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Encyclopedia > Konrad Zuse
Konrad Zuse
Konrad Zuse in 1992
Konrad Zuse in 1992
Born June 22, 1910
Flag of German Empire Berlin, German Empire
Died December 18, 1995
Flag of Germany Hünfeld, Germany
Residence Germany
Field Computer Science
Institutions Aerodynamic Research Institute
Alma mater Technical University of Berlin
Known for Z3
Plankalkül
Calculating Space (cf. digital physics)
Notable prizes Werner-von-Siemens-Ring in 1964, Harry H. Goode Memorial Award in 1965 (together with George Stibitz)
Statue in Bad Hersfeld
Statue in Bad Hersfeld

Konrad Zuse [ˈkɔn.ʁat ˈtsuː.zə] (June 22, 1910 Berlin - December 18, 1995 Hünfeld) was a German engineer and computer pioneer. His greatest achievement was the world's first functional program-controlled computer, the Z3, in 1941 (the program was stored on a tape). In 1998, the Z3 was shown to be Turing-complete. He received the Werner-von-Siemens-Ring in 1964 for the Z3. Image File history File linksMetadata Konrad_Zuse_(1992). ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_German_Empire. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Germany. ... Hünfeld is a town in the district of Fulda, in Hesse, Germany. ... Computer science, or computing science, is the study of the theoretical foundations of information and computation and their implementation and application in computer systems. ... South Side of the Main Building Areaway of the Main Building The Technical University of Berlin (TUB, TU Berlin, German: Technische Universität Berlin) is located in Berlin in Germany. ... Konrad Zuses Z3 was the first working programmable, fully automatic machine, whose attributes, with the addition of conditional branching, have often been the ones used as criteria in defining a computer. ... Plankalkül (German, Plan Calculus) is a computer language developed for engineering purposes by Konrad Zuse. ... Calculating Space is the title of MIT´s English Translation of Konrad Zuse´s book Rechnender Raum (published in Germany in 1969), the first book on digital physics. ... Digital physics holds the basic premise that the entire history of our universe is computable, that is, the output of a (presumably short) computer program. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... George Stibitz George Robert Stibitz (April 20, 1904 – January 31, 1995) is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 1387 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Konrad Zuse Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1200x1600, 1387 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Konrad Zuse Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Bad Hersfeld is a spa town in the north-eastern region of Hesse in Germany. ... is the 173rd day of the year (174th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Hünfeld is a town in the district of Fulda, in Hesse, Germany. ... Look up engineer in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The NASA Columbia Supercomputer. ... Konrad Zuses Z3 was the first working programmable, fully automatic machine, whose attributes, with the addition of conditional branching, have often been the ones used as criteria in defining a computer. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Konrad Zuses Z3 was the first working programmable, fully automatic machine, whose attributes, with the addition of conditional branching, have often been the ones used as criteria in defining a computer. ... In computability theory a programming language or any other logical system is called Turing-complete if it has a computational power equivalent to a universal Turing machine. ... The Werner-von-Siemens-Ring is considered to be among the highest ranking awards for technical sciences in Germany. ... 1964 (MCMLXIV) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1964 calendar). ...


Zuse also designed the first high-level programming language, Plankalkül, in 1948, although this was a theoretical contribution, since the language was not implemented in his lifetime and did not directly influence early languages. One of the inventors of ALGOL (Rutishauser) wrote: "The very first attempt to devise an algorithmic language was undertaken in 1948 by K. Zuse. His notation was quite general, but the proposal never attained the consideration it deserved." A high-level programming language is a programming language that, in comparison to low-level programming languages, may be more abstract, easier to use, or more portable across platforms. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... Plankalkül (German, Plan Calculus) is a computer language developed for engineering purposes by Konrad Zuse. ... Year 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the 1948 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Algol (β Per / Beta Persei) is a bright star in the constellation Perseus. ... Flowcharts are often used to represent algorithms. ...


In addition to his technical work, Zuse founded the first computer startup company in 1946. This company built the Z4, which became the first commercial computer, leased to ETH Zürich in 1950. Due to World War II, however, Zuse's work went largely unnoticed in the UK and the USA; possibly his first documented influence on a US company was IBM's option on his patents in 1946. In the late 1960s, Zuse suggested the concept of a Calculating Space (a computation-based universe). A startup company is a company with a limited operating history. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Z4 computer was the worlds first commercial digital computer, designed by German engineer Konrad Zuse and built by his company Zuse KG. It was delivered to ETH Zürich, Switzerland, in September 1950. ... ETH Zurich (from its German name Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, ETHZ) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... IBM redirects here. ... Calculating Space is the title of MIT´s English Translation of Konrad Zuse´s book Rechnender Raum (published in Germany in 1969), the first book on digital physics. ...


There is a replica of the Z3, as well as the Z4, in the Deutsches Museum in Munich. Deutsches Museum The Deutsches Museum (German Museum) in Munich, Germany, is the worlds largest museum of technology and science, with approximately 1. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ...


The Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin in Berlin has an exhibition devoted to Zuse. In it are are twelve of his machines, including a replica of the Z1, some original documents, including the specifications of Plankalkül, and several of Zuse's paintings. The German Museum of Technology Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin (German Museum of Technology) was founded in 1982 and boasts a large collection of historical technical artifacts. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Z1 can refer to: Z1 (computer) Z1 class Melbourne tram The BMW Z1 This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...

Contents

Pre-WWII work and the Z1

Born in Berlin, Germany, Zuse graduated in civil engineering from the Technische Hochschule Berlin-Charlottenburg in 1935. In his engineering studies, Zuse had to perform many routine calculations by hand, which he found mind-numbingly boring. This led him to dream about performing calculations by machine. This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... South Side of the Main Building Areaway of the Main Building The Technical University of Berlin (TUB, TU Berlin, German: Technische Universität Berlin) is located in Berlin in Germany. ...


He started as a design engineer at the Henschel aircraft factory in Berlin-Schönefeld but resigned a year later to build a program driven/programmable machine. Working in his parents' apartment in 1936, his first attempt, called the Z1, was a binary electrically driven mechanical calculator with limited programmability, reading instructions from a punched tape. The Z1 never worked well, though, due to the lack of sufficiently precise parts. The Z1 and its original blueprints were destroyed during World War II. Henschel & Son, during World War II, was the primary manufacturer of the Panzer VI. Henschel aircraft and missiles included: Henschel Hs 117 Schmetterling (Butterfly), surface-to-air missile (rocket-engined) Henschel Hs 121, fighter + trainer (prototype) Henschel Hs 123, ground-attack (biplane) Henschel Hs 124, heavy fighter + bomber (prototype) Henschel... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... reproduction of the Z1 The Z1 was a mechanical computer created by Konrad Zuse in 1937. ... A roll of punched tape Punched tape is an old-fashioned form of data storage, consisting of a long strip of paper in which holes are punched to store data. ... Modern blueprint of the French galleon La Belle. ...


Between 1987 and 1989, Zuse recreated the Z1, suffering a heart-attack midway through the project. It had 30,000 components, cost 800,000 DM, and required four individuals (including Zuse) to assemble it. Funding for this retrocomputing project was provided by Siemens and a consortium of five companies. The Deutsche Mark (DM, DEM) was the official currency of West and, from 1990, unified Germany. ... The Apple II is one of the most collected computers in the world, and is popular amongst hobbyists. ...


The WWII years; the Z2, Z3, and Z4

World War II made it impossible for Zuse and other German computer scientists to work with scientists in the UK and the USA, or even to stay in contact with them. In 1939, Zuse was called for military service but was able to convince the army to let him return to his computers. In 1940, he gained support from the Aerodynamische Versuchsanstalt (AVA, Aerodynamic Research Institute), which used his work for the production of glide bombs. Zuse built the Z2, a revised version of the Z1, from telephone relays. The same year, he started a company, Zuse Apparatebau (Zuse Apparatus Engineering), to manufacture his machines. A glide bomb is an aerial bomb that is modified with aerodynamic surfaces to modify its flight path from a purely ballistic one, to a flatter, gliding, one. ... The Z2 was a mechanical and relay computer created by Konrad Zuse in 1939. ... Automotive style miniature relay A relay is an electrical switch that opens and closes under the control of another electrical circuit. ...


Improving on the basic Z2 machine, he built the Z3 in 1941. It was a binary 64-bit floating point calculator featuring programmability with loops but without conditional jumps, with memory and a calculation unit based on telephone relays. The telephone relays used in his machines were largely collected from discarded stock. Despite the absence of conditional jumps, the Z3 was a Turing complete computer (ignoring the fact that no physical computer can be truly Turing complete because of limited storage size). However, Turing-completeness was never considered by Zuse (who had practical applications in mind) and only demonstrated in 1998 (see History of computing hardware). Konrad Zuses Z3 was the first working programmable, fully automatic machine, whose attributes, with the addition of conditional branching, have often been the ones used as criteria in defining a computer. ... The binary numeral system, or base-2 number system, is a numeral system that represents numeric values using two symbols, usually 0 and 1. ... In computability theory a programming language or any other logical system is called Turing-complete if it has a computational power equivalent to a universal Turing machine. ... Computing hardware has been an important component of the process of calculation and data storage since it became useful for numerical values to be processed and shared. ...


Zuse never received the support that computer pioneers in Allied countries, such as Alan Turing, got. The Z3 was financed only partly by the DVL (Deutsche Versuchsanstalt für Luftfahrt, i.e. German Experimentation-Institution for Aviation), which wanted their extensive calculations automated. A request by his co-worker Helmut T. Schreyer (1912-1984) for government funding for an electronic successor to the Z3 was denied as "strategically unimportant". In 1937 Schreyer had advised Zuse to use vacuum tubes as switching elements, who at this time considered it a "Schnapsidee", i.e. crazy idea (in his own words). Alan Mathison Turing, FRS,OBE (23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was an English mathematician, logician, and cryptographer. ... Structure of a vacuum tube diode Structure of a vacuum tube triode In electronics, a vacuum tube, electron tube, or (outside North America) thermionic valve or just valve, is a device used to amplify, switch or modify a signal by controlling the movement of electrons in an evacuated space. ...


Zuse's company (with the Z3) was destroyed in 1945 by an Allied attack. Fortunately, the partially finished, relay-based Z4 had been moved to a safe place earlier. Zuse designed the first high-level programming language, Plankalkül, from 1941 to 1945, although he did not publish it in its entirety until 1972. No compiler or interpreter was available for Plankalkül until a team from the Free University of Berlin implemented it in 2000, five years after Zuse died. The Z4 computer was the worlds first commercial digital computer, designed by German engineer Konrad Zuse and built by his company Zuse KG. It was delivered to ETH Zürich, Switzerland, in September 1950. ... Plankalkül (German, Plan Calculus) is a computer language developed for engineering purposes by Konrad Zuse. ... A diagram of the operation of a typical multi-language, multi-target compiler. ... Interpreter can mean one of the following: In communication, an interpreter is a person whose role is to facilitate dialogue between two parties that do not use the same language. ... Satellite photo of Berlin. ...


Zuse the entrepreneur

In 1946 Zuse founded the world's first computer startup company: the Zuse-Ingenieurbüro Hopferau. Venture capital was raised through ETH Zürich and an IBM option on Zuse's patents.


Zuse founded another company, Zuse KG, in 1949. The Z4 was finished and delivered to the ETH Zürich, Switzerland in September 1950. At that time, it was the only working computer in continental Europe, and the first computer in the world to be sold, beating the Ferranti Mark I by five months and the UNIVAC I by ten months. Other computers, all numbered with a leading Z, were built by Zuse and his company. Notable are the Z11, which was sold to the optics industry and to universities, and the Z22, the first computer with a memory based on magnetic storage. The Z4 computer was the worlds first commercial digital computer, designed by German engineer Konrad Zuse and built by his company Zuse KG. It was delivered to ETH Zürich, Switzerland, in September 1950. ... ETH Zurich (from its German name Eidgenössische Technische Hochschule Zürich, ETHZ) is the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology in Zürich, Switzerland. ... The Ferranti Mark I was the second commercially available general-purpose computer (first being the Z4 computer), with the first machine delivered in February 1951, just beating the UNIVAC I. The machine was built by Ferranti of the United Kingdom. ... UNIVAC I Central Complex, containing the central processor and main memory unit. ... After the Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z11, the Z22 was the seventh computer model Konrad Zuse developed. ...


By 1967, the Zuse KG had built a total of 251 computers. Due to financial problems, it was then sold to Siemens. Siemens AG (ISIN: DE0007236101, FWB: SIE, NYSE: SI) is one of the worlds largest companies and Europes largest engineering firm. ...


Calculating Space

In 1967 Zuse also suggested that the universe itself is running on a grid of computers (digital physics); in 1969 he published the book Rechnender Raum (translated into English as Calculating Space). This idea has attracted a lot of attention, since there is no physical evidence against Zuse's thesis. Edward Fredkin (1980s), Juergen Schmidhuber (1990s), Stephen Wolfram (A New Kind of Science) and others have expanded on it. The Universe is defined as the summation of all particles and energy that exist and the space-time in which all events occur. ... Digital physics holds the basic premise that the entire history of our universe is computable, that is, the output of a (presumably short) computer program. ... Calculating Space is the title of MIT´s English Translation of Konrad Zuse´s book Rechnender Raum (published in Germany in 1969), the first book on digital physics. ... Edward Fredkin was an early pioneer of digital physics (in recent work he uses the term digital philosophy (DP)). His main contributions include his work on reversible computing and cellular automata. ... Jürgen Schmidhuber (born 1963 in Munich) is a computer scientist and artist known for his work on machine learning, universal Artificial Intelligence (AI), artificial neural networks, digital physics, and low-complexity art. ... Stephen Wolfram (born August 29, 1959 in London) is a scientist known for his work in theoretical particle physics, cellular automata, complexity theory, and computer algebra, and is the creator of the computer program Mathematica. ... A New Kind of Science is a controversial book by Stephen Wolfram, published in 2002. ...


Zuse received several awards for his work. After he retired, he focused on his hobby, painting. Zuse died on December 18, 1995 in Hünfeld, Germany, near Fulda. is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Hünfeld is a town in the district of Fulda, in Hesse, Germany. ... Fulda is a city in Hesse, Germany; it is located on the Fulda River and is the administrative seat of the Fulda district (Kreis). ...


Awards

The Werner-von-Siemens-Ring is considered to be among the highest ranking awards for technical sciences in Germany. ... Fritz Leonhardt (1909 - 1999) was a German engineer best known for his pioneering role in the development of cable-stayed bridges, and for his book Bridges: Aesthetics and Design. Born in Stuttgart in 1909, Leonhardt studied at Stuttgart University and Purdue University. ... Walter H. Schottky (July 23, 1886, Zürich, Switzerland - March 4, 1976, Pretzfeld, West Germany) was a German physicist who invented the screen-grid vacuum tube in 1915 and the tetrode in 1919 while working at Siemens. ... George Stibitz George Robert Stibitz (April 20, 1904 – January 31, 1995) is internationally recognized as a father of the modern digital computer. ...

Quotations

  • "The belief in a certain idea gives to the researcher the support for his work. Without this belief he would be lost in a sea of doubts and insufficiently verified proofs."
  • "The rattling of the Z4 is the only interesting thing about the Zürich nightlife."

References

  • Zuse, Konrad (1993). The Computer – My Life. Berlin/Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag. ISBN 0-387-56453-5. (translated from the original German edition (1984): Der Computer – Mein Lebenswerk. Springer. ISBN 3-540-56292-3.)
  • Zuse, Konrad (1969). Rechnender Raum Braunschweig: Vieweg & Sohn. ISBN 3-528-09609-8
  • Rechnender Raum (PDF document), Elektronische Datenverarbeitung, 8: 336–344, 1967.
  • Calculating Space English translation as PDF document

See also

reproduction of the Z1 The Z1 was a mechanical computer created by Konrad Zuse in 1937. ... The Z2 was a mechanical and relay computer created by Konrad Zuse in 1939. ... Konrad Zuses Z3 was the first working programmable, fully automatic machine, whose attributes, with the addition of conditional branching, have often been the ones used as criteria in defining a computer. ... The Z4 computer was the worlds first commercial digital computer, designed by German engineer Konrad Zuse and built by his company Zuse KG. It was delivered to ETH Zürich, Switzerland, in September 1950. ... After the Z1, Z2, Z3, Z4, Z5 and Z11, the Z22 was the seventh computer model Konrad Zuse developed. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

External links

  • The Life and Work of Konrad Zuse – By Prof. Horst Zuse (K. Zuse's son); an extensive and well-written historical account
  • MacTutor biography
  • Konrad Zuse Internet Archive
  • Technical University of Berlin
  • Free University of Berlin
  • Konrad Zuse and his computers, from Technische Universität Berlin
  • Konrad Zuse
  • Konrad Zuse, inventor of first working programmable computer
  • Zuse's thesis of digital physics and the computable universe
  • Deutsches Technikmuseum Berlin
  • Konrad Zuse Museum Hoyerswerda
  • Computermuseum Kiel Z11
  • Computermuseum Kiel Z22
  • Computermuseum Kiel Z25

  Results from FactBites:
 
Konrad Zuse - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1134 words)
Zuse also designed a high-level programming language, the Plankalkül, allegedly in 1945, although this was a theoretical contribution, since the language was never actually implemented within his lifetime and did not directly influence early implemented languages.
Zuse designed the first high-level programming language, Plankalkül, from 1941 to 1945, although he did not publish it in its entirety until 1972.
Zuse died on December 18, 1995 in Hünfeld, Germany, near Fulda.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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