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Encyclopedia > Konstantin Rokossovsky
Marshal of the Soviet Union Konstantin Rokossovsky

Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovskiy (Russian: Константин Константинович Рокоссовский, Polish: Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896August 3, 1968) was a Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister. Image File history File links Rokossovsky. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ... December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1896 (MDCCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display calendar). ... August 3 is the 215th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (216th in leap years), with 150 days remaining. ... 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... Soviet redirects here. ...

Contents

Biography

The place of Rokossovsky's birth is unclear, with many sources claiming that he was born in Warsaw, while others, with equal confidence, state that he was born in the town of Velikiye Luki near Pskov in northwestern Russia, and that his family relocated to Warsaw shortly thereafter. The Rokossovsky family was a member of the Polish nobility, and had produced many cavalry men. However, Konstantin's father, Ksawery Wojciech Rokossowski, was a railway worker in Russia and his mother was herself Russian. Orphaned at 14, Rokossovsky earned a living by working in a stocking factory, and some time later he became an apprentice stonemason. Much later in his life, the government of People's Republic of Poland used this fact for propaganda, claiming that Rokossovsky had help build Warsaw's Poniatowski Bridge. At some point Rokossovsy decided to Russify his name by changing the patronymic Ksaverovich to Konstantinovich. He had hoped that the change would facilitate his career in the Russian Empire. Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... Velikiye Luki (also transliterated as Velikie Luki, Russian Великие Луки) - city in Russia, in Pskov Oblast. ... The Trinity Cathedral (1682-99) is a symbol of Pskovs former might and independence. ... Northwestern Federal District (Russian: Се́веро-За́падный федера́льный о́круг; tr. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic President  - 1947-1952 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1983-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981 Józef... Poniatowski Bridge - from the river. ... Russification is an adoption of the Russian language or some other Russian attribute (whether voluntarily or not) by non-Russian communities. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq...


Early military career

When World War I broke out in 1914 Rokossovsky joined the Russian Army, serving as a non-commissioned officer in a dragoon regiment. In 1917, he joined the Bolshevik Party and soon thereafter, entered the ranks of the Red Army. During the Russian Civil War he advanced to the rank of commander. In the campaigns against the White Guard armies of Aleksandr Kolchak Rokossovsky received Soviet Russia's highest military decoration, the Order of the Red Banner. In 1920, he participated in the Polish Soviet War. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... A Red Army is a communist army. ... French dragoon, 1745. ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... The Communist Party of the Soviet Union (Russian: Коммунисти́ческая Па́ртия Сове́тского Сою́за = КПСС) was the name used by the successors of the Bolshevik faction of the Russian Social-Democratic Labour Party from 1952 to 1991, but the wording Communist Party was present in the partys name since 1918 when the Bolsheviks became the Russian... Red Army flag The Workers and Peasants Red Army (Russian: Рабоче-Крестьянская Красная Армия, Raboche-Krestyanskaya Krasnaya Armiya; RKKA or usually simply the Red Army) were the armed forces first organized by the Bolsheviks during the Russian Civil War in 1918 and that, in 1922, became the army of the Soviet Union. ... Combatants Red Army Latvian Riflemen White Army (Monarchists) Ukrainian Peoples Republic Green Army (Cossacks) Black Army (Anarchists) Blue Army (Peasants) Czechoslovak Legion Allied intervention Other anti-Bolshevik forces Commanders Leon Trotsky, Mikhail Tukhachevsky, Sergei Kamenev, Semyon Budyonny, Mikhail Frunze Alexander Antonov, Anton Denikin, Alexander Kolchak, Lavr Kornilov, Pyotr Wrangel... The term may have the following meanings White Guard, Finnish Civil War White Army, Russian Civil War The White Guard - a novel by Mikhail Bulgakov about the Russian White movement. ... Admiral Kolchak Aleksandr Vasiliyevich Kolchak (Александр Васильевич Колчак in Russian) (November 4 (November 16 NS), 1874 – February 7, 1920) was a Russian naval commander and later head of part of the anti-Bolshevik White forces during the Russian Civil War. ... Bolshevist Russia is a common term that refers to the Red side in the Russian government between the Bolsheviks October Revolution (November 7, 1917) and the constitution of the Soviet Union (December 30, 1922). ... The Soviet government of Russia established the Order of the Battle Red Banner, better-known as the Order of the Red Banner (in Russian: Орден Крaсного Знамени Orden Krasnogo Znameni) on September 16, 1918 during the Russian Civil War. ... Combatants Russian Soviet Federated Socialist Republic Second Polish Republic Commanders Mikhail Tukhachevsky Semyon Budyonny Joseph Stalin Józef Piłsudski Edward Rydz-Śmigły Strength 950,000 combatants 5,000,000 reserves 360,000 combatants 738,000 reserves Casualties Unknown, dead estimated at 100,000–150,000 Unknown, dead estimated...

Marshal Rokossovsky (on black horse) and Marshal Zhukov during the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945.
Marshal Rokossovsky (on black horse) and Marshal Zhukov during the Moscow Victory Parade of 1945.

After the Civil War Rokossovsky studied at the Frunze Military Academy and became a senior cavalry commander in the Red Army. During the 1920s his division was stationed in Mongolia. In 1929 — by agreement with the Chinese government — he took part in defending the Chinese Eastern Railway against warlords. Image File history File links Summary Marshal Zhukov and Marshal Rokossovsky during the Victory Parade on Red Square (June 24, 1945) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Summary Marshal Zhukov and Marshal Rokossovsky during the Victory Parade on Red Square (June 24, 1945) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The 1945 Victory parade was the first major Soviet event recorded on color film. ... There were a number of military academies in Soviet Union of different specialties. ... French Republican Guard - May 8, 2005 celebrations Cavalry (from French cavalerie) were soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat. ... 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... When the first version of Trans-Siberian Railroad was completed, a portion of it went through China. ...


In the early 1930s, Rokossovsky was among the first to realize the potential of armored assault. He advocated the creation of a strong armored core for the Red Army. His wide promotion of the idea brought him into conflict with many of the Old Guard commanders, especially Semyon Budenny, who still favored cavalry tactics. It was because of this, it would seem, that he was targeted during the purges. Semyon Budyonny Semyon Mikhailovich Budyonny (also spelled Budennii, Budenny, Budyenny etc, Russian: Семён Михайлович Будённый) (April 25, 1883 - October 26, 1973), Soviet military commander, was a favourite of Soviet ruler...


Great Purge

Rokossovsky held senior commands until 1937, when he became caught up in Joseph Stalin's Great Purge and accused of "connections with foreign intelligence". After interrogations that included torture resulting in nine missing teeth, three cracked ribs, the removal of his fingernails, and three mock shooting ceremonies, he was sent to a labour camp at Norilsk, where he remained until March 1940, when he was released without explanation, apparently due to preparation for World War II.[1] Rokossovsky first revived in the so-called "Villa of ecstasy" in the spa of Sochi on the coast of the Black Sea.[citation needed] After a brief talk with Stalin he was restored to the rank of a Corps Commander in the Kiev Military Region. 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... “Stalin” redirects here. ... The Great Purge (Russian: , transliterated Bolshaya chistka) is the name given to campaigns of political repression and persecution in the Soviet Union orchestrated by Joseph Stalin during the late 1930s. ... Gulag ( , Russian: ) was the government body responsible for administering prison camps across the former Soviet Union. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Train station of Sochi hidden behind palm trees Sochi (Russian: ) is a Russian resort city, situated in Krasnodar Krai near the southern Russian border. ... NASA satellite image of the Black Sea Map of the Black Sea The Black Sea is an inland sea between southeastern Europe and Anatolia that is actually a distant arm of the Atlantic Ocean by way of the Mediterranean Sea. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ...


World War II

Rokossovsky in the uniform of a Marshal of the Soviet Union.

When Nazi Germany attacked the Soviet Union in June 1941 Rokossovsky became commander of the 16th Army stationed near Smolensk. During the bitter fighting in the winter of 1941 - 42 Rokossovsky played a key role in the defence of Moscow under Georgy Zhukov. Source: [1], referenced at [2]. Lupo 09:17, 21 Sep 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Source: [1], referenced at [2]. Lupo 09:17, 21 Sep 2004 (UTC) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... Combatants Germany, Romania, Finland, Italy, Hungary, Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Adolf Hitler, Ion Antonescu, C.G.E. Mannerheim, Benito Mussolini, Miklós Horthy, Jozef Tiso Joseph Stalin Strength ~3. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... A view of Smolensk in 1912. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgy Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov, GCB (Russian: ) (December 1, 1896 [O.S. November 19]–June 18, 1974), was a Soviet military commander who, in the course of World War II, led the Red Army to liberate the Soviet Union from the Nazi occupation, to overrun...


In early 1942 Rokossovsky was transferred to the Bryansk Front. He commanded the right flank of the Soviet forces as they fell back before the Germans towards the Don and Stalingrad in the summer of 1942. During the Battle of Stalingrad Rokossovsky, commanding the Don Front, led the northern wing of the Soviet counter-attack that encircled Paulus's Sixth Army and won the decisive victory of the Soviet-German war. 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... The Bryansk Front was a Front (i. ... The Don (Дон) is one of the major rivers of Russia. ... Stalingrad is the former name of two cities: Volgograd, Russia Karviná-Nové Město, near Ostrava, Czech Republic Other uses: The Battle of Stalingrad (a major turning-point of World War II and arguably the bloodiest battle in human history) Stalingrad (German film set during the above battle) Stalingrad... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Combatants Germany Italy Hungary Romania Slovakia Soviet Union Commanders Maximilian von Weichs Friedrich Paulus # Erich von Manstein Hermann Hoth Italo Garibaldi Gusztav Jany Petre Dumitrescu Constantin Constantinescu Vasiliy Chuikov Aleksandr Vasilyevskiy Georgiy Zhukov Semyon Timoshenko Konstantin Rokossovsky Rodion Malinovsky Strength German Sixth Army German Fourth Panzer Army Romanian Third Army... Friedrich Paulus. ... The Eastern Front1 was the theatre of combat between Nazi Germany and its allies against the Soviet Union during World War II. It was somewhat separate from the other theatres of the war, not only geographically, but also for its scale and ferocity. ...


In 1943, after becoming commander of the Central Front, Rokossovsky successfully conducted defensive operations in the Kursk salient, and then led the counterattack west of Kursk which defeated the last major German offensive on the eastern front and allowed the Soviet armies to advance to Kiev. The Central Front was then renamed 1st Belorussian Front, which he commanded during the Soviet advance through Byelorussia (Belarus) and into Poland. 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... The Central Front was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Combatants Nazi Germany Soviet Union Commanders Erich von Manstein Hans von Kluge Hermann Hoth Walther Model Georgiy Zhukov Konstantin Rokossovskiy Nikolay Vatutin Ivan Konyev Strength 2,700 tanks 800,000 infantry, 2,000 aircraft 3,600 tanks 1,300,000 infantry, 2,400 aircraft Casualties German Kursk : 50,000 dead... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587. ... The 1st Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 1st Byelorussian Front and 1st Belarusian Front) was a military subdivision (Front) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... State motto: Belarusian: Пралетарыі ўсіх краін, яднайцеся! Translation: Workers of the world, unite! Capital Minsk Official language Belarusian, Polish, Russian and Yiddish (before WWII) Established In the USSR:  - Since  - Until January 1, 1919 December 30, 1922 August 25, 1991 Area  - Total  - Water (%) Ranked 6th in the USSR 207,600 km² negligible Population  - Total   - Density...


In a famous incident during the planning in 1944 of Operation Bagration, Rokossovsky conflicted with Stalin who demanded in accordance with Soviet war practice a single break-through of the German frontline. Rokossovsky held firm in his argument for two break-throughs. Stalin ordered Rokossovsky to "go and think it over" three times, but every time he returned and gave the same answer "Two break-throughs, Comrade Stalin, two break-throughs." After the third time Stalin remained silent, but walked over to Rokossovsky and put a hand on his shoulder. A tense moment followed as the whole room waited for Stalin to rip the epaulette from Rokossovsky's shoulder; instead, Stalin said "Your confidence speaks for your sound judgement," and ordered the attack to go forward according to Rokossovsky's plan.[citation needed] The battle was successful, and Rokossovsky's reputation was assured. After crushing German Army Group Centre in Belarus, Rokossovsky's armies reached the east bank of the Vistula opposite Warsaw by mid-1944. For these victories he gained the rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union. Combatants Axis Soviet Union Commanders Ernst Busch Walther Model Ferdinand Schörner Konstantin Rokossovski Georgy Zhukov Aleksandr Vasilevsky Strength 800,000 1,700,000 Casualties (Soviet est. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვი&#4314... Vistula river basin Vistula (Polish Wisła), is the longest river in Poland. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The rank of Marshal of the Soviet Union (Russian: Marshal Sovietskogo Soyuza [Маршал Советского Союза]) was in practice the highest military rank of the Soviet Union. ...


While Rokossovsky's forces stood stalled on the Vistula, the Warsaw Uprising (August - October, 1944) broke out in the city, led by the Polish Home Army (AK) on the orders of the Polish government in exile in London. Since the AK had the objectives of liberating the city from the Germans before the arrival of the Soviet forces and of preventing the establishment of a Communist government, Stalin ordered Rokossovsky to give the rising no assistance, orders which he obeyed. There has been much speculation about Rokossovsky's personal views on this decision. The Vistula (Polish: ) is with 1,047 kilometers (678 miles) the longest river in Poland. ... Combatants Poland Germany Commanders Tadeusz Bór-Komorowski #, Antoni ChruÅ›ciel #, Tadeusz PeÅ‚czyÅ„ski Erich von dem Bach, Rainer Stahel, Heinz Reinefarth, Bronislav Kaminski Strength 50,000 troops (10,000 armed) 25,000 troops Casualties 18,000 killed, 12,000 wounded, 15,000 taken prisoner 250,000 civilians killed... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ... The Government of the Polish Republic in Exile was the government of Poland after the country had been occupied by Germany and the Soviet Union during September-October 1939. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ...


In November 1944, Rokossovsky was transferred to the 2nd Belorussian Front, which advanced into East Prussia and then across northern Poland to the mouth of the Oder at Stettin (now Szczecin). At the end of April he linked up with British Field Marshal Bernard Montgomery's forces in northern Germany while the forces of Zhukov and Ivan Koniev captured Berlin. 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... The 2nd Belorussian Front (alternative spellings are 2nd Byelorussian Front and 2nd Belarusian Front) was a military subdivision (Front) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Oder River (Czech/Polish: Odra, German: Oder, Ancient Latin: Viadua, Viadrus, Medieval Latin: Odera, Oddera) is a river in Central Europe. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Bernard Law Montgomery Field Marshal Bernard Law Montgomery, 1st Viscount Montgomery of Alamein (November 17, 1887 - March 24, 1976) was a British military officer during World War II often referred to as Monty. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Ivan Koniev Ivan Stepanovich Koniev (Russian Иван Степанович Конев) (December 28, 1897 – May 21, 1973), Soviet military commander, was born into a peasant family near Podosinovsky in central... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ...


Dates of rank

  • General Leytenant (equivalent to Major General, US Army) Sep. 1941
  • General Polkovnik (Lieutenant General, US Army) 15 Jan. 1943
  • General Armiyi (General, US Army) 28 April 1943
  • Marshal Sovietskovo Soyuza (General of the Army, US Army) 29 June 1944

Postwar

Rokossovsky in Polish uniform.

With the end of the war Rokossovsky remained in command of Soviet forces in Poland (Northern Group of Forces). In October 1949, with the establishment of a fully Communist government under Bolesław Bierut in Poland, Rokossovsky, on Stalin's orders, became the Polish Minister of National Defence, with the additional title of Marshal of Poland. Together with Rokossovsky, several thousands of Soviet officers were put in charge of almost all Polish military units, either as commanding officers or as their advisors[2]. Konstanty Rokossowski in Polish officers uniform It is to be noted that in Poland there is no specific uniform of a Marshal of Poland. ... Konstanty Rokossowski in Polish officers uniform It is to be noted that in Poland there is no specific uniform of a Marshal of Poland. ... Review of 6 Soviet Guard Vitebsk-Novohrod Mechanised Division, Northern Group of Forces, in Borne Sulinowo, Poland. ... 1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ... BolesÅ‚aw Bierut (real name BolesÅ‚aw Biernacki, April 18, 1892–March 12, 1956) was a Polish-born Communist leader, a Stalinist who became President of Poland after the Soviet occupation of the country in the aftermath of World War II. Bierut was born near Lublin, the son of a... Current minister Aleksander SzczygÅ‚o List of Ministers of National Defense of the Republic of Poland (). Current minister is Aleksander SzczygÅ‚o. ... Marshal of Poland (Marszałek Polski) is the highest rank in the Polish Army. ...


In 1952 he became Deputy Chairman of the Council of Ministers of the People's Republic of Poland. Although Rokossovsky was nominally Polish, he had not lived in Poland for 35 years, and most Poles regarded him as a Soviet emissary in the country,[3] especially as he spoke poor Polish and even ordered Polish soldiers to address him in Russian instead.[4] As Rokossovsky himself bitterly put it: "In Russia, they say I'm a Pole, in Poland they call me Russian".[3] 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Capital Warsaw Language(s) Polish Government Socialist republic President  - 1947-1952 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1983-1989 Wojciech Jaruzelski Prime minister  - 1944-1947 E. Osóbka-Morawski  - 1947-1952 and 1954-1970 Józef Cyrankiewicz  - 1952-1954 BolesÅ‚aw Bierut  - 1970-1980 Piotr Jaroszewicz  - 1980 Edward Babiuch  - 1980-1981 Józef...


Rokossovsky was responsible for the suppression of the Polish resistance movement and stalinization and sovietization of Poland in general and the Polish Army in particular.[5] As the superior commander of the Polish Army, he introduced various ways of suppression of anti-Soviet activity. Among the most notorious were the labour battalions of the army, to which all able-bodied men found socially or politically insecure, or guilty of having their families abroad[citation needed] were drafted. It is estimated that roughly 200,000 men were forced to work in labour camps in hazardous conditions, often in quarries, coal and uranium mines, and 1,000 died in their first days of labour, while tens of thousands would become crippled.[6]. Other groups targeted by the repressions were former soldiers of the pre-war Polish Army and wartime Home Army. Joseph Stalin Stalinism is the political and economic system named after Joseph Stalin, who implemented it in the Soviet Union. ... This article is about the political term. ... Labour battalions were a form of alternative service or unfree labor in various countries. ... Armia Krajowa (the Home Army), abbreviated AK, was the dominant Polish resistance movement in World War II German-occupied Poland. ...


In 1956 during the Poznań 1956 protests against Soviet military presence, Rokossovsky approved the order to send military units against protesters[5]. As a result of the action of over 10,000 soldiers and 360 tanks,[7] at least 74 civilians were killed.[8] PoznaÅ„ crosses commemorating the PoznaÅ„ 1956 protests and subsequent Polish protests against the communist political system. ...


When Communist reformers under Władysław Gomułka tried to come to power in Poland in 1956, Rokossovsky went to Moscow and tried to convince Nikita Khrushchev to use force against the Polish state.[1] After Gomułka managed to negotiate with the Soviets, Rokossovsky left Poland. He returned to the Soviet Union, which restored his Soviet ranks and honours; and in July 1957, following the removal from office of Defence Minister Zhukov, Nikita Khrushchev appointed him Deputy Minister of Defence and Commander of the Transcaucasian Military District. In 1958 he became chief inspector of the Ministry of Defence, a post he held until his retirement in April 1962. WÅ‚adysÅ‚aw GomuÅ‚ka (February 6, 1905, Krosno – September 1, 1982) was a Polish Communist leader. ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[1]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Marshal of the Soviet Union Georgi Zhukov Georgy Konstantinovich Zhukov (Russian: Гео́ргий Константи́нович Жу́ков) (December 1, 1896 - June 18, 1974), Soviet military commander and... Nikita Sergeyevich Khrushchev (Russian: , Nikita Sergeevič Chruščiov; IPA: , in English, , or , occasionally ); surname more accurately romanized as Khrushchyov; April 17 [O.S. April 5] 1894[1]–September 11, 1971) was the chief director of the Soviet Union after the death of Joseph Stalin. ... Transcaucasian Front or Transcaucasus Front (Russian: Закавказский Фронт) was a Front (military subdivision) of the Soviet Army during the Second World War. ... Year 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...


He died in August 1968, aged 74, and lies buried in Red Square near the Kremlin. 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday. ... For other uses, see Red Square (disambiguation). ... The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin ( Russian citadel). ...


Notes and references

In-line:
  1. ^ K.A.Zalessky, Stalin's Empire (biographical dictionnary), Moscow, Veche, 2000.
  2. ^ (English) Norman Davies (1982). God's Playground. New York: Columbia University Press. ISBN 0-231-05353-3.  (also ISBN 0-231-05351-7)
  3. ^ a b (Polish) Wiesław Białkowski (1994). Rokossowski - na ile Polak? (Rokossowski - How Much of a Pole?). Warsaw: Alfa, 326. ISBN 83-7001-755-X. 
  4. ^ (English) Norman Davies (2004). "Eastern Approaches", Rising '44: The Battle for Warsaw. Viking Books, 119-167. ISBN 0-670-03284-0. ; Polish excerpts: http://polish-jewish-heritage.org/Pol/July_04_Powstanie_Davies.htm
  5. ^ a b (Polish) Paweł Piotrowski, Barbara Polak (6 2001). "Żołnierze, oficerowie, generałowie (Soldiers, Officers, Generals)". Biuletyn IPN 6 (7/2001). ISSN 1641-9561. Retrieved on 2006-04-17. 
  6. ^ (Polish) Anna Witalis Zdrzenicka (2005). "Polski gułag. Zapomniana krzywda powraca (Polish Gulag: the Forgotten Lesion Returns)". Gazeta Ogólnopolska 1 (1). Retrieved on 2006-04-17. 
  7. ^ (English) Grzegorz Ekiert; Jan Kubik (2001). Rebellious Civil Society : Popular Protest and Democratic Consolidation in Poland, 1989-1993. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 27-29. ISBN 0-472-08830-0. 
  8. ^ according to official figures, as in: (Polish) Maciej Szewczyk (2005). Poznański czerwiec 1956. Poznańczyk. Retrieved on 2006-04-17.
General:

Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... Gods Playground is a book about history of Poland written by Norman Davies. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States. ... Norman Davies, Warsaw (Poland), October 7, 2004 Norman Davies (born June 8, 1939 in Bolton, Lancashire) is an English historian of Welsh descent, noted for his publications on the history of Poland, Europe and the British Isles. ... Institute of National Remembrance (Polish: ; IPN) is a Polish institution created by the IPN Act in 18 December 1998. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Michigan, Ann Arbor (UM, U of M or U-M) is a coeducational public research university in the state of Michigan. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... April 17 is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External link

  • Rokossowski speech on National Unity Congress in Poland (December 1949)


1949 (MCMXLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (the link is to a full 1949 calendar). ...

Marshals of Poland
Józef Piłsudski • Ferdinand Foch • Edward Rydz-Śmigły • Michał Rola-Żymierski • Konstanty RokossowskiMarian Spychalski

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Konstantin Rokossovsky - definition of Konstantin Rokossovsky in Encyclopedia (946 words)
Konstantin Konstantinovich Rokossovsky (Russian: КОНСТАНТИН КОНСТАНТИНОВИЧ РОКОССОВСКИЙ, Polish name Konstanty Rokossowski) (December 21, 1896 - August 3, 1968), Soviet military commander and Polish Defence Minister, was born in the town of Velikie Luki near Pskov in northern Russia, the son of a Polish railway worker and a Russian mother.
Rokossovsky first revived in the so-called "Villa of ecstasy" in the spa of Sochi on the coast of Black Sea.
During the Battle of Stalingrad Rokossovsky, commanding the Don Front, led the northern wing of the Soviet counter-attack that encircled Paulus's Sixth Army and won the decisive victory of the Soviet-German war.
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