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Nishikigoi
Cyprinus carpio
Cyprinus carpio
Conservation status
Secure
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Cypriniformes
Family: Cyprinidae
Genus: Cyprinus
Species: C. carpio
Binomial name
Cyprinus carpio
(Linnaeus, 1758)
"Koi" can also mean a virtual pet species in Neopets.

Koi (?) (IPA: /kɔɪ/), or more specifically nishikigoi (錦鯉?) (IPA: [niɕikigoi], literally "brocaded carp"), are ornamental domesticated varieties of the common carp Cyprinus carpio. They are believed to have originated from Eastern Asia, Aral, Black and Caspian Seas. Earliest records of Koi have been found in China and have been widely spread in Japan. The ornamental cultivation of carp flourished under the Chinese Qing Dynasty and Japanese Edo Period. They are very closely related to goldfish and, in fact, the style of breeding and ornamentation has become very similar, probably through the efforts of Japanese breeders to emulate goldfish. Koi and tattoos of koi are traditionally considered lucky. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 1. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... Orders See text The Actinopterygii are the ray-finned fish. ... Families Suborder Cobitoidea     Balitoridae (hillstream loaches)     Catostomidae (suckers)     Cobitidae (loaches)     Gyrinocheilidae (algae eaters) Suborder Cyprinoidea     Cyprinidae (carps and minnows) The Cypriniformes are an order of ray-finned fish, including the minnows and some related families. ... Genera (many, see text) The family Cyprinidae, named after the Greek word for goldfish, consists of the carps and minnows. ... Cyprinus is a genus of carps (family Cyprinidae) most notable for its widespread member, the common carp (Cyprinus carpio). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... Neopets (originally NeoPets) is a virtual pet website launched by Adam Powell and Donna Williams on November 15, 1999. ... Wikisource has an original article from the 1911 Encyclopædia Britannica about: Brocade Brocade is a class of richly decorative shuttle-woven fabrics, often made in coloured silks and with or without gold and silver threads. ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) The Common carp or European carp (Cyprinus carpio) is a widespread freshwater fish distantly related to the common goldfish (Carassius auratus), with which it is capable of interbreeding[1]. It gives its name to the carp family Cyprinidae. ... Flag (1890-1912) Anthem Gong Jinou (1911) Qing China at its greatest extent. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... Trinomial name Carassius auratus auratus (Linnaeus, 1758) For the baked snack crackers, please see Goldfish (snack). ... For other uses, see Tattoo (disambiguation). ...


The word "koi" comes from the Japanese. The original Japanese word koi simply means "carp," including both the dull grey fish and the brightly colored varieties. A homophone of koi means 'love, affection' and koi are therefore symbols of love and friendship in Japan: a good example is the short story Koi-san by Mukoda Kuniko.


While a 4th century Chinese book of the Western Jin Dynasty mentions carp with various colors, koi breeding first became popular in the 19th century in the Niigata prefecture of Japan. Farmers working the rice fields would notice that some carp were more brightly colored than others, capture them, and raise them. By the 20th century, a number of color patterns had been established, most notably the red-and-white Kohaku. The outside world did not become aware of the degree of development until 1914, when the Niigata koi were exhibited in the annual exposition in Tokyo. At that point, interest in koi exploded throughout Japan. The hobby of keeping koi spread worldwide after plastic bags and shipping of koi became both fast and safe for the fish. These factors enabled koi to be shipped worldwide with low mortality rates. Koi are now commonly sold in most pet stores, with higher-quality fish available from specialist dealers. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 4th century was that century which lasted from 301 to 400. ... The Jin Dynasty (晉 pinyin jìn, 265-420) followed the Three Kingdoms and preceded the Southern and Northern Dynasties in China. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Niigata Prefecture ) is located on HonshÅ« island on the coast of the Sea of Japan. ... For other uses, see Rice (disambiguation). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Year 1914 (MCMXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ...


Koi varieties are distinguished by coloration, patterning, and scalation. Ghost koi, developed in the 1980s are metallic hybrids of wild carp and Ogon koi and are not considered true Nishikigoi. Butterfly koi, Longfin koi, or Dragon Carp were also developed in the 1980s and are notable for their long and flowing fins. They are actually hybrids with Asian carp and, like Ghost koi, are not considered true Nishikigoi. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... This article is about a biological term. ... Butterfly Koi, Longfin Koi, or Dragon Carp are a type of ornamental fish notable for their elongated finnage. ... There are several species of fish known as Asian carp. ...

Contents

Varieties

Koi varieties
Koi varieties

Koi have many different colors. Some of the major colors are white, black, red, yellow, blue, and cream. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x1000, 129 KB) Summary Forever-Mango. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x1000, 129 KB) Summary Forever-Mango. ...


While possible variations are limitless, breeders have identified and named a number of specific categories. The most popular category is Gosanke. The Gosanke category is made up of the Kohaku, Taisho Sanshoku, and Showa Sanshoku varieties. The Japanese breeders have many generations of knowledge and experience when it comes to breeding and raising Nishikigoi. They know which ones will be worth hundreds of dollars and which ones will be worth thousands of dollars.


The major named varieties include:

  • Kohaku - a white-skinned Koi, with a red pattern
  • Taisho Sanshoku (Sanke) - a white-skinned Koi with a red and black pattern
  • Showa Sanshoku (Showa) - a black-skinned Koi with a red and white pattern
  • Tancho - Any koi with the only red being in a circle on its forehead. The fish can be a Tancho Showa, Tancho Sanke, or even Tancho Goshiki
  • Asagi - a Koi with light blue scales on its top and red scales on its bottom
  • Shusui - the partially scaled version of an Asagi
  • Bekko - a white, red, or yellow-skinned Koi with a black pattern
  • Utsurimono - a black Koi with a red, white, or yellow pattern
  • Goshiki - a mostly black Koi with red, white, brown, and blue accents
  • Ogon - a Koi that is one solid color, can be regular or metallic; known colors - red, orange, platinum, yellow and cream
  • Kin Gin Rin - a Koi with shiny scales. The name translates into English as "Gold Silver Scales" There are also Gin Rin versions of almost any other type of koi.
  • Kawarimono (kawarigoi) - Miscellaneous types of Koi
  • Doitsu-goi - German Carp
  • Koromo - Koi with areas of blue-edged scales aligned neatly
  • Hikari-Moyomono - Koi with coloured patterns over a metallic base, and koi in two metallic colours
  • Ghost koi - "Hybrid" of Ogon and wild carp. Not Nishikigoi.
  • Butterfly koi - Long-finned version of all others. Not Nishikigoi.

Butterfly Koi, Longfin Koi, or Dragon Carp are a type of ornamental fish notable for their elongated finnage. ...

Keeping

Japanese koi in a backyard pond.
Japanese koi in a backyard pond.
A group of several varieties of Koi.
A group of several varieties of Koi.

The common carp is a hardy fish, and koi retain that durability. Koi are cold-water fish, so it's advisable to have a meter or more of depth in areas of the world that become warm during the summer. In areas that get harsh winters, it is a good idea to have a pond that is a minimum of 1.5 meters (4 1/2 feet) deep so that it won't freeze solid. It is also a good idea to keep a space open with a bubbler and a horse trough heater.
Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Goldfish2. ... Goldfish2. ...

Traditional Japanese garden with koi.
Traditional Japanese garden with koi.

Koi's bright colors put them at a severe disadvantage against predators; a white-skinned Kohaku is a visual dinner bell against the dark green of a pond. Herons, kingfishers, raccoons, cats, foxes, and badgers are all capable of emptying a pond of its fish. A well-designed outdoor pond will have areas too deep for herons to stand in, overhangs high enough above the water that mammals can't reach in, and shade trees overhead to block the view of aerial passers-by. It may prove necessary to string nets or wires above the surface. The pond should include a pump and filtration system to keep the water clear. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (795x1158, 214 KB) Japanese water garden with Koi carp pond. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (795x1158, 214 KB) Japanese water garden with Koi carp pond. ... This view from the Symbolic Mountain Lookout in Cowra, NSW shows many of the typical elements of a Japanese garden Stone lantern amid plants. ... For other uses, see Heron (disambiguation). ... Families Alcedinidae Halcyonidae Cerylidae Kingfishers are birds of the three families Alcedinidae (river kingfishers), Halcyonidae (tree kingfishers), and Cerylidae (water kingfishers). ... Binomial name (Linnaeus, 1758) Common Raccoon native range in red, feral range in blue. ... Binomial name Felis catus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis lybica invalid junior synonym The cat (or domestic cat, house cat) is a small carnivorous mammal. ... This article is about the animal. ... For other uses, see Badger (disambiguation). ... This article is about a mechanical device. ... Look up filtration in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Koi are an omnivorous fish and will often eat a wide variety of foods, including peas, lettuce, and watermelon.[1] Koi food is designed not only to be nutritionally balanced, but also to float so as to encourage them to come to the surface. When they are eating, it is possible to check them for parasites and ulcers. Koi will recognize the person feeding them and gather around at dinnertime. They can even be trained to take the food from one's hand. In the winter their digestive system slows nearly to a halt, and they eat very little, perhaps no more than nibbles of algae from the bottom. Their appetite won't come back until the water warms up in the spring. When the temperature drops below 50 degrees Fahrenheit (10 °C), feeding, particularly with protein, should be halted or the food can go rancid in their stomach causing sickness.


If kept properly, koi can live about 30–40 years. Some have reportedly lived up to 200 years.[2]


Breeding

Koi in Japan
Koi in Japan

Like most fish, koi reproduce through spawning in which a female lays a vast number of eggs and one or more males fertilize them. Nurturing the resulting offspring (referred to as fry) is a tricky and tedious job, usually done only by professionals. Although a koi breeder may carefully select the parents they wish based on their desired characteristics, the resulting fry will nonetheless exhibit a wide range of color and quality. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2250x1786, 3570 KB) Summary Carp swim in Japan. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (2250x1786, 3570 KB) Summary Carp swim in Japan. ...


Unlike a purebred dog or cat, even the finest champion-grade koi will produce literally thousands of unacceptable, unrecognizable, or even genetically defective offspring in a single spawning. These (and hundreds of marginal offspring) are culled at various stages based on the breeder's expert eye and closely guarded techniques.


Culled fry are usually destroyed (perhaps fed to other fish) and older culls are often sold as lower-grade "pond-quality" koi within their first year (also called "Tosai") at 3"–6" long. The semi-randomized result of the koi's reproductive process is both a blessing and a curse. While it requires diligent oversight to narrow down the favorable result that the breeder wanted all along, it also made possible the gradual transformation of wild river carp into the exquisite art form seen in modern nishikigoi.


In the wild

Koi have been accidentally or deliberately released into the wild in every continent except Antarctica. They greatly increase the turbidity of the water because they are constantly stirring up the substrate. This makes waterways unattractive, reduces the abundance of aquatic plants, and can render the water unsuitable for swimming or drinking even by livestock. In some countries, koi have caused so much damage to waterways that vast amounts of money and effort have been spent trying to eradicate them, largely unsuccessfully. Because of the danger to the environment koi possession is illegal in many parts of America, South America and Australia.


Gallery

References

  1. ^ Olympic Koi, Goldfish & Water Garden Club, "About Koi Fish", 2004 outlines of Koi diet and other Koi information
  2. ^ Dr. Komei Koshihara, "The Story of Hanako", NHK, 1966 - about the carp that died at 226-years-old, and century-old carps
  • "Cyprinus carpio". FishBase. Ed. Ranier Froese and Daniel Pauly. 10 2005 version. N.p.: FishBase, 2005.
  • George C. Blasiola (1995). Koi: everything about selection, care, nutrition, diseases, breeding, pond design and maintenance, and popular aquatic plants. Hauppauge, New York: Barron's Educational Series. ISBN 0-8120-3568-2. 
  • David Twigg (2001). How to Keep Koi. New York: Howell Book House. ISBN 0-7645-6242-8. 

FishBase is a comprehensive database of information about fish. ... Hauppauge (pronounced ) is a hamlet in the Town of Islip and the Town of Smithtown in Suffolk County, New York, United States. ... Barrons Educational Series, Inc. ...

External links and further readings

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Koi for Sale, Japanese Koi and Butterfly Koi (2079 words)
The Koi you will receive are checked for health on a regular basis by doing random serum testing of all Koi by a state certified Veterinarian.
Decorative Koi are a favorite for people who want to have beautiful colors in their garden ponds but are not fussy about strict grading criteria.
Koi may have one or two sets of barbels which is acceptable.
Koi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1369 words)
Koi (鯉, Rōmaji: koi, pronounced /kɔɪ/) are ornamental domesticated varieties of the common carp Cyprinus carpio, originated from China and widely spread in Japan.
Butterfly Koi, Longfin Koi, or Dragon Carp developed in the 1980s and notable for their long and flowing fins, are actually hybrids with Asian carp, and not considered true Nishikigoi.
Koi are cold water fish, so it's advisable to have a meter or more of depth in areas of the world that become warm during the summer.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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