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Encyclopedia > Kolkata
  ?Kolkata
West Bengal • India
View of downtown Kolkata
Coordinates: 22°34′11″N 88°22′11″E / 22.5697, 88.3697
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area
Elevation
185 km² (71 sq mi)
• 9 m (30 ft)
District(s) Kolkata
Population
Density
Metro
4,580,544 (2001)
• 24,760/km² (64,128/sq mi)
• 14,681,589 (3rd) (2006)
Mayor Bikash Ranjan Bhattacharya
Codes
Pincode
Telephone
UN/LOCODE
Vehicle

• 700 001 - 700 157
• +91 (0)33
• INCCU
• WB-01 to WB-04
Website: www.kolkatamycity.com
 The Kolkata urban agglomeration also includes portions of North 24 Parganas and South 24 Parganas districts.

Coordinates: 22°34′11″N 88°22′11″E / 22.5697, 88.3697 , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x393, 136 KB) Summary Kolkata Skyline Photo taken by Seaview (myself) Licensing File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links India_West_Bengal_locator_map. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here areas between 1,000 km² and 10,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... The divisions of a district. ... Kolkata is an administrative district of the Indian state of West Bengal. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... This article lists the top fifty metropolitan areas in India by population as of 2007. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bikash Bhattacharya or Bikash Ranjan Bhattacharya (Bengali বিকাশ রন্জন ভট্টাচার্যা) is the present mayor of Kolkata (2005-2010 session), heading Kolkata municipal corporation, in the Indian state of West Bengal. ... A Postal Index Number or PIN or Pincode is the post office numbering or post code system used by the Indian Postal Service (similar to the ZIP Code in the United States). ... For the past decade or so, telecommunication activities have gained momentum in India. ... UN/LOCODE is a geographic coding scheme developed and maintained by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe, a unit of the United Nations. ... Licence plates on the back of a taxi in Kolkata. ... North 24 Parganas is a district of West Bengal, India. ... South 24 Parganas is an important district of West-Bengal. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Kolkata (Bengali: কলকাতা, IPA: ['kolkat̪a] ), formerly Calcutta , is the capital of the Indian state of West Bengal. It is located in eastern India on the east bank of the River Hooghly. The city has a population of almost 4.5 million, with an extended metropolitan population of over 14 million, making it the third-largest urban agglomeration and the fourth-largest city in India. Calcutta may refer to: Kolkata, formerly called Calcutta, the capital city of the Indian state of West Bengal Calcutta (gambling), a method of allocating gambling bets by auction Oh! Calcutta!, a theatrical revue HMS Calcutta, five ships of the Royal Navy Calcutta, Ohio, USA Calcutta, West Virginia, USA This is... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Image File history File links Kolkata-pronunciation. ... Image File history File links Kolkata-pronunciation. ... The Indian renaming controversy is a result of a movement to change the names of Indian cities from the names used during the British imperial period, back to regional or Indian names. ... Image File history File links Calcutta-pronunciation. ... Image File history File links Calcutta-pronunciation. ... Not to be confused with capitol. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... , West Bengal (Bengali: পশ্চিমবঙ্গ Poshchimbôŋgo) is a state in eastern India. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... The Hooghly River (alternatively spelled Hoogli or Hugli) is a distributary of the Ganges River in India. ... This article lists the top fifty metropolitan areas in India by population as of 2007. ... In the study of human settlements, an agglomeration is an extended city or town area comprising the built-up area of a central place (usually a municipality) and any suburbs or adjacent satellite towns. ... The following is a list of the most populous cities in India. ...


Kolkata served as the capital of India during the British Raj until 1911. Once the centre of modern education, science, culture and politics in India, Kolkata witnessed economic stagnation in the years following India's independence in 1947. However, since the year 2000, an economic rejuvenation has led to a spurt in the city's growth. Like other metropolitan cities of India, Kolkata continues to struggle with urbanisation problems like poverty, pollution and traffic congestion. The flag of British India British India, circa 1860 The British Raj (Raj in Hindi meaning Rule; from Sanskrit Rajya) was the British rule between 1858 and 1947 of the Indian Subcontinent, which included the present-day India, Bangladesh, Pakistan, and Burma (Myanmar), whereby these lands were under the colonial... Economic stagnation, often called simply stagnation is a prolonged period of slow economic growth (traditionally measured in terms of the GDP growth). ... Urbanization is the degree of or increase in urban character or nature. ... This article needs additional references or sources to facilitate its verification. ...


Kolkata is noted for its revolutionary history, ranging from the Indian struggle for independence to the leftist and trade union movements. This vibrant city, with a distinct socio-political culture, is considered by many as the Cultural capital of India. The Indian independence struggle incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... In politics, left-wing, political left, leftism, or simply the left, are terms which refer (with no particular precision) to the segment of the political spectrum typically associated with any of several strains of socialism, social democracy, or liberalism (especially in the American sense of the word), or with opposition... A trade union or labor union is an organization of individuals associated through employment, or labour. ...

Contents

Name

Main article: Etymology of Kolkata

The names Kolkata and Calcutta were probably based on Kalikata, the name of one of the three villages (Kalikata, Sutanuti, Gobindapur) in the area before the arrival of the British.[1] "Kalikata", in turn, is believed to be an anglicised version of Kalikshetra ("Land of [the goddess] Kali"). Again, the place was known for the manufacture of shell-lime and the name could have been derived from lime (kali) and burnt shell (kata). Alternatively, the name may have been derived from the Bengali term kilkila ("flat area").[2] Again, the name may have its origin in the indigenous term for a natural canal, Khal, followed by Katta (which may mean dug).[3] While the city's name was always pronounced either "Kolkata" or "Kolikata" in the local Bengali language, its official English name was only changed from "Calcutta" to "Kolkata" in 2001, reflecting the Bengali pronunciation. Some view this as a move to erase the legacy of British rule.[4] This article describes several theories on Etymology of Kolkata, (erstwhile Calcutta) the capital of the eastern Indian state of West Bengal. ... // Name and origins The rent-roll of Akbar, a sixteenth-century Mughal emperor, and the work of a Bengali poet, Bipradaas, of the late fifteenth century, both make mention of the citys early name being Kolikata, from which Kolkata/Calcutta are said to derive (1). ... Kalikata was one of the three villages which were merged to form the city of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) in India. ... Sutanuti was one of the three villages which were merged to form the city of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) in India. ... Gobindapur was one of the three villages which were merged to form the city of Kolkata (formerly Calcutta) in India. ... Anglicized refers to foreign words, often surnames, that are changed from a foreign language into English. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Various seashells Danielle A shell is the hard, rigid outer covering, or integument, allanimals. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ...


History

Main article: History of Kolkata
The St. Paul's Cathederal was built during British rule in Calcutta
The St. Paul's Cathederal was built during British rule in Calcutta

The discovery of the nearby Chandraketugarh,[5] an archaeological site, provides evidence that the area has been inhabited for over two millennia.[6] The city's documented history, however, begins with the arrival of the British East India Company in 1690, when the Company was consolidating its trade business in Bengal. Job Charnock, an administrator with the Company was traditionally credited as the founder of this city.[2] However, recently experts have endorsed the view that Charnock was not the founder of the city.[7] Image File history File links Information. ... // Name and origins The rent-roll of Akbar, a sixteenth-century Mughal emperor, and the work of a Bengali poet, Bipradaas, of the late fifteenth century, both make mention of the citys early name being Kolikata, from which Kolkata/Calcutta are said to derive (1). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 1. ... St. ... Chandraketugarh is an archaeological site located beside the river Vidyadhari about 35 km north-east of Kolkata,India, in the district of North 24 parganas. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Bengal (Bengali: বঙ্গ Bôngo, বাংলা Bangla, বঙ্গদেশ Bôngodesh or বাংলাদেশ Bangladesh), is a historical and geographical region in the northeast of South Asia. ... Job Charnock (d. ...


In 1702, the British completed the construction of old Fort William,[8] which was used to station its troops and as a regional base. Kolkata (then Calcutta) was declared a Presidency City, and later became the headquarters of the Bengal Presidency. Faced with frequent skirmishes with French forces, in 1756 the British began to upgrade their fortifications. When protests against the militarisation by the Nawab of Bengal Siraj-Ud-Daulah went unheeded, he attacked and captured Fort William leading to the infamous Black Hole incident.[9] A force of Company sepoys and British troops led by Robert Clive recaptured the city the following year.[9] Kolkata was named the capital of British India in 1772, although the capital shifted to the hilly town of Shimla during the summer months every year, starting from the year 1864.[10] It was during this period that the marshes surrounding the city were drained and the government area was laid out along the banks of the Hooghly River. Richard Wellesley, the Governor General between 1797 – 1805, was largely responsible for the growth of the city and its public architecture which led to the description of Kolkata as "The City of Palaces".[citation needed] The city was a center of the British East India Company's opium trade during the 18th and 19th century; locally produced opium was sold at auction in Kolkata, to be shipped to China.[11] Fort William is a British Raj fort in the Indian city of Calcutta and was named after King William of Orange. ... Calcutta , Bombay and Madras were the three Presidency cities in British India. ... Bengal, known as Bango ( Bengali:বঙ্গ), Bangla (বাংলা), Bangodesh (বঙ্গদেশ), or Bangladesh (বাংলাদেশ) in Bengali, is a region in the northeast of South Asia. ... siraj-ud-daula was the last independent nawab of bengal, he lost his state bengal to mir Quasim because he was busy in his luxurious life of a king ... Mîrzâ Mah. ... The Black Hole of Calcutta was a small dungeon where troops of the Nawab of Bengal held British prisoners of war after the capture of Fort William on June 20, 1756. ... A sepoy (from Persian سپاهی Sipâhi meaning soldier) was a native of India employed as a soldier in the service of a European power, usually of the United Kingdom. ... Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive Robert Clive, 1st Baron Clive of Plassey (September 29, 1725 - November 22, 1774) was the statesman and general who established the empire of British India. ... Anthem God Save The Queen/King British India, circa 1860 Capital Calcutta (1858-1912), New Delhi (1912-1947) Language(s) Hindi, Urdu, English and many others Government Monarchy Emperor of India  - 1877-1901 Victoria  - 1901-1910 Edward VII  - 1910-1936 George V  - January-December 1936 Edward VIII  - 1936-1947 George... , Shimla   (Hindi: िशमला, Urdu: شملہ), originally called Simla, is a city in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh. ... The Hooghly River (alternatively spelled Hoogli or Hugli) is a distributary of the Ganges River in India. ... Richard Wellesley ,1st Marquess Wellesley The Most Honourable Richard Colley Wesley, later Wellesley, 1st Marquess Wellesley (20 June 1760 - 26 September 1842), was the eldest son of Garret Wesley, 1st Earl of Mornington, an Irish peer, and brother of Arthur Wellesley, 1st Duke of Wellington. ... Governor-General (or Governor General) is a term used both historically and currently to designate the appointed representative of a head of state or their government for a particular territory, historically in a colonial context, but no longer necessarily in that form. ... This article does not adequately cite its references. ...


By the early 19th century, Kolkata was split into two distinct areas—one British (known as the White Town), the other Indian (known as Black Town).[12] Even at the time, the poverty of the 'Black Town' shanties was considered shocking. The city underwent rapid industrial growth from the 1850s, especially in the textile and jute sectors; this caused a massive investment in infrastructure projects like rail roads and telegraph by British government. The coalescence of British and Indian culture resulted in the emergence of a new Babu class of urbane Indians — whose members were often bureaucrats, professionals, read newspapers, were Anglophiles, and usually belonged to upper-caste Hindu communities.[13] Throughout the nineteenth century, a socio-cultural reform, often referred to as the Bengal Renaissance resulted in the general uplifting of the people. In 1883, Surendranath Banerjea organised a national conference — the first of its kind in nineteenth century India. Gradually Kolkata became a centre of the Indian independence movement, especially revolutionary organisations. The 1905 Partition of Bengal on communal grounds resulted in widespread public agitation and the boycott of British goods (Swadeshi movement).[citation needed] The word Jute is also used in reference to the Germanic people, the Jutes. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social restriction and social stratification, enforced by law or common practice, based on endogamy, occupation, economic status, race, ethnicity, etc. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... The Bengal Renaissance refers to a social reform movement during the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries in the region of Bengal in undivided India during the period of British rule. ... Sir Surendranath Banerjea (b. ... The Indian National Association was the first political organization founded in British India. ... The Indian independence struggle incorporated the efforts by Indians to liberate the region from British rule and form the nation-state of India. ... Revolutionary movement for Indian independence is often a less-highlighted aspect of Indian independence movement - the underground revolutionary factions. ... The Partition of Bengal in 1905, was made on 16 October by then Viceroy of India, Lord Curzon. ... The Swadeshi Movement, part of the Indian independence movement, was a successful economic strategy to remove the British Empire from power and improve economic conditions in India through following priciples of swadeshi (self-sufficiency). ...

Kolkata port in 1945. It was an important military port during WWII.
Kolkata port in 1945. It was an important military port during WWII.

These activities, along with the administratively disadvantageous location of Kolkata in the eastern fringes of India, prompted the British to move the capital to New Delhi in 1911. The city's port was bombed twice by the Japanese during World War II.[14] As food stocks were being diverted to feed Allied troops, millions starved to death during the Bengal famine of 1943.[15] In 1946, demands for the creation of a Muslim state led to large-scale communal violence resulting in the deaths of over 2,000 people.[16] The partition of India also created intense violence and a shift in demographics - large numbers of Muslims left for East Pakistan, while hundreds of thousands of Hindus fled into the city.[17] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (963x727, 205 KB) License File links The following pages link to this file: Kolkata History of Kolkata Kolkata image gallery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (963x727, 205 KB) License File links The following pages link to this file: Kolkata History of Kolkata Kolkata image gallery ... , This article is about the urban region that is the capital of India. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Bengal famine of 1943 is one amongst the several Famines that occurred in British administered undivided Bengal (now independent Bangladesh and the Indian state of West Bengal) in 1943. ... This article is under construction. ... East Pakistan was a former province of Pakistan which existed between 1955 and 1971. ...


Over the 1960s and 1970s, severe power shortages, strikes and a violent Marxist-Maoist movement — the Naxalites — damaged much of the city's infrastructure, leading to an economic stagnation. In 1971, war between India and Pakistan led to the mass influx of thousands of refugees into Kolkata resulting in a massive strain on its infrastructure.[18] In the mid-1980s, Mumbai overtook Kolkata as India's most populous city. Kolkata has been a strong base of Indian communism as West Bengal has been ruled by the CPI(M) dominated Left Front for three decades now — the world's longest-running democratically-elected Communist government.[19][20] The city's economic recovery gathered momentum after economic reforms in India introduced by the central government in the mid-1990s. Since 2000, Information Technology (IT) services revitalized the city’s stagnant economy. The city is also experiencing a growth in the manufacturing sector recently.[21] This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Map showing the districts affected by the Naxalite movement Naxalite or Naxalism is an informal name given to radical, often violent, revolutionary communist groups that were born out of the Sino-Soviet split in the Indian communist movement. ... , “Bombay” redirects here. ... CPI(M) flag The Communist Party of India (Marxist), or CPI(M), is a political party in India. ... Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ... This article is about communism as a form of society and as a political movement. ... Economic reform in India is something which is under close study. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ...


Geography

Main article: Geography of Kolkata

Kolkata is located in eastern India at 22°33′N, 88°20′E in the Ganges Delta at an elevation ranging between 1.5 to 9 metres.[22] It is spread linearly along the banks of the River Hooghly in a north-south direction. Much of the city was originally a vast wetland, reclaimed over the decades to accommodate the city's burgeoning population.[23] The remaining wetland, known as East Calcutta Wetlands has been designated a "wetland of international importance" under the Ramsar Convention.[24] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Hooghly River (alternatively spelled Hoogli or Hugli) is a distributary of the Ganges River in India. ... position of Kolkata Kolkata is located in the eastern part of India at 22°82′N 88°20′E. It has spread linearly along the banks of the river Hooghly. ... Ganges River Delta, Bangladesh and India The Ganges Delta (or the Bengal Delta) is a river delta in the South Asia region of Bengal, consisting of Bangladesh and the state of West Bengal, India. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... The Hooghly River (alternatively spelled Hoogli or Hugli) is a distributary of the Ganges River in India. ... The East Calcutta Wetlands, also known as the East Kolkata Wetlands, are a complex of natural and human-made wetlands lying east of the city of Calcutta (Kolkata) in India. ... The Ramsar Convention is an international treaty for the conservation and sustainable utilization of wetlands, i. ...


Like the most of the Indo-Gangetic plains, the predominant soil type is alluvial. Quaternary sediments consisting of clay, silt, various grades of sand and gravel underlie the city. These sediments are sandwiched between two clay beds, the lower one at depths between 250 and 650 m and the upper one ranging between 10 and 40 m in thickness.[25] According to the Bureau of Indian Standards, the town falls under seismic zone-III, in a scale of I to V (in order of increasing proneness to earthquakes)[26] while the wind and cyclone zoning is "very high damage risk", according to UNDP report.[26] This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Alluvium is soil land deposited by a river or other running water. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... The BIS logo The Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), the National Standards Body of India is involved in the development of technical standards (popularly known as Indian Standards), product quality and management system certifications and consumer affairs. ... The Indian subcontinent has had a history of devastating earthquakes. ... This article is about the meteorological phenomenon. ... The United Nations Development Programe (UNDP), the United Nations global development network, is the largest multilateral source of development assistance in the world. ...


Climate

Kolkata has a tropical climate. The annual mean temperature is 26.8 °C (80 °F); monthly mean temperatures range from 19 °C to 30 °C (67 °F to 86 °F).[27] Summers are hot and humid with temperatures in the low 30's and during dry spells the maximum temperatures often exceed 40 °C (104 °F) during May and June.[27] Winter tends to last for only about two and a half months, with seasonal lows dipping to 12 °C – 14 °C (54 °F – 57 °F) between December and January. The highest recorded temperature is 43.9 °C (113 °F) and the lowest is 5 °C (41 °F).[27] Often during early summer, dusty squalls followed by spells of thunderstorm and heavy rains lash the city, bringing relief from the humid heat. These thunderstorms are convective in nature, and is locally known as Kal baisakhi (Nor'westers).[28] The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... Celsius is, or relates to, the Celsius temperature scale (previously known as the centigrade scale). ... For other uses, see Fahrenheit (disambiguation). ... Convection rain is a type of rain which occurs in areas that intensely heated. ...


Rains brought by the Bay of Bengal branch of South-West monsoon[29] lash the city between June and September and supplies the city with most of its annual rainfall of 1,582 mm. The highest rainfall occurs during the monsoon in August (306 mm). The city receives 2,528 hours of sunshine per annum, with the maximum sunlight occurring in March.[30] Pollution is a major concern in Kolkata, and the Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) level is high when compared to other major cities of India,[31][32] leading to regular smog and haze. Severe air pollution in the city has caused rise in pollution-related respiratory ailments such as lung cancer.[33] A millimetre (American spelling: millimeter, symbol mm) is an SI unit of length that is equal to one thousandth of a metre. ... http://visibleearth. ... It has been suggested that Haze be merged into this article or section. ... Haze is an atmospheric phenomenon where dust, smoke and other pollutant particles obscure the normal clarity of the sky. ...


Urban structure

Buildings in Central Kolkata
Buildings in Central Kolkata

Kolkata city, under the jurisdiction of the Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC), has an area of 185 km² (71 sq mi).[34] The Kolkata urban agglomeration, however, has continuously expanded and as of 2006, the urban agglomeration (Kolkata Metropolitan Area) is spread over 1,750 km² (676 sq mi),[34] and comprises 157 postal areas.[35] The urban agglomeration is formally administered by several local governments including 38 local municipalities. The urban agglomeration comprises 72 cities and 527 towns and villages.[34] The suburban areas of Kolkata metropolitan district incorporates parts of the districts North 24 Parganas, South 24 Parganas, Howrah, Hooghly and Nadia. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Kolkata Municipal Corporation (formerly Calcutta Municipal Corporation) is responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city of Kolkata. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) is the urban agglomeration of the city of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ... Kolkata city has many densely populated outskirts region. ... North 24 Parganas is a district of West Bengal, India. ... South 24 Parganas is an important district of West-Bengal. ... Howrah is a district of the Indian state of West Bengal. ... It has been proposed below that Hooghly District be renamed and moved to Hooghly district. ... Nadia is a district of the state of West Bengal, in the north east of the Republic of India. ...


The east-to-west dimension of the proper city is narrow, stretching from the Hooghly River in the west to roughly the Eastern Metropolitan Bypass in the east, a span of barely 5–6 km.[36] The north-south expansion is roughly divided into North, Central and South Kolkata. North Kolkata locality is the oldest part of the city, with 19th century architecture and narrow alleyways. The ambience in this area is reminiscent of the old Kolkata. South Kolkata grew mostly after independence and consists of elite localities. The Salt lake City (Bidhan Nagar) area to the northeast of the city is a planned section of Kolkata. Rajarhat, also called New Town, is a planned township being developed on the north-eastern fringes of the city. The Eastern Metropolitan Bypass or simply E.M.Bypass is a major road connecting the northern and southern part of the city of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ... bla bla bla ... Rajarhat, also called New Town, is the latest township being developed on the north-eastern fringes of Kolkata city. ...


Central Kolkata houses the central business district around the B. B. D. Bagh area. The government secretariat, General Post Office, High Court, Lalbazar Police HQs and several other government and private offices are located here. The Maidan is a large open field in the heart of the city where several sporting events and public meetings are held. Several companies have set up their offices around the area south of Park Street which has become a secondary Central Business District. The Central Business District of Sydney, Australia. ... B.B.D. Bagh, formerly called Dalhousie Square, is one of the central business district area of Kolkata, India. ... Writers Building is the secretariat of West Bengal. ... The domed roof of GPO, some restoration works going on The General Post Office, Kolkata is the central post office of the city of Kolkata, India and the chief post office of West Bengal. ... The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in India. ... Lalbazar is a location in the Kolkata central business district adjoining the famous B.B.D. Bagh area. ... Kolkata — the skyline across the Maidan The Maidan (open field) is the largest urban park in Kolkata (earlier known as Calcutta) in India. ... Park Street is one of the main thoroughfares of the city of Calcutta, India. ...


Economy

Vendors selling flowers in a market.
Vendors selling flowers in a market.
Information technology hub at Salt Lake, a satellite township
Main article: Economy of Kolkata

Kolkata is the main business, commercial and financial hub of eastern India and the northeastern states. It is home to the Calcutta Stock Exchange — India's second-largest bourse.[37] It is also a major commercial and military port, and the only city in the region to have an international airport. Once India's leading city and Capital, Kolkata experienced a steady economic decline in the years following India's independence due to the prevalent unstabilised political condition and rise in trade-unionism supported by left-wing parties. Between the 1960s to the mid 1990s, flight of capital was enormous as many large factories were closed or downsized and businesses relocated. The lack of capital and resources coupled with a worldwide glut in demand in the city's traditional industries (e.g. jute) added to the depressed state of the city's economy.[38] The liberalisation of the Indian economy in the 1990s along with the election of a new reformist Chief Minister, Buddhadeb Bhattacharya have resulted in the improvement of the city's fortunes. Image File history File links Kolkataflowermarket. ... Image File history File links Kolkataflowermarket. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 680 pixel, file size: 362 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Calcutta office of CTS is in Salt Lake sector V. Author: Flickr user: Nikkul http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 531 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 680 pixel, file size: 362 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) The Calcutta office of CTS is in Salt Lake sector V. Author: Flickr user: Nikkul http://www. ... Kolkata — the skyline across the Maidan Kolkata is the main business, commercial and financial hub of eastern India and the main port of communication for the North-East Indian states. ... The Indies, on the display globe of the Field Museum, Chicago The Indies or East Indies (or East India) is a term used to describe lands of South and South-East Asia, occupying all of the former British India, the present Indian Union, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Myanmar, Sri Lanka, Maldives, and... The Himalayas in Sikkim North-East India is the easternmost region of India consisting of the contiguous Seven Sister States and the state of Sikkim. ... Calcutta Stock Exchange Association Limited , popularly the Calcutta Stock Exchange (CSE), located at the Lyons Range, Kolkata, India, was incorporated in 1908 and is the second largest stock exchange in India. ... A stock exchange is an organization of which the members are stock brokers. ... The economy of India is the third largest in the world as measured by purchasing power parity (PPP). ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ... Buddhadeb Bhattacharya the mass murderer of Nandigram (Bengali: ) (born March 1, 1944) is an Indian Communist politician, who has served as the Chief Minister of West Bengal (India) since November 6, 2000. ...


Until recently, flexible production had always been the norm in Kolkata, and the informal sector has comprised more than 40% of the labour force.[39] State and federal government employees make up a large percentage of the city's workforce. The city has a large unskilled and semi-skilled labour population, along with other blue-collar and knowledge workers. Kolkata's economic revival was led largely by IT services, with the IT sector growing at 70% yearly — twice that of the national average.[21] In recent years there has been a surge of investments in the housing infrastructure sector with several new projects coming up in the city.[40] Kolkata is home to many industrial units operated by large Indian corporations with products ranging from electronics to jute. Some notable companies headquartered in Kolkata include ITC Limited, Bata India, Birla Corporation, Coal India Limited, Damodar Valley Corporation, United Bank of India, UCO Bank and Allahabad Bank Vijaya Bank. Recently, various events like adoption of "Look East" policy by the government of India, opening of the Nathu La Pass in Sikkim as a border trade-route with China and immense interest in the South East Asian countries to enter the Indian market and invest have put Kolkata in an advantageous position.[citation needed] In economics, the term informal economy refers to the general market income category (or sector) wherin certain types of income and the means of their generation are “unregulated by the institutions of society, in a legal and social environment in which similar activities are regulated. ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... ITC Limited, a food, drinks and tobacco manufacturing company, is one of Indias largest agribusinesses. ... Logo Bata Shoes (in Czech BaÅ¥a, also BaÅ¥ovy závody) is a large, family owned shoe company. ... Birla Corporation Limited, popularly known as Birla Corp is an Indian company based in Kolkata. ... Coal India Limited (CIL) It is wholly owned Government of India company, under the administrative control of the Ministry of Coal, involved in the mining and production of coal. ... The Damodar Valley Corporation, popularly known as DVC, is the first multipurpose river valley project of independent India. ... United Bank of India, one of the major commercial banks of India, was established in 1950 by merger of four banks, namely, Comilla Banking Corporation Limited (established 1914), Bengal Central Bank Limited (established1918), Comilla Union Bank Limited (established 1922) and Hooghly Bank Limited (1932). ... Uco Bank, formerly United Commercial Bank, established in 1943 in Kolkata, is one of the oldest and major commercial bank of India. ... Logo of Allahabad Bank Allahabad Bank is the oldest public sector bank in India, having begun operations in 1865. ... Vijaya Bank was founded on 23rd October 1931 by the late Shri A.B.Shetty and other enterprising farmers in Mangalore, Karnataka. ... Nathu La Pass (Nepali: नाथू ला, Tibetan: རན ཐོས ལ , Wylie: Rna thos la; Chinese: 乃堆拉山口), also spelled Ntula, Natu La, Nathula, or Natula, is a pass on the Indo-China border connecting the Indian state of Sikkim with Yadong County on the southern border of Tibet. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


Civic administration

Kolkata City officials
Mayor Bikash Bhattacharya
Deputy Mayor Kalyan Mukherjee
Sheriff Amal Chakraborty
Police Commissioner Prasun Mukherjee

The Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC), (formerly the Calcutta Municipal Corporation), established in 1876, is responsible for the civic maintenance and infrastructure of Kolkata. The city is divided into 141 administrative wards that are grouped into 15 boroughs.[41] Each of these wards elects a councillor to the KMC. Each borough has a committee consisting of the councillors elected from the respective wards of the borough. The Corporation, through the borough committees, maintains government-aided schools, hospitals and municipal markets and partakes in urban planning and road maintenance.[34] The corporation as the apex body discharges its function through the Mayor-in-Council, consisting of a mayor, assisted by a deputy mayor, and ten other elected members of the KMC. The mayor is responsible for the overall functioning of the KMC and has a tenure of five-years.[42] At present, the CPI(M) led Left Front holds the power in KMC. Kolkata Municipal Corporation (formerly Calcutta Municipal Corporation) is responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city of Kolkata. ... A mayor (from the Latin māior, meaning larger, greater) is the modern title of the highest ranking municipal officer. ... Bikash Bhattacharya or Bikash Ranjan Bhattacharya is the present mayor of Kolkata (2005-2010 session), heading Kolkata municipal corporation. ... The Deputy Mayor of a community is the number two official to the mayor. ... Kalyan Mukherjee (Bengali: ) is the deputy mayor of Kolkata Municipal Corporation (KMC) in the city of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ... The Sheriff of Kolkata is an apolitical titular position of authority bestowed for one year on a prominent citizen of Kolkata. ... Amal Chakraborty is the Sheriff of Kolkata for the year 2006. ... The Police Commissioner of Kolkata is the chief of the Kolkata Police. ... Prasun Mukherjee (1950-) is, at present, the Commissioner of Police in the city of Kolkata (Kolkata Police), West Bengal, India. ... Kolkata Municipal Corporation (formerly Calcutta Municipal Corporation) is responsible for the civic infrastructure and administration of the city of Kolkata. ... A ward is an electoral district used in local politics, most notably in England, Scotland, and Wales, as well as Australia, Canada, the Republic of Ireland, New Zealand, South Africa and many cities in the United States and the federal district of Washington, DC. Wards are usually named after neighbourhoods... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A councillor is a member of a council (such as a city council), particularly in the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia and other parts of the Commonwealth. ... Mayor-Council government is one of two variations of government most commonly used in modern representative municipal governments in the United States. ... CPI(M) flag The Communist Party of India (Marxist), or CPI(M), is a political party in India. ... Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ...

Kolkata Municipal Corporation building
Kolkata Municipal Corporation building

The city also has an apolitical titular post, that of the Sheriff of Kolkata.[43] The Sheriff presides over various city-related functions and conferences. Another ancillary civic body is the Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority (KMDA) responsible for the statutory planning and development of the Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA).[44] The KMA includes a large suburban hinterland around the urban centers of Kolkata. Image File history File links Kmcb. ... Image File history File links Kmcb. ... (In the context of property law, title refers to ownership or documents of ownership; see title (property). ... The Sheriff of Kolkata is an apolitical titular position of authority bestowed for one year on a prominent citizen of Kolkata. ... Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority is the statutory planning and development authority fot the Kolkata Metropolitan Area(KMA) in the state of West Bengal, India. ... Kolkata Metropolitan Area (KMA) is the urban agglomeration of the city of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ... The meaning of hinterland and its history. ...


As the capital of the state and the seat of the Government of West Bengal, Kolkata houses the West Bengal Legislative Assembly, the Secretariat (Writers' Building) and the Calcutta High Court. Kolkata also has lower courts; the Small Causes Court for civil matters, and the Sessions Court for criminal cases. The Kolkata Police, headed by the Police Commissioner, comes under the West Bengal Home Ministry. The city is administratively divided into five police-zones subdivided into 48 local police stations.[45] The city elects 3 representatives to the Lok Sabha (India's lower house) and 21 representatives to the state Legislative Assembly.[46] The Government of West Bengal also known as the State Government of West Bengal, or locally as State Government, is the supreme governing authority of the Indian state of West Bengal and its 19 districts. ... The West Bengal Legislative Assembly — the Vidhan Sabha is the unicameral legislature of the Indian state of West Bengal. ... Writers Building is the secretariat of West Bengal. ... The Calcutta High Court is the oldest High Court in India. ... The phrase lower court has several possible meanings in English: In reference to an appeal, the lower court is the court whose decision is being reviewed. ... In Indian cities, the Small Causes Court is responsible for adjudicating matters related to civil cases. ... In Indian cities, the Sessions Court is responsible for adjudicating matters related to criminal cases. ... The Kolkata Police has the task of policing the vast metropolitan area of Kolkata, India. ... Kolkata Police is divided into 5 administrative divisions. ... The police stations in Kolkata , in the area area under Kolkata Police are: Alipore Amherst Street Ballygunge Beleghata Beniapukur Bhowanipur Bowbazar Burrabazar Burtola Charu Market Chetla Chitpur Cossipore Ekbalpore Entally Garden Reach Gariahat Girish Park Hare Street Hastings Jorabagan Jorasanko Kalighat Karaya Lake Maidan Maniktala Muchipara Narkeldanga New Alipore New... The Lok Sabha is the lower house in the Parliament of India. ...


Utility services and media

VSNL tower of VSNL–Tata Indicom — a major telecom service provider in the city
VSNL tower of VSNL–Tata Indicom — a major telecom service provider in the city
See also: Kolkata in the media

The KMC supplies potable water to the city, sourced from the River Hooghly. The water is purified and treated at Palta water pumping station located in North 24 Parganas. Almost all of Kolkata's daily refuse of 2500 tonnes is transported to the dumping grounds in Dhapa to the east of the town. Agriculture on this dumping ground is encouraged for natural recycling of garbage and sewer water.[47] Parts of the city still lack sewage facilities leading to unsanitary methods of waste disposal.[30] Electricity is supplied by the privately operated Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation (CESC) to the city region, and by the West Bengal State Electricity Board in the suburbs. Frequent interruption of power supply was a problem until the mid 1990s; however the situation has since improved immensely with seldom power cuts occurring presently. The city has 20 fire stations (under West Bengal Fire Service) that attend to 7,500 fire and rescue calls on average per year.[48] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1252 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kolkata Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1252 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kolkata Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Videsh Sanchar Nigam Ltd (VSNL) is Indias phone carrier for international calls. ... Tata Indicom is a private telecom service provider operating in most parts of India. ... Travelogues The Great Railway Bazaar (Paul Theroux) Following The Equator (Mark Twain) Books City of the Dreadful Night and American Tales Rudyard Kipling City of Joy (Dominique Lapierre) Calcutta: The Living City Volumes 1 & 2(ed. ... Drinking water This article focuses on water as we experience it every day. ... North 24 Parganas is a district of West Bengal, India. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... Dhapa is a locality on the eastern fringes of Kolkata, India. ... CESC or the Calcutta Electric Supply Corporation supplies electricity to area under Kolkata municipal corporation in the city of Kolkata, India. ... West Bengal State Electricity Board (WBSEB) is a state owned electricity regulation board operating within the state of West Bengal in India. ... West Bengal Fire Service is the state owned service that attends fire/rescue calls throughout the Indian state of West Bengal, including the city of Kolkata. ...


State-owned BSNL and private enterprises like Hutch, Airtel, Reliance Infocomm and Tata Indicom are the leading telephone and cell phone service providers in the city. Cellular coverage is extensive with both GSM and CDMA services being available. Broadband internet penetration has steadily increased with BSNL, Tata Indicom, Airtel and Reliance being the leading service providers. Logo BSNL or Bharat Sanchar Nigam Limited is Indias largest Communication Service Provider (CSP), and seventh largest in the world. ... Hutch is a national cellular operator in India. ... Bharti Airtel, formerly known as Bharti Tele-Ventures Limited (BTVL) is among Indias largest mobile phone and Fixed Network operators. ... Reliance Infocomm is an Indian telecommunications company, and is the brainchild of Mukesh Ambani, CMD, Reliance Industries. ... Tata Indicom is a private telecom service provider operating in most parts of India. ... Motorola T2288 mobile phone A mobile phone is a portable electronic device which behaves as a normal telephone whilst being able to move over a wide area (compare cordless phone which acts as a telephone only within a limited range). ... Global System for Mobile communications (GSM: originally from Groupe Spécial Mobile) is the most popular standard for mobile phones in the world. ... General Information Generically (as a multiplexing scheme), code division multiple access (CDMA) is any use of any form of spread spectrum by multiple transmitters to send to the same receiver on the same frequency channel at the same time without harmful interference. ... Broadband Internet access, often shortened to broadband Internet or just broadband is a high data-transmission rate Internet connection. ... The Tata Group is Indias largest conglomerate, with revenues in 2005-06 of Rs. ...


Bengali language newspapers like Anandabazar Patrika, Aajkaal, Bartaman, Sangbad Pratidin and Ganashakti are widely circulated. Regional and national English newspapers such as The Telegraph, The Statesman, Asian Age, Hindustan Times and The Times of India are sold in large numbers. Some major periodicals are Desh, Sananda, Unish Kuri, Anandalok and Anandamela. Being the biggest trading market in Eastern India, Kolkata has a substantial readership of many financial dailies including Economic Times & Business Standard. Vernacular newspapers such as those in Hindi, Gujarati, Oriya, Urdu, Punjabi and Chinese are also read by a minority. Kolkata has nine local FM stations: AIR Kolkata (FM Rainbow & FM Gold), Radio Mirchi (98.3 MHz), Red FM (93.5 MHz), Aamar FM (106.2 MHz), Gyan Vani (105.4 MHz), Big FM (92.7 MHz), Power FM (107.8 MHz) and Friends FM (91.9 MHz). The state-owned television broadcaster Doordarshan provides two free terrestrial channels, while four MSO provide a mix of Bengali, Hindi, English and other regional channels via cable. Bengali 24-hour television news channels include STAR Ananda, 24 Ghanta and Kolkata TV. Anandabazar Patrika is a Bengali language broadsheet published from Kolkata. ... Aajkaal is one of the leading Bengali newspapers in Kolkata, India. ... Bartaman Patrika (Bengali: বর্তমান পত্রিকা) is an anti-left Bengali language newspaper published from Calcutta []. Apart from the Calcutta edition, the newspaper has four other simultaneous editions, published daily from four major towns of West Bengal -- Siliguri, Burdwan, Malda and Midnapore. ... Sangbad Pratidin (literally meaning news everyday) is a Bengali newspaper published from Kolkata, India. ... Ganashakti is the official mouthpiece of the Communist Party of India (Marxist)s Bengal State Unit, which first appeared as a fortnightly in 1967 and was converted thereafter into a daily newspaper. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Established in 1875, The Statesman is among the leading daily newspapers of India. ... The Asian Age newspaper logo The Asian Age is an Indian newspaper. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Times of India, often abbreviated as TOI, is one of Indias leading daily newspapers, owned and managed by Bennett, Coleman & Co. ... Sananda is a Bengali magazine published by Ananda Publishers from Kolkata, India. ... // Introduction Literally meaning nineteen twenty, Unish Kuri is the youngest fortnightly magazine published from ABP Ltd, publishers of Anandabazar Patrika of Kolkata, India, that took off as a new division, or wing of Anandamela, the 30 year old legendary childrens magazine published in Bengali. ... Anandamela is a childrens periodical published by Ananda Publishers in Calcutta,India. ... The Economic Times is a publication of the Times Group, owners of the Times of India. ... Business Standard is a financial daily from Business Standard Ltd (BSL), a venture of the Anandabazar Patrika (ABP) group of publishers. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the two official languages of India, the other being English. ... Gujarati (ગુજરાતી GujÇŽrātÄ«; also known as Gujerati, Gujarathi, Guzratee, and Guujaratee[3]) is an Indo-Aryan language descending from Sanskrit, and part of the greater Indo-European language family. ... Oriya is the official language of the Indian state of Orissa. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Punjabi (also Panjabi; in GurmukhÄ«, PanjābÄ« in ShāhmukhÄ«) is the language of the Punjab regions of India and Pakistan. ... In telecommunications, frequency modulation (FM) conveys information over a carrier wave by varying its frequency. ... For the electronica band, see All India Radio (band). ... Radio Mirchi Logo Radio Mirchi is a nationwide network of private FM radio stations in India. ... MegaHertz (MHz) is the name given to one million (106) Hertz, a measure of frequency. ... Red FM is a FM radio channel in Mumbai, India. ... Aamar FM (literally meaning My FM) is a FM radio channel in Kolkata, India. ... Gyan Vani is an educational FM radio station in several cities of India. ... Big FM is Indias nationwide private FM Radio station. ... Power FM (or 103. ... Friends 91. ... Doordarshan (sometimes DoorDarshan; ) is a Public broadcast Terrestrial television channel run by Prasar Bharati, a board nominated by the Government of India. ... M.S.O. (MULTIPLE SYSTEM OPERATOR) In the cable TV industry, an operator of multiple cable systems. ... Coaxial cable is often used to transmit cable television into the house. ... This article or section needs additional references or sources. ... Kolkata TV is a 24x7 infotainment Bengali channel, launched by SST Media. ...


Transport

A busy road in Kolkata
A busy road in Kolkata
Main article: Transport in Kolkata

Public transport is provided by the Kolkata suburban railway and the Kolkata Metro as well as by trams and buses. The suburban network is extensive and extends into the distant suburbs. The Kolkata Metro, run by the Indian Railways, is the oldest underground system in India.[49] It runs parallel to the Hooghly and spans the north-south length of the city covering a distance of 16.45 km. Buses are the preferred mode of transport and are run by both government agencies and private operators. Kolkata is India's only remaining city to have a tram network, operated by Calcutta Tramways Company.[50] The slow-moving tram services are restricted to certain areas of the city. Water-logging due to heavy rains during the monsoon sometimes interrupts the public transport.[51][52] Image File history File links KolkataVIP_road. ... Image File history File links KolkataVIP_road. ... Tram in Kolkata road Bus, yellow-cabs in Kolkata road Rickshaw, enduring image of the city of joy map of the Kolkata underground raiway Howrah Bridge, linking Kolkata with Howrah since 1930s yellow cabs horse-carts like these have become tourist attraction The transport system of Kolkata is a mix... Bangkok Skytrain. ... Kolkata Suburban Railway Map The railways form the life line of India. ... Kolkata Metro Train The Kolkata Metro or Calcutta Metro is the underground rail network in Kolkata (Calcutta), India. ... This article refers to public transport vehicles running on rails. ... Indian Railways abbreviated as IR, is a Department of the Government of India, under the Ministry of Railways and is tasked with operating the rail network in India. ... ‹ The template below (Unit of length) is being considered for deletion. ... Logo of the CTC The Calcutta Tramways Company Limited (CTC) is a West Bengal state government undertaken company that runs trams in Kolkata and buses in and around Kolkata. ...


Hired forms of mechanised transport include the yellow metered taxis, while auto rickshaws ply in specific routes. Almost all the taxis in Kolkata are Ambassadors. This is unlike most other cities where Tata Indica or Fiats are more common. In some areas of the city, cycle rickshaws and hand-pulled rickshaws are also patronised by the public for short distances. Private owned vehicles are less in number and usage compared to other major cities due to the abundance in both variety and number of public vehicles.[53] However, the city witnessed a steady increase in the number of registered vehicles; 2002 data showed an increase of 44% over a period of seven years.[54] The road space (matched with population density) in the city is only 6%, compared to 23% in Delhi and 17% in Mumbai, creating major traffic problems.[55] Kolkata Metro Railway and a number of new roads and flyovers have decongested the traffic to some extent. Passengers and drivers meet at this auto rickshaw stand in Chennai. ... Hindustan Ambassador on the streets of Kolkata Ambassador VIP Vehicle, Delhi Ambassador Mark III used by Late MG Ramachandran The Hindustan Ambassador is a model of car manufactured by Hindustan Motors of India. ... Fiat S.p. ... A betchak and its driver wait for a fare in Bandung, Indonesia Rickshaw in Hamburg. ... Japanese rickshaw (jinrikisha), 1886. ...


Kolkata has two major long distance railway stations at Howrah Station and Sealdah. A third station named Kolkata has been launched in early 2006.[56] The city is the headquarters of two divisions of the Indian Railways — Eastern Railway and South Eastern Railway.[57] Passengers bustle around the typical grand edifice of Londons Broad Street Station in 1865. ... Howrah Station Howrah Station is one of the two major train stations serving Howrah and Kolkata, India; the other is Sealdah Station, in Kolkata. ... Sealdah is one of the major train stations serving Kolkata (Calcutta) in India, the others being Howrah Station and Kolkata Station. ... Eastern Railway is a zone of the Indian Railways. ... The South Eastern Railway is one of the sixteen railway zones in the India of the Indian Railways. ...


The city's sole airport, the Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport at Dum Dum to the north of the city, operates both domestic and international flights. Kolkata is also a major riverport in eastern India. The Kolkata Port Trust manages both the Kolkata docks and the Haldia docks.[58] There are passenger service to Port Blair in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands and cargo ship service to various ports in India and abroad, operated by the Shipping Corporation of India. Also there are ferry services connecting Kolkata with its twin city of Howrah. Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose International Airport (IATA: CCU, ICAO: VECC) is an airport located in Dum Dum, West Bengal, India, near Kolkata (Calcutta). ... Dum-dum is the colloquial name for several types of modified exploding (more properly known as expanding) ammunition for firearms. ... Kolkata port trust in Kolkata, India is a riverine port with two dock systems - Kolkata Dock System at Kolkata and a deep water dock system at Haldia Dock Complex, Haldia. ... , Haldia is a city and a municipality in Purba Medinipur in the Indian state of West Bengal. ... Map of Andaman and Nicobar Islands with an extra detailed area around Port Blair Port Blair   (Hindi: पोर्ट ब्लेयर) (coordinates: ) is the largest town and a municipal council in Andamans district in the Andaman Islands and the capital of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands union territory of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Andaman Islands. ... Hapag-Lloyd Container ship Container ship A cargo ship or freighter is any sort of ship or vessel that carries cargo, goods, and materials from one port to another. ... The Shipping Corporation of India (SCI) is a PSU of the Government of India that operates and manages vessels that services both national and international lines. ... Howrah (also spelled Haora) is an industrial city in West Bengal, India. ...


Demographics

Typical low-rise flats in Kolkata
See also: Ethnic communities in Kolkata

Residents of Kolkata are called Calcuttans. As of 2001, Kolkata city had a population of 4,580,544, while the urban agglomeration had a population of 13,216,546. The sex ratio is 828 females per 1000 males[59] – which is lower than the national average, because many working males come from rural areas, where they leave behind their families. Kolkata's literacy rate of 80.86%[60] exceeds the all-India average of 64.8%.[61] Kolkata Municipal Corporation area has registered a growth rate of 4.1%, which is the lowest among the million-plus cities in India.[62] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 371 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Apartments of various shapes and sizes have taken up all the space on what was once a beautiful avenue crossing through the wetlands and connecting the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1024 × 768 pixel, file size: 371 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Apartments of various shapes and sizes have taken up all the space on what was once a beautiful avenue crossing through the wetlands and connecting the... Kolkata, though comparatively young compared to the Indian city states like Delhi and Hyderabad, has nevertheless been a melting pot for international and Indian communities, even more so than the upscale and cosmopolitan Bombay and Delhi. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... Sex ratio by country for total population. ... Population growth, from 443 million in 1960 to 1,004 million in 2000 Map showing the population density of each district in India Map showing the population growth over the past ten years of each district in India Map showing the literacy rate of each district in India Chart showing...


Bengalis comprise the majority of Kolkata's population, with Marwaris and Bihari communities forming a large portion of the minorities. Some of Kolkata's notable communities include Chinese, Tamils, Marwaris, Gujaratis, Anglo-Indians, Armenians, Tibetans, Maharashtrians and Parsis. Major languages spoken in Kolkata are Bengali, Hindi, Urdu, English, Maithili, and Bhojpuri. The Bengali people are the ethnic community from Bengal (divided between India and Bangladesh) on the Indian subcontinent with a history dating back four millennia. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Bihari people are an Indo-Aryan ethnic group from Bihar in India with a history going back more than two millennia. ... Kolkata, though comparatively young compared to the Indian city states like Delhi and Hyderabad, has nevertheless been a melting pot for international and Indian communities, even more so than the upscale and cosmopolitan Bombay and Delhi. ... Languages Tamil Religions Hinduism, Christianity, Islam, Buddhism, Jainism Related ethnic groups Dravidian people Brahui people Kannadigas Malayalis Tamils Telugus Tuluvas Gonds The Tamil people are a multi-ethnic group from the Indian subcontinent with a recorded history going back more than two millennia. ... Gujarati can mean two distinct things: The Gujarati language is a language spoken in India,and pakistan [1] mostly in and around the Gujarat state. ... Anglo-Indians are persons who have descended from a mix of British and Indian parentage. ... The Tibetan people are a people indigenous to Tibet and surrounding areas stretching from Central Asia in the West to Myanmar and China in the East. ... Maharashtra (महाराष्ट्र) is a state in west-central India. ... This article is about the Parsi community. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the two official languages of India, the other being English. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... Indian English refers to the dialects or varieties of English spoken primarily in India, and/or by first generation Indian diaspora elsewhere in the world. ... Maithili (मैथिली MaithilÄ«) is a language of the family of Indo-Aryan languages, which are part of the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European languages. ... Categories: Indo-Aryan languages | Languages of India | Language stubs ...


According to the 2001 census, 77.68% of the population in Kolkata is Hindu, 20.27% Muslim,0.88% Christian and 0.75% Jains. Other minorities such as Sikhs, Buddhist, Jews and Zoroastrian constitute the rest of the city's population.[63] 1.5 million people, who constitute about a third of the city's population, live in 2,011 registered and 3,500 unregistered (occupied by squatters) slums.[64] This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes the Jain Vow of Ahinsa, meaning non-injury and nonviolence. ... A Sikh man wearing a turban The adherents of Sikhism are called Sikhs. ... A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE. It had subsequently been accepted by... Zoroastrianism was adapted from an earlier, polytheistic faith by Zarathushtra (Zoroaster) in Persia very roughly around 1000 BC (although, in the absence of written records, some scholars estimates are as late as 600 BC). ... This article is about occupying land without permission. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows his find. ...


Kolkata reported 67.6% of total Special and Local Laws (SLL) crimes registered in 35 Indian mega cities.[65] Kolkata police district registered 10,757 IPC cases in 2004, which was 10th highest in the country.[66] The crime rate in the city was 81.4 per 100,000 against the national rate of 168.8 in 2004.[67] Kolkata's Sonagachi area, with more than 10,000 sex workers,[68] is one of Asia's largest red-light districts. Indian Penal Code (IPC) provides a penal code for all of India excluding Jammu and Kashmir. ... A scene in Sonagachi, 2005 Sonagachi, translated as Golden Tree, is the largest red-light district in Kolkata (Calcutta), India. ... A sex worker in Germany A sex worker is a person who earns money by providing sexual services. ... The De Wallen red-light district in Amsterdam A red-light district is a neighborhoooood where prostitution and other businesses in the sex industry flourish. ...


Culture

Main article: Kolkata culture
See also: List of notable Calcuttans
Victoria Memorial, a memorial of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, who was the first British monarch to carry the title of Empress of India
Victoria Memorial, a memorial of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom, who was the first British monarch to carry the title of Empress of India
Rasagolla, a popular sweet
Rasagolla, a popular sweet
Clay idols of Durga under preparation in Kumortuli

The another name of Kolkata is City of Joy. Kolkata has long been known for its literary, artistic and revolutionary heritage. As the former capital of India, Kolkata was the birthplace of modern Indian literary and artistic thought. Kolkatans tend to have a special appreciation for art and literature; its tradition of welcoming new talent has made it a "city of furious creative energy".[69] A person from Calcutta is known variously as a Calcuttan or Kolkatan The culturel life of Kolkata is diverse. ... // The socio-cultural capital and aesthetic conscience of India Kolkata has been regarded since ages as the cultural capital of India. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 355 pixelsFull resolution (2252 × 1000 pixel, file size: 770 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 355 pixelsFull resolution (2252 × 1000 pixel, file size: 770 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Facade of the Victoria Memorial The Victoria Memorial, located in Kolkata, India is a memorial of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom who also carried the title of Empress of India. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Signature of King Edward VIII The R and I after his name indicate king and emperor in Latin (Rex and Imperator, respectively). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (872x825, 89 KB) Summary Rasgulla Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Rasgulla List of Indian sweets and desserts User talk:Nichalp/Archive24 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (872x825, 89 KB) Summary Rasgulla Licensing File links The following pages link to this file: Rasgulla List of Indian sweets and desserts User talk:Nichalp/Archive24 Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... In Hinduism, Durga (Sanskrit: , Bengali: ) is a form of Devi, the supreme goddess. ... Clay images under preparation at Kumortuli Kumortuli (also spelt Kumartuli, or the archaic spelling Coomartolly) is traditionally potters’ quarter in north Kolkata. ...


A characteristic feature of Kolkata is the para or neighbourhoods having a strong sense of community. Typically, every para has its own community club with a clubroom and often, a playing field. People here habitually indulge in adda or leisurely chat, and these adda sessions are often a form of freestyle intellectual conversation.[70] The city has a tradition of political graffiti depicting everything from outrageous slander to witty banter and limericks, caricatures to propaganda. Para is Bengali language means a neighbourhood/ locality, usually characterised by a strong sense of community. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of English words of Indian origin. ... For other uses, see Graffiti (disambiguation). ...


The city has a tradition of dramas in the form of jatra (a kind of folk-theatre), theatres and Group Theatres. Mainstream Hindi films are popular, as are films from the Bengali cinema industry, dubbed "Tollywood". Tollygunj in Kolkata is the location of Bengali movie studios and the name "Tollywood" (similar as Hollywood, USA) is derived from that name. Its long tradition of filmmaking includes acclaimed directors like Satyajit Ray, Mrinal Sen, Tapan Sinha and Ritwik Ghatak to contemporary directors such as Aparna Sen and Rituparno Ghosh. Jatra (literally going or journey) a form of folk drama combining acting, songs, music, dance, characterised by stylised delivery and exaggerated gestures and orations. ... The Group Theatre was a left-wing theater collective, formed in New York in 1931 by Harold Clurman, Cheryl Crawford and Lee Strasberg. ... Bollywood (Hindi: , Urdu: ) is the informal name given to the popular Mumbai-based Hindi-language film industry in India. ... Bengali cinema, or the Bengali film industry, is one of the earliest film industries in India. ... Tollygunge is a suburban locality of South Kolkata. ... ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ...   (Bengali: সত্যজিত্ রায় Shottojit Rae) (May 2, 1921–April 23, 1992) was an Indian filmmaker who is widely regarded as one of the greatest auteurs of 20th century cinema. ... Mrinal Sen (Bangla: মৄণাল সেন) is a Bengali Indian filmmaker. ... Tapan Sinha is a well respected Bengali Indian Bollywood based film director. ... Ritwik Ghatak (Bengali: , Rittik Ghotok) (November 4, 1925 – February 6, 1976) was a Bengali Indian writer and filmmaker. ... Aparna Sen (née Dasgupta) (Bengali: অপর্ণা সেন Ôporna Shen) (October 25, 1945 - ) is a Bengali Indian actress and film director and mother of actress Konkona Sen Sharma. ... Rituparno Ghosh Rituparno Ghosh is a young Bengali film director whose work has met with considerable critical acclaim in recent years, both in his native India and abroad. ...


The city is also noted for its appreciation of Indian classical music and the rich literary tradition set by Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay, Rabindranath Tagore, Jibanananda Das, Kazi Nazrul Islam, Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, Tarashankar Bandopadhyay, Samaresh Basu, Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay, Buddhadev Guha, Sanjeeb Chattopadhyay and Sunil Gangopadhyay among others. From the early 1990s, there has been an emergence and popularisation of new genres of music, including fusions of Baul and Jazz by several Bangla bands, as well as the emergence of what has been called Jeebonmukhi Gaan (a modern genre based on realism) by artists like Anjan Dutta, Nachiketa and bands like Chandrabindu, Cactus and Fossils. The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. ... Bankim Chandra Chatterjee Bankim Chandra Chatterjee (26 June 1838 - 8 April 1894) (Bengali: Bôngkim Chôndro Chôţţopaddhae) (Chattopadhyay in the original Bengali; Chatterjee as spelt by the British) was a Bengali Indian poet, novelist, essayist and journalist, most famous as the author of Vande Mataram or Bande Mataram... (Bengali: , IPA: ) (7 May 1861 – 7 August 1941), also known by the sobriquet Gurudev, was a Bengali poet, Brahmo Samaj philosopher, visual artist, playwright, novelist, and composer whose works reshaped Bengali literature and music in the late 19th and early 20th centuries. ... Jibanananda Das (Bangla: জীবনানন্দ দাশ) (17 February 1899 - 22 October 1954) is an acclaimed Bengali poet. ... Nazrul playing a flute, Chittagong, 1926 Kazi Nazrul Islam (Bangla: কাজী নজরুল ইসলাম) (b. ... Sarat Chandra Chattopadhyay, also known as Sarat Chandra Chatterjee (15 September 1876 - 16 January 1938) was a popular Bengali novelist of early 20th century India. ... Tarasankar Bandopadhya (23 July 1887 -14 September 1971) at Lavpur, Birbhum in the state of West Bengal. ... Shirshendu Mukhopadhyay (born:2nd November,1935) is a famous writer in Bengali language. ... Sunil Gangopadhyay was born on September 7, 1934 at Faridpur in what is now Bangladesh. ... Timeline and Samples Genres . ... A Bangla band is any (modern) musical band that performs solely or mainly in the Bengali language and which uses Western principles of music. ... Anjan Dutta is a popular artist of the 1990s Bengali music scene defined by Jeebonmukhi (life facing) singers. ... Nachiketa (Hindi:नचिकेता) was son of a cowherd of the name Vājashrava, who was offered to Yama to find a place in Heaven by his father. ... A Chandrabindoo logo depicting Juju, a bogey Chandrabindu (often spelled Chandrabindoo) is one of the first bands to emerge from the New Wave in West Bengali music. ... Cactus is an American rock band that was conceived in late 1969 as a supergroup but ended up one of the first hard rock bands. ... Fossils is one of the most popular bangla rock bands. ...


Key elements of Kolkata's cuisine include rice and macher jhol (fish curry),[71] with rasagolla,sandesh and mishti doi (sweet yoghurt) as dessert. Bengal's vast repertoire of fish-based dishes includes various hilsa preparations (a favorite among Bengalis). Street foods such as beguni (fried battered eggplant slices ), kati roll (flatbread roll with vegetable or chicken, mutton, or egg stuffing), phuchka (deep fried crêpe with tamarind and lentil sauce) and Chinese food from China Town in the eastern parts of the city are quite popular.[72][73] Bengali women commonly wear the shaŗi and the salwar kameez, often distinctly designed according to local cultural customs. In Kolkata there is a growing trend among the youth girls and women to wear Western attire. Among men, European dressing has greater acceptance. Men also wear traditional costumes such as the panjabi with dhuti or pyjama, often on religious occasions. By Scott Kriebel (vega4@gwu. ... Rasgulla (Bangla: রসগোল্লা Rôshogolla [ˈrɔʃoËŒgolːa]; Hindi: Rasgulla; Oriya: Rasagolla) is a dessert from Orissa and Bengal consisting of balls of unripened cheese or cottage cheese (chenna) soaked in a sugary syrup. ... Sandesh is a popular masculine given name across Indian sub-continent. ... Mishti Doi or Mishti Dahi (Bengali) or Mitha Dahi (Oriya) translate as sweet dahi or sweet yogurt. ... Hilsa, also pronounced Ilish (Bangla: ইলিশ) is the national fish of Bangladesh and also relished in Indias Bengali and Oriya speaking populace. ... Beguni are a Bengali snack made of fried eggplant slices. ... A kati roll, after a bite! Kati eoll or kati jabab roll or , in short, roll is a street-side fast food popular in Kolkata, India. ... Panipuri, or Pani puri, is a snack synonymous with the beaches of Mumbai. ... China has one of the richest culinary heritages on Earth. ... An opium den in the China Town, Kolkata, 1945 China Town in the eastern part of the city of Kolkata is the only China Town in India[1] The locality was once home to 20,000 ethnic Chinese, now the population has sunk to 2,000 or so. ... For the city, see Sari, Iran. ... Salwar kameez, from Max Tilkes Oriental Costume, 1922 Salwar kameez (also spelled shalwar kameez and shalwar qamiz) is a traditional dress worn by both women and men in Pakistan, India, Bangladesh, and Afghanistan. ... A kurta (or sometimes kurti, for women) is a traditional piece of clothing worn in Afghanistan, northern India, and Pakistan. ... Similar to sarongs, dhotis are commonly worn with western-style oxford shirts by the men of South India. ... Categories: Stub | Clothing ...


Kolkata has many buildings adorned with Gothic, Baroque, Roman, Oriental and Indo-Islamic (including Mughal) motifs. The "City of Palaces", as Kolkata is often called, is dotted with colonial buildings. Some of the major buildings of this period are well maintained and several buildings have been declared "heritage structures", while others are in various stages of decay. Established in 1814, the Indian Museum is the oldest museum in Asia and houses vast collection of Indian natural history and Indian art.[74] The Victoria Memorial, one of the major tourist attractions in Kolkata, has a museum documenting the city's history. The National Library of India is India's leading public library. Academy of Fine Arts and other art galleries hold regular art exhibitions. Interior of Cologne Cathedral Gothic architecture is a style of architecture, particularly associated with cathedrals and other churches, which flourished in Europe during the high and late medieval period. ... Baroque architecture, starting in the early 17th century in Italy, took the humanist Roman vocabulary of Renaissance architecture and used it in a new rhetorical, theatrical, sculptural fashion, expressing the triumph of absolutist church and state. ... ‹ The template below (Expand) is being considered for deletion. ... The term the Orient - literally meaning sunrise, east - is traditionally used to refer to Near, Middle, and Far Eastern countries. ... Mughal architecture is the distinctive style of Islamic, Persian and Indian architecture, developed by the Mughal Empire in India in the 16th century. ... The Indian Museum was founded by Dr. Nathaniel Wallich a Danish botanist at Serampore (original called Frederischnagore) near Calcutta in 1814. ... For other uses, see Asia (disambiguation). ... This article explores the history and people involved in the study of natural history in India. ... A miniature, Kishengarh, Jaipur, Rajasthan Indian cave art at Bhimbetka The vast scope of the art of India intertwines with the cultural history, religions and philosophies which place art production and patronage in social and cultural contexts. ... Facade of the Victoria Memorial The Victoria Memorial, located in Kolkata, India is a memorial of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom who also carried the title of Empress of India. ... The Victoria Memorial is an example of Indo-British architecture Kolkata been nicknamed the City of Palaces. ... The National Library of India at Kolkata is the largest library in India and Indias library of public record. ... The Academy of Fine Arts in Kolkata (Calcutta) is one of the oldest fine arts societies in India. ...


Durga Puja is the most notable of the religious and social festival in Kolkata.[75] Other notable festivals include Diwali, Eid, Holi, Christmas, poila boishak (new year), Saraswati puja, Rath Yatra and Poush parbon (harvest festival). Some of the cultural festivals are Kolkata Book Fair, Dover Lane music festival, Kolkata Film Festival and National Theatre Festival. Kolkata is sister city to Long Beach, California in the United States.[76] Durga Puja (Bengali: দুর্গাপূজা Durga Puja) is the biggest festival of Bengali Hindus. ... Festivals are integral part of the the city Kolkata. ... Diwali, also called Deepavali, is a major Indian festival that is very significant in Hinduism, Sikhism and Jainism. ... The word Eid can mean several things: There are two Islamic festivals of Eid: One is called Eid ul-Fitr (Arabic: عيد الفطر) that marks the end of the holy month of Ramadan, The other is Eid ul-Adha (Arabic: عيد الأضحى) or Eid-e Qurban (Persian: عید قربان) which is celebrated to commemorate Prophet Ibrahim... Celebration of Holi Holi (Hindi: होली) or Phagwah (Bhojpuri) is a popular, Hindu spring festival, observed in North India and Nepal, also called the Festival of Colours. ... Christmas is an annual holiday that celebrates the birth of Jesus. ... Poila Boishakh (Bengali: পহেলা বৈশাখ) is the first day of the Bangla Calendar. ... In Hinduism, Saraswati (Sanskrit ) is one of the goddesses, the other two being Lakshmi and Durga, that form the female counterpart of the Trimurti. ... Ratha Yatra Festival in Puri, India. ... The Calcutta Book Fair logo The Calcutta Book Fair (now renamed Kolkata Book Fair in English, and officially Kolkata Boi Mela in romanized Bengali, Bengali: কলকাতা বই মেলা) is a winter fair in Calcutta. ... Dover Lane music festival is organized every year is the months of December and January in Dover Lane,Kolkata. ... Kolkata Film Festival is an anuual international film festival held in Kolkata in the Indian state of West Bengal. ... Kolkata, India has an annual theatre festival between 16 and 25 December, organised by Nandikar theatre group. ... This article is about partnerships between towns distant from each other; see Twin cities for the different concept of physically neighbouring cities. ... Nickname: Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: , Country State County Los Angeles County Government  - Mayor Bob Foster Area  - City  65. ...


Education

The Indian Institute of Management, one of India's most prestigious business schools has a campus in Kolkata
The Indian Institute of Management, one of India's most prestigious business schools has a campus in Kolkata
Main article: Education in Kolkata

Kolkata's schools are either run by the state government or by private (many of which are religious) organisations. Schools mainly use English or Bengali as the medium of instruction, though Hindi and Urdu are also used. The schools are affiliated with the Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE), the Central Board for Secondary Education (CBSE), or the West Bengal Board of Secondary Education. Under the 10+2+3 plan, after completing their secondary education, students typically enroll in a 2 year junior college (also known as a pre-university) or in schools with a higher secondary facility affiliated with West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education. Students usually choose from one of three streams — liberal arts, commerce, or science, though vocational streams are also available. Upon completing the required coursework, students may enrol in general or professional degree programmes. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by Varun Singh Uploaded to Wiki by user:nikkul http://www. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 169 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Taken by Varun Singh Uploaded to Wiki by user:nikkul http://www. ... The Indian Institutes of Management (IIMs) are the premier management schools of India, located in the cities of Bangalore, Ahmedabad, Indore, Kolkata, Kozhikode and Lucknow. ... Kolkata has several parallel systems of education: The West Bengal governmental system of education, known as West Bengal Board of Secondary Education and West Bengal Council of Higher Secondary Education, Kolkata. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... Medium of instruction is the language that is used in teaching. ... Hindi ( , Devanagari: or , IAST: , IPA: ), an Indo-European language spoken mainly in northern and central India, is one of the two official languages of India, the other being English. ... Urdu ( , , trans. ... The Indian Certificate of Secondary Education (ICSE) examination is an examination conducted by the Council for the Indian School Certificate Examinations for class 10, i. ... The Central Board of Secondary Education is a board of school education in India. ... West Bengal Board of Secondary Education is the examining authority for the Standard 10 Examinations of the West Bengal Board of Education. ... India has had a long, interesting history of education and has been a seat of learning for . ... For the Indian grade 11 and 12 schools, see Junior College A junior college is a two-year post-secondary school whose main purpose is to provide a method of obtaining academic, vocational and professional education. ... It is the examining authority for the Standard 10 and Standard 12 Examinations of the West Bengal Board of Education. ... In the history of education, the seven liberal arts comprise two groups of studies, the trivium and the quadrivium. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Part of a scientific laboratory at the University of Cologne. ...


Kolkata has nine universities; numerous colleges are affiliated to these nine or to other universities located outside of Kolkata.[77] The University of Calcutta (founded in 1857) has more than 200 affiliated colleges.[78] Bengal Engineering & Science University, West Bengal University of Technology and Jadavpur University are notable engineering universities.[79] Other notable institutions are Presidency College and St. Xavier's College. Some institutions of national importance are the Asiatic Society, Bose Institute, the Indian Statistical Institute, the Indian Institute of Management, the Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science, the Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics, the West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, the Marine Engineering and Research Institute , the Indian Institute of Science Education and Research and the Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management. Formally established on the 24 January 1857, the University of Calcutta (also known as Calcutta University) (Bengali: কলকাতা বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়), located in the city of Kolkata (previously Calcutta), India, is the first modern university in the Indian subcontinent. ... The Bengal Engineering & Science University, established at Shibpur, Howrah, just opposite the city of Kolkata, is the third oldest engineering college in existence in India. ... The West Bengal University of Technology (WBUT) is a state technological university located in the suburban satellite township of Salt Lake City, Kolkata, West Bengal. ... Jadavpur University (Bengali: যাদবপুর বিশ্ববিদ্যালয়) (JU) is a state-funded university and a premier educational and research institution in India. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... St. ... The Asiatic Society was founded by Sir William Jones (1746-1794) on 15 January 1784 in Calcutta, the capital of British India, to enhance and further the cause of Oriental research. ... Indian Statistical Institute (ISI), is a unique institution devoted to the research, teaching and application of statistics, natural sciences and social sciences. ... The Indian Institute of Management, Calcutta, was established as the first national institute for Post-Graduate studies and Research in Management by the Government of India in November 1961 in collaboration with MIT Sloan School of Management, the Government of West Bengal, The Ford Foundation and Indian industry. ... The Indian Association for the Cultivation of Science was established in July 1876 at 210 Bowbazar street, Kolkata, to foster high quality fundamental research in frontier disciplines of the basic sciences. ... Saha Institute of Nuclear Physics (SINP) is an institution of basic research and training in physical and biophysical sciences located in Bidhan Nagar, Kolkata, India. ... The West Bengal National University of Juridical Sciences, often abbreviated to NUJS, located in the Salt Lake City district of Kolkata, West Bengal, India, is a law university imparting legal education at the undergraduate and post graduate level. ... The Marine Engineering and Research Institute (MERI), formerly known as the Directorate of Marine Engineering Training, is Indias national institute for the training of Marine Engineers. ... The Indian Institutes of Science Education and Research (IISER) are a group of premier institutes being created by the Government of India to promote education and research in the sciences. ... Located at Management House, College Square West, Kolkata-700073, the Indian Institute of Social Welfare and Business Management is the first management institute in India. ...


Sports

Eden Gardens
Eden Gardens

Football is the most popular sport in the city and the city is one of the major centre of football activity in India.[80] Kolkata is home to top national clubs such as Mohun Bagan, Mohammedan Sporting Club and East Bengal. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 2. ... A player (wearing the red kit) has penetrated the defence (in the white kit) and is taking a shot at goal. ... Mohun Bagan Athletic Club (Mohun Bagan AC) is a sports club, best known for its football team, based in the city of Kolkata, West Bengal, India. ... Mohammedan Sporting Club is a football club in Kolkata, India. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


As in the rest of India, cricket is extremely popular and is played throughout the city in its grounds and streets. Tournaments, especially those involving outdoor games like cricket, football, and badminton or indoor games like carrom, are regularly organized on an inter-locality or inter-club basis. The maidan area hosts several minor football and cricket clubs and coaching institutes. Notable sports stars from Kolkata include former Indian national cricket captain Sourav Ganguly and Olympic tennis bronze medallist Leander Paes. Former football stars include Olympic medalist Shailen Manna, Chuni Goswami, Subrata Bhattacharya. Bowler Shaun Pollock bowls to batsman Michael Hussey. ... This article is about the sport. ... American version Carrom boards Carrom is a family of tabletop games sharing a similarity in that their mechanics lie somewhere between billiards and shuffleboard. ... Kolkata — the skyline across the Maidan The Maidan (open field) is the largest urban park in Kolkata (earlier known as Calcutta) in India. ... This is a list of all men, boys and women who have captained an Indian national cricket team at official international level. ... Sourav Chandidas Ganguly (Bengali: ) ( ) (first name occasionally spelt Saurav) is an Indian cricketer. ... The five Olympic rings were designed in 1913, adopted in 1914 and debuted at the Games at Antwerp, 1920. ... For other uses, see Tennis (disambiguation). ... A bronze medal is a medal awarded to the third place finisher of contests (typically athletics competitions) such as the Olympic Games, Commonwealth Games, etc. ... Leander Adrian Paes (born June 17, 1973) is an Indian male tennis professional, who currently features predominantly in the doubles events in the ATP tour and the Davis Cup events. ... Subimal Goswami (January 15, 1938 - , commonly known by his nickname Chuni Goswami (Bengali: )is a Bengali footballer, and cricketer. ...


Kolkata is known for its large stadia. The Eden Gardens is one of only two 100,000-seat cricket stadiums in the world.[81] Salt Lake Stadium — a multi-use stadium — is the world's third highest-capacity football stadium.[82][83] Calcutta Cricket and Football Club is the second-oldest cricket club in the world.[84] Kolkata has three 18-hole golf courses at the Royal Calcutta Golf Club (the first golf club in the world outside Britain)[85], Tollygunge Club and Fort William. The Royal Calcutta Turf Club (RCTC) holds regular equestrian races and polo matches. The Calcutta Polo Club is now considered as the oldest polo club of the world.[86] The Calcutta South Club is the venue for some national and international tennis tournaments. The Calcutta Rowing Club hosts regular rowing races and training. Eden Gardens situated in Kolkata is the oldest cricket ground in India and is also considered one of the finest in the world. ... {{Infobox_Football_(soccer)_stadium arenaname = Salt Lake Stadium| nickname = Salt Lake Stadium image = | fullname = |Yuva Bharati Krirangan location = |Salt Lake (Bridhan Nagar), Kolkata built = | opened = | closed = N/A | demolished = N/A | owner = | operator = | surface = |Grass, with astroturf athletic track construction_cost = | architect = | former_names = | tenants = East Bengal Club, Mohammedan Sporting | capacity = 120,000... This is a list of major football (soccer) stadia, grouped by country and ordered by capacity. ... The Calcutta Cricket and Football Club (CCFC) is a cricket and association football club in Kolkata (formerly Calcutta), West Bengal, India. ... Royal Calcutta Golf Club (RCGC) in Kolkata, India was established in 1829. ... Tollygunge Club or Tolly Club is a golf club with a 18-hole course located in the Tollygunge locality of Kolkata, India. ... Fort William is a British Raj fort in the Indian city of Calcutta and was named after King William of Orange. ... A game of polo. ... Calcutta South Club in Woodburn Park Road, Kolkata, India is a venue for lawn tennis. ... The calcutta rowing club, located in Kolkata, India, was founded in 1858 and is one of the oldest Rowing Clubs of its kind outside the United Kingdom. ... A coxless pair which is a sweep-oar boat. ...


Notes

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Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 247th day of the year (248th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 219th day of the year (220th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 220th day of the year (221st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Portable Document Format (PDF) is the file format created by Adobe Systems in 1993 for document exchange. ... A kibibyte (a contraction of kilo binary byte) is a unit of information or computer storage, commonly abbreviated KiB (never kiB). 1 kibibyte = 210 bytes = 1,024 bytes The kibibyte is closely related to the kilobyte, which can be used either as a synonym for kibibyte or to refer to... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy Huseyn Shaheed Suhrawardy( हुस्सैन शाहिद सुहरावरदी ) (September 8, 1892 - December 5, 1963) was a politician from Bengal in undivided India, and later in East Pakistan, who served as Prime Minister of Pakistan from 1956 until 1957. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The United Nations Development Programme (UNDP) is the largest multilateral source of grant technical assistance in the world. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... 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Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 137th day of the year (138th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links PIA01844_modest. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 87th day of the year (88th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 206th day of the year (207th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kolkata Metropolitan Development Authority is the statutory planning and development authority fot the Kolkata Metropolitan Area(KMA) in the state of West Bengal, India. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Kolkata Police has the task of policing the vast metropolitan area of Kolkata, India. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Kolkata Metro Train The Kolkata Metro or Calcutta Metro is the underground rail network in Kolkata (Calcutta), India. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 192nd day of the year (193rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 199th day of the year (200th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 243rd day of the year (244th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 339th day of the year (340th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 334th day of the year (335th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 116th day of the year (117th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article deals with The Daily Telegraph in Britain, see The Daily Telegraph (Australia) for the Australian publication The Daily Telegraph is a British broadsheet newspaper founded in 1855. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 113th day of the year (114th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 73rd day of the year (74th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 299th day of the year (300th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Bennett, A & J Hindle (1996), London Review of Books: An Anthology, Verso, ISBN 185984121X
  • Chaudhuri, NC (2001), The Autobiography of an Unknown Indian, New York Review of Books, ISBN 094032282X
  • Chaudhuri, S (1995), Calcutta: The Living City. Vol I and Vol II, Oxford University Press, USA, ISBN 0195636988
  • Gandhi, R (1992), Patel: A Life, Navajivan, ISBN ASIN B0006EYQ0A
  • Marcuse, P & R van Kempen (2000), Globalizing Cities: A New Spatial Order?, Blackwell Publishers, ISBN 0631212906
  • Marston, D (2001), The Seven Year's War, Osprey Publishing, ISBN 1841761915
  • Mitra, A (1976), Calcutta Diary, Routledge (UK), ISBN 0714630829
  • Mukherjee, SC (1991), The changing face of Calcutta: An architectural approach : Calcutta, 300, Government of West Bengal, ISBN B0000D6TXX
  • Roy, A (2002), City Requiem, Calcutta: Gender and The Politics of Poverty, University of Minnesota Press, ISBN 0816639329
  • Roy, A & Alsayyad (2004), Urban Informality: Transnational Perspectives from the Middle East, Latin America and South Asia, Lexington Books, ISBN 0739107410
  • Sen, A (1973), Poverty and Famines, Oxford University Press, USA, ISBN 0-19-828463-2
  • Singh, S (2003), Lonely Planet India (10 ed.), Lonely Planet, ISBN 1740594215
  • Thomas, FC (1977), Calcutta Poor: Elegies on a City Above Pretense, M.E. Sharpe, ISBN 1563249812

External links

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