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Encyclopedia > Kopperunchinga I

Kopperunchinga I (reigned c. 1216-1242 CE) was a Kadava chieftain who played a major role in the political affairs of the Tamil country. At one time an official in the service of the Chola king Kulothunga Chola III (1178-1218), Kopperunchinga utilised the opportunity arising out of the Pandyan invasion of the Chola country to become an independent king. Inscriptions of Kopperunchinga I are not many, since his kingdom was still in the making during the major part of his life, when he was actively engaged in conflict with other powers. Kadava was the name of a South Indian ruling dynasty who ruled parts of the Tamil country during the thirteenth and the fourteenth century CE. Kadavas were related to the Pallava dynasty and ruled from Kudalur near Cuddalore in Tamil Nadu. ... The Cholas were the most famous of the three dynasties that ruled ancient Tamil Nadu. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... The Pandyan kingdom பாண்டியர் was an ancient Tamil state in South India of unknown antiquity. ...

Contents

Rise of Kopperunchinga

Kopperunchinga I, who is referred variously as Jiya-Mahipati, Alagiyasiyan, Sakalbhuvana-chakravartin Kopperunjinga and Manavalapperumal, was a subordinate of Kulothunga Chola III between 1191 and 1195. During this period the Chola empire was declining after many years of glory. During the final years of Kolothunga III's rule, the Pandya Maravarman Sundara Pandya defeated his son Rajaraja III and made the Chola subordinate to Pandya rule, thus marking the beginning of the final demise of the Cholas. Kopperunchinga I, though related to the Chola king by marital ties and an officer in his government until c. 1213, took advantage of the confusion and strengthened his personal position by garrisoning the town of Sendamangalam in the former South Arcot district, converting it into a military stronghold. , Sendamangalam is a Town Panchayat in Namakkal district in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... South Arcot is a former district of British India, located in the state of Tamil Nadu. ...


Consolidation

Conflicts with Yadavas and Hoysalas

Kopperunchinga's ambition to increase his power brought him into conflict with the Yadava king Singhana II, with whom he fought a battle at Uratti in 1222 or 1223 CE. Soon after this he had another engagement, with the Hoysala king Vira Narasimha II in 1224. The Hoysala king won this battle and the Kadavas were suppressed for a while. On re-establishing the supremacy previously exercised by the Cholas, the Hoysala king assumed the titles Establisher of the Chola country and Destroyer of the demon Kadavaraya. The Yadava Dynasty ruled a kingdom in what is now Maharashtra, India from the 12th century to the 14th century. ...


Defeat of the Cholas

Kopperunchinga's defeat at the hands of the Hoysalas did not hold him back long. He presently defeated the Chola king Rajaraja Chola III at the battle of Tellaru and imprisoned the king and his ministers at Sendamangalam in 1231-1232. A Chola inscription states that Kopperunchinga was helped by the Lanka king Parakrama Bahu II in the battle. To signalize his victory Kopperunchinga I assumed the title Sakalabhuvanachakravartin (Emperor of the Universe) and the epithet Solanai-sirai-yittu-vaittu Sonadu-konda Alagiyasiyan (Alagiasiyan who imprisoned the Chola and conquered the Chola country). The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Lanka is the name given in Hindu mythology to the island fortress capital of the evil king Ravana in the epic Ramayana. ...


Defeat of the Hoysalas

While the Hoysala king was preparing to lay siege to Kopperunchinga's capital of Sendamangalam to counter the Kadava's rise, Kopperunchinga engaged the Hoysala armies at Perumbalur near Tiruchi in 1241 and killed the Hoysala generals Kesava, Harihara-Dandanayaka and others and seized their women and property. To protect against further attacks from the Hoysalas, Kopperunchinga built a fort at Tiruvenkadu on the banks of the river Kaveri. At the time of his death in 1242, he left his kingdom in a strong position. Tiruchirapalli (also spelled Tiruchchirappalli, commonly known as Tiruchi or Trichy, formerly known as Trichinopoly under British rule) is a city situated on the banks of the Kaveri river, centrally located in the Indian state of Tamil Nadu. ... The Cauvery (sometimes written as Kaveri) is one of the major rivers of southern India. ...


Charitable endowments

Kopperunchinga I was a patron of Tamil literature. A great devotee of the god Nataraja at Chidambaram, he constructed the southern and eastern gopura (towers) of the temple there; he also greatly improved the ancient temples at Vennainallur and Vriddhachalam. To mark his victory over the Hoysalas, he performed several deeds of munificence during a pilgrimage to various sacred places on the southern bank of the river Kaveri in Solamandalam. Tamil literature is literature in the Tamil language which most prominently includes the contributions of the Tamil country (or Tamizhagam) history, a large part of which constitutes the modern state of Tamil Nadu and Kerala as well as some parts of Karnataka and Andra pradesh. ... Bronze Chola Statue of Nataraja Nataraja (literally, The King of Dance) is the dancing posture of Lord Åšiva, the aspect of God as the Destroyer in Hinduism. ... This article is about the town in Cuddalore district. ...


See also

Pallava Dynasty (300s-early 900s) were the rulers of the northern part of what is now the state of Tamil Nadu in southern India. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ...

References

  • Nilakanta Sastri, K.A. (1955, reprinted 2002). A History of South India. OUP, New Delhi.
  • South Indian Inscriptions - http://www.whatisindia.com/inscriptions/

 
 

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