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Encyclopedia > Komodo Dragon
Komodo dragon[1]

Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Order: Squamata
Suborder: Autarchoglossa
Family: Varanidae
Genus: Varanus
Species: V. komodoensis
Binomial name
Varanus komodoensis
Ouwens, 1912

Komodo dragon distribution

The Komodo Dragon (Varanus komodoensis), also known as the Komodo Monitor[1], Komodo Island Monitor[1], Ora (to the natives of Komodo[2]), or simply Komodo, is the largest living species of lizard, growing to an average length of 2-3 metres (approximately 6.5-10 feet). This great length is attributed to island gigantism, as there are no carnivorous mammals to fill the niche in the islands that they live on, and the Komodo dragon's low metabolic rate.[3][4] As a result of its great size, these lizards are apex predators, dominating the ecosystems in which they live.[5] Komodo dragons are a member of the monitor lizard family Varanidae, and the clade Toxicofera. They only inhabit the islands of Komodo, Rinca (or Rintja), Padar, Flores, Gili Motang, Owadi, and Samiin in central Indonesia.[6] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2016x1512, 1091 KB) Pictures from Disneys Animal Kingdom. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn3. ... This list is incomplete; you can help by expanding it. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Reptilia redirects here. ... Suborders Lacertilia- Lizards Serpentes - Snakes Amphisbaenia - Worm lizards This article is about the Squamata order of reptiles. ... Families Many, see text. ... Species Many, see text. ... Species Many, see text. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Image File history File links Komodo_dragon_distribution. ... Komodo is an island of Indonesia, one of the places where the Komodo dragon can be found in the wild. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Lizard (disambiguation). ... This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ... Island gigantism is a biological phenomenon by which the size of animals isolated on an island increases dramatically over generations. ... Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of... Apex predators (also alpha predators, superpredators, or top-level predators) are predators that, as adults, are not normally preyed upon in the wild in significant parts of their ranges. ... A coral reef near the Hawaiian islands is an example of a complex marine ecosystem. ... Species Many, see text. ... Species Many, see text. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Snake Iguana Monitor Lizard Toxicofera (Latin for those who bear toxins), is a clade which represents about 4600 species (nearly 60%) of Squamates; it encompasses all venomous reptile species, as well as numerous related non-venomous species. ... (indonesian spelling - Rinca is also used. ... Map of Flores Island Flores (Portuguese for flowers) is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an island arc with an estimated area of 14,300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia. ... This article needs to be wikified. ...


Parental care in Komodo dragons is restricted to the females, who guard clutches of around 20 eggs for seven months. After hatching, young Komodo dragons often move into trees in order to avoid predation by adults. Young dragons take five years to reach maturity, after which they can live for fifty years. In captivity Komodo dragons have reproduced by parthenogenesis. In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ...


In spite of their large size, Komodo dragons were only discovered by Western scientists in 1910. Their large size and fearsome reputation makes them popular zoo exhibits. In the wild their range has contracted due to human activities and they are listed as vulnerable by the IUCN. They are protected under Indonesian law and a national park, Komodo National Park, was founded in order to protect them. Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... Banff National Park, Alberta, Canada A national park is a reserve of land, usually, but not always (see National Parks of England and Wales), declared and owned by a national government, protected from most human development and pollution. ... The Komodo National Park is located in Indonesia, in the area of the Lesser Sunda Islands, in the border region between the provinces of Nusa Tenggara Timur and Nusa Tenggara Barat. ...

Contents

Anatomy and morphology

Closeup of a Komodo dragon's skin.
Closeup of a Komodo dragon's skin.

In the wild, large adults usually weigh around 70 kilograms (154 pounds).[7] Captive specimens often weigh more. The largest verified wild specimen was 3.13 metres (10 feet 3 inches) long and weighed 166 kilograms (365 pounds), including undigested food.[8] Komodo dragons have a tail that is as long as the body, as well as about 60 frequently-replaced serrated teeth that may be 2.5 centimetres (1 inch) in length.[9] Their saliva will frequently be blood-tinged, because their teeth are almost completely covered by gingival tissue and this tissue is naturally lacerated during feeding.[10] This creates an ideal culture for the virulent bacteria that live in their mouths.[11] It also has a long, yellow, deeply-forked tongue.[8] Males are larger than females, with skin color from dark grey to brick red, while females are more olive green, and have patches of yellow at the throat.[citation needed] The young are much more colorful by comparison, with yellow, green and white banding on a dark background.[citation needed] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 377 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Closeup of the skin of a Varanus komodoensis (Komodo dragon) at the National Zoo in Washington, DC. Description Photographic closeup of the skin... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2048 × 1536 pixel, file size: 377 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Closeup of the skin of a Varanus komodoensis (Komodo dragon) at the National Zoo in Washington, DC. Description Photographic closeup of the skin... The gingiva (sing. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... This article is about the Male sex. ... For other uses, see Female (disambiguation). ...


Physiology

A basking Komodo dragon photographed at Disney's Animal Kingdom.
A basking Komodo dragon photographed at Disney's Animal Kingdom.

Komodo dragons' sense of hearing is not particularly acute, despite their visible earholes, and their visual discrimination (especially of stationary objects) is poor, although they can see in color. They use their tongue to detect taste and smell stimuli, as with many other reptiles, with the vomeronasal sense using a Jacobson's organ, a sense that aids navigation in the dark.[12] With the help of a favorable wind, they may be able to detect carrion up to 9.5 kilometres (6 miles) away.[10] Komodo dragons' nostrils are not of great use for smelling, as they do not have a diaphragm.[13] They have no taste buds on their tongues, only a few in the back of the throat.[12] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2016x1512, 1049 KB) Pictures from Disneys Animal Kingdom. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2016x1512, 1049 KB) Pictures from Disneys Animal Kingdom. ... See Animal. ... A stimulus is the following: In physiology, a stimulus (physiology) is something external that elicits or influences a physiological or psychological activity or response. ... The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobsons organ is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some tetrapods. ... The vomeronasal organ (VNO) or Jacobsons organ (sometimes misspelled Jacobsens) is an auxiliary olfactory sense organ in some vertebrates, all of which are tetrapods. ... For other types of diaphragm, see Diaphragm. ...


Their scales, some reinforced with bone, have sensory plaques connected to nerves that facilitate their sense of touch. The scales around the ears, lips, chin, and soles of the feet may have three or more sensory plaques.[10]


Formerly, Komodo dragons were thought to be deaf when a study reported no agitation in wild Komodo dragons during whispers, raised voices, and shouts. This was disputed when London Zoological Garden employee Joan Proctor trained a captive monitor to come out to feed at the sound of her voice, even when she could not be seen.[14] The giant ZSL London Zoo aviary ZSL London Zoo, or more correctly London Zoological Gardens, is the worlds oldest scientific zoo. ...


Ecology, behavior and life history

Close-up of a Komodo's foot and tail.

Komodo dragons are found exclusively in Indonesia, on the islands of Komodo, Flores and Rinca and on several islands of the Lesser Sunda archipelago.[6] They prefer hot and dry places, and typically live in dry open grassland, savanna and tropical forest at low elevations. As poikilotherms, they are most active in the day, although they do exhibit some nocturnal activity. Komodo dragons are largely solitary, coming together only to breed and eat. They are capable of running rapidly in brief sprints (up to 20 kilometres per hour [12.4 miles per hour]), are excellent swimmers (may dive up to 4.5 metres [15 feet]),[15] and climb trees proficiently through use of their strong claws.[7] To catch prey that is out of reach, they may stand on their hind legs and use their tail as a support.[14] As Komodo dragons mature, their claws are used primarily as weapons, as their great mass makes climbing impractical. Image File history File links KDragon1mj. ... Image File history File links KDragon1mj. ... Map of Lesser Sunda Islands Satellite picture of the Lesser Sunda Islands The Nusa Tenggara (lit. ... The Mergui Archipelago The Archipelago Sea, situated between the Gulf of Bothnia and the Gulf of Finland, the largest archipelago in the world by the number of islands. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... “Savannah” redirects here. ... Tropical and subtropical moist broadleaf forests, also known as tropical rain forests, are a tropical and subtropical biome. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... Cold-blooded is an archaic term used to define organisms that maintaining their body temperatures in ways different from mammals and birds. ... Look up day in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ...


For shelter, dragons dig holes that can measure from 1-3 metres (3-10 feet) wide with their powerful forelimbs and claws[16]. Because of their large size and habit of sleeping in these holes, Komodo dragons are able to conserve body heat throughout the night and minimize their basking period the morning after.[17]


Feeding ecology

Komodo Dragons on Rinca

Komodo dragons are carnivorous. Although they eat mostly carrion,[3] studies show that they also hunt live prey with a stealthy approach followed by a sudden short charge. When suitable prey arrives near its ambush site, it will suddenly charge at the animal and go for the underside or the throat.[10] The lizard is able to locate its prey using its keen sense of smell, which can locate a dead or dying animal from a range of up to 9.5 kilometers (6 miles).[10] Image File history File links KomodoDragonRinca1. ... Image File history File links KomodoDragonRinca1. ... This article deals with meat-eating animals. ... An American Black Vulture feeding on squirrel carrion For other uses, see Carrion (disambiguation). ... Predator and Prey redirect here. ... Young boy smelling a flower Olfaction, which is also known as Olfactics is the sense of smell, and the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ... “Miles” redirects here. ...


Komodo dragons have not traditionally been considered venomous, but it has recently been suggested that they may produce a weak venom.[18] In addition to the possible venom, dragons also possess virulent bacteria in their saliva, of which more than 28 Gram-negative and 29 Gram-positive strains have been isolated.[19] These bacteria cause septicemia in their victim; if an initial bite does not kill the prey animal and it escapes, it will commonly succumb within a week to the resulting infection. The deadliest bacteria in Komodo dragon saliva appears to be a very deadly strain of Pasteurella multocida, from studies performed with lab mice.[20] It has been suggested that Snake poison be merged into this article or section. ... Virulence is a term used to refer to either the relative pathogenicity or the relative ability to do damage to the host of an infectious agent. ... Phyla Actinobacteria Aquificae Chlamydiae Bacteroidetes/Chlorobi Chloroflexi Chrysiogenetes Cyanobacteria Deferribacteres Deinococcus-Thermus Dictyoglomi Fibrobacteres/Acidobacteria Firmicutes Fusobacteria Gemmatimonadetes Lentisphaerae Nitrospirae Planctomycetes Proteobacteria Spirochaetes Thermodesulfobacteria Thermomicrobia Thermotogae Verrucomicrobia Bacteria (singular: bacterium) are unicellular microorganisms. ... Saliva is the watery and usually frothy substance produced in the mouths of humans and some animals. ... Bacteria that are Gram-negative are not stained dark blue or violet by Gram staining, in contrast to Gram-positive bacteria. ... Gram-positive bacteria are those that are stained dark blue or violet by gram staining, in contrast to gram-negative bacteria, which are not affected by the stain. ... Sepsis (in Greek Σήψις, putrefaction) is a serious medical condition, resulting from the immune response to a severe infection. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Pasteurella multocida is a small, Gram-negative, non-motile coccobacillus that is penicillin-sensitive. ...

Young Komodo dragon photographed on Rinca feeding on a water buffalo carcass
Young Komodo dragon photographed on Rinca feeding on a water buffalo carcass

Komodo dragons eat by tearing large chunks of flesh and swallowing them whole while holding the carcass down with their forelegs. The copious amounts of red saliva that the Komodo dragons produce helps to lubricate the food, but swallowing is still a long process (15-20 minutes to swallow a goat). To prevent itself from suffocating while swallowing, it breathes using a small tube under the tongue that connects to the lungs.[10] The Komodo dragon's loosely articulated jaws, flexible skull, and expandable stomach allows it to eat up to 80 percent of its body weight in one meal.[21][5] After eating, it drags itself to a sunny spot to speed digestion, as the food could rot and poison the dragon if left undigested for too long. Because of their slow metabolism, large dragons can survive on as little as 12 meals a year. After digestion, the Komodo Dragon regurgitates a mass of horns, hair, and teeth known as the gastric pellet, which is covered in malodorous mucus. After regurgitating the gastric pellet, it rubs its face in the dirt or on bushes to get rid of the mucus, suggesting that it, like humans, does not relish the scent of its own mucus.[10] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixel Image in higher resolution (2492 × 1670 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 536 pixel Image in higher resolution (2492 × 1670 pixel, file size: 1. ... In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. ... A percentage is a way of expressing a proportion, a ratio or a fraction as a whole number, by using 100 as the denominator. ...


The largest animals generally eat first, while the smaller ones follow a hierarchy. The largest male asserts his dominance and the smaller males show their submission by use of body language and rumbling hisses. Dragons of equal size may resort to "wrestling." Losers usually retreat, though have been known to have been killed and eaten by victors.[10]


The dragon's diet is wide-ranging. It is thought that the Komodo Dragon evolved to feed on the extinct dwarf elephant Stegodon that once lived on Flores. [22] Dwarf elephants are prehistoric members of the order Proboscidea, that, through the process of allopatric speciation, evolved to a fraction of the size of their modern relatives. ... Stegodon is a genus of the extinct subfamily Stegodontinae of the order Proboscidea. ...


The Komodo dragon has been observed intentionally startling a pregnant deer in the hopes of a miscarriage whose remains they can eat, a technique that has also been observed in large African predators.[22]


Because the Komodo dragon does not have a diaphragm, it cannot suck water when drinking, nor can it lap water with its tongue. Instead, it drinks by taking a mouthful of water, lifting its head, and letting the water run down its throat.[10] For other types of diaphragm, see Diaphragm. ...


Life history

Sleeping Komodo Dragon. Notice the large, curved claws used in fighting and eating.
Sleeping Komodo Dragon. Notice the large, curved claws used in fighting and eating.

Mating occurs between May and August, with the eggs laid in September.[15] During this period, males fight over females and territory by grappling with one another upon their hind legs with the loser eventually being pinned to the ground. These males may vomit or defecate when preparing for the fight.[14] The winner of the fight will then flick his long tongue at the female to gain information about her receptivity.[5] Females are antagonistic and resist with their claws and teeth during the early phases of courtship. Therefore, the male must fully restrain the female during coitus to avoid being hurt. Other courtship displays include males rubbing their chins on the female, hard scratches to the back, and licking.[23] Komodo Dragons may be monogamous and form "pair bonds," a rare behavior for lizards.[14][21] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... IT FEELS REALLY GOOD IF YOU IMATATE THE ANIMALS. LOL! “Mounting” redirects here. ... For other uses, see May (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Antagonistic Bending and straightening of the arm requires antagonistic muscle movement. ...


The female will lay her eggs in the burrows in the ground, cut into the side of a hill or in the abandoned nesting mounds of the Orange-footed Scrubfowl ( a moundbuilder or megapode), with a preference for the abandoned mounds.[24] Clutches contain an average of 20 eggs which have an incubation period of 7-8 months.[14] The female lies on the eggs to incubate and protect them until they hatch around April, at the end of the rainy season when insects are plentiful.[15] Binomial name Megapodius reinwardt Dumont, 1823 The Orange-footed Scrubfowl, Megapodius reinwardt is a small megapode of the family Megapodiidae. ... This article is about mound-building birds. ...


Hatching is an exhausting effort for the pups, who break out of their eggshells with an egg tooth that falls off after the job is done. After cutting out the hatchlings may lie in their eggshells for hours before starting to dig out of the nest. They are born quite defenseless, and many are eaten by predators.[10] An egg tooth is not a true tooth, but a small horny protruberance on the beak or nose of vertebrates that are hatched from eggs, ie: birds and reptiles. ...


Young Komodo dragons spend much of their first few years in trees, where they are relatively safe from predators, including cannibalistic adults, who make juvenile dragons 10 percent of their diet.[25][14] When the young must approach a kill, they roll around in fecal matter and rest in the intestines of eviscerated animals to deter these hungry adults.[14][21] Dragons take about three to five years to mature, and may live for up to 50 years.[16]


There are recorded examples of parthenogenesis (reproduction without the contribution of a male), a phenomenon also known to occur in some other reptile species, such as Whiptail Lizards.[citation needed] For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ... Cnemidophorus is a lizard genus which belongs to the family of Teiidae. ...


Parthenogenesis

Parthenogenetic baby Komodo dragon, Chester Zoo, England

Sungai, a Komodo Dragon at London Zoo, laid a clutch of eggs in early 2006 after being separated from males for more than two years. Scientists initially assumed that she had been able to store sperm from her earlier encounter with a male, an adaptation known as superfecundation.[citation needed] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 125 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Parthenogenetic baby Komodo dragon, Chester Zoo, England, 14 July 2007 (in middle of image). ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 125 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Parthenogenetic baby Komodo dragon, Chester Zoo, England, 14 July 2007 (in middle of image). ... Kaguya is one success from 460 attempts at growing embryos. ... Chester Zoo is a Zoological Garden located in the North of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The giant ZSL London Zoo aviary ZSL London Zoo is the worlds oldest scientific zoo. ... A spermatozoon or spermatozoan ( spermatozoa), from the ancient Greek σπέρμα (seed) and (living being) and more commonly known as a sperm cell, is the haploid cell that is the male gamete. ... For other uses, see Adaptation (disambiguation). ... Superfecundation is the fertilisation of two or more ova from the same cycle by sperm from separate acts of sexual intercourse. ...


On December 20, 2006, it was reported that Flora, a captive Komodo Dragon living in the Chester Zoo in England, is the second known Komodo dragon to have laid unfertilized eggs: she laid 11 eggs, and 7 of them hatched[26]. Scientists at Liverpool University in northern England performed genetic tests on three eggs that collapsed after being moved to an incubator, and verified that Flora had had no physical contact with a male dragon. is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chester Zoo is a Zoological Garden located in the North of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... The University of Liverpool is a university in the city of Liverpool in the United Kingdom. ...


After being told of the condition of Flora's eggs, testing showed that Sungai's eggs were also produced without outside fertilization.[27] On 24, January 2007, zoo officials announced that 7 of Flora's eggs had hatched, and that the hatchlings, all male, were doing well in a new enclosure prepared for them.[27]However, unless there is proof that any of Sungai's eggs developed, this is no proof of parthenogenesis in Sungai, as unmated oviparous female animals and birds often lay infertile eggs. For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ...


Komodo dragons have the ZW chromosomal sex-determination system, not the mammalian XY system. That her progeny were male, shows that Flora's unfertilized eggs were haploid and doubled their chromosomes later to become diploid, and that she did not lay diploid eggs as would have happened if one of the meiosis reduction-divisions in her ovaries had failed, and that the egg was not fertilized by a polar body. When a female Komodo dragon (with ZW sex chromosomes) reproduces in this manner, she provides her progeny with only one chromosome from each of her pairs of chromosomes, including only one of her two sex chromosomes. This single set of chromosomes is duplicated in the egg, which develops parthenogenetically. Eggs receiving a Z chromosome become ZZ (male); those receiving a W chromosome become WW and fail to develop.[28] The ZW sex-determination system is a system that birds, some fishes, and some insects (including butterflies and moths) use to determine the sex of their offspring. ... A sex-determination system is a biological system that determines the development of sexual characteristics in an organism. ... The XY sex-determination system is a well-known sex-determination system. ... Haploid (meaning simple in Greek) cells have only one copy of each chromosome. ... Diploid (meaning double in Greek) cells have two copies (homologs) of each chromosome (both sex- and non-sex determining chromosomes), usually one from the mother and one from the father. ... For the figure of speech, see meiosis (figure of speech). ... Human female internal reproductive anatomy Ovaries are a part of a female organism that produces eggs. ... Polar body is a cell structure found inside an ovum. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ...


It has been hypothesized that this reproductive adaptation allows a single female to enter an isolated ecological niche (such as an island) and by parthenogenesis produce male offspring, thereby establishing a sexually reproducing population (via reproduction with her offspring that can result in both male and female young).[28] Despite the advantages of such an adaptation, zoos are cautioned that parthenogenesis may be detrimental to genetic diversity.[29] Two lichens on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche; (pronounced nich, neesh or nish)[1] is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in its ecosystem[1]. The ecological niche; describes how an organism or population responds to the distribution of...


Dragons and humans

Discovery

Dragons were first documented by Europeans in 1910. Widespread notoriety came after 1912, in which Peter Ouwens, the director of the Zoological Museum at Bogor, Java, published a paper on the topic after receiving a photo and a skin.[25][14] Later, the Komodo dragon was the driving factor for an expedition to Komodo Island by W. Douglas Burden in 1926. After returning with 12 preserved specimens and 2 live dragons, this expedition provided the inspiration for the 1933 movie King Kong.[30] Three of these specimens were stuffed and are still on display in the American Museum of Natural History.[31] For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Year 1910 (MCMX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday [1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday in the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday in the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Nickname: Kota Hujan (City of Rain) Location of Bogor in Indonesia Coordinates: Government  - Mayor Diani Budiarto Time zone WIB (UTC+7) Area code(s) 0251 Website: www. ... Java (Indonesian, Javanese, and Sundanese: Jawa) is an island of Indonesia, and the site of its capital city, Jakarta. ... Komodo is an island of Indonesia, one of the places where the Komodo dragon can be found in the wild. ... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is about the original movie and novel. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Conservation

Two Komodo Dragons photographed on Komodo Island
Two Komodo Dragons photographed on Komodo Island

The Komodo dragon is a vulnerable species and is found on the IUCN Red List.[32] There are approximately 4,000-5,000 living Komodo dragons in the wild. Their populations are restricted to the islands of Rinca (1,300) and Gili Motang (100) and several of the Lesser Sunda Islands, including Komodo (1,700) and Flores (perhaps 2,000). However, there are concerns that there may presently be only 350 breeding females.[2] To address these concerns, the Komodo National Park was founded in 1980 to protect Komodo dragon populations on islands including Komodo, Rinca, and Padar.[33] However, there is evidence that Komodo dragons are becoming accustomed to human presence, as they are often fed animal carcasses at several feeding stations by tourists.[3] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 837 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Komodo dragon, Komodo island, Indonesia, by Thomas Hirsch 2002, File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 837 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Komodo dragon, Komodo island, Indonesia, by Thomas Hirsch 2002, File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The Komodo National Park is located in Indonesia, in the area of the Lesser Sunda Islands, in the border region between the provinces of Nusa Tenggara Timur and Nusa Tenggara Barat. ... Year 1980 (MCMLXXX) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link displays the 1980 Gregorian calendar). ...


Volcanic activity, earthquakes, loss of habitat, fire (the population at Padar was almost destroyed because of a wildfire),[10] loss of prey, tourism, and poaching have all contributed to the vulnerable status of the Komodo Dragon. Under CITES (the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species), commercial trade of skins or specimens is illegal.[13] The Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) is an international agreement between Governments, drafted as a result of a resolution adopted in 1963 at a meeting of members of the World Conservation Union (IUCN). ...


Although attacks are very rare, Komodo dragons have been known to kill humans. On June 4, 2007, a Komodo dragon attacked an eight year old boy on Komodo Island. He later died of massive bleeding from his wounds. It was the first recorded deadly attack in 33 years.[34] is the 155th day of the year (156th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


In captivity

Komodo dragons at Toronto Zoo

Komodo dragons have long been great zoo attractions, where their size and reputation make them popular exhibits. However, they are rare because they are susceptible to infection and parasitic disease, and do not readily reproduce.[2] Image File history File links KdragonT.zoo. ... Image File history File links KdragonT.zoo. ... The Toronto Zoo is a zoo located in the north eastern part of Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Giraffes in Sydneys Taronga Zoo A zoological garden, zoological park, or zoo is a facility in which animals are confined within enclosures and displayed to the public, and in which they may also be bred. ...


The first Komodo dragon was exhibited in 1934 at the Smithsonian National Zoological Park, but it lived for only two years. More attempts to exhibit Komodo dragons were done, but the lifespan of these creatures was very short, an average lifespan of 5 years in the National Zoological Park. However, studies done by Walter Auffenberg, who lived with his family on Komodo Island for some time, and his book The Behavioral Ecology of the Komodo Monitor, eventually allowed for more successful managing and reproducing of the dragons in captivity.[35] The Smithsonian National Zoological Park, commonly known as the National Zoo or Washington Zoo, is a zoo located in Washington, D.C. It is accredited by the Association of Zoos and Aquariums (AZA). ...


It has been observed in captive dragons that many individuals display relatively tame behavior within a short period of time in captivity. Many occurrences are reported where keepers have brought the animals out of their enclosures to interact with zoo visitors, including young children, to no harmful effect.[36][37] Dragons are also capable of recognizing individual humans. Ruston Hartdegen of the Dallas Zoo reported that their monitors reacted differently when presented with their regular keeper, a more or less familiar keeper, or a completely unfamiliar keeper.[38] Dallas redirects here. ...


Research with captive dragons has also provided evidence that Komodo Dragons engage in play. One study concerned a dragon who would push a shovel left by its keeper, apparently attracted to the sound of it scraping across the rocky surface. A young female dragon at the National Zoo in Washington, D.C. would grab and shake various objects including statues, beverage cans, plastic rings and blankets. She would also insert her head into boxes, shoes, and other objects. She did not confuse these objects with food, as she would only swallow them if they were covered in rat blood. This social play has led to a striking comparison with mammalian play.[5] The elephant exibit at the National Zoo The Smithsonian National Zoological Park, commonly known in the United States as the National Zoo, is a zoo located in Washington, DC. Founded in 1889, it consists of two distinct installations: a 163 acre (0. ...


Another documentation of play in Komodo dragons comes from the University of Tennessee, where a young Komodo dragon named "Kraken" interacted with plastic rings, a shoe, a bucket, and a tin can by nudging them with her snout, swiping at them, and carrying them around in her mouth. She treated all of them differently than her food, leading researcher Gordon Burghardt to conclude that they disprove the view of object play being "food-motivated predatory behavior." [39] The University of Tennessee (UT), sometimes called the University of Tennessee at Knoxville (UT Knoxville or UTK), is the flagship institution of the statewide land-grant University of Tennessee public university system in the American state of Tennessee. ...


Even seemingly docile dragons may become aggressive unpredictably, especially when the animal's territory is invaded by someone unfamiliar. In June 2001, a dragon seriously injured Phil Bronstein - executive editor of the San Francisco Chronicle and then-husband of film actress Sharon Stone - when he entered its enclosure at the Los Angeles Zoo after being invited in by the dragon's keeper. Bronstein was bitten on his bare foot, as the keeper had told him to take off his white shoes, which could have potentially excited the dragon.[40][41] Although he escaped, he had several tendons in his foot reattached surgically.[42] For other uses, see June (disambiguation). ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Phil Bronstein is the executive vice president and editor of the San Francisco Chronicle. ... Todays San Francisco Chronicle was founded in 1865 as The Daily Dramatic Chronicle by teenage brothers Charles de Young and Michael H. de Young. ... Sharon Vonne Stone (born March 10, 1958) is an American actress, producer, and former fashion model. ... A summer crowd of the LA Zoo The Los Angeles Zoo is a large zoo located in Los Angeles, California. ...


See also

Indonesia Portal

Image File history File links Portal. ... Island gigantism is a biological phenomenon by which the size of animals isolated on an island increases dramatically over generations. ... Binomial name Megalania prisca (Richard Owen, 1860) Megalania prisca is an extinct giant monitor lizard. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Dragon. ... Species Many, see text. ... For the religious belief, see Virgin Birth of Jesus. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Varanus komodoensis (TSN 202168). Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Accessed on 19 June 2007.
  2. ^ a b c Endangered! Ora URL accessed January 15, 2007.
  3. ^ a b c Chris Mattison, (1989 & 1992). Lizards of the World (Of the World). New York: Facts on File, pp. 16, 57, 99, 175. ISBN 0-8160-5716-8. 
  4. ^ Burness G, Diamond J, Flannery T (2001). "Dinosaurs, dragons, and dwarfs: the evolution of maximal body size". Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 98 (25): 14518-23. PMID 11724953. 
  5. ^ a b c d Tim Halliday (Editor), Kraig Adler (Editor). Firefly Encyclopedia of Reptiles and Amphibians. Hove: Firefly Books Ltd, 112, 113, 144, 147, 168, 169. ISBN 1-55297-613-0. 
  6. ^ a b Sedgewick County Zoo information about Varanus Komodoensis URL accessed December 21, 2006.
  7. ^ a b Burnie, David; Don E. Wilson (2001). Animal. New York, New York: DK Publishing, Inc., 420. ISBN 0-7894-7764-5. 
  8. ^ a b Ciofi, Claudia. The Komodo Dragon. Scientific American, March 1999. URL accessed December 21, 2006
  9. ^ Whozoo Komodo Dragon URL accessed December 21, 2006.
  10. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k Tara Darling (Illustrator). Komodo Dragon: On Location (Darling, Kathy. on Location.). Lothrop, Lee and Shepard Books. ISBN 0-688-13777-6. 
  11. ^ Komodo Dragon URL accessed December 21, 2006.
  12. ^ a b Komodo Dragon - Background URL accessed April 13, 2007
  13. ^ a b Zipcodezoo.com - Varanus komodoensis URL accessed February 1, 2007.
  14. ^ a b c d e f g h text by David Badger; photography by John Netherton (2002). Lizards: a natural history of some uncommon creatures, extraordinary chameleons, iguanas, geckos, and more. Stillwater, MN: Voyageur Press, 32, 52, 78, 81, 84, 140-145, 151. ISBN 0-89658-520-4. 
  15. ^ a b c The Biogeography of the Komodo Dragon URL accessed February 24, 2007.
  16. ^ a b consultant editors, Harold G. Cogger & Richard G. Zweifel; illustrations by David Kirshner (1998). Encyclopedia of reptiles & amphibians. Boston: Academic Press, 132, 157-8. ISBN 0-12-178560-2. 
  17. ^ Eric R. Pianka and Laurie J. Vitt; with a foreword by Harry W. Greene (2003). Lizards: windows to the evolution of diversity. Berkeley: University of California Press, 244. ISBN 0-520-23401-4. 
  18. ^ Fry, B. G.; N. Vidal and J. A. Norman (2006). Early evolution of the venom system in lizards and snakes. Nature 439: 584-588. 
  19. ^ Montgomery JM, Gillespie D, Sastrawan P, Fredeking TM, Stewart GL (2002) "Aerobic salivary bacteria in wild and captive Komodo dragons" Journal of Wildlife Diseases 38 (3): 545-551
  20. ^ Feldman, Ruth Tenzer. "Dragon drool!(Animal Angles)(komodo dragons)(Brief article)." Odyssey 16.2 (Feb 2007): 49(1). Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. 23 Oct. 2007 <http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS>.
  21. ^ Cite error 8; No text given.
  22. ^ a b Diamond, J (1987) "Did Komodo dragons evolve to eat pygmy elephants?" Nature 326(6116): 832-832
  23. ^ Komodo Dragon: Varanus komodoensis 1998 URL accessed January 24, 2007.
  24. ^ Jessop TS, Sumner J, Rudiharto H, Purwandana D, Imansyah MJ, Phillips JA (2004) "Distribution, use and selection of nest type by Komodo Dragons" Biological Conservation 117 (5): 463-470
  25. ^ a b Facts and Data on the Komodo Dragon URL accessed January 5, 2006.
  26. ^ Notice by her cage in Chester Zoo in England
  27. ^ a b Komodo dragon proud mum (and dad) of five
  28. ^ a b Virgin births for giant lizards
  29. ^ Watts PC, Buley KR, Sanderson S, Boardman W, Ciofi C, Gibson R (2006). "Parthenogenesis in Komodo dragons". Nature 444 (7122): 1021-2. DOI:10.1038/4441021a. PMID 17183308. 
  30. ^ The Virtual Exploration Society: the Burden Expedition to Komodo Island URL accessed March 18, 2007.
  31. ^ American Museum of Natural History: Komodo Dragons. Retrieved 7 June 2007.
  32. ^ World Conservation Monitoring Centre (1996). Varanus komodoensis. 2006 IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. IUCN 2006. Retrieved on 11 May 2006. Listed as Vulnerable (VU B1+2cde v2.3) URL accessed December 21, 2006
  33. ^ The official website of Komodo National Park URL accessed February 2, 2007.
  34. ^ Press, Associated. "Komodo Dragon Kills Boy, 8, in Indonesia." MSNBC. 4 June 2007. [1]. retrieved on 7 June 2007.
  35. ^ Trooper Walsh; Murphy, James Jerome; Claudio Ciofi; Colomba De LA Panouse. Komodo Dragons: Biology and Conservation (Zoo and Aquarium Biology and Conservation Series). Washington, D.C: Smithsonian Books. ISBN 1-58834-073-2. 
  36. ^ Procter, J. B. 1928. On a living Komodo Dragon Varanus komodensis Ouwens, exhibited at the Scientific Meeting, October 23rd, 1928. Proc. Zool. Soc. London 1928:1017-1019.
  37. ^ Lederer, G. 1931. Erkennen wechselwarme Tiere ihren Pfleger? Wochenschr. Aquar.-Terrarienkunde 28: 636-638.
  38. ^ Murphy, J., and Walsh, T., 2006. Dragons and Humans. Herpetological Review, 37: 269-275.
  39. ^ "Such jokers, those Komodo dragons. (Reptiles)." Science News 162.5 (August 3, 2002): 78(1). Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. 8 Oct. 2007 <http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS>.
  40. ^ Transcript: Sharon Stone vs. the Komodo Dragon
  41. ^ Phillip T. Robinson (2004). Life at the zoo: behind the scenes with the animal doctors. New York: Columbia University Press, 79. ISBN 0-231-13248-4. 
  42. ^ "Tale of the Dragon. (World News)." National Geographic World (Nov 2001): 7(1). Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. 23 Oct. 2007 <http://find.galegroup.com/ips/start.do?prodId=IPS>.

The Integrated Taxonomic Information System (ITIS) is a partnership designed to provide consistent and reliable information on the taxonomy of biological species. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 103rd day of the year (104th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 32nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 55th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 5th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Chester Zoo is a Zoological Garden located in the North of England. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... A digital object identifier (or DOI) is a standard for persistently identifying a piece of intellectual property on a digital network and associating it with related data, the metadata, in a structured extensible way. ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species (also known as the IUCN Red List and Red Data List), created in 1963, is the worlds most comprehensive inventory of the global conservation status of plant and animal species and can be found here. ... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...

Further reading

  • Auffenberg, Walter (1981). The Behavioral Ecology of the Komodo Monitor. Gainesville: University Presses of Florida. ISBN 0-8130-0621-X. 
  • King, Dennis & Green, Brian. 1999. Goannas: The Biology of Varanid Lizards. University of New South Wales Press. ISBN 0-86840-456-X
  • Richard L. Lutz, Judy Marie Lutz,. Komodo, the Living Dragon: The Living Dragon. Salem, Or: DiMI Press. ISBN 0-931625-27-0. 
  • W. Douglas Burden,. Dragon Lizards of Komodo: An Expedition to the Lost World of the Dutch East Indies. Kessinger Publishing. ISBN 0-7661-6579-5. 

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Wikispecies has information related to:
Varanus komodoensis

  Results from FactBites:
 
Komodo Dragon - An Information Resource - Fact Sheet (2252 words)
The Komodo Dragon is certainly vulnerable, and in an area that is also geologically unstable, a volcanic or seismic event, although unlikely in the short-term could end the reign of the Komodo Dragon as the largest surviving lizard.
The Komodo Dragon can be classified as a man-eater, and such a designation plays to our dramatic fancies, however locals move around the Komodo Dragons with the care and respect that such a powerful wild animal deserves, but certainly without the fear that prey would exhibit.
A large number of Komodo Dragons have been genetically sampled and micro-chipped and studies into the genetic range and maintenance of the genetic pool are part of the ongoing study of this species.
Komodo dragon - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (644 words)
The Komodo dragon (Varanus komodoensis) is the largest living lizard in the world, growing to an average length of 2-3 meters (approximately 6.5-10 feet).
Komodo dragons have not traditionally been considered venomous, but the serrations along their teeth are an ideal niche for over 50 strains of bacteria.
The Komodo dragon's prey is wide ranging, and includes smaller reptiles, birds and their eggs and chicks, small mammals, wild pigs, goats, deer, horses and water buffaloes.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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