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Encyclopedia > Kohen
Position of the kohen's hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing
Position of the kohen's hands and fingers during the Priestly Blessing

A kohen (or cohen, Hebrew כּהן, "priest", pl. כּהנִים, kohanim or cohanim), is assumed to be a direct male descendant of the Biblical Aaron, brother of Moses. Another term for the descendants of Aaron are the Aaronites. // Cohen (Hebrew: kōhÄ“n, means: A Priest) is a Jewish surname of biblical origins (see: Kohen). ... Download high resolution version (800x800, 58 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (800x800, 58 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Priestly Blessing, (in Hebrew: Birkat Kohanim, ברכת כהנים) is a Jewish ceremony and prayer recited during certain specific Jewish services. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ... Moses with the Tablets, 1659, by Rembrandt This article is about the Biblical figure. ...


During the existence of the Temple in Jerusalem, kohanim performed specific duties vis-à-vis the daily and festival sacrificial offerings. The Kohen Gadol (High Priest) played a special role during the service of Yom Kippur. Today, kohanim retain a distinct personal status within Judaism and are still bound by special laws in Orthodox and, to a lesser extent, in Conservative Jewish communities. The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Korban (קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) is a Jewish practice of sacrificing an animal or of making an offering at the Temple. ... Even in death, many Kohanim choose to have this symbol, the special positioning of their fingers and hands during the Priestly Blessing, placed as a crest or symbol on their gravestones to indicate their status. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ...

Contents

Biblical origins

The status of kohen was first conferred on Aaron, the brother of Moses, and his direct male descendants, by God (Exodus 28:1-4) as an "everlasting office". During the 40 years in which the Jews wandered in the wilderness and until the Holy Temple was built in Jerusalem, kohanim performed their service in the portable Tabernacle (Exodus 1:47-54,Exodus 3:5-13,Exodus 3:44-51; Exodus 8:5–26). Their duties involved offering the daily and Jewish holiday sacrifices, collectively known as the korbanot in Hebrew, and blessing the people in a ceremony known as Nesiat Kapayim ("raising of the hands"), the ceremony of the Priestly Blessing. The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ... Korban (קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) is a Jewish practice of sacrificing an animal or of making an offering at the Temple. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The Priestly Blessing, (in Hebrew: Birkat Kohanim, ברכת כהנים) is a Jewish ceremony and prayer recited during certain specific Jewish services. ...


When the First and Second Temples were built, the kohanim assumed these same roles in these permanent structures, located on the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, Israel. They were divided into 24 work groups of seven to nine priests each. Those who served changed every Shabbat, but on the biblical festivals all twenty-four were present in the Temple. Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... A stone (2. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... A Jewish holiday or Jewish Festival is a day or series of days observed by Jews as holy or secular commemorations of important events in Jewish history. ...


Because Aaron was a member of the Tribe of Levi, all kohanim are levites, as tribal membership passes via patrilineal descent. However, not all levites are kohanim. Most of the Temple service (i.e. the korbanot) could be conducted only by kohanim. Non-kohen levites (i.e. all those who descend from Levi, the son of Jacob, but not from Aaron) provide a variety of other Temple roles, most notably providing music and songs (Psalms) to accompany the Temple ceremonies but also a variety of other duties including standing guard over the Temple and Temple Mount, construction, maintenance, and assisting the kohanim by washing their hands and feet before services. During the era of the Tabernacle, the levites were employed in caring for and transporting the Tabernacle between travel destinations. An Israelite is a member of the Twelve Tribes of Israel, descended from the twelve sons of the Biblical patriarch Jacob who was renamed Israel by God in the book of Genesis, 32:28 The Israelites were a group of Hebrews, as described in the Bible. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לֵוִי Attached, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לוי Attached, Standard Hebrew Levi, Tiberian Hebrew Lēwî) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi (songs sung to a harp, originally from psallein play on a stringed instrument), Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ...


Qualifications and disqualifications

In biblical times, kohanim assumed their duties at the age of 20 and retired from active service at the age of 60. The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ...


Certain imperfections could disqualify a kohen from serving in the Temple. Since the Temple was a place of beauty and the services that were held in it were designed to inspire visitors to thoughts of repentance and closeness to God, a less than physically perfect kohen would mar the atmosphere. Temple of Hephaestus, an Doric Greek temple in Athens with the original entrance facing east, 449 BC (western face depicted) For other uses, see Temple (disambiguation). ...


These blemishes include:

  1. blindness
  2. lameness
  3. an excessively low nasal bridge (such that a straight brush could apply ointment to both eyes simultaneously)
  4. disproportionate limbs
  5. a crippled foot or hand
  6. eyebrows that grow profusely
  7. cataracts
  8. a white streak that transverses the junction between sclera (white part of the eyeball) and iris
  9. certain types of boils
  10. crushed testicles

This, however, is not a comprehensive list (Leviticus 21:18-20, and Rashi, ibid.) A kohen who was afflicted with one of these imperfections was held unfit for service. However, should it be a correctable imperfection, the kohen would become eligible for service should the defect be corrected. At any time, he was permitted to eat of the holy food (same source as above, including adjacent verses and commentaries). In addition, kohanim with these blemishes would be assigned to secondary roles in the Temple outside of performing the service itself. Blindness is the condition of lacking visual perception due to physiological or psychological factors. ... (adj. ... Cataract is also used to mean a waterfall or where the flow of a river changes dramatically. ... Schematic diagram of the human eye. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... In anatomy, the iris (plural irises or irides) is the most visible part of the eye of vertebrates, including humans. ... Boil or furuncle is a skin disease caused by the inflammation of hair follicles, thus resulting in the localized accumulation of pus and dead tissues. ... The testicle (from Latin testis, meaning witness [1], plural testes) is the male generative gland in animals. ... Terumah is a Hebrew word signifying gift, offering or donation. Historically, the Israelites would submit this tithe to the Kohanim during the times of the Temple in Jerusalem . ...


The kohanim were rewarded for their role in the Temple and their special status through 24 special "priestly gifts." These were:[1]

  • Gifts given in the Temple area were portions of:
  1. an animal brought as a sin-offering
  2. a bird brought as a sin-offering
  3. a burnt-offering
  4. an offering for uncertain guilt
  5. a peace offering
  6. the olive oil offering of a metzora
  7. the two loaves of bread brought on Shavuot
  8. the Showbread
  9. the Mincha offerings
  10. the Omer offering
  • Gifts given within the walls of Jerusalem were:
  1. the firstborn of any domestic kosher animal
  2. the Bikkurim (first fruits)
  3. the inner organs of certain offerings
  4. the skins of certain offerings
  • Gifts which could be given inside or outside Jerusalem were:
  1. Terumah (a portion of the harvest)
  2. Terumat Ma'aser (a tithe of the levite’s tithe)
  3. Challah (a portion of dough)
  4. the first shearing of the sheep
  5. the right front leg, the jaw, and the stomach of all non-sanctified, ritually slaughtered domestic animals
  6. Pidyon HaBen (five silver shekels for the redemption of a firstborn Israelite son)
  7. a sheep or goat redeemed for a firstborn donkey
  8. a property or possession dedicated to the Temple without specifying to which use it is to be given
  9. inherited fields that were dedicated to the Temple and not reclaimed
  10. the theft repayment to a convert who has died, leaving no heirs.

Females were never allowed to serve in the Tabernacle or the Temple. They were permitted to consume or derive benefit from some of the 24 priestly gifts. If a kohen's daughter married a man from outside the kohanic line, she was no longer permitted to consume these priestly gifts. Conversely, the daughter of a non-priest who married a kohen took on the same rights as an unmarried daughter of a kohen. Shavuot, also spelled Shavuos (Hebrew: שבועות (Israeli Heb. ... Showbread, shewbread, Schaubrot, lechem (hap)pānīm(לחם פנים) refers to the twelve cakes or loaves of bread which were continually present on the Table of Shewbread in the Jewish Temple as an offering to YHWH. // Composition and Presentation Biblical Data: Twelve cakes, with two-tenths of an ephah in each... Counting of the Omer (or Sefirat Haomer, Hebrew: ספירת העומר) within Judaism, is a verbal counting with a blessing during the 49 days between Pesach (Passover) and Shavuot (Pentecost) which are counted ceremoniously as a commemoration of the Omer ceremony which was celebrated in the Temple in Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Zeraim (זרעים) is the first Order of the Mishnah (and Tosefta and Talmud). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Terumah is a Hebrew word signifying gift, offering or donation. Historically, the Israelites would submit this tithe to the Kohanim during the times of the Temple in Jerusalem . ... Terumat HaMaaser, which along with Teruma Gedola was known in the Talmud simply as Terumah, refers to a tithe on produce grown in the Land of Israel of a tenth of a tenth (one percent), that was given to and could be eaten by Kohanim (priests) in the days of... A tithe (from Old English teogoþa tenth) is a one-tenth part of something, paid as a (usually) voluntary contribution or as a tax or levy, usually to support a Jewish or Christian religious organization. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לֵוִי Attached, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ... Two homemade whole-wheat challos resting under a traditional embroidered Shabbat challah cover Challah, hallah (חלה), Barches (German and western Yiddish), Barkis (Gothenburg), Bergis (Stockholm), khala (Russian), khale (eastern Yiddish), kitke (South African Jewish)[1] is a traditional Ashkenazi Jewish braided bread eaten on Shabbat and Jewish holidays except Passover, when... Redemption of First-born (pidyon ha-ben in Hebrew), is an important ritual in Judaism. ... Silver half-shekel struck in the Greek colony of Taras, during the Punic occupation. ... “The Twelve Tribes” redirects here. ... The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ( משכן Place of [Divine] dwelling). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Hebrews from the time they left ancient Egypt following the Exodus, through the time of the Book of Judges when they were engaged in conquering...


Kohen Gadol

Main article: Kohen Gadol

In every generation when the Temple was standing, one kohen would be singled out to perform the functions of Kohen Gadol (High Priest). His main job was the Yom Kippur service, but he did offer a daily meal sacrifice, and he had the prerogative to supersede any kohen and offer any offering he chose. A Kohen Gadol may only marry a virgin. Although Orthodox Judaism retains a procedure to select a Kohen Gadol when needed, there is no Kohen Gadol today, in the absence of a Temple. Even in death, many Kohanim choose to have this symbol, the special positioning of their fingers and hands during the Priestly Blessing, placed as a crest or symbol on their gravestones to indicate their status. ... Yom Kippur (IPA: ; Hebrew:יוֹם כִּפּוּר, IPA: ) is the Jewish holiday of the Day of Atonement. ...


Ritual defilement

Main article: Tumah

The kohanim formed a holy order. For the purpose of protecting them against ritual defilement, the Torah imposed on the following rules for ritual purity. Tumah is a state of ritual impurity in Halakha (Jewish law). ...

  • Kohanim are forbidden to come in contact with dead bodies, nor are they permitted to perform the customary mourning rites. They are commanded, however, to become defiled for their closest relatives: father, mother, brother, unmarried sister, child or wife.
  • A kohen is forbidden to enter any house or enclosure, or approach any spot, in which a dead body, or part of a dead body, may be found (Leviticus 10:6, Leviticus 21:1–5; Ezekiel 44:20, Ezekiel 44:25). Practical examples of these prohibitions include: not entering a cemetery or attending a funeral; not being under the same roof (i.e. in a home or hospital) as a dead body. The exact rules and regulations of defilement are quite complex, but a cursory rule of thumb is that they may not enter a room with a dead person or come within a few feet of the body. Proximity to the corpse of a non-Jew is less serious and may only be an issue if actual contact is established. Competent rabbinical authority should be consulted for each and every situation.
  • A kohen is forbidden to touch anyone or anything that has been made ritually unclean through contact with the dead.
  • A male kohen may not marry a divorcee, a prostitute, a convert, or a dishonored woman ( Leviticus 21:7). Any kohen who enters into such a marriage loses his priestly status while in that marriage. The kohen is not allowed to "choose to forgo his status" and marry a woman prohibited to him (Leviticus 21:6-7).
  • According to the Talmud, if a kohen marries in disregard of the above prohibitions, his marriage is still effective. Any children born of the union are legitimate and not mamzer. However, these children are termed chalal ("defiled") and lose their kohen status permanently.
  • The Kohen Gadol must marry a virgin.
  • During the period of the Holy Temple, kohanim were required to abstain from wine and all strong drink while performing their priestly duties (Leviticus 10:9; Ezekiel 44:21).

Castle Ashby Graveyard Northamptonshire A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the record label, see Divorce Records. ... Prostitution is the sale of sexual services (typically manual stimulation, oral sex, sexual intercourse, or anal sex) for cash or other kind of return, generally indiscriminately with many persons. ...

Exceptions to rules of defilement

The Talmud prescribes that if any kohen—even the Kohen Gadol—finds a corpse by the wayside, and there is no one else in the area who can be called upon to bury it, then the kohen himself must perform the burial (meis mitzvah).


The Talmud also orders the kohen to defile himself in the case of the death of a nasi (rabbinic leader of a religious academy). The Talmud relates that when Judah haNasi died, the priestly laws concerning defilement through contact with the dead were suspended for the day of his death. Judah haNasi, or more accurately in Hebrew, Yehudah HaNasi, was a key leader of the Jewish community of Judea under the Roman empire, toward the end of the 2nd century CE. He was reputedly from the Davidic line of the royal line from King David, hence his title Prince (Nasi...


Current status of rules of defilement

While all branches of Judaism which accept Halakha recognize the rules in principle, they differ considerably in their practical application. Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ...

  • Conservative Judaism has issued an emergency Takkanah (Rabbinical edict) temporarily suspending the application of the rules in their entirety, on grounds that the high intermarriage rate in that community threatens the survival of Judaism, and hence that any marriage between Jews is welcomed.
  • Modern Orthodox Judaism recognizes the rules as being in full force, but in practice seeks leniencies with respect to some of the rules' strictures, and tends to resolve at least some doubts in favor of permitting a marriage.
  • Haredi Judaism tends to interpret the rules strictly. and tends to resolve doubts in favor of preserving the purity of the priesthood.

Areas where Modern and Haredi Orthodox approaches might create different results include situations where a woman has been raped, kidnapped or held hostage, descendants of converts whose Judaism status turned out to be subject to doubt, ambiguous prior dating histories, and other potentially ambiguous or difficult situations. Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... Modern Orthodox Judaism (or Modern Orthodox or Modern Orthodoxy; sometimes abbreviated as MO or Modox) is a movement within Orthodox Judaism that attempts to synthesize traditional observance and values with the secular, modern world. ... Haredi or chareidi Judaism is the most theologically conservative form of Orthodox Judaism. ...


Rape poses an especially poignant problem. The pain experienced by the families of Kohanim who were required to divorce their wives as the result of the rapes accompanying the capture of Jerusalem is alluded to in this Mishnah:

If a woman were imprisoned by non-Jews concerning money affairs, she is permitted to her husband, but if for some capital offense, she is forbidden to her husband. If a town were overcome by besieging troops, all women of priestly stock found in it are ineligible [to be married to priests or to remain married to priests], but if they had witnesses, even a slave, or even a bondswoman, these may be believed. But no man may be believed for himself. Rabbi Zechariah ben Hakatsab said, "By this Temple, her hand did not stir from my hand from the time the non-Jews entered Jerusalem until they went out." They said to him: No man may give evidence of himself. Mishnah Ketubot 2:9

The Mishnah (Hebrew משנה, repetition) is a major source of rabbinic Judaisms religious texts. ... A ketubah is a Jewish marriage contract. ...

Kohanim today

Today, the status of kohen is assumed by anyone who has a family tradition to that effect. Until the eighteenth century in Europe (nineteenth century in Yemen) many kohanim could accurately trace their lineage back to a verifiable Kohen such as Ezra. Today, families may verify their priestly lineage via the tombstones of deceased ancestors, as the universal symbol of the hands arranged for the Priestly Blessing is a time-honored engraving for the tombstones of kohanim. Simply having the family name of "Cohen", or "Kahanowitz" ("son of Cohen") is not proof enough, as emigration, assimilation and intermarriage have conferred the name on non-priestly individuals (and even non-Jewish descendants) as well. (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Site traditionally described as the tomb of Ezra at Al Uzayr near Basra. ... The Priestly Blessing, (in Hebrew: Birkat Kohanim, ברכת כהנים) is a Jewish ceremony and prayer recited during certain specific Jewish services. ...


Orthodox Judaism maintains a belief in and hope for a restoration of a Third Temple in Jerusalem, and Kohanim are regarded as retaining their original sanctity, and some elements of their original roles and responsibilities, and having a status of waiting in readiness for future service in a restored Temple. Other denominations of Judaism have different attitudes towards Kohanim, depending on their attitudes towards a Temple and Temple worship. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ...


In Orthodox Judaism and to some extent in Conservative Judaism, Kohanim maintain their special status in the following areas of modern life: Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ...


Synagogue aliyah

After the destruction of the Second Temple and the suspension of sacrificial offerings, the formal role of priests in sacrificial services came to an end, whether temporary or permanent. However, kohanim retain a formal and public ceremonial role in synagogue prayer services, which were established as a substitute for or reminder of the sacrifices themselves ("Take with you words, and return unto the LORD; say unto Him: "Forgive all iniquity, and accept that which is good; so will we render for bullocks the offering of our lips..." (Hosea 14:3).


Every Monday, Thursday and Shabbat in Orthodox synagogues (and many Conservative ones as well), a portion from the Torah is read aloud in the original Hebrew in front of the congregation. On weekdays, this reading is divided into three; it is customary to call a kohen for the first reading (aliyah), a levite for the second reading, and a member of any other Tribe of Israel to the third reading. On Shabbat, the reading is divided into seven portions; a kohen is called for the first aliyah and a levite to the second. This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; Hebrew: beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: , shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


If a kohen is not present, it is customary in many communities for a levite to take the first aliyah "bimkom Kohen" (in the place of a Kohen) and an Israelite the second and succeeding ones. This custom is not required by Halakha (Jewish religious law), however, and Israelites may be called up for all aliyot. It is considered beneath the kohen's dignity to call him up for any of the other aliyot, although he may be called for maftir, which is not technically one of the seven aliyot. In Orthodox Jewish circles, this custom has the status of law. The late 12th and early 13th century Rabbi Meir of Rothenberg ruled that in a community consisting entirely of Kohanim, the prohibition on calling Kohanim for anything but the first two and maftir aliyot creates a deadlock situation which should be resolved by calling women to the Torah for all the intermediate aliyot. Dr. Joel B. Wolowelsky, an author on the topic of the role of women in Judaism, has recently endorsed relying on this authority to permit the deliberate creation of minyanim composed entirely of Kohanim for the express purpose of giving women an opportunity to have an aliyah to the Torah in an Orthodox setting.[1] Halakha (Hebrew: הלכה; also transliterated as Halakhah, Halacha, Halakhot and Halachah with pronunciation emphasis on the third syllable, kha), is the collective corpus of Jewish religious law, including biblical law (the 613 mitzvot) and later talmudic and rabbinic law as well as customs and traditions. ... Maftir is the final section of the weekly parsha read on Shabbat and holiday mornings in synagogue from a Torah scroll. ... Dr. Joel B. Wolowelsky is the Dean of the Faculty at Yeshivah of Flatbush high school, and an author on topics pertaining to the role of women in Judaism and halakhic medical ethics. ... The role of women in Judaism is determined by the Hebrew Bible, Talmud (oral law), tradition and by non-religious cultural factors. ...


The Conservative Rabbinical Assembly's Committee on Jewish Law and Standards (CJLS), consistent with the Conservative movement's general view of the role of Kohanim, has ruled that the practice of calling a Kohen to the first aliyah represents a custom rather than a law, and that accordingly, a Conservative rabbi is not obligated to follow it. As such, in some Conservative synagogues, this practice is not followed. Conservative Judaism, (also known as Masorti Judaism in Israel predominantly), is a modern stream of Judaism that arose out of intellectual currents in Germany in the mid-19th century and took institutional form in the United States in the early 1900s. ... Originally set up as the alumni association of the Jewish Theological Seminary of America (JTS), the Rabbinical Assembly (RA) is the official, international body of Conservative rabbis, with some 1400 members. ... The Committee on Jewish Law and Standards is the central authority on halakha (Jewish law and tradition) within Conservative Judaism; it is one of the most active and widely known committees on the Conservative movements Rabbinical Assembly. ...


Priestly blessing

Main article: Priestly Blessing

All of the kohanim participating in an Orthodox prayer service must also deliver the Priestly Blessing, called Nesiat Kapayim, during the repetition of the Shemoneh Esrei. The text of this blessing is found in Numbers 6:23-27. They perform this rite by standing in the front of the synagogue, facing the congregation, with their arms held outwards and their hands and fingers in a specific formation. In Israel, the Priestly Blessing is delivered daily; outside of Israel, Askenazi Jews deliver it only on Shabbat and Jewish holidays of biblical origin. The Priestly Blessing, (in Hebrew: Birkat Kohanim, ברכת כהנים) is a Jewish ceremony and prayer recited during certain specific Jewish services. ... The Priestly Blessing, (in Hebrew: Birkat Kohanim, ברכת כהנים) is a Jewish ceremony and prayer recited during certain specific Jewish services. ... This entry is concerned with a prayer in the Jewish liturgy known as the Amidah (Standing) or the Shemoneh Esreh (The Eighteen.) Prayers in the weekday Amidah The prayers of the weekday Amidah are: Known as Avot (Ancestors) this prayer offers praise of God as the God of the Biblical...


Orthodox Judaism does not permit a bat kohen (daughter of a kohen) or bat levi (daughter of a levite) to participate in Nesiat Kapayim. The reason is that Nesiat Kapayim ("the raising of the hands") performed today is a direct continuation of the Temple ritual, and should be performed by those who were authentically eligible to do so in the Temple.


Regarding the ritual of the Priestly Blessing, the Conservative Movement's CJLS has also approved two positions. One view holds that a bat kohen may deliver the blessing; another view holds that a bat kohen is not permitted to participate in the Priestly Blessing because it is a continuation of a Temple ritual which women were not eligible to perform (Rabbis Stanley Bramnick and Judah Kagen, 1994; and a responsa by the Va'ad Halakha of the Masorti movement, Rabbi Reuven Hammer, 5748) The Committee on Jewish Law and Standards is the central authority on halakha (Jewish law and tradition) within Conservative Judaism; it is one of the most active and widely known committees on the Conservative movements Rabbinical Assembly. ...


The majority of Reform Jews and Reconstructionist Jews consider all rules and ceremonies regarding the priesthood to be outdated. Many consider it to be anti-egalitarian, and thus discriminatory against Jews who are not kohanim. Therefore the honors given to the kohen during the Torah reading and in the performance of the Priestly Blessing are not observed in Reform or Reconstructionist Jewish communities. Many Reform and Reconstructionist Temples effectively forbid the practice of these laws and customs. Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ...


Pidyon Haben

Main article: Pidyon HaBen

Outside the synagogue, kohanim serve the unique distinction of leading the Pidyon Haben, the symbolic Redemption of the First-born ceremony for first-born male sons. This mitzvah is based on the Torah commandment, "and you shall redeem all the firstborn of man among your sons." (Exodus 13:13) Pidyon HaBen (Hebrew: פדיון הבן) is the redemption of the first-born, a ritual in Judaism. ... Redemption of First-born (pidyon ha-ben in Hebrew), is an important ritual in Judaism. ...


In Orthodox and Conservative circles, this ceremony is conducted as part of a festive meal. The kohen first washes his hands and breaks bread, then calls for the father and the baby. The baby is typically brought in dressed in white and bedecked with gold jewelry, which the women in attendance contribute to beautify this mitzvah. The kohen then engages the father in a formal dialogue, asking him whether he prefers to keep his money or his son. At the end of this exchange, the father hands over five silver coins (There is a debate about how much this should be in contemporary money. According to some calculations, this would be equal to approximately 101 grams of silver. It is a general custom to give a value more than what this would be worth, to enhance the mitzvah), and the kohen blesses him and his son. Though this ceremony should be conducted when the child is 31 days old, a first-born male who was never redeemed via Pidyon Haben may redeem himself later in life through a similar interaction with a kohen. This article is about commandments in Judaism. ... General Name, Symbol, Number silver, Ag, 47 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 5, d Appearance lustrous white metal Standard atomic weight 107. ...


Orthodox Judaism requires that the ritual be performed by male kohanim.


According to the Conservative Jewish view, there are some rabbinic sources that allow women to perform this ritual, and thus a bat kohen (daughter of a kohen) may perform the ceremony for a newborn son. However, it is forbidden to perform this ceremony on a first-born daughter.


Reform and Reconstructionist Jews generally do not perform this ceremony.


Personal Status

Orthodox Jewish view

According to Orthodox Judaism, Kohanim are going to be needed again to perform their traditional roles in a future rebuilt Third Temple, and hence have a responsibility to stand in readiness, including maintaining their prescribed qualifications to the extent possible under diaspora conditions. Because of this requirement, according to Orthodox Jewish practice, modern-day kohanim are obligated to guard against ritual defilement as prescribed by the Torah. In order to protect them from coming into contact with or proximity to the dead, Orthodox cemeteries traditionally designate a burial ground for kohanim which is at a distance from the general burial ground, so that the sons of deceased kohanim can visit their fathers' graves without entering the cemetery. They are also careful not to be in a hospital, airplane, or any enclosed space where dead bodies are also present. The Jerusalem Temple (Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash) was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot. ...


Modern-day kohanim are also prohibited from marrying a divorcee (even their own divorced wife), a woman who has committed adultery, been involved in incest, or had relations with a non-Jew. In compliance with Talmudic law, they also may not marry a female convert, out of concern for what may have occurred to her while she was a gentile. A born-Jewish woman who has had premarital relations may marry a kohen if and only if all of her partners were Jewish. Adultery is voluntary sexual intercourse between a married person and a partner other than the lawful spouse. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


A child of a Jewish mother and non-Jewish father, while halakhically Jewish, is prohibited from marrying a kohen, by rabbinic law.


Conservative Jewish view

Conservative Judaism believes in a rebuilt Temple, but does not believe in restoring the system of korbanot that the Kohanim used to perform in days past, and hence does not believe in a need for Kohanim to perform their traditional roles. Accordingly, Conservative Judaism holds that while, in general, Jewish law is still binding, the restrictions against whom a kohen can marry are no longer applicable today. The movement allows a kohen to marry a convert or divorcee for these reasons: Korban (קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) in Judaism, is commonly called a religious sacrifice or an offering in English, but is known as a Korban in Hebrew because its Hebrew root K [a] R [o] V (קרב) (or K [o] R...

  • Since the Temple in Jerusalem no longer extant and korbanot should not be restored, kohanim are no longer needed to perform Temple services in a state of ritual purity.
  • The priestly status of most modern-day kohanim is doubtful at best. The frequent persecutions and expulsions of Jews throughout history have caused kohanim to lose track of their genealogy.
  • Because the intermarriage crisis among American Jewry is an extreme situation, the Conservative movement feels it must support the decision of two Jews to marry.[2][3]

Reform and Reconstructionist Jewish views

Reform and Reconstructionist Judaism consider halakhah no longer binding, and believe the entire ancient sacrificial system to be incompatible with modern sensibilities. They also believe that caste or gender-based distinctions such as having a caste of kohanim with distinct roles and obligations derived from heredity is morally incompatible with the principle of egalitarianism. Halakha (הלכה in Hebrew or Halakhah, Halacha, Halachah) is the collective corpus of Jewish law, custom and tradition regulating all aspects of behavior. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is the moral doctrine that people should be treated as equals, in some respect. ...


Lineage of priests in the Torah

King Melchizedek of Salem, identified by Rashi as being Shem the son of Noah by another name, is the first person in the Torah to be called a Kohen (Genesis 14:18). Meeting of Abraham and Melchizedek — by Dieric Bouts the Elder, 1464–67 Melchizedek or Malki-tzédek (מַלְכִּי־צֶדֶק / מַלְכִּי־צָדֶק, Standard Hebrew Malki-ẓédeq / Malki-ẓádeq, Tiberian Hebrew Malkî-ṣéḏeq / Malkî-ṣāḏeq), sometimes written Malchizedek, Melchisedec, Melchisedech, Melchisedek or Melkisedek, is a figure mentioned by various sects of both Christian and Judaic traditions. ... Rashi (1040-1105) (Artists imagination) Rashi רשי is a Hebrew acronym for רבי שלמה יצחקי (Rabbi Shlomo Yitzhaqi), (February 22, 1040 – July 13, 1105), a rabbi in France, famed as the author of the first comprehensive commentaries on the Talmud and Tanakh. ... Shem (שֵׁם renown; prosperity; name, Standard Hebrew Šem, Tiberian Hebrew Šēm; Greek Σημ, Sēm; ) was one of the sons of Noah in the Bible who adhered to the Noahide Laws. ... Noahs Ark, Französischer Meister (The French Master), Magyar Szépművészeti Múzeum, Budapest. ... “Tora” redirects here. ...


When Esau sold the birthright of the first born to Jacob, Rashi explains that the Priesthood was sold along with it, because by right the priesthood belongs to the first-born. Only when the first-born (along with the rest of Israel) sinned at the Golden calf, the priesthood was given to the Tribe of Levi, which had not been tainted by this incident. Esau (Hebrew ‎, Standard Hebrew Esav, Tiberian Hebrew Ēśāw) is the oldest son of Isaac and Rebekah and the twin brother of Jacob in the biblical Book of Genesis. ... Jacob Wrestling with the Angel – Gustave Doré, 1855 Jacob or Yaakov, (Hebrew: יַעֲקֹב, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: يعقوب, ; holds the heel), also known as Israel (Hebrew: יִשְׂרָאֵל, Standard  Tiberian ; Arabic: اسرائيل, ; Struggled with God), is the third Biblical patriarch. ... Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin: imagery influenced by the Greco-Roman bacchanal In the Hebrew Bible the golden calf was an idol made by Aaron for the Israelites during Mosess unexpectedly long absence. ...


Moses was supposed to receive the priesthood along with the leadership of the Jewish people, but when he argued with God that he should not be the leader, it was given to Aaron. The Adoration of the Golden Calf by Nicolas Poussin Aaron (אַהֲרֹן, Standard Hebrew (w/o vowels) AHRvN, Tiberian Hebrew (), was, according to biblical accounts, one of two brothers who play a unique part in the history of the Hebrew people. ...


Aaron received the priesthood along with his children and any descendants that would be born subsequently. However, his grandson Pinchas (Phineas) had already been born, and did not receive the priesthood until he killed the prince of the tribe of Simon and the princess of the Midianites (Numbers 25:7-13). Thereafter, the priesthood has remained with the descendants of Aaron. However, when the Messiah comes, there is a tradition that it will revert back to the first born.[citation needed]


Bat Kohen

Both Orthodox and Conservative Judaism regard a Bat Kohen (daughter of a Kohen) as having a special sanctity and status deriving from the Talmud. (One passage of the Talmud, Yevamot 68b, uses the term kohenet, female Kohen, but bat kohen is used elsewhere.) The Talmud prohibits a Bat Kohen from offering sacrifices in the Temple in Jerusalem and exempts them from many of the prohibitions associated with a male Kohen, but permits them to have a variety of rights and privileges of Kohanim, including the right to eat certain portions of sacrifices, receive tithes and other priestly gifts, and to receive redemption money from the Pidyon HaBen ceremony. The first page of the Vilna Edition of the Babylonian Talmud, Tractate Berachot, folio 2a. ... Nashim (Women or Wives) is the third order of the Mishnah (also of the Tosefta and Talmud), containing the laws related to women and family life. ... Korban (קרבן) (plural: Korbanot קרבנות) is a Jewish practice of sacrificing an animal or of making an offering at the Temple. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Pidyon HaBen (Hebrew: פדיון הבן) is the redemption of the first-born, a ritual in Judaism. ...


Orthodox Judaism retains the view that the privileges and status of Kohen-hood stem primarily from their offerings and activities in the Temple, and accordingly in Orthodox Judaism only men can perform the Priestly Blessing and receive the first Aliyah, and generally do not permit women to officiate in a Pidyon HaBen ceremony. However, the question of what acts (if any) a Bat Kohen can perform in an Orthodox context is a subject of current discussion and debate in some Orthodox circles.[4] The Priestly Blessing, (in Hebrew: Birkat Kohanim, ברכת כהנים) is a Jewish ceremony and prayer recited during certain specific Jewish services. ... Aliyah (Hebrew: עלייה, ascent or going up) is a term widely used to mean Jewish immigration to the Land of Israel (and since its establishment in 1948, the State of Israel). ... Pidyon HaBen (Hebrew: פדיון הבן) is the redemption of the first-born, a ritual in Judaism. ...


Some women's prayer groups practicing under the halakhic guidance of Modern Orthodox rabbis and which conduct Torah readings for women only have adapted a custom of calling a Bat Kohen for the first aliyah and a Bat Levi for the second.[5] Modern Orthodox Judaism is a philosophy that attempts to adapt Orthodox Judaism and interaction with the surrounding non-Jewish, modern world. ... The Jewish ritual of Torah reading (in Hebrew: קריאת התורה, Kriat HaTorah; Reading [of] the Torah) involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לֵוִי Attached, Standard Hebrew , Tiberian Hebrew ) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ...


Conservative Judaism, consistent with both its view that sacrifices in the Temple will not be restored and with many congregations' commitment to gender (but not tribal) egalitarianism, has interpreted the Talmudic passages involved to permit elimination of most currently-relevant distinctions between male and female Kohanim in congregations which both still perform traditional Kohen functions and desire a more gender-egalitarian approach, based on a view that the privileges of Kohen-hood come not from offering Temple offerings but solely from lineal sanctity, and that ceremonies like the Priestly Blessing should evolve from their Temple-based origins. These rulings include permitting a Bat Kohen to perform the Priestly Blessing, the Pidyon HaBen ceremony, and receive the first Aliyah during a Torah reading, in those Conservative synagogues that have both retained traditional tribal roles and modified traditional gender roles. The Law Committee also accepts the position that women cannot perform these functions as a valid position, and not all Conservative congregations or rabbis permit these role for Benot Kohanim (daughters of priests). Many egalitarian-oriented Conservative synagogues have abolished traditional tribal roles and do not perform ceremonies involving Kohanim, such as the Priestly Blessing or calling a Kohen to the first reading of the Torah, at all, while many traditianlist-oriented synagogues have retained traditional gender roles and do not permit women to perform these roles.[6] The argument for women's involvement in the priestly blessing, acknowledging that only male Kohanim could perform this ritual in the days of the Temple in Jerusalem, was based on an argument that the ceremony is no longer rooted in Temple practice, that its association with the Temple was by rabbinic decree, and that rabbis therefore have the authority to permit the practice to evolve from its Temple-based roots.[7] The law committee of the Masorti movement (the equivalent of Conservative Judaism) in Israel has ruled that women do not receive such aliyot (Rabbi Robert Harris, 5748). Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is the moral doctrine that people should be treated as equals, in some respect. ... The Priestly Blessing, (in Hebrew: Birkat Kohanim, ברכת כהנים) is a Jewish ceremony and prayer recited during certain specific Jewish services. ... Pidyon HaBen (Hebrew: פדיון הבן) is the redemption of the first-born, a ritual in Judaism. ... The Jewish ritual of Torah reading (in Hebrew: קריאת התורה, Kriat HaTorah; Reading [of] the Torah) involves the public reading of a set of passages from a Torah scroll. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is the moral doctrine that people should be treated as equals, in some respect. ... The Temple in Jerusalem or Holy Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Bet HaMikdash and meaning literally The Holy House) was located on the Temple Mount (Har HaBayit) in the old city of Jerusalem. ... Masorti means traditional in Hebrew. ...


Because Reform Judaism and Reconstructionist Judaism have abolished traditional tribal distinctions, roles, and identities on grounds of egalitarianism, a special status for a Bat Kohen has no significance in these movements. Reform Judaism can refer to (1) the largest denomination of American Jews and its sibling movements in other countries, (2) a branch of Judaism in the United Kingdom, and (3) the historical predecessor of the American movement that originated in 19th-century Germany. ... Reconstructionist Judaism is a modern American-based Jewish movement, based on the ideas of the late Mordecai Kaplan, that views Judaism as a progressively evolving civilization. ... Egalitarianism (derived from the French word égal, meaning equal or level) is the moral doctrine that people should be treated as equals, in some respect. ...


The kohen gene

Main article: Y-chromosomal Aaron

Recently the tradition that kohanim are descended from a common ancestor was supported by genetic testing (Skorecki et al., 1997). Since all direct male lineage shares a common Y chromosome, testing was done across sectors of the Jewish population to see if there was any commonality between their Y chromosomes. There was proven to be certain distinctions among the Y chromosomes of kohanim, implying that many kohanim do share some common ancestry. The information was also used (perhaps prematurely) to support the claim of the Lemba (a sub-Saharan tribe) that they were in fact, a tribe of Jews. Y-chromosomal Aaron is the name given to the hypothesised most recent common ancestor of many of the patrilineal Jewish priestly caste known as Kohanim (singular Kohen, Cohen, or Kohane). ... The Lemba or Lembaa are a group of people numbering 70,000 in southern Africa. ...


Cohen as a surname

Descendants of kohanim often bear surnames that reflect their genealogy, often corrupted by translation or transliteration into other languages, as exemplified below (not a complete list). Transliteration is the practice of transcribing a word or text written in one writing system into another writing system. ...

  • English: Conn, Conway, Cohan, Chaplan (Cohan is also an Irish surname and Conway is also a surname of Welsh origin)
  • German: Kohn, Kuhn, Kahn, Cön/Coen, Katz (name) (a Hebrew abbreviation for Kohen Zedek (כהן צדק) i.e. "righteous Kohen" or "righteous priest")
  • Dutch: Katten (translated as "Kohen"), Käin/Kaein
  • French: Cahen, Cohen, Caen
  • Italian: Coen, Sacerdote (Italian for "priest")
  • Spanish: Coen, Cohen, Koen, Cannoh, Canno, Canoh, Cano
  • Russian: Kagedan (in Hebrew, this name is spelled "kaf-shin-daled-nun" and is an acronym for "Kohanei Shluchei DeShmaya Ninhu" i.e. "priests are the messengers of heaven")
  • Slavic: Kogan, Kagan, Kahn
  • Polish: Kaplan (loanword into Polish for "priest")'
  • Turkish: Kohen
  • Arabic: al-Kohen
  • Ancient/Modern Hebrew: Kohen, Hakohen, ben-Kohen, bar-Kohen
  • Others: Maze (acronym of mi zerat Aharon, i.e. "from the seed of Aaron"), Azoulai (acronym from ishah zonah ve'challelah lo yikachu, meaning "a foreign or divorced woman he shall not take;" prohibition binding on Kohanim), Rappaport, Shapiro, Kahane, Quinn (Gaelic or English).[citation needed]

However, by no means are all Jews with these surnames kohanim. Additionally, some "kohen"-type surnames are considered stronger indications of the status than others. "Cohen" is one of the hardest to substantiate due to its sheer commonality. The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Katz is a frequent German surname. ... Slavic and Slavonic are used interchangably in English, with the former perferred in US English, and the latter in English. ... Arabic ( or just ) is the largest living member of the Semitic language family in terms of speakers. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ...


Outside Judaism

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints gives legal right of kohen to constitute the Presiding Bishopric under the authority of the First Presidency (Doctrine and Covenants 68:16-20). When and where Church kohanim are not available, Melchizedek Priesthood holders substitute. To date, all men who have served as the Presiding Bishop have been Melchizedek Priesthood holders, and none have been publicly identified as kohanim. See also Mormonism and Judaism. The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is the largest attraction in the citys Temple Square. ... The Presiding Bishop of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is a priesthood calling with church-wide authority. ... In Mormonism, the First Presidency (or the Quorum of the Presidency of the Church) is one of the governing bodies in the church hierarchy of several Latter Day Saint denominations. ... The Melchizedek Priesthood, to members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, is the authority and power to act in the name of God including the authority to perform ordinances and to preside over and direct the affairs of his Church and Kingdom. ... This article on Mormonism and Judaism describes the views of Latter-day Saints, commonly known as Mormons, with respect to Jews and Judaism, and includes comparisons of the Mormon and Jewish faiths. ...


References in popular culture

The positioning of the kohen's hands during the Priestly Blessing was Leonard Nimoy's inspiration for Mr. Spock's Vulcan salute in the original Star Trek television series. Nimoy, raised an orthodox Jew (but not a kohen), used the salute when saying "live long and prosper." The Priestly Blessing, (in Hebrew: Birkat Kohanim, ברכת כהנים) is a Jewish ceremony and prayer recited during certain specific Jewish services. ... Leonard Simon Nimoy (born March 26, 1931) is an American actor, film director, poet, musician and photographer. ... For other uses, see Spock (disambiguation). ... Blessing gesture that was the inspiration for the Vulcan salute. ... The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ...


Furthermore, the Star Trek Symbol is the same shape as the negative (air) space created between the Kohein's thumbs and forefingers, which some Kohanim touch while doing the Birchas Kohanim (Priestly Blessing). (There is some dispute as to whether or not to touch thumb to thumb and forefinger to forefinger while doing the blessing.)


See also

Kohn(Cohn), Kuhn(Cuhn), Kahn(Cahn), Kogan(Kohan, Kogan), Kagan(Cahan, Kahan), and Schiff

// Cohen (Hebrew: kōhēn, means: A Priest) is a Jewish surname of biblical origins (see: Kohen). ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Alfie Kohn Barry Kohn Donald Kohn Fritz Kohn Hans Kohn Jerry Kohn Walter Kohn Kohn Pedersen Fox Kohn Pedersen Fox Associates Dan Kohn-Sherbock See also Cohen, Cohn, Kohen This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Cohn or Kohn is a surname and may refer to: Al Cohn Arthur Cohn Daniel Cohn-Bendit (Danny Cohn-Bendit) Dan Cohn-Sherbock Edwin J(oseph) Cohn ** Ferdinand (Julius) Cohn Gustav Cohn Harry Cohn Joan Cohn (nee Joan Perry), the widow of Harry Cohn Jonas Cohn Leopold Cohn, scholar Linda... Thomas Samuel Kuhn, philosopher and historian of science Alfred Kuhn, a social systems theorist Fritz Kuhn, German Green Party politician Fritz Kuhn, leader of the German-American Bund Richard Kuhn, winner of the Nobel Prize in Chemistry 1938 An Atlantic Island A French manufacterer of agricultural machinery, especially mowers and... This page is about a German family name. ... People whose family name is or was Kahn include Albert Kahn – French banker Albert Kahn – American industrial architect Albert E. Kahn – American journalist Alfred R. Kahn – CEO of 4Kids Entertainment Ashley Kahn – American jazz historian Axel Kahn – French genetician Barbara B. Kahn – researcher at Joslin Diabetes Center Barbara E. Kahn... Leonid Borisovitch Kogan Michael Kogan Pavel Kogan See also Kohan, Cohen This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... The position of a Kohens hands when he raises them to bless a Jewish congregation A Kohen (or Cohen, Hebrew priest, pl. ... Leonid Borisovitch Kogan Michael Kogan Pavel Kogan See also Kohan, Cohen This is a disambiguation page—a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Kagan or Kagen is popular Ashkenazi surname, particularly common among Russian Jews. ... Cahan is Irish and Jeiwsh surname: Abraham Cahan Charles Hazlitt Cahan Larry Cahan, see List of Los Angeles Kings captains OCahan (name of a significant clan in Ulster) See also Kagan, Kogan, Kohan, Cohan Cohen This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise... Kahan is located in Kohlu District of Balochistan, Pakistan. ... Schiff (changed name from Germanised word Kahn(means ship), from Hebrew Kohen), refers to: Adam Schiff András Schiff, Hungarian pianist Dorothy Schiff Irwin Schiff Jacob Schiff, German banker Karenna Gore Schiff Richard Schiff Schiff base, named after [[]] This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Joel B. Wolowelsky, "On Kohanim and Uncommon Aliyyot", Tradition 39(2), Summer 2005
  2. ^ Arnold Goodman, "Solemnizing the Marriage between a Kohen and a Convert"
  3. ^ Goodman, "Solemnizing the Marriage between a Kohen and a Divorcee"
  4. ^ Bnot Kohanim: Our Holy Daughters. Midreshet Lindembaum
  5. ^ Hebrew Institute of Riverdale, Women's Tefillah
  6. ^ Rabbi Joel Roth, The status of Daughters of Kohanim and Leviyim for Aliyot
  7. ^ Rabbi Meyer Rabbinowitz, "Women Raise Your Hands"

Bibliography

  • Isaac Klein A Guide to Jewish Religious Practice, p.387-388.
  • Isaac Klein Responsa and Halakhic Studies, p.22-26.
  • K. Skorecki, S. Selig, S. Blazer, R. Bradman, N. Bradman, P. J. Waburton, M. Ismajlowicz, M. F. Hammer (1997). Y Chromosomes of Jewish Priests. Nature 385, 32. (Available online: DOI | Full text (HTML) | Full text (PDF))
  • Proceedings of the CJLS: 1927-1970, volume III, United Synagogue Book Service.
  • Mishnayoth:Seder Nashim. Translated and Annotated by Philip Blackman. Judaica Press Ltd., 2000. pp. 134-135

Isaac Klein (1905-1979). ... Isaac Klein (1905-1979). ...

External links


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