January 18, 2008. "We marched 2 days. The first night we got some hay and we slept in the hay cuddling together to keep warm. The second night we slept in pigpens, about six inches space between the logs. That night I froze my feet. Starting out again the next morning, after bypassing the convoy, I picked up two rubber boots, what we call "snow packs". They was both for the left foot; I put those on. After starting out the second morning, I didn't have time to massage my feet to get them thawed out. I got marching the next sixteen days after that. During that march all the meat had worn off my feet, all the skin had dropped off, nothing but the bones showing. After arriving in Kanggye they put us up, there, in mud huts, Korean mud huts. We stayed there — all sick and wounded, most of us was — stayed there, in the first part of January 1951. Then the Chinese come around in the night, about twelve o'clock, and told us those who was sick and wounded they was going to move us out to the hospital, which we knew better. There could have been such a thing, but we didn't think so. —— Sgt. Wendell Treffery, RA- 115660." 
  68. ^ Carlson, Lewis H (2003). Remembered Prisoners of a Forgotten War: An Oral History of Korean War POWs. St. Martin's Griffin. ISBN 0312310072. 
  69. ^ Lakshmanan, Indira A.R (1999). Hill 303 Massacre. Boston Globe. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  70. ^ Van Zandt, James E (February 2003). `You are about to die a horrible death' - Korean War — the atrocities committed by the North Koreans during the Korean War. VFW Magazine. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  71. ^ American Ex-Prisoners of War. Department of Veterans Affairs. 
  72. ^ Lee, Sookyung (2007). Hardly Known, Not Yet Forgotten, South Korean POWs Tell Their Story. AII POW-MIA InterNetwork. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  73. ^ "S Korea POW celebrates escape", British Broadcasting Corp. (BBC), 2004-01-19. Retrieved on 2007-08-22. 
  74. ^ Gonyea, Don. "U.S., South Korea Differ over North Korea", National Public Radio (NPR), 2007-08-07. Retrieved on 2007-08-22. 
  75. ^ "N. Korea Agrees to Allow Nuclear Inspectors", National Public Radio (NPR), 2007-08-07. Retrieved on 2007-08-22. 
  76. ^ Goldenberg, Suzanne. "Policy Shift Offers US Hope of N Korea Success", Sydney Morning Herald, 2007-08-05. Retrieved on 2007-08-22. 
  77. ^ "Korean leaders issue peace call", BBC News, 2007-10-04. Retrieved on 2007-10-04. 
  78. ^ What is M*A*S*H. Retrieved on 2007-08-22.
  79. ^ pgs 63, 146, 173 Delisle, Guy Pyongyang: A Journey Into North Korea Drawn & Quarterly Books
  80. ^ http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/asia-pacific/2982213.stm South Korea's tunnel hunters

For other uses, see BBC (disambiguation). ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 300th day of the year (301st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 289th day of the year (290th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 316th day of the year (317th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Dean Acheson Dean Gooderham Acheson (April 11, 1893 – October 12, 1971) was an American statesman and lawyer; as United States Secretary of State in the late 1940s he played the central role in defining American foreign policy for the Cold War. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 68th day of the year (69th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 46th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 238th day of the year (239th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 233rd day of the year (234th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bruce Cumings is an historian, and professor at the University of Chicago, specializing in modern Korean history and contemporary international relations in East Asia. ... Kavalam Madhava Panikkar (1895-1963) was a scholar, journalist, historian, administrator and diplomat. ... For the victim of Mt. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 176th day of the year (177th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Washington Post is the largest newspaper in Washington, D.C.. It is also one of the citys oldest papers, having been founded in 1877. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Times-Picayune is the major daily U.S. newspaper serving New Orleans, Louisiana. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 104th day of the year (105th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC News is the department within the BBC responsible for the corporations news-gathering and production of news programmes on BBC television, radio and online. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Brune, Lester and Robin Higham, eds., The Korean War: Handbook of the Literature and Research (Greenwood Press, 1994)
  • Edwards, Paul M. Korean War Almanac (2006)
  • Foot, Rosemary, "Making Known the Unknown War: Policy Analysis of the Korean Conflict in the Last Decade," Diplomatic History 15 (Summer 1991): 411-31, in JSTOR
  • Goulden, Joseph C., Korea: The Untold Story of the War, New York: McGraw-Hill Book Company, 1982.
  • Hickey, Michael, The Korean War: The West Confronts Communism, 1950-1953 (London: John Murray, 1999) ISBN 0719555590 9780719555596
  • Ho, Kang, Pak. "The US Imperialists Started the Korean War", Foreign Languages Publishing House, Pyongyang 1993. 
  • Kaufman, Burton I. The Korean Conflict (Greenwood Press, 1999).
  • Knightley, P. The First Casualty: The War Correspondent as Hero, Propagandist and Myth-maker (Quartet, 1982)
  • Korea Institute of Military History, The Korean War (1998) (English edition 2001), 3 vol, 2600 pp; highly detailed history from South Korean perspective, U of Nebraska Press. ISBN 0-8032-7802-0
  • Leitich, Keith. Shapers of the Great Debate on the Korean War: A Biographical Dictionary (2006) covers Americans only
  • James I. Matray, ed., Historical Dictionary of the Korean War (Greenwood Press, 1991)
  • Millett, Allan R, “A Reader's Guide To The Korean War” Journal of Military History (1997) Vol. 61 No. 3; p. 583+ full text in JSTOR; free online revised version
  • Millett, Allan R. "The Korean War: A 50 Year Critical Historiography," Journal of Strategic Studies 24 (March 2001), pp. 188-224. full text in Ingenta and Ebsco; discusses major works by British, American, Korean, Chinese, and Russian authors
  • Summers, Harry G. Korean War Almanac (1990)
  • Sandler, Stanley ed., The Korean War: An Encyclopedia (Garland, 1995)
  • Masatake, Terauchi. "Treaty of Annexation", USC-UCLA Joint East Asian Studies Center, 1910-08-27. Retrieved on 2007-01-16. 

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 16th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

Victims of a massacre with their hands bound in burial area near Waegwan, Korea.
Victims of a massacre with their hands bound in burial area near Waegwan, Korea.

Waegwan is also a historical term for the Japanese settlements established in Busan, Ulsan, and Jinhae. ...

Combat studies, soldiers

  • Appleman, Roy E. South to the Naktong, North to the Yalu (1961), Official U.S. Army history covers the Eighth Army and X Corps from June to November 1950
  • Appleman, Roy E.. East of Chosin: Entrapment and Breakout in Korea (1987); Escaping the Trap: The U.S. Army in Northeast Korea, 1950 (1987); Disaster in Korea: The Chinese Confront MacArthur (1989); Ridgway Duels for Korea (1990).
  • Blair, Clay. The Forgotten War: America in Korea, 1950-1953 (1987), revisionist study that attacks senior American officials
  • Field Jr., James A. History of United States Naval Operations: Korea, University Press of the Pacific, 2001, ISBN 0-89875-675-8. official U.S. Navy history
  • Farrar-Hockley, General Sir Anthony. The British Part in the Korean War, HMSO, 1995, hardcover 528 pages, ISBN 0-11-630962-8
  • Futrell, Robert F. The United States Air Force in Korea, 1950–1953, rev. ed. (Office of the Chief of Air Force History, 1983), official U.S. Air Force history
  • Hallion, Richard P. The Naval Air War in Korea (1986).
  • Hamburger, Kenneth E. Leadership in the Crucible: The Korean War Battles of Twin Tunnels and Chipyong-Ni. Texas A. & M. U. Press, 2003. 257 pp.
  • Hastings, Max. The Korean War (1987). British perspective
  • James, D. Clayton The Years of MacArthur: Triumph and Disaster, 1945-1964 (1985)
  • James, D. Clayton with Anne Sharp Wells, Refighting the Last War: Command and Crises in Korea, 1950-1953 (1993)
  • Johnston, William. A War of Patrols: Canadian Army Operations in Korea. U. of British Columbia Press, 2003. 426 pp.
  • Kindsvatter, Peter S. American Soldiers: Ground Combat in the World Wars, Korea, and Vietnam. U. Press of Kansas, 2003. 472 pp.
  • Millett, Allan R. Their War for Korea: American, Asian, and European Combatants and Civilians, 1945–1953. Brassey's, 2003. 310 pp.
  • Montross, Lynn et al., History of U.S. Marine Operations in Korea, 1950–1953, 5 vols. (Washington: Historical Branch, G-3, Headquarters, Marine Corps, 1954–72),
  • Mossman, Billy. Ebb and Flow (1990), Official U.S. Army history covers November 1950 to July 1951.
  • Russ, Martin. Breakout: The Chosin Reservoir Campaign, Korea 1950, , Penguin, 2000, 464 pages, ISBN 0-14-029259-4
  • Toland, John. In Mortal Combat: Korea, 1950-1953 (1991)
  • Varhola, Michael J. Fire and Ice: The Korean War, 1950-1953 (2000)
  • Watson, Brent Byron. Far Eastern Tour: The Canadian Infantry in Korea, 1950–1953. 2002. 256 pp.

Origins, politics, diplomacy

  • Chen Jian, China's Road to the Korean War: The Making of the Sino-American Confrontation (Columbia University Press, 1994),
  • Goncharov, Sergei N., John W. Lewis; and Xue Litai, Uncertain Partners: Stalin, Mao, and the Korean War, Stanford University Press, 1993, ISBN 0-8047-2521-7, diplomatic
  • Kaufman, Burton I. The Korean War: Challenges in Crisis, Credibility, and Command. Temple University Press, 1986), focus is on Washington
  • Matray, James. "Truman's Plan for Victory: National Self Determination and the Thirty-Eighth Parallel Decision in Korea," Journal of American History 66 (September, 1979), 314-33. Online at JSTOR
  • Millett, Allan R. The War for Korea, 1945–1950: A House Burning vol 1 (2005)ISBN 0-7006-1393-5, origins
  • Schnabel, James F. United States Army in the Korean War: Policy and Direction: The First Year (Washington: Office of the Chief of Military History, 1972). Official U.S. Army history; full text online
  • Spanier, John W. The Truman-MacArthur Controversy and the Korean War (1959).
  • Stueck, William. Rethinking the Korean War: A New Diplomatic and Strategic History. Princeton U. Press, 2002. 285 pp.
  • Stueck, Jr., William J. The Korean War: An International History (Princeton University Press, 1995), diplomatic
  • Zhang Shu-gang, Mao's Military Romanticism: China and the Korean War, 1950-1953 (University Press of Kansas, 1995)

Primary sources

  • Bassett, Richard M. And the Wind Blew Cold: The Story of an American POW in North Korea. Kent State U. Press, 2002. 117 pp.
  • Bin Yu and Xiaobing Li, eds Mao's Generals Remember Korea, University Press of Kansas, 2001, hardcover 328 pages, ISBN 0-7006-1095-2
  • S. L. A. Marshall, The River and the Gauntlet (1953) on combat
  • Matthew B. Ridgway, The Korean War (1967).

External links

Find more about Korean War on Wikipedia's sister projects:
Dictionary definitions
Textbooks
Quotations
Source texts
Images and media
News stories
Learning resources
  • Korea Defense Veterans of America
  • Korean War Ex-POW Association
  • Korean War Veterans Associtaion
  • The Center for the Study of the Korean War
  • Korean War Documentary
  • Korean Children's War Memorial
  • Calvin College on the Impact of the War on the Korean People
  • Facts and texts on the War
  • BBC: American Military Conduct in the Korean War
  • Atrocities against Americans in the Korean War
  • Atrocities by Americans in the Korean War
  • Quicktime sequence of 27 maps adapted from the West Point Atlas of American Wars showing the dynamics of the front.
  • Animation for operations in 1950
  • Animation for operations in 1951
  • POW films, brainwashing and the Korean War
  • CBC Digital Archives - Forgotten Heroes: Canada and the Korean War
  • Chinese 50th Anniversary Korean War Memorial
  • North Korea International Documentation Project

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiversity-logo-Snorky. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... This article is about the military alliance. ... Member states of the Non-Aligned Movement (2005). ... Not to be confused with the Warsaw Convention, which is an agreement about airlines financial liability and the Treaty of Warsaw (1970) between West Germany and the Peoples Republic of Poland. ... The Big Three at the Yalta Conference, Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Joseph Stalin. ... Harry S. Truman and Joseph Stalin meeting at the Potsdam Conference on July 18, 1945. ... Gouzenko wearing his white hood for anonymity Igor Sergeyevich Gouzenko (January 13, 1919, Rogachev, Soviet Union – June 28, 1982, Mississauga, Canada) was a cipher clerk for the Soviet Embassy to Canada in Ottawa, Ontario. ... This concerns the Soviet occupation of Iran, not the Iran hostage crisis. ... Belligerents Nationalist Party of China Communist Party of China Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Mao Zedong Strength 4,300,000 (July 1946) 3,650,000 (June 1948) 1,490,000 (June 1949) 1,200,000 (July 1946) 2,800,000 (June 1948) 4,000,000 (June 1949) The Chinese Civil War... Combatants Hellenic Army, Royalist forces, Republicans United Kingdom Communist Party of Greece (ELAS, DSE) Commanders Alexander Papagos, Thrasyvoulos Tsakalotos, James Van Fleet Markos Vafiadis Strength 150,000 men 50,000 men and women Casualties 15,000 killed 32,000+ killed or captured The Greek Civil War (Ελληνικός εμφύλιος πόλεμος [ellinikos emfilios polemos]) was... Restatement of Policy on Germany is a famous speech by James F. Byrnes, then United States Secretary of State, held in Stuttgart on September 6, 1946. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... The Czechoslovak coup détat of 1948 (often simply the Czech coup) (Czech: , meaning February 1948; in Communist historiography known as Victorious February (Czech: )) was an event late that February in which the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia, with Soviet backing, assumed undisputed control over the government of Czechoslovakia, ushering in... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Informbiro. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... Combatants French Union France State of Vietnam Cambodia Laos Viet Minh Commanders French Expeditionary Corps Philippe Leclerc de Hauteclocque (1945-46) Jean-Étienne Valluy (1946-8) Roger Blaizot (1948-9) Marcel-Maurice Carpentier (1949-50) Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (1950-51) Raoul Salan (1952-3) Henri Navarre (1953-4... In the 1953 Iranian coup détat, the administration of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower orchestrated the overthrow of the democratically-elected administration of Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq and his cabinet from power. ... Former president Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán on the cover of TIME magazine in June 1954 after his overthrow Operation PBSUCCESS was a CIA-organized covert operation that overthrew the democratically-elected President of Guatemala, Jacobo Arbenz Guzmán in 1954. ... Protesters marching through the Brandenburg Gate in Berlin The Uprising of 1953 in East Germany took place in June and July 1953. ... Taiwan Strait The First Taiwan Strait Crisis (also called the 1954-1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis or the 1955 Taiwan Strait Crisis) was a short armed conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments. ... Combatants Anti-communist labourers and other civilian protesters Communist LWP KBW and UB Commanders Unknown, probably none Gen. ... Combatants Soviet Union; ÁVH (Hungarian State Security Police) Ad hoc local Hungarian militias Commanders Ivan Konev Various independent militia leaders Strength 150,000 troops, 6,000 tanks Unknown number of militia and rebelling soldiers Casualties 722 killed, 1,251 wounded[1] 2,500 killed 13,000 wounded[2] The Hungarian... Combatants Israel United Kingdom France Egypt Commanders Moshe Dayan Charles Keightley Pierre Barjot Gamal Abdel Nasser Abdel Hakim Amer Strength 175,000 Israeli 45,000 British 34,000 French 70,000 Casualties 197 Israeli KIA 56 British KIA 91 British WIA 10 French KIA 43 French WIA 650 KIA[1... Sputnik 1 The Sputnik crisis was a turn point of the Cold War that began on October 4, 1957 when the Soviet Union launched the Sputnik 1 satellite. ... Taiwan Strait The Second Taiwan Strait Crisis, also called the 1958 Taiwan Strait Crisis, was a conflict that took place between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Republic of China (ROC) governments in which the PRC was accused by Taiwan of shelling the islands of Matsu and... Belligerents 26th of July Movement Cuba Commanders Fidel Castro Che Guevara Raul Castro Fulgencio Batista The Cuban Revolution refers to the revolution that led to the overthrow of General Fulgencio Batistas regime on January 1, 1959 by the 26th of July Movement and other revolutionary elements within the country. ... Combatants Congo ONUC Cuba Belgium Katanga South Kasai CIA Commanders Patrice Lumumba Pierre Mulele Laurent-Désiré Kabila Johnson Aguiyi-Ironsi Che Guevara Moise Tshombe Joseph Mobutu Mike Hoare Charles Laurent Albert Kalonji Early history Migration & states Colonization Stanley (1867–1885) Congo Free State Leopold II (1885–1908) Belgian Congo... The Sino-Soviet split was a major diplomatic conflict between the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR), beginning in the late 1950s, reaching a peak in 1969 and continuing in various ways until the late 1980s. ... The U–2 Crisis of 1960 occurred when an American U–2 spy plane was shot down over the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Cubans trained by Soviet advisors Cuban exiles trained by United States Commanders Fidel Castro José Ramón Fernández Ernesto Che Guevara Francisco Ciutat de Miguel Grayston Lynch Pepe San Roman Erneido Oliva Strength 51,000 1,500 Casualties various estimates; over 1,600 dead[1] to 5,000... For the video game based on the possible outcomes of this event, see Cuban Missile Crisis: The Aftermath. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Brazilian military coup of 1964 was a bloodless coup détat held against left-wing President Joao Goulart by the Brazilian military on the night of 31 March 1964. ... Combatants  United States (IAPF) Inter-American Peace Force (CEFA) Dominican Armed Forces Training Center (SIM) Dominican Military Intelligence Service Dominican Armed Forces Constitutionalists PRD irregulars Commanders Lyndon B. Johnson Gen. ... Combatants Republic of Angola, Republic of Cuba, SWAPO, USSR, East Germany, Republic of Zambia Republic of South Africa, UNITA Scope of operations Operational Area: The South African Border War The South African Border War refers to the conflict that took place from 1966 to 1989 in South-West Africa (now... Indonesias Transition to the New Order occurred over 1965-67. ... ASEAN Declaration or Bangkok Declaration is the founding document of Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN). ... “Secret War” redirects here. ... The Greek military junta of 1967-1974, alternatively The Regime of the Colonels (Greek: ), or in Greece The Junta (Greek: ) and The Seven Years (Greek: ) are terms used to refer to a series of right-wing military governments that ruled Greece from 1967 to 1974. ... This article is about the Peoples Republic of China. ... People in a café watch Soviet tanks roll past The Prague Spring (Czech: Pražské jaro, Slovak: Pražská jar, Russian: пражская весна) was a period of political liberalization in Czechoslovakia starting January 5, 1968 when Alexander Dubček came to power, and running until August 20 of that year when the... Goulash Communism (Hungarian: gulyáskommunizmus) is a term sometimes used to denote the variety of socialism as practised in the Hungarian Peoples Republic between 1962-63 and 1989. ... Combatants People’s Republic of China Soviet Union Commanders Mao Tse-Tung Leonid Brezhnev Strength 814,000 658,000 Casualties 800 killed, 620 wounded, 1 lost [1] 58 killed, 94 wounded [2] The Sino-Soviet border conflict of 1969 was a series of armed clashes between the Soviet Union and... Détente is a French term, meaning a relaxing or easing; the term has been used in international politics since the early 1970s. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Combatants Khmer Republic, United States, Republic of Vietnam Khmer Rouge, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, National Liberation Front of South Vietnam (NLF) Strength ~250,000 FANK troops ~100,000 (60,000) Khmer Rouge Casualties ~600,000 dead, 1,000,000+ wounded[1] The Cambodian Civil War was a conflict that pitted... Three-Time World Mens Singles Champion Zhuang Zedong (left) and U.S. team member Glenn Cowan (right) on the Chinese team bus in Nagoya, Japan, 1971. ... The Four Power Agreement on Berlin[1] was signed on 3 September 1971 by the foreign ministers of the four powers, United Kingdom, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, France, and the United States. ... Richard Nixon (right) meets with Mao Zedong in 1972. ... Prisoners outside the La Moneda Palace after their surrender during the coup (1973). ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul Munim... The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. ... Combatants MPLA Republic of Cuba AAF Mozambique[1] UNITA FNLA South Africa Republic of Zaire Commanders José Eduardo dos Santos Jonas Savimbi Casualties Over 500,000 militants[2] and hundreds of thousands of civilians The Angolan Civil War began when Angola won its war for independence in 1975 with the... The Mozambican Civil War started in Mozambique during the 1970s following independence in 1975. ... Combatants Ethiopia Cuba South Yemen Somalia WSLF Commanders Mengistu Haile Mariam Vasily Petrov[1][2] Siad Barre Strength 217,000 Ethiopians 1,500 Soviet advisors 15,000 Cubans 2,000 South Yemenis SNA 60,000 WSLF 15,000 Casualties Unknown 20,000 killed or wounded 1/2 of the Air... Combatants Peoples Republic of China Socialist Republic of Vietnam Commanders Yang Dezhi Văn Tiến DÅ©ng Strength 300,000+[1] 100,000+ from regular army divisions and divisions of the Public Security Army Casualties Disputed. ... This article is about the 1979 revolution in Iran. ... Belligerents DRA USSR Mujahideen of Afghanistan al-Qaeda supported by[1] United States United Kingdom Pakistan Saudi Arabia Commanders Soviet forces: Sergei Sokolov Valentin Varennikov Boris Gromov DRA: Babrak Karmal Mohammad Najibullah Abdul Rashid Dostum Abdul Haq Jalaluddin Haqqani Gulbuddin Hekmatyar Ismail Khan Ahmad Shah Massoud Strength Soviet forces: 80... TIME magazine cover depicting Lech WaÅ‚Ä™sa and the Solidarity movement shaking up communism shows that Solidarity received wide international recognition. ... Beginning in the late 1970s, major civil wars erupted in the Central American region, and became one of the major foreign policy crises of the 1980s. ... Able Archer 83 was a ten-day NATO exercise starting on November 2, 1983 that spanned the continent of Europe and simulated a coordinated nuclear release. ... The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was proposed by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, commonly referred to as the Tiananmen Square Massacre,[1] were a series of demonstrations led by students, intellectuals, and labor activists in the Peoples Republic of China (PRC) between April 15 and June 4, 1989. ... Baltic Way, reflecting the peak of the Singing Revolution The Singing Revolution is the common title for events between 1987 and 1990 that led to the regaining of independence of Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania. ... View in 1986 from the west side of graffiti art on the walls infamous death strip Walls poster in memory of the fall. ... The Eastern Bloc prior to the political upheavals of 1989. ... An animated series of maps showing the breakup of the second Yugoslavia; The different colors represent the areas of control. ... This is a history of the Soviet Union from 1985 to 1991. ... Senator John W. Bricker, the sponsor of the proposed constitutional amendment to limit the treaty power of the United States government. ... //   (Russian: IPA: ) is politics of maximal openness, transparency of activity of all official (governmental) institutes, and freedom of information. ... Warsaw Pact countries to the east of the Iron Curtain are shaded red; NATO members to the west of it — blue. ... A 1947 comic book published by the Catechetical Guild Educational Society warning of the dangers of a Communist takeover. ... For other uses of Operation Condor, please see Operation Condor (disambiguation) Operation Condor (Spanish: Operación Cóndor, Portuguese: Operação Condor) was a campaign of political repressions involving assassination and intelligence operations officially implemented starting in 1975 by the right-wing dictatorships that dominated the Southern Cone in South... Emblem of Gladio, Italian branch of the NATO stay-behind paramilitary organizations. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... CIA redirects here. ... A Soviet poster reading COMECON: Unity of Goals, Unity of Action The Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (COMECON / Comecon / CMEA / CEMA), 1949 – 1991, was an economic organization of communist states and a kind of Eastern Bloc equivalent to—but more inclusive than—the European Economic Community. ... The European Community (EC) was originally founded on March 25, 1957 by the signing of the Treaty of Rome under the name of European Economic Community. ... This article is about the KGB of the Soviet Union. ... Logo of East Germanys Ministerium für Staatssicherheit (MfS or Stasi) / Ministry for State Security This article is about Stasi, the secret police of East Germany. ... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2006. ... For other uses, see Space Race (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Capitalism (disambiguation). ... This article is about the form of society and political movement. ... For architecture, see Stalinist architecture. ... Trotskyism is the theory of Marxism as advocated by Leon Trotsky. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Brezhnev Doctrine was a Soviet policy doctrine, introduced by Leonid Brezhnev in a speech at the Fifth Congress of the Polish United Workers Party on November 13, 1968, which stated: When forces that are hostile to socialism try to turn the development of some socialist country towards capitalism, it... The Ulbricht Doctrine, named after East German leader Walter Ulbricht, was the assertion that normal diplomatic relations between East Germany and West Germany could only occur if both states fully recognised each others sovereignty. ... The Carter Doctrine was proclaimed by President Jimmy Carter in his State of the Union Address on 23 January 1980. ... This article is about foreign policy. ... The domino theory was a mid-20th century foreign policy theory, promoted by the government of the United States, that speculated that if one land in a region came under the influence of communism, then the surrounding countries would follow in a domino effect. ... The Eisenhower Doctrine, given in a message to the United States Congress on January 5, 1957, was the foreign policy of U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower. ... The Johnson Doctrine, enunciated by U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson. ... The Kennedy Doctrine refers to foreign policy initiatives of the 35th President of the United States, John Fitzgerald Kennedy, towards Latin America during his term in office between 1961 and 1963. ... The Nixon Doctrine was put forth in a press conference in Guam on July 25, 1969 by Richard Nixon. ... Ostpolitik or Eastern Politics describes the realisation of the Change through Rapprochement principle, verbalised by Egon Bahr in 1963, by the effort of Willy Brandt, Chancellor of West Germany, to normalize relations with Eastern European nations including East Germany. ... Peaceful coexistence was a theory developed during the Cold War among Communist states that they could peacefully coexist with capitalist states. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... Rollback was a term used by American foreign policy thinkers during the Cold War. ... The Truman Doctrine was a proclamation by U.S. president Harry S. Truman on March 12, 1947. ... Map of Cold-War era Europe and the Near East showing countries that received Marshall Plan aid. ... // At its simplest, the Cold War is said to have begun in 1947. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... The Unified Task Force (UNITAF) was a United Nations sanctioned effort to assist in stabilising Somalia in the face of widespread lawlessness and a severe famine. ... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Commanders Willy Claes Ratko Mladić Strength 2 F-16C, 1 Mirage aircraft 2 SAMs Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft 2 pilots POW 1 F-16C Undisclosed The 1995 NATO bombing in Bosnia and Herzegovina (code-named by NATO Operation Deliberate Force) was a sustained air campaign conducted... Combatants NATO (USAF, RAF, and other air, maritime and land forces) Federal Republic of Yugoslavia and allied Serb paramilitary and foreign volunteer forces[1] Commanders Wesley Clark (SACEUR), Javier Solana (Secretary General of NATO) Slobodan MiloÅ¡ević (Supreme Commander of the Yugoslav Army), Vojislav Å eÅ¡elj, Dragoljub Ojdanić (Chief of... For other uses of War in Afghanistan, see War in Afghanistan (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iraq war (disambiguation). ... For wars involving India, see Military history of India. ... The Quasi-War was an undeclared war fought entirely at sea between the United States and France from 1798 to 1801. ... Belligerents United States Barbary States (Ottoman Empire regencies) Commanders Richard Dale William Eaton Edward Preble Hassan Bey Murad Reis Strength 7 Ships 10 US Marines and Soldiers Christian Mercenaries Arab Mercenaries 4000 Casualties and losses 2 Ships destroyed 2 Marines killed, 3 wounded Christian/Arab Mercenaries killed and wounded uncertain... This article is about the U.S.–U.K. war. ... Combatants United States British Empire (from 1815) Barbary states: Algiers Tripoli Tunis Commanders Stephen Decatur, Jr. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Combatants United States Republic of Cuba Philippine Republic Kingdom of Spain Commanders Nelson A. Miles William R. Shafter George Dewey Máximo Gómez Emilio Aguinaldo Patricio Montojo Pascual Cervera Arsenio Linares Ramón Blanco Casualties 3,289 U.S. dead (432 from combat); considerably higher although undetermined Cuban and... Belligerents United States First Philippine Republic several groups post-1902 Commanders William McKinley Theodore Roosevelt Emilio Aguinaldo Miguel Malvar Pio del Pilar Manuel Tinio Gregorio del Pilar† Licerio Geronimo Vicente Lukban Juan Cailles Maximino Hizon several unofficial leaders post-1902 Strength 126,000 soldiers First Philippine Republic: 80,000 soldiers... US Marines with the captured flag of Augusto César Sandino in Nicaragua in 1932 The Banana Wars is an unofficial term that refers to the United States military interventions into Central and South America. ... Combatants  United States  Antigua and Barbuda  Barbados  Dominica  Jamaica  Saint Lucia  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Grenada  Cuba Commanders Ronald Reagan Joseph Metcalf H. Norman Schwarzkopf Hudson Austin Pedro Tortolo Strength 7,300 Grenada: 1,500 regulars Cuba: about 722 (mostly military engineers)[1] Casualties 19 killed; 116 wounded[2... Combatants Panama United States Commanders Manuel Noriega Maxwell R. Thurman Strength 16,000+ 27,684+ Casualties 100-1,000 killed 24 Killed 325 Wounded 300-3,000 civilians killed Rangers from Charlie Company, 3rd Battalion, 75th Ranger Regiment prepare to take La Comandancia in the El Chorrillo neighborhood of Panama... This article is about military actions only. ... Shays rebellion was an armed uprising in Western Massachusetts from 1786 to 1787. ... Washington leads his troops to western Pennsylvania (Metropolitan Museum of Art) The Whiskey Rebellion, less commonly known as the Whiskey Insurrection, was a popular uprising that had its beginnings in 1791 and culminated in an insurrection in 1794 in the locality of Washington, Pennsylvania, in the Monongahela Valley. ... Combatants United States Seminole Commanders Andrew Jackson Osceola The Seminole Wars, also known as the Florida Wars, were three wars or conflicts in Florida between various groups of Indians collectively known as Seminoles and the United States. ... Map of the Toledo Strip, the disputed region. ... The Dorr Rebellion was a short-lived armed insurrection in Rhode Island in 1841 and 1842, led by Thomas Wilson Dorr who was agitating for changes to the states electoral system. ... The Mormon War is a name sometimes given to the 1838 conflict which occurred between Latter-day Saints (Mormons) and their neighbors in the northwestern region of the U.S. state of Missouri. ... The Honey Lands were a strip of territory disputed between the U.S. state of Missouri and the Iowa Territory. ... Division of the states during the Civil War:  Union states  Union territories  Border states  Bleeding Kansas  The Confederacy  Confederate territories (not always held) Bleeding Kansas, sometimes referred to in history as Bloody Kansas or the Border War, was a sequence of violent events involving Free-Staters (anti-slavery) and pro... Belligerents United States Utah Territory Commanders Pres. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants Republican Party nicknamed The Minstrels mostly Northerners at first loyal to Powell Clayton, later Democrats Liberal Republican Party nicknamed The Brindle Tails initially supported by state militia, later mostly African American volunteers Commanders Elisha Baxter Joseph Brooks Robert F. Catterson (Arkansas state militia) Strength more than 2,000 approximately... The Battle of Blair Mountain was the largest organized armed uprising in American labor history and led almost directly to the labor laws currently in effect in the United States of America. ... Combatants Local World War II Veterans, Citizens McMinn County Sheriffs Department Commanders Various GIs Sheriff Pat Mansfield, Paul Cantrell Strength * Dozens of men 3 M1 Garand rifles 5 M1911 pistols 24 M1917 Enfield rifles Other guns Dynamite * 100+ deputies One Thompson submachine gun Issued pistols Jail walls Casualties Some... List of conflicts in the United States is a timeline of events that includes wars, battles, skirmishes, major terrorist attacks, and other related items that have occurred in the United Statess current geographical area, including overseas territories. ... This is a list of wars, conflicts, operations, and battles, in chronological order, that involve the United States during and after the American Revolutionary War. ... From 1776 to 2007, there have been hundreds of instances of the deployment of United States military forces abroad and domestically. ... For other uses, see American Empire (disambiguation). ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Welcome to KoreanWar.com (930 words)
The KPR (Koreans People's Republic), which was very leftist in nature, attested that they were the political voice of the Korean people.
By winter of 1948 the worst fears of Korean Nationalist were confirmed as Korea became permanently divided at the 38th parallel.
Finally, North Korea had the support of the Chinese Military Therefore, in light of North Korea's military advantage on the eve of the war, it is reasonable to assume that it was North Korea that fired the first shot on June 25, 1950 that started the Korean War.
Korean War (1527 words)
The North Korean Offensive, 25 June -- 15 September 1950.
The War Stabilizes, 25 January -- 30 June 1951.
During the rest of 2000 and into 2001, our Korean War section will be expanded to provide images of the entire scope of U.S. Navy involvement in the conflict.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m