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Encyclopedia > Korean Air Flight 007
Korean Air Lines Flight 007

Map showing the divergence of planned and actual flightpaths Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1044x1068, 383 KB) from [1] File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Summary
Date  September 1, 1983
Type  Shoot down
Site  West of Sakhalin island
Fatalities  269
Aircraft
 Aircraft type  Boeing 747-230B
Operator  Korean Air Lines
Tail number  HL7442
Passengers  240
Crew  29
Survivors  0

Korean Air Lines Flight 007, also known as KAL 007 or KE007, was a Korean Air Lines civilian airliner shot down by Soviet jet interceptors on September 1, 1983 just west of Sakhalin island. KAL 007 carried 269 passengers and crew, including U.S. congressman Lawrence McDonald. There were no survivors. September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is among the most recognizable jet airliners, and is among the largest passenger airliners. ... Korean Airlines Boeing 747 Korean Air is the largest airline based in Korea. ... Korean Airlines Boeing 747 Korean Air is the largest airline based in Korea. ... An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... “CCCP” redirects here. ... The MiG-25 is a Russian interceptor that was the mainstay of the Soviet air defence. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican... Lawrence Patton Larry McDonald (April 1, 1935 – September 1, 1983) was a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing the sixth congressional district of Georgia. ...


The Soviet Union stated it did not know the aircraft was civilian and suggested it had entered Soviet airspace as a deliberate provocation by the United States, amidst the Cold War, to test its military response capabilities. The incident attracted a storm of protest from across the world, particularly from the U.S. Airspace means the portion of the atmosphere controlled by a particular country on top of its territory and territorial waters or, more generally, any specific three-dimensional portion of the atmosphere. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Flight information

Korean Air Lines flight KAL 007 was a commercial Boeing 747-230B (registration: HL7442[1]) flying from New York City, United States to Seoul, South Korea. It took off from New York's John F. Kennedy International Airport on August 31 carrying 240 passengers and 29 crew. After refueling at Anchorage International Airport in Anchorage, Alaska the aircraft departed for Seoul at 13:00 GMT (3:00 am local time) on September 1. KAL 007 flew westward and then arced south on a course for Seoul-Kimpo International Airport that took the craft much farther west than usual[citation needed], cutting across the Soviet Kamchatka Peninsula and then over the Sea of Okhotsk towards Sakhalin, violating Soviet airspace over a significant distance.[citation needed] The Boeing 747, commonly nicknamed the Jumbo Jet, is among the most recognizable jet airliners, and is among the largest passenger airliners. ... New York, NY redirects here. ... Seoul   is the capital of South Korea and is located on the Han River in the countrys northwest. ... John F. Kennedy International Airport (IATA: JFK, ICAO: KJFK), originally known as Idlewild Airport, is an international airport located in Jamaica, Queens, in southeastern New York City about 12 miles (19 km) from Lower Manhattan. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining. ... Ted Stevens International Airport is an airport in Anchorage, Alaska. ... Nickname: Motto: BIG WILD LIFE Location in the state of Alaska Coordinates: Borough Municipality of Anchorage Government  - Mayor Mark Begich (D) Area  - City 5,079. ... Time zones of Europe: Light colours indicate countries not observing daylight saving Greenwich Mean Time (GMT) is a term originally referring to mean solar time at the Royal Observatory, Greenwich in England. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Gimpo Airport (formerly Kimpo International Airport) was the main international airport for Seoul and South Korea before it was replaced by Incheon International Airport in 2001. ... Kamchatka is home to many volcanoes, including Avachinsky shown here. ... Map of the Sea of Okhotsk. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ...


Interception

As KAL 007 overflew Soviet territory, the Soviets scrambled Su-15 Flagon and MiG-23 Flogger-B fighters to intercept it. At 18:26 GMT,[2] one of two Su-15s from Dolinsk-Sokol airbase shot down the airliner with two missiles (1 heat-seeking and 1 radar-guided).[citation needed] The airliner crashed into the sea north of Moneron Island, killing all on board. Initial reports that the airliner had been forced to land on Sakhalin were soon proved false. Transcripts recovered from the airliner's cockpit voice recorder indicate that the crew were unaware that they were off course and violating Soviet airspace (at the end they were 500 kilometres to the west of the planned track). After the missile strike, the crew performed an emergency spiral descent due to rapid decompression from 18:26 until the end of the recording at 18:27:46. At the time of the attack, the plane had been cruising at an altitude of about 35,000 feet. Immediately upon impact, the nose pitched up (due to a severed or damaged cross-over cable to an elevator[citation needed]) and the plane rose in an arc to an altitude of 38,250 feet. Capt. Chun was able to turn off the autopilot (18:26:46) and regain control of the aircraft bringing it back down to the previous altitude of about 35,000 feet. He leveled off and then brought the nose of the aircraft down for the start of a gradual descent that took 1 minute and 13 seconds [2].[citation needed] Su-15 The Sukhoi Su-15 (NATO reporting name Flagon) was a twin-engined interceptor aircraft developed by the Soviet Union in the 1960s to replace the Sukhoi Su-11. ... The Mikoyan-Gurevich MiG-23 (Russian: ; NATO reporting name: Flogger) is a variable geometry, swept-wing fighter aircraft, originally built by the Mikoyan-Gurevich design bureau in the Soviet Union. ... For the regional civilian airport at Magadan, Russia see Sokol Airport. ... Moneron Island is located in the Tatar Strait southwest of Sakhalin Island at the northeastern end of the Sea of Japan. ... Sakhalin (Russian: , IPA: ; Japanese: 樺太 ) or サハリン )); Chinese: 庫頁; also Saghalien, is a large elongated island in the North Pacific, lying between 45°50 and 54°24 N. It is part of Russia and is its largest island, administered as part of Sakhalin Oblast. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Cabin pressurization is the active pumping of air into the cabin of an aircraft to increase the air pressure within the cabin. ...


Investigations

The International Civil Aviation Organization conducted two investigations into the incident. The first took place soon after the accident and the second occurred eight years later, after the data recorders were released in 1991.[citation needed] Both concluded that the violation of Soviet airspace was accidental; the autopilot had been set to either left-of-course in heading mode or had been switched to INS when out of range for a lock. This left the airliner on the constant magnetic heading chosen when the craft left Anchorage. It was determined that the crew did not notice this error or subsequently perform INS checks that would have revealed it due to a "lack of situational awareness and flight deck coordination".[citation needed] The International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), an agency of the United Nations, codifies the principles and techniques of international air navigation and fosters the planning and development of international air transport to ensure safe and orderly growth. ... 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... An autopilot is a mechanical, electrical, or hydraulic system used to guide a vehicle without assistance from a human being. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: Motto: BIG WILD LIFE Location in the state of Alaska Coordinates: Borough Municipality of Anchorage Government  - Mayor Mark Begich (D) Area  - City 5,079. ...


According to the U.S. Department of State transcript of the shooting as reported by the New York Times,[3] the pilot who shot down Korean Air Flight 007 is heard stating that he fired multiple rounds prior to the shooting of the two missiles. Unless the interceptor was equipped with tracer rounds, however, these shots could not have been seen by the KAL 007 crew. The Soviets officially maintained that they had attempted radio contact with the airliner and that KAL 007 failed to reply. However, no other aircraft or ground monitors covering those emergency frequencies at the time reported hearing any such Soviet radio calls. The Soviet pilot reported that KAL 007 was flashing navigation lights, which should have suggested that the plane was civilian; Soviet radar personnel, however, misunderstood him to say there were no lights, an indication that the flight was a spying mission.[citation needed] In 1996, the Soviet pilot, Gennadie Osipovich, indicated that he knew that KAL 007 was a Boeing - "I saw two rows of windows and knew that this was a Boeing. I knew this was a civilian plane. But for me this meant nothing. It is easy to turn a civilian type of plane into one for military use."[4] The United States Department of State, often referred to as the State Department, is the Cabinet-level foreign affairs agency of the United States government, equivalent to foreign ministries in other countries. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Aftermath

Political responses

US President Ronald Reagan condemned the shootdown on September 5, 1983, calling it the "Korean airline massacre," a "crime against humanity [that] must never be forgotten" and an "act of barbarism… [of] inhuman brutality."[citation needed] In an act that surprised many within the U.S. intelligence community, the U.S. delegation to the United Nations played tapes of intercepted communications between Soviet fighter pilots and their ground control. While not publicly claimed, it is almost certain that these communications were originally encrypted.[citation needed] The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Ronald Wilson Reagan (February 6, 1911 – June 5, 2004) was the 40th President of the United States (1981 – 1989) and the 33rd Governor of California (1967 – 1975). ... September 5 is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years). ... 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Photographs of the My Lai massacre provoked world outrage and made it an international scandal. ...


The next day, the Soviet Union admitted to shooting down KAL 007, stating the pilots did not know it was a civilian aircraft when it violated Soviet airspace. The attack pushed relations between the United States and the Soviet Union to a new low. On September 15, President Reagan ordered the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to revoke the license of Aeroflot Soviet Airlines to operate flights into and out of the United States. As a result, Aeroflot flights to North America were only available through their hubs in Canada or Mexico. Aeroflot service to the United States was not restored until April 29, 1986.[5] September 15 is the 258th day of the year (259th in leap years). ... “FAA” redirects here. ... Aeroflot Airbus A319 in Berlin Aeroflot — Russian Airlines (Russian:Аэрофлот — Российские авиалинии), Aeroflot — Rossijskie Avialinii, or Aeroflot (Аэрофлот; literally air fleet), is the Russian national airline and the biggest carrier in Russia. ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... April 29 is the 119th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (120th in leap years). ... 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The US ambassador to the United Nations, Jeane Kirkpatrick, commissioned an audio-visual presentation in the Security Council using tapes of the Soviet radio conversations and a map of the plane's flight path to depict the shoot-down as savage and unjustified. Alvin A. Snyder, producer of the video, later revealed in a September 1, 1996 article in the Washington Post that he was given only selected portions of the tape of the Soviet military conversation that led to the downing of the aircraft. Unedited versions of the tape later revealed to Snyder that the Soviets sincerely thought the plane was an American RC-135 reconnaissance plane and that they had given the plane internationally recognized warning signals. Snyder writes, "I told the world the Soviets shot it down in cold blood, but I was wrong."[citation needed] The foundation of the U.N. The United Nations (UN) is an international organization whose stated aims are to facilitate co-operation in international law, international security, economic development, social progress and human rights issues. ... Jeane Kirkpatrick Jeane Jordan Kirkpatrick (November 19, 1926 â€“ December 7, 2006) was an American ambassador and an ardent anticommunist. ... A session of the Security Council in progress The United Nations Security Council is the most powerful organ of the United Nations. ... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ... It has been suggested that Rivet Amber be merged into this article or section. ...


Technical changes

As a result of this incident, Ronald Reagan announced that the Global Positioning System (GPS) would be made available for civilian uses once completed.[citation needed] The Global Positioning System (GPS) is currently the only fully functional Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS). ...


Airway R20, the flight path that Korean Air Flight 007 was supposed to fly, was closed after the accident since it was deemed too close to Soviet airspace (only 17.5 miles away at its closest point).[citation needed] Instead, all trans-Pacific flights flying over northern Pacific were redirected to use the R80 flight path, which is 178.95 miles from the Soviet airspace.[citation needed] In aviation, an airway is a designated route in the air. ...


Similar incidents

A KAL flight had violated Soviet airspace before. In April 1978, a Soviet fighter fired on Korean Air Lines Flight 902 after it had flown over the Kola Peninsula, killing two passengers and forcing the aircraft to crash-land on a frozen lake. An investigation into the cause of that incident was complicated by Soviet refusal to release the aircraft's flight data recorders. 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... Korean Air Flight 902 (KAL902, KE902) was the flight number of a civilian airliner shot down by Soviet fighters on April 20, 1978 near Murmansk, killing two passengers. ... Location of Kola south of the Barents Sea. ... Soviet redirects here. ... An example of a FDR (Flight Data Recorder). ...


Conspiracy theories

The Korean Air Flight 007 incident has spawned a number of conspiracy theories, none of which have been confirmed by official sources. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ...


Popular culture

  • Two television movies were produced about the incident; both films were produced before the fall of the Soviet Union allowed access to archives:
    • Shootdown (1988), starring Angela Lansbury, John Cullum, and Kyle Secor, was based on the book of the same title by R.W. Johnson, about the efforts of Nan Moore (Lansbury), the mother of a passenger, to get answers from the US and Russian governments.
    • The British Granada Television documentary drama Coded Hostile (1989 - US title Tailspin) detailed the US military and governmental investigation, highlighting the likely confusion of Flight 007 with the USAF RC-135 in the context of routine US SIGINT/COMINT missions in the area. An updated version of Coded Hostile was screened in the UK in 1993, incorporating details of the 1992 UN investigation.
  • A documentary from Unsolved History, a program of Discovery Channel, featured this incident.

“Telefilm” redirects here. ... 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Angela Lansbury CBE (born 16 October 1925) is a Tony-winning, Golden Globe-winning, Oscar-nominated, and Emmy-nominated English actress, best-known for playing mystery writer Jessica Fletcher on Murder, She Wrote. ... John Cullum is an American actor and singer. ... Kyle Secor in Commander in Chief Kyle Secor (born May 31, 1957 in Tacoma, Washington) is an American television and movie actor, best known for his work on the show Homicide: Life on the Street. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that Drama Documentary be merged into this article or section. ... 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...

See also

Citing the U.S. National Transportation Safety Board, an aviation accident is defined as an occurrence associated with the operation of an aircraft which takes place between the time any person boards the aircraft with the intention of flight and all such persons have disembarked, and in which any person... Iran Air Flight 655 (IR655) was a commercial flight operated by Iran Air that flew from Bandar Abbas, Iran to Dubai, UAE. On Sunday July 3, 1988, the aircraft flying IR655 was shot down by the U.S. Navy guided missile cruiser USS Vincennes between Bandar Abbas and Dubai, killing... Korean Air Flight 902 (KAL902, KE902) was the flight number of a civilian airliner shot down by Soviet fighters on April 20, 1978 near Murmansk, killing two passengers. ... This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Korea-related people, places, things, and concepts. ... Lawrence Patton Larry McDonald (April 1, 1935 – September 1, 1983) was a member of the United States House of Representatives, representing the sixth congressional district of Georgia. ... Seal of the House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives (or simply the House) is one of the two chambers of the United States Congress, the other being the Senate. ...

References

  1. ^ Air Disaster.com entry
  2. ^ Maier, Timothy (2001-04-16), "Kal 007 Mystery - Korean Airlines flight 007 incident", Insight on the News  (based on ground radar measurements supplied by the Soviets to the UN in 1993
  3. ^ New York Times, September 12th, 1983, pg.1
  4. ^ New York Times interview, September 9, 1996
  5. ^ [1]

2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... April 16 is the 106th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (107th in leap years). ... The newsmagazine Insight (more fully, Insight on the News), is published by The Washington Times Corporation. ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...

Other references

  • Bert Schlossberg, Rescue 007: The Untold Story of KAL 007 and Its Survivors, ISBN 0-7388-5775-0 (Trade Paperback), ISBN 0-7388-5774-2 (Hardback), ISBN 0-7388-5776-9 (eBook)
  • Michel Brun, and Robert Bononno (Translator), Incident at Sakhalin: The True Mission of KAL Flight 007, Four Walls Eight Windows, 1996, ISBN 1-56858-054-1.
  • William P. Grady, Understanding the Times - Volume One: How Satan Turned America From God, Grady Publications, 2005, Chap. 15, "KAL 007", pp. 504-570, ISBN 0-9628809-3-0.
  • Seymour M. Hersh, "The Target Is Destroyed": What Really Happened to Flight 007 and What America Knew About It, Vintage, 1987, ISBN 0-394-75527-8.
  • Jeffrey St. John, Day of the Cobra: The True Story of KAL Flight 007, T. Nelson, 1984, ISBN 0-8407-5381-0.
  • David E. Pearson, KAL 007: The Cover-Up, Simon & Schuster, 1987, ISBN 0-671-55716-5.
  • James Gollin, and Robert Allardyce, Desired Track, American Vision Publishing, 1994, ISBN 1-883868-01-7
  • R.W. Johnson, Shootdown: Flight 007 and the American Connection, Viking Penguin, 1986, ISBN 0-670-81209-9
  • Alexander Dallin, Black Box, University of California Press, 1985, ISBN 0-520-05515-2
  • Alvin Snyder, Warriors of Disinformation, Arcade Publishing, 1995, ISBN 1-55970-389-X
  • Oliver Clubb, KAL Flight 007: The Hidden Story, The Permanent Press, 1985, ISBN 0-932966-59-4
  • James Bamford, The Puzzle Palace, Penguin Books, 1983, ISBN 0-14-006748-5
  • Secrets of the Black Box: KAL 007. The History Channel, 2006.
  • Richard Sypher, Death of Flight 007, Think Publishing, 2002, ISBN-10: 1891098055

Seymour Myron Hersh (born April 8, 1937) is an American investigative journalist and author. ... The late Professor Alexander Dallin served as Raymond A. Spruance Professor of International History, in the Center for Russian and East European Studies (CREES) at Stanford University. ... James Bamford in a publicity photo James Bamford is a bestselling author and journalist who writes about the world of United States intelligence agencies. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Korean Air Flight 007 - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2275 words)
Korean Air Lines flight KAL 007 was a commercial Boeing 747-200 (registration: HL7442) flying from New York City to Seoul, South Korea.
As KAL 007 overflew Soviet territory, the Soviets scrambled Su-15 'Flagon' and MiG-23 'Flogger-B' fighters to intercept it.
One notable passenger of Flight 007 was Larry McDonald, president of the right-wing John Birch Society, Democratic congressman for Atlanta and founder of the Western Goals Foundation which was intended to combat the threat from Communism.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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