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Encyclopedia > Kokborok language
Kokborok
Spoken in: India and Bangladesh 
Region: Tripura, Assam, Mizoram, Bangladesh
Total speakers: 800,000

658,000 in India (1994); 105,000 in Bangladesh (1993) Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ...

Language family: Sino-Tibetan
 Tibeto-Burman
  Kamarupan
   Bodo-Garo
    Bodo
     Kokborok 
Official status
Official language of: Flag of India India (Tripura)
Regulated by: no official regulation
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: sit
ISO 639-3: trp

Kokborok (also spelled Kok Borok) also known as Tiprakok or Tripuri is the native language of the Tripuri people in the Indian state of Tripura and its neighbouring areas of Bangladesh. The word Kokborok is composed of two words, kok which means "language" and borok which literally means "man" but is used to denote the Tripuri people. Thus Kokborok means "the language of man" or "the language of the Borok people". Current distribution of Human Language Families A language family is a group of related languages said to have descended from a common proto-language. ... The Sino-Tibetan languages form a putative language family composed of Chinese and the Tibeto-Burman languages, including some 250 languages of East Asia. ... Sino-Tibetan languages form a language family of about 250 languages of East Asia, in number of speakers worldwide second only to Indo-European. ... Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal. ... Garo is the language of the majority of the people of the Hills which bear their name in the state of Meghalaya of India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Unicode is an industry standard allowing computers to consistently represent and manipulate text expressed in any of the worlds writing systems. ... Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ...

Contents

History

Kokborok existed in its various forms since at least the 1st century AD, when the historical record of Tripuri Kings began to be written down. The script of Kokborok was called "Koloma". The Chronicle of the Tripuri Kings were written in a book namely Rajratnakar, this book was originally written down in Kokborok using the Koloma script by Durlobendra Chontai. Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ...


Later, two Brahmins, Sukreswar and Vaneswar translated it into Sanskrit and then again translated the chronicle into Bengali in the 14th century AD. The chronicle of Tipra in Kokborok and Rajratnakar are no longer available. Kokborok was relegated to a common people's dialect during the rule of the Tripuri Kings in the Kingdom of Tripura, in contrast to Bengali language, from the period of the 14th century till the 20th century. Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ... The Tripuri (Tipra or Tipperah) people are the original inhabitants of the state of Tripura in North East India. ... Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ... Bengali or Bangla (IPA: ) is an Indo-Aryan language of the eastern Indian subcontinent, evolved from the Magadhi Prakrit, Pāli and Sanskrit languages. ...


Kokborok got recognised as an official language of Tripura state only in 1979 A.D. and is being now considered for recognition as a National language of India. Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ...


Classification and related languages

Kokborok is a Tibeto-Burman language falling under the Sino-Tibetan language family of East Asia and South East Asia. The Tibeto-Burman linguistic subfamily of the proposed Sino-Tibetan language family is spoken in various central and south Asian countries: Myanmar (Burmese language), Tibet (Tibetan language), northern Thailand (Mong language), Nepal, Bhutan, India (Himachal Pradesh, Uttaranchal, Sikkim, Arunachal Pradesh, Assam, Nagaland, Manipur, Mizoram, Tripura and the Ladakh region of... Sino-Tibetan languages form a language family of about 250 languages of East Asia, in number of speakers worldwide second only to Indo-European. ... Geographic East Asia. ... Location of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia is a subregion of Asia. ...


It is closely related to the Bodo language and the Dimasa language of neighbouring state of Assam. The Garo language is also a related language as spoken in neighbouring Bangladesh. Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal. ... The Dimasa Kacharis greatly inhabit the northern half of the North Cachar Hills and ravines of the Jatinga valley and the adjoining tract. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... Garo is the language of the majority of the people of the Hills which bear their name in the state of Meghalaya of India. ...


Kokborok Sounds and phonetics

It is a typical Tibeto-Burmese language and consists of the following sounds:


Vowels

Vowels
  Front Central Back
High i,y   u
High-mid e    
Low-mid     ɔ
Low a    
  1. 'a' as in Father
  2. 'e' as in end
  3. 'i' as in in
  4. 'o' as in hot
  5. 'u' as in put
  6. 'w' as in German ü and French u (represented by IPA symbol y).

Original writers decided to use the letter w as a symbol for a vowel which does not exist in theEnglish. Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Consonants

Consonants
  Labial Dental Apico-
Alveolar
Lamino-
Postalveolar
Velar Glottal
Voiceless
stops
p

t̪ʰ
  ʧ k
 
Voiced
stops
b   ʤ ɡ  
Voiceless
fricatives
    s     h
Nasals m   n   ŋ  
Liquids     l, r      

The consonants are b, d, g, h, j, k, l, m, n, p, r, s, t, y along with combined consonants ch, kh, ph, th, ng.


N' is the pronunciation of the nasal sound. eg, In'-yes.


Ng is a conjoint letter and is generally used in the last syllable of a word. eg, Aming-cat; Holong-stone.


Ua is used like, uak-pig; uah-bamboo; uatwi-rain.


Uo is used like, thuo-sleeping; buo-beat.


Diphthong

A diphthong is a group of 2 vowels. The wi diphthong is spoken as ui after sounds of the letters m and p. Two examples are: chumui meaning "cloud" and thampui meaning "mosquito". The ui diphthong is a variation of the wi diphthong. Other less frequently occurring diphthongs such as oi are called closing diphthongs. A closing diphthong refers to a syllable that does not end in a consonant. In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ...


Syllables

A majority of words are formed by combining the root with an affix. Some examples are; Look up affix in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

  • kuchuk is formed from the root chuk meaning "to be high", with the prefix, ku.
  • phaidi meaning "come" is formed from the root phai, meaning "to come", with the suffix di.

There is no Kokborok word beginning with ng. At the end of a syllable, any vowel except w can be found, along with a limited amount of consonants: p, k, m, n, ng, r and l. Y is found only in closing diphthongs like ai and wi.


Clusters

"Clusters" are a group of consonants at the beginning of a syllable, like phl, ph + l, in phlat phlat" "very fast", or sl in "kungsluk kungsluk "foolish man". Clusters are quite impossible at the end of a syllable. There are some "false clusters" such as phran "to dry" which is actually phw-ran. These are very common in echo words : phlat phlat, phre phre, prai prai, prom prom, etc.


Tone

There are two tones in kokborok, a high and a low tone. To explain the high tone of a word, h letter is fixed with the syllable when the high tone is pronounced.


example: low tone High tone

  1. lai-easy laih-crossed
  2. bor-senseless bohr-to plant
  3. cha-correct chah-to eat
  4. nukhung-family nukhuhng-roof

Morphology

Morphologically kokborok words can be divided into five categories. They are the following.


(a) Original words: thang-go; phai-come; borok-man; kotor-big; kuchu-small; kwrwi-not;etc.


(b) Compound words, that is, words made of more than one original words: nai-see; thok-sweet; naithok-beautiful; mwtai-god; nog-house; mwtainog-temple; bwkha-heart; kotor-big; bwkhakotor-brave; etc.


(c) Words with suffixes: swrwng-learn; swrwngnai-learner; nugjak-seen; kaham-good; hamya- bad; etc.


(d) Naturalized loan words: gerogo-to roll; gwdna-shoulder; tebil- table; poito-faith; etc.


(e) Loan words: yar-friend; etc.


Kokborok Grammar

See full article Kokborok Grammar Kokborok is language of the Bodo sub-group of the Tibeto-Burman sub-family of the Sino-Tibetan ( Indochinese ) Linguistic family. ...


There is a clear cut difference in Kokborok between nouns and verbs. All true verbs are made with a verbal root followed by a number of suffixes, these suffixes are not placed at random but according to definite rules.


Counting and Numbering

Counting in Kokborok is called lekhamung. The basic numbers are:

1. sa
2. nwi
3. tham
4. brwi
5. ba
6. dok
7. sni
8. char
9. chuku
10. chi
20. nwichi(khol)
100. ra
101. sara sa
200. nwira
1000. sai
1001. sa sai
2000. nwi sai
10,000. chisai
20,000. nwichi sai
100,000. rasai
200,000. nwi rasai
1,000,000. chirasai
2,000,000. nwichi rasai
10,000,000. rwjak
20,000,000. nwi rwjak
1,000,000,000. rarwjak
1,000,000,000,000. Sai rarwjak
1,000,000,000,000,000,000,000. rasaisai rarwjak

Dialects

The Tripuri community consists of many tribes and sub-tribes in the Indian state of Tripura, Assam, Mizoram and the neighbouring provinces of the country Bangladesh mainly in Chittagong Division. The main tribes have their own dialects, which differ only slightly among each other, though the dialect spoken around the capital Agartala, the western dialect spoken by Debbarma tribe, is taken as the standard for teaching and in literary writings. It is understood by all the other tribes and is the lingua franca of the Hill Indigenous Tripuris in the state. It is taught as medium of instruction up to class fifth and as subject language up to Graduate level. Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... Assam   (Assamese: অসম Ôxôm) is a north eastern state of India with its capital at Dispur, a part of Guwahati. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Chittagong Division is one of the six administrative divisions of Bangladesh. ... Agartala   (Bengali: আগরতলা) is the capital of the Indian state of Tripura. ... Debbarma is the surname or the title generally used by the Tripuri peoples of Tripura state in India. ...


The tribes and their dialects are listed as follows.


1. Debbarma (Western) Debbarma is the surname or the title generally used by the Tripuri peoples of Tripura state in India. ...


2. Reang (Eastern and Southeastern) Reang or Riang, as it may be spelt, is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ...


3. Noatia or Tripura (Southern)


4. Jamatia (Central) Baba Goria celebrations of the Jamatia Hoda Jamatia is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ...


5. Darlong (Northern)


6. Koloi Koloi is one of the 21 scheduled tribes of Tripura state of India. ...


7. Molsom


8. Rupini


9. and other smaller tribes such as aiang,dahula,laitong,mrung,muslung.


Institutions and Organisations

Some Tripuri cultural oragnizations have been working fruitfully for the development of the language since the last century. Foremost among them are the : Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ...

  • KSS, Kokborok Sahitya Sabha
  • KbSS,Kokborok Sahitya Sangsad
  • HKP, Hachukni Khorang Publishers
  • KOHM,Kokborok tei Hukumu Mission
  • KA, Kokborok Academy
  • DKP, Dey Kokborok Publishers

Kokborok tei Hukumu Mission Kokborok tei Hukumu Mission was formed on August 10, 1993in India with aims to develop the Kokborok as well as the Borok or Tripuri culture in the world. ...

Statistics

KOK BOROK (TRIPURI, TRIPURA, TIPURA, MRUNG, USIPI) [TRP] 78,000 in Bangladesh (1993 Johnstone); 658,000 in India (1994 IMA); 736,000 in all countries. Sino-Tibetan, Tibeto-Burman, Baric, Konyak-Bodo-Garo, Bodo-Garo, Bodo. Dialects: JAMATIA, NOATIA, RIANG (TIPRA), HALAM, DEBBARMA.


TIPPERA (TIPPERA-BENGALI, TIPPERAH, TIPRA, TIPURA, TRIPERAH, TIPPURAH, TRIPURA) [TPE] 105,000 (1993 Johnstone). Chittagong Hills. Indo-European, Indo-Iranian, Indo-Aryan, Unclassified. Many men can speak Bengali. 36 dialects.


-Part of the Ethnologue, 13th Edition, Barbara F. Grimes, Editor, 1996, Summer Institute of Linguistics, Inc.


Script

See the article Script issues of Kokborok The issue of which script to use for the Kokborok language continues to provoke political controversy. ...


Kokborok had a script known as Koloma which has disappeared now. Since the 19th century the Kingdom of Tripura used the Bengali script for writing in Kokborok. But, since the independence of India and Tripura's merger with India the Roman Script is being promoted by non-governmental organisations. The script issue is highly politicized, with the Left Front government advocating usage of Bengali script and the Tripuri Christians and ethno-nationalists are advocating for the Roman script. It has been suggested that Robert B. Wray be merged into this article or section. ... Tripura   (Bengali: ত্রিপুরা, Hindi: त्रिपुरा) is a state in North East India. ... Left Front election propaganda in Kolkata 2004 DSP-meeting in Kolkata West Bengal Left Front Committee meeting for solidarity with Tripura Left Front is an alliance of Indian leftist parties. ... Tripuri childrens in traditional attire grouping up for song presentation A beautiful and colourful pattern of rigwnai. ...


At present both the scripts are being used in the state, in education as well as in literary and cultural circles.


See also

Kokborok language, the language of the Tripura Kingdom has gone through a decent development in the 20th century. ... Drama was brought into the Kokborok speaking population by the Yatra performers of Bengal. ... Bodo is a Tibeto-Burman language spoken by the Bodo people of north-eastern India and Nepal. ...

References

  • Pushpa Pai (Karapurkar). 1976. Kokborok Grammar. (CIIL Grammar series ; 3). Mysore: Central Inst. of Indian Languages.
  • Dr. François Jacquesson. 2003. Kokborok, a short analysis. [1] Paris.
  • Binoy Debbarma. 2002. Anglo-Kokborok-Bengali Dictionary. 2nd edition. Agartala: Kokborok Tei Hukumu Mission (KOHM).

External links

  • www.boroksite.com A kokborok site for news and literature.
  • Script Issue and Kokborok Identity
  • Online Kokborok Dictionary In Delhi Tripura Society website
  • www.tripurasociety.org Website of Delhi Tripura Soceity—
  • twipra.com A website about Twipra (Tripura in kokborok).
  • ethnologue.com Ethnologue website entry for kokborok language
  • [2] Deccan Herald Article concerning the Script Issue.
  • tripuranews.co.uk Tripura news website in Kokborok.

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Dispatch - Serving the Lexington, NC - News (1063 words)
Kokborok existed in its various forms since at least the 1st century AD, when the historical record of Tripuri Kings began to be written down.
Kokborok was relegated to a common people's dialect during the rule of the Tripuri Kings in the Kingdom of Tripura, in contrast to Bengali language, from the period of the 14th century till the 20th century.
Kokborok is a Tibeto-Burman language falling under the Sino-Tibetan language family of East Asia and South East Asia.
Kokborok language - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1079 words)
Kokborok was relegated to a common people's dialect during the rule of the Tripuri Kings in the Kingdom of Tripura, in contrast to Bengali language, from the period of the 14th century till the 20th century.
Kokborok got recognised as an official language of Tripura state only in 1979 AD and is being now considered for recognition as a National language of India.
Kokborok is a Tibeto-Burman language falling under the Sino-Tibetan language family of East Asia and South East Asia.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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