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Encyclopedia > Konbaung Dynasty
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This article is part of
the History of Myanmar series

Early history of Burma
Pyu City-states (100 BC-840 AD)
Mon Kingdoms (9th-11th, 13th-16th, 18th c.)
Pagan Kingdom (849-1287) first Burmese empire
Ava (c. 1364-1555)
Pegu (to 1752)
Toungoo Dynasty (1486-1752) second Burmese empire
Konbaung Dynasty (1753-1885) third Burmese empire
War with Britain (1824-1852)
British Arakan (after 1824)
British Tenasserim (1824-1852)
British Lower Burma (1852-1886)
British Upper Burma (1885-1886)
British rule in Burma (1886-1948)
Nationalist Movement in Burma (after 1886)
Aung San
Japanese occupation of Burma (1942-1945)
Post-Independence Burma, 1947-1962 (1947-1962)
Military era (1962-1989)
8888 Uprising (1988)
Military era II (1989-present)
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The Konbaung Dynasty (Burmese: ကုန္းဘောင္‌မင္‌းဆက္‌; 1752-1885, sometimes called the Alaungpaya Dynasty) was the last in the history of the Burmese monarchy. Alaungpaya, a village chief who led a successful rebellion against the Mon overlords, founded the dynasty that followed immediately after the demise of the Nyaungyan or restored Toungoo Dynasty, and Myanmar owes its existence as a nation state to this remarkable monarch. Image File history File links Circle-question. ... The History of Burma (Myanmar) is long and complex. ... Image File history File links Burmapeacockforhistory. ... Humans lived in the region that is now Myanmar as early as 11,000 years ago, but the first identifiable civilisation is that of the Mon. ... Pyu (also written Pyuu, or Pyus) refers to an ancient kingdom (and its language) found in the central and northern regions of what is now Burma. ... Mon kingdoms ruled large sections of Burma from the 9th to the 11th, the 13th to the 16th, and again in the 18th centuries. ... To the north another group of people, the Burmese began infiltrating the area as well. ... Innwa (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; formerly Ava) is a city in the Mandalay Division of Myanmar, situated just to the south of Amarapura on the Ayeyarwady River. ... The 54-m Shwethalyaung Buddha, constructed in 994 A.D. by King Migadepa Bago, formerly Pegu, is a city and the capital of Bago Division in Myanmar. ... The Toungoo dynasty (1486-1752) was one of the most powerful post-Bagan Burmese kingdoms, over which seven kings reigned for a period of 155 years. ... The Konbaung Dynasty (Burmese: ; 1752-1885, sometimes called the Alaungpaya Dynasty) was the last in the history of the Burmese monarchy. ... There have been three Burmese Wars or Anglo-Burmese Wars: First Anglo-Burmese War (1823 to 1826) Second Anglo-Burmese War (1852 to 1853) Third Anglo-Burmese War (1885 to 1887) The expansion of Myanmar had consequences along its frontiers. ... Rakhine State (formerly Arakan) is a state of Myanmar. ... Tanintharyi Division, better known by the old name Tenasserim, is a division of Myanmar, covering the long narrow southern part of the country on the Kra Isthmus. ... Burma is divided into 7 states and 7 divisions: Categories: Myanmar | Subdivisions of Myanmar | States of Myanmar | Divisions of Myanmar ... Upper Burma was a term used by the British to refer to the central and northern area of what is now the country of Myanmar. ... British rule in Burma lasted from 1824 to 1948, from the Anglo-Burmese Wars through the creation of Burma Province as a colony of British India to the establisment of the Crown Colony of Burma and finally independence. ... Dobama Asiayone (We Burmans Association), led by Ba Sein, was an pro-independence and pro-Japanese Burmese organisation established in 1930 in Rangoon, after Indian dock workers and their families were murdered by Burman dock workers who believed that the Indians had taken jobs that rightfully belonged to them. ... Aung San General Aung San (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ); February 13, 1915 – July 19, 1947) was a Burmese revolutionary, nationalist, general, and politician. ... The Japanese occupation of Burma refers to the period between 1943 and 1945 during World War II, when Burma was a part of the Empire of Japan. ... The first years of Burmese independence were marked by successive insurgencies by the Red Flag Communists led by Thakin Soe, the White Flag Communists led by Thakin Than Tun, the Yèbaw Hpyu (White-band PVO) led by Bo La Yaung, a member of the Thirty Comrades, army rebels calling... The Burmese Way to Socialism is the name of the ideology of Burmese ruler, Ne Win. ... 8888 Uprising (Shih lei long; lit. ... The State Peace and Development Council (Burmese: ; IPA: ; abbreviated SPDC) is the official name of the military regime of Myanmar (formerly known as Burma). ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Alaungpaya 1711-15 May 1760 was a Burmese king who established the Konbaung Dynasty (Heavens platform) in the early 18th century. ... The Mon are an ethnic group in Southeast Asia. ... The Toungoo dynasty (1486-1752) was one of the most powerful post-Bagan Burmese kingdoms, over which seven kings reigned for a period of 155 years. ...

Contents

Rise and fall

An expansionist dynasty, the Konbaung kings waged campaigns against Manipur, Arakan, Assam, the Mon kingdom of Pegu and the Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya, thus establishing the Third Burmese Empire. Subject to later wars and treaties with the British, the modern state of Myanmar can trace its current borders to these events. Manipur (Hindi: मणिपुर) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... Arakan is a state in the North Western part of Myanmar, formerly Burma. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... The Mon are an ethnic group in Southeast Asia. ... Categories: Stub ... Siamese could refer to: A Siamese cat Siamese twins The Thai language Someone or something from Thailand This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Ayutthaya (also spelled Ayudhya or Ayuthia) refers to The old capital of Thailand, see Ayutthaya (city) The province around the city, Ayutthaya province The ruins of the old palace, see Ayutthaya historical park Ayutthaya kingdom as the period of Thai history (1365-1768) in which Ayutthaya was capital This is...


Alaungpaya's second son, Hsinbyushin, came to the throne after a short reign by his elder brother, Naungdawgyi (1760-1763). He continued his father's expansionist policy and finally took Ayutthaya in 1767, after seven years of fighting. Meaning ruler and master of white elephants. ...


The traditional concept of kingship in southeast Asia which aspired to the Cakravartin Kings or 'Universal Monarchs' creating their own Mandala or field of power within the Jambudipa universe, along with the possession of the white elephant which allowed them to assume the title Hsinbyushin or Hsinbyumyashin (Lord of the White Elephant/s), played a significant role in their endeavours. Of more earthly import was the historical threat of periodic raids and aiding of internal rebellions as well as invasion and imposition of overlordship from the neighbouring kingdoms of the Mon, Tai Shans and Manipuris.[1]


In the defence of its realm, the dynasty fought four wars successfully against the Qing Dynasty of China which saw the threat of the expansion of Burmese power in the East. In 1769, despite scoring the victory, King Hsinbyushin concluded peace with China and signed a treaty in order to maintain bilateral trade with the Middle Kingdom which is very important for the dynasty at that time. The Qing Dynasty then open up markets and restored trading with Burma in 1788 after reconciliation. Thenceforth peaceful and friendly relations prevailed between China and Burma for a long time. The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire... The Middle Kingdom is: a old name for China a period in the History of Ancient Egypt, the Middle Kingdom of Egypt This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Qing Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: Qīng cháo; Wade-Giles: Ching chao; Manchu: daicing gurun), occasionally known as the Manchu Dynasty, was a dynasty founded by the Manchu clan Aisin Gioro, in what is today northeast China, expanded into China and the surrounding territories, establishing the Empire...


Facing a greater threat however from powerful Western nations, the Konbaung Dynasty tried to modernize the kingdom. Europeans began to set up trading posts in the Irrawaddy delta region during this period. Konbaung tried to maintain its independence by balancing between the French and the British. In the end it failed, the British severed diplomatic relations in 1811, and the dynasty fought and lost three wars against the British Empire, culminating in total annexation of Burma by the British. World map showing Europe Political map Europe is one of the seven traditional continents of Earth; the term continent here referring to a cultural and political distinction, rather than a physiographic one, thus leading to various perspectives about Europes precise borders. ... This article does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


In 1837, King Bagyidaw's brother, Tharrawaddy Min, seized the throne and had the queen, her brother, Bagyidaw's only son, his family and ministers all executed. Tharrawaddy made no attempt to improve relations with Britain. King Bagyidaw (died October 1846) was king of the Konbaung Dynasty from 1819 to 1837. ... The Maha Tissada Gandha Bell donated by Tharrawaddy Min can be seen hung in a pavilion on the northeast terrace of the Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon. ...


Pagan Min, who became king in 1846, executed thousands - some sources say as many as 6,000 - of his wealthier and more influential subjects on trumped-up charges. During his reign, relations with the British became increasingly strained. In 1852, the Second Anglo-Burmese War broke out. Pagan Min was succeeded by his younger brother, the progressive Mindon Min. King Mindon attempted to bring Burma into greater contact with the outside world, and hosted the Fifth Great Buddhist Synod in 1872 at Mandalay, gaining the respect of the British and the admiration of his own people. The Second Anglo-Burmese War took place in 1852. ... Mindon Min (1808 1878) was King of Burma from 1853 to his death. ... The Fifth Buddhist council took place in Mandalay, Burma (Myanmar) in 1871 A.D. in the reign of King Mindon. ... Year 1872 (MDCCCLXXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Mandalay (Burmese: ) is the second largest city in Myanmar (formerly Burma) with a population of 927,000 (2005 census), agglomeration 2,5 million. ...

King Mindon died before he could name a successor, and Thibaw, a lesser prince, was manoeuvred onto the throne by one of King Mindon's queens and her daughter, Supayalat. (In his poem The Road to Mandalay, Rudyard Kipling remarks that the British soldiers referred to her as 'Soup-plate'.) The new King Thibaw proceeded, under Supayalat's direction, to massacre all likely contenders to the throne. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Supayalat (13 December 1859 - 24 November 1925) was the last queen of the Konbaung dynasty of Burma, born to King Mindon Min and Queen of Alenandaw (also known as Hsinbyumashin). ... Eternity/ The Road To Mandalay is the fifth single from Robbie Williams 2000 Sing When Youre Winning album, released in July 2001. ... Joseph Rudyard Kipling (30 December 1865 – 18 January 1936) was a British author and poet, born in India, and best known today for his childrens books, including The Jungle Book (1894), The Second Jungle Book (1895), Just So Stories (1902), and Puck of Pooks Hill (1906); his novel... King Thibaw Min of Upper Burma circa 1880 Thibaw Min (Burmese: ; 1858 - December 19, 1916; or simply Thibaw, Theebaw, or Theobaw (referred to as Thibau by George Orwell in Burmese Days) was the last king of Burma (now Myanmar). ...


The dynasty came to an end in 1885 with the forced abdication and exile of the king and the royal family to India. The annexation was announced in the British parliament as a New Year gift to Queen Victoria on January 1, 1886. The New Year is an event that happens when a culture celebrates the end of one year and the beginning of the next year. ... Victoria Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, Empress of India Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria) (24 May 1819–22 January 1901) was a Queen of the United Kingdom, reigning from 20 June 1837 until her death. ... January 1 is the first day of the calendar year in both the Julian and Gregorian calendars. ... 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) is a common year starting on Friday (click on link to calendar) // Events January 18 - Modern field hockey is born with the formation of The Hockey Association in England. ...


Although the dynasty had conquered vast tracts of territory, its direct power was limited to its capital and the fertile plains of the Irrawaddy valley. The Konbaung rulers enacted harsh levies and had a difficult time fighting internal rebellions. At various times, the Shan states paid tribute to the Konbaung Dynasty, but unlike the Mon lands, were never directly controlled by the Burmese. The Ayeyarwady River or Irrawaddy River (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ) is a river that flows through Burma (Myanmar). ... The Shan (Burmese: ; IPA: ; Chinese: ; pinyin: ) are an ethnic group of Southeast Asia. ...


Society

During Konbaung rule, society was centred around the Konbaung king. The rulers of the Konbaung Dynasty took several wives and they were ranked, with half-sisters of the king holding the most powerful positions. The Konbaung kings fathered numerous children, creating a huge extended royal family which formed the power base of the dynasty and competed over influence at the royal court. It also posed problems of succession at the same time often resulting in royal massacres carried out in such a way that royal blood must not be shed.


Burmese society was highly stratified during Konbaung rule. Under the royal family, the nobility administered the government, led the armies, and governed large population centres. The Konbaung Dynasty kept a detailed lineage of Burmese nobility written on palm leaf manuscripts, peisa, that were later destroyed by British soldiers. At the local level, the myothugyi, hereditary local elites, administered the townships controlled by the kingdom. Captives from various military campaigns in their hundreds and thousands were brought back to the kingdom and resettled as hereditary servants to royalty and nobility or dedicated to pagodas and temples; these captives added new knowledge and skills to Burmese society and enriched Burmese culture. They were encouraged to marry into the host community thus enriching the gene pool as well.[2] Captives from Manipur formed the cavalry called Kathè myindat (Cassay Horse) and also Kathè a hmyauk tat (Cassay Artillery)) in the royal Burmese army. Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... Palmleaf Manuscripts - used extensively in Ancient India writes P S Iyer Palmleaf was used as paper to record and preserve thoughts, knowledge and mythical narratives. ... A pagoda at Sibu, Sarawak, Malaysia A pagoda is the general term in the English language for a tiered tower with multiple eaves common in China, Korea, and other parts of Asia. ... The gene pool of a species or a population is the complete set of unique alleles that would be found by inspecting the genetic material of every living member of that species or population. ... Manipur (Hindi: मणिपुर) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ...


Outside of hereditary positions, there were two primary paths to influence: joining the military (min hmu-daan) and joining the Buddhist Sangha in the monasteries. A small community of foreign scholars, missionaries and merchants also lived in Konbaung society. Besides mercenaries and adventurers who had offered their services since the arrival of the Portuguese in the 16th century, a few Europeans served as ladies-in-waiting to the last queen Supayalat in Mandalay, a missionary established a school attended by Mindon's several sons including the last king Thibaw, and an Armenian had served as a king's minister at Amarapura. A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Sangha is a word in Pali or Sanskrit that can be translated roughly as association or assembly. It is commonly used in several senses to refer to Buddhist or Jain groups. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... Supayalat (13 December 1859 - 24 November 1925) was the last queen of the Konbaung dynasty of Burma, born to King Mindon Min and Queen of Alenandaw (also known as Hsinbyumashin). ... Mandalay (Burmese: ) is the second largest city in Myanmar (formerly Burma) with a population of 927,000 (2005 census), agglomeration 2,5 million. ... Mindon Min (Burmese: ; 1808–1878) was King of Burma from 1853 to his death and is one of the most popular and revered Kings of Burma. ... Thibaw is either: Thibaw Min, the last king of Burma Another name for the Burmese State of Hsipaw This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Amarapura (City of Immortality) is a city in the Mandalay division of Myanmar, situated 11 km to the south of Mandalay. ...


Reforms

Realizing the need to modernize, the Konbaung rulers tried to enact various reforms with limited success. King Mindon with his able brother Crown Prince Ka Naung established state-owned factories to produce modern weaponry and goods; in the end, these factories proved more costly than effective in staving off foreign invasion and conquest. Mindon Min (1808 1878) was King of Burma from 1853 to his death. ... Crown Prince Ka Naung Crown Prince Ka Naung (1829 - 1866) was a younger brother of Burmese King Mindon. ... A factory (previously manufactory) is a large industrial building where goods or products are manufactured. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Good (accounting) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


Mindon also tried to reduce the tax burden by lowering the heavy income tax and created a property tax, as well as duties on foreign exports. Ironically, these policies had the reverse effect of increasing the tax burden, as the local elites used the opportunity to enact new taxes without lowering the old ones; they were able to do so as control from the centre was weak. In addition, the duties on foreign exports stifled the burgeoning trade and commerce. A tax is a financial charge or other levy imposed on an individual or a legal entity by a state or a functional equivalent of a state (for example, tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements). ... An income tax is a tax levied on the financial income of persons, corporations, or other legal entities. ... Property tax, millage tax is an ad valorem tax that an owner of real estate or other property pays on the value of the property being taxed. ... This article is in need of attention. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Commerce is the trading of something of economic value such as goods, services, information or money between two or more entities. ...


Capitals

Under the Konbaung Dynasty, the capital shifted several times for religious, political, and strategic reasons. During such a move, the entire palace complex was taken down and transported on elephants to the chosen site. These capitals,Naypyidaws, were: In politics, a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has a second meaning based on an alternative sense of capital) is the principal city or town associated with a countrys government. ... Genera and Species Loxodonta Loxodonta cyclotis Loxodonta africana Elephas Elephas maximus Proboscidea is an order including only one extant family, Elephantidae or the elephants, with three species: the Savannah Elephant and Forest Elephant (which were collectively known as the African Elephant), and the Asian Elephant (formerly known as the Indian... Naypyidaw (also spelt Nay Pyi Taw, literally Royal City) is currently the national capital of Myanmar, located in Kyatpyae Village, Pyinmana Township of Mandalay Division. ...

Innwa (Burmese: ; MLCTS: ; formerly Ava) is a city in the Mandalay Division of Myanmar, situated just to the south of Amarapura on the Ayeyarwady River. ... Amarapura (City of Immortality) is a city in the Mandalay division of Myanmar, situated 11 km to the south of Mandalay. ... Mandalay (Burmese: ) is the second largest city in Myanmar (formerly Burma) with a population of 927,000 (2005 census), agglomeration 2,5 million. ...

Rulers

The rulers of the Konbaung Dynasty styled themselves as Min, or King.

No Title Literal meaning Lineage Reign Notes
1 Alaungpaya Future Buddha-King village chief 1752-1760 founder of the dynasty and the Third Burmese Empire, invaded Ayutthaya
2 Naungdawgyi Royal Elder Brother son 1760-1763 invaded Ayuthhaya with his father
3 Hsinbyushin Lord of the White Elephant brother 1763-1776 invaded and sacked Ayutthaya, invaded Chiang Mai and Laos, invaded Manipur, successfully repulsed 4 Chinese invasions
4 Singu Min* King Singu son 1776-1781
5 Phaungkaza Maung Maung Younger Brother (Lord of Phaungka) cousin (son of Naungdawgyi) 1781 the shortest reign in history of just over one week
6 Bodawpaya Royal Lord Grandfather uncle (son of Alaungpaya) 1781-1819 invaded and annexed Arakan, invaded Ayutthaya
7 Bagyidaw Royal Elder Uncle grandson 1819-1837 invaded Ayutthaya with his grandfather, invaded Assam and Manipur, defeated in the First Anglo-Burmese War
8 Tharrawaddy Min* King Tharrawaddy brother 1837-1846 fought in the First Anglo-Burmese War as Prince of Tharrawaddy
9 Pagan Min* King Pagan son 1846-1852 overthrown by Mindon after his defeat in the Second Anglo-Burmese War
10 Mindon Min* King Mindon brother 1853-1878 sued for peace with the British; had a very narrow escape in a palace rebellion by two of his sons but his brother Crown Prince Ka Naung was killed
11 Thibaw Min* King Thibaw son 1878-1885 the last king of Burma, forced to abdicate and exiled to India after his defeat in the Third Anglo-Burmese War

*These kings retained as their titles the names of the towns they were given to "eat" or become the lord of as royal princes. Also note that Naungdawgyi was the eldest brother of Hsinbyushin and Bodawpaya who was the grandfather of Bagyidaw who was Mindon's elder uncle. They were known by these names to posterity, although the formal titles at their coronation by custom ran to some length in Pali; Mintayagyi paya (Lord Great King) was the equivalent of Your/His Majesty whereas Hpondawgyi paya (Lord Great Glory) would be used by the royal family. Alaungpaya 1711-15 May 1760 was a Burmese king who established the Konbaung Dynasty (Heavens platform) in the early 18th century. ... 1752 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Ayutthaya (also spelled Ayudhya or Ayuthia) refers to The old capital of Thailand, see Ayutthaya (city) The province around the city, Ayutthaya province The ruins of the old palace, see Ayutthaya historical park Ayutthaya kingdom as the period of Thai history (1365-1768) in which Ayutthaya was capital This is... 1760 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Meaning ruler and master of white elephants. ... 1763 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Ayutthaya (also spelled Ayudhya or Ayuthia) refers to The old capital of Thailand, see Ayutthaya (city) The province around the city, Ayutthaya province The ruins of the old palace, see Ayutthaya historical park Ayutthaya kingdom as the period of Thai history (1365-1768) in which Ayutthaya was capital This is... A street scene in Chiang Mai, showing (centre right), a gate of the old city wall. ... Manipur (Hindi: मणिपुर) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... Year 1776 (MDCCLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... This article or section needs to be wikified. ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Bodawpaya (literally Royal Grandfather, 11 March 1745 - 5 June 1819) was the sixth king of the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma (1782-1819). ... 1781 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Rakhine State (formerly Arakan) is a state of Myanmar. ... Ayutthaya (also spelled Ayudhya or Ayuthia) refers to The old capital of Thailand, see Ayutthaya (city) The province around the city, Ayutthaya province The ruins of the old palace, see Ayutthaya historical park Ayutthaya kingdom as the period of Thai history (1365-1768) in which Ayutthaya was capital This is... King Bagyidaw (died October 1846) was king of the Konbaung Dynasty from 1819 to 1837. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... Manipur (Hindi: मणिपुर) is a state in northeastern India making its capital in the city of Imphal. ... The First Anglo-Burmese War lasted from 1823 to 1826. ... The Maha Tissada Gandha Bell donated by Tharrawaddy Min can be seen hung in a pavilion on the northeast terrace of the Shwedagon Pagoda in Yangon. ... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... The Second Anglo-Burmese War took place in 1852. ... Mindon Min (Burmese: ; 1808–1878) was King of Burma from 1853 to his death and is one of the most popular and revered Kings of Burma. ... 1853 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Crown Prince Ka Naung Crown Prince Ka Naung (1829 - 1866) was a younger brother of Burmese King Mindon. ... King Thibaw Min of Upper Burma circa 1880 Thibaw Min (Burmese: ; 1858 - December 19, 1916; or simply Thibaw, Theebaw, or Theobaw (referred to as Thibau by George Orwell in Burmese Days) was the last king of Burma (now Myanmar). ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Third Anglo-Burmese War or just The Third Burmese war lasted from 1885 to 1887. ... Pali may refer to: Pāli, a Middle Indo-Aryan language Pali, Rajasthan, a town and district in Rajasthan, western India Pali, a Hawaiian word, meaning cliffs Nuuanu Pali, a region on the Hawaiian island of Oahu Ballaleshwar Pali, the Ganapati temple of pali and place in Maharastra This is...


Early impressions

Michael Symes appeared to display an uncanny prescience when he offered his opinion thus in the preface to his " An Account of an Embassy to the Kingdom of Ava, sent by the Governor-General of India, in the year 1795":

The Birmans, under their present monarch (Bodawpaya), are certainly rising fast in the scale of Oriental nations; and, it is hoped, that a long respite from foreign wars, will give them leisure to improve their natural advantages. Knowledge increases by commerce; and as they are not shackled by any prejudices of casts, restricted to hereditary occupations, or forbidden from participating with strangers in every social bond, their advancement will, in all probability be rapid. At present so far from being in a state of intellectual darkness, although they have not explored the depths of science, or reached to excellence in the finer arts, they yet have an undeniable claim to the character of a civilised, and well instructed, people. Their laws are wise and pregnant with sound morality; their police is better regulated than in most European countries; their natural disposition is friendly, and hospitable to strangers; and their manners rather expressive of manly candour, than courteous dissimulation: the gradations of rank, and the respect due to station, are maintained with a scrupulosity which never relaxes.

A knowledge of letters is so widely diffused, that there are no mechanics, few of the peasantry, or even the common watermen (usually the most illiterate class) who cannot read and write in the vulgar tongue. Few, however are versed in more erudite volumes of science, which, containing many Shanscrit terms, and often written in Pali text, are (like the Hindoo Shasters) above the comprehension of the multitude; but the feudal system, which cherishes ignorance, and renders man the property of man, still operates as a check to civilisation and improvement. This is a bar which gradually weakens, as their acquaintance with the customs and manners of other nations extends; and unless the rage of civil discord be again excited, or some foreign power impose an alien yoke, the Birmans bid fair to be a prosperous, wealthy, and enlightened people.[2]

References

  1. ^ Pamaree Surakiat (March 2006). The Changing Nature of Conflict between Burma and Siam as seen from the Growth and Development of Burmese States from the 16th to the 19th Centuries 8,11,25. Asia Research Institute.
  2. ^ a b Michael Symes (1800). An Account of an Embassy to the Kingdom of Ava, sent by the Governor-General of India, in the year 1795. London: W. Bulmer & Co.. 
  • Thant Myint-U, The Making of Modern Burma, ISBN 0-521-79914-7

Thant Myint-U is an historian and a former United Nations official. ...

See also

  • History of Myanmar

The History of Burma (Myanmar) is long and complex. ...

External links

  • Life at the Burmese Court under the Konbaung Kings Dr Yi Yi, Historical Research Department, Rangoon, 1982
  • Forty Years in Burma John Ebenezer Marks, London: Hutchinson & Co., 1917
  • The Konbaung Dynasty Christopher Buyers
  • The Last Queen of Burma Kenneth Champeon, The Irrawaddy, July 2003
  • Ayutthaya and the End of History:Thai Views of Burma Revisted Min Zin, The Irrawaddy, August 2000

  Results from FactBites:
 
Konbaung Dynasty at AllExperts (621 words)
An expansionist dynasty, the Konbaung kings waged campaigns against Manipur, Arakan, Assam, the Mon and the Ayutthaya kingdom.
Although the dynasty conquered vast tracts of territory, its direct power was limited to its capital and the surrounding Irrawaddy valley.
The Konbaung Dynasty kept a detailed lineage of Burmese nobility written on palm-leaf manuscripts that were later destroyed by British soldiers.
Konbaung dynasty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1711 words)
An expansionist dynasty, the Konbaung kings waged campaigns against Manipur, Arakan, Assam, the Mon kingdom of Pegu and the Siamese kingdom of Ayutthaya, thus establishing the Third Burmese Empire.
The dynasty came to an end in 1885 with the forced abdication and exile of the king and the royal family to India.
Although the dynasty had conquered vast tracts of territory, its direct power was limited to its capital and the fertile plains of the Irrawaddy valley.
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