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Encyclopedia > Kofun Period

History of Japan ImageMetadata File history File links Satsuma-samurai-during-boshin-war-period. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ...

Glossary The Japanese Paleolithic ) covers a period from around 100,000 [citation needed] to 30,000 BCE, when the earliest stone tool implements have been found, to around 12,000 BCE, at the end of the last Ice-age, which corresponds to the beginning of the Mesolithic Jomon Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Jomon Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The Nara period ) of the history of Japan covers the years from about AD 710 to 784. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Heian Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Kamakura Period. ... The Kemmu Restoration (建武の新政; Kemmu no shinsei) was a period of Japanese history that occurred from 1333 to 1336 AD. It marks the three year period between the fall of the Kamakura shogunate and the rise of the Ashikaga shogunate, when Emperor Go-Daigo attempted to re-established Imperial control (but... The Muromachi period (Japanese: 室町時代, Muromachi-jidai, also known as the Muromachi era, the Muromachi bakufu, the Ashikaga era, the Ashikaga period, or the Ashikaga bakufu) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1336 to 1573. ... The Nanboku-cho period (Japanese: 南北朝時代, nanbokuchō-jidai, South and North courts period), also known as the Northern and Southern Courts period, spanning from 1336 to 1392, was a period that occurred during the early years of the Muromachi period of Japans history. ... “Sengoku” redirects here. ... The Azuchi-Momoyama period (Japanese: 安土桃山時代, Azuchi-Momoyama-jidai) is a division of Japanese history running from approximately 1568 to 1600. ... The Namban trade(Japanese: 南蛮貿易, nanban-bōeki, southern barbarian trade) or The Nanban trade period (Japanese: 南蛮貿易時代, nanban-bōeki-jidai, southern barbarian trade period) in Japanese history extends from the arrival of the first Europeans to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1650, under... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... The Late Tokugawa Shogunate (Japanese: Bakumatsu) is the period between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy called sakoku and modernized from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. ... The Meiji period ), or Meiji era, denotes the 45-year reign of Emperor Meiji, running, in the Gregorian calendar, from 23 October 1868 to 30 July 1912. ... The Meiji Restoration ), also known as the Meiji Ishin, Revolution, or Renewal, was a chain of events that led to enormous changes in Japans political and social structure. ... The Taishō period (Japanese: 大正時代, Taishō-jidai, period of great righteousness) is a period in the history of Japan dating from 30 July 1912 to 25 December 1926. ... Japan participated in World War I ) from 1914-1917, as one of the major Entente Powers, played an important role in securing the sea lanes in South Pacific and Indian Oceans against the Kaiserliche Marine. ... The Shōwa period (Japanese: 昭和時代, Shōwa-jidai, period of enlightened peace) was the time in Japanese history when Emperor Hirohito reigned over the country, from December 25, 1926 to January 7, 1989. ... Japanese nationalism, also known as Japanese imperialism or Japanese nationalist ideology is a generic title, referring to a complex series of patriotic and nationalist ideas held in Japan. ... Capital Tokyo Language(s) Japanese Political structure Military occupation Military Governor  - 1945-1951 Douglas MacArthur  - 1951-1952 Matthew Ridgway Emperor  - 1926-1989 Hirohito Historical era Post-WWII  - Surrender of Japan August 15, 1945  - San Francisco Treaty April 28, 1952 At the end of the Second World War, Japan was occupied... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei Following the end of the Allied occupation in 1952... Heisei (Japanese: 平成) is the current era name in Japan. ... The Eco history of Japan is one of the most studied for its spectacular growth, first in the period from the late twentieth century that saw Japan become a world power and then again after the devastation of the Second World War when the island nation rose to become the... The history of education in Japan dates back at least to the sixth century, when Chinese learning was introduced at the Yamato court. ... The military history of Japan is characterized by a long period of feudal wars, followed by domestic stability, and then foreign conquest. ... The naval history of Japan traces back to early interactions with states on the Asian continent at the beginning of the medieval period, and reached a peak of activity during the 16th and 17th century at a time of cultural exchange with European powers during the Nanban trade period. ... This is the glossary of Japanese history including historical figures, events, places, policies and others. ...

The Kofun period (古墳時代 Kofun-jidai?) is an era in the history of Japan from around 250 to 538. The word kofun is Japanese for the type of burial mounds dating from this era. The Kofun period follows the Yayoi period. The Kofun and the subsequent Asuka periods are sometimes referred to collectively as the Yamato period. The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... A tumulus (plural tumuli, from the Latin word for mound or small hill, from the root to bulge, swell also found in ) is a mound of earth and stones raised over a grave or graves. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yayoi Period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ...


Generally, the Kofun period is divided from the Asuka period for its cultural differences. The Kofun period is illustrated by an animistic culture which existed prior to the introduction of Buddhism. Politically, the establishment of the Yamato court, and its expansion as allied states from Kyūshū to the Kantō are key factors in defining the period. Also, the Kofun period is the oldest era of recorded history in Japan. However, as the chronology of the historical sources are very much distorted, studies of this age require deliberate criticism and the aid of archaeology. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kantō region, Japan The Kantō region (Japanese: 関東地方, Kantō-chihō) is a geographical area of HonshÅ«, the largest island in Japan. ...


The archaeological record, and ancient Chinese sources, indicate that the various tribes and chiefdoms of Japan did not begin to coalesce into states until 300, when large tombs began to appear while there were no contacts between western Japan and China. Some describe the "mysterious century" as a time of internecine warfare as various chiefdoms competed for hegemony on Kyūshū and Honshū.[1] The Twenty-Four Histories is a collection of historical books covering a period of history from 3000 B.C. to the Ming Dynasty in the 17th century. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

Contents

Kofun tombs

Daisenryo Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Osaka, 5th century.
Daisenryo Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Osaka, 5th century.

Kofun (古墳, "old tomb") are defined as the burial mounds built for the people of the ruling class during the 4th to 7th centuries in Japan. The Kofun period takes its name from these distinctive earthen mounds which are associated with the rich funerary rituals of the time. The mounds contained large stone burial chambers. Some are surrounded by moats. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x800, 514 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Emperor Nintoku ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (800x800, 514 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Emperor Nintoku ... Daisen-Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Osaka Emperor Nintoku (仁徳天皇 Nintoku Tennō) was the 16th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Osaka Prefecture (大阪府 ÅŒsaka-fu) is part of the Kinki region on Honshu island, Japan. ... The moated manor house of Baddesley Clinton in Warwickshire, England Moats (also known as a Fosse) were deep and wide water-filled trenches, excavated to provide a barrier against attack upon castle ramparts or other fortifications. ...


Kofun came in many shapes, with round and square being the simplest. A distinct style is the keyhole kofun (前方後円墳 zenpō kōen fun), with its square front and round back. Many kofun were natural hills, which might have been sculpted to their final shape. Kofun range in size from several meters to over 400 meters in length. The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ...


By the late Kofun period, the distinctive burial chambers, originally used by the ruling elite, were also built for commoners.


The biggest kofun are believed to be the tombs of local monarchs such as Emperor Ōjin and Emperor Nintoku. Kofun are also classified according to whether the entrance to the stone burial chamber is vertical (縦穴 tate-ana) or horizontal (横穴 yoko-ana). Emperor ÅŒjin (応神天皇 ÅŒjin Tennō), or rather Ojin okimi was the 15th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Daisen-Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Osaka Emperor Nintoku (仁徳天皇 Nintoku Tennō) was the 16th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


Development of Kofun

Noge-Ōtsuka Kofun tumulus, Tokyo, early 5th century.
Noge-Ōtsuka Kofun tumulus, Tokyo, early 5th century.

The oldest Japanese Kofun is said to be Hokenoyama Kofun located in Sakurai, Nara, which dates to the late 3rd century. In Makimuku district of Sakurai, earlier keyhole kofuns (Hashihaka Kofun, Shibuya Mukaiyama Kofun) were built around the early 4th century. The trend of the keyhole kofun first spread from Yamato to Kawachi (where gigantic kofun such as Daisen Kofun of Emperor Nintoku are), and then throughout the country (except for Tohoku) in the 5th century. Later that century, keyhole kofuns were also built in the Gaya confederacy of the Korean peninsula. Many Korean scholars argue against this assertion, but the majority write that the presence of uniquely Japanese design features is nearly undeniable proof of this flow of culture from Japan to Korea. Image File history File links Noge-Ōtsuka Kofun tumulus (野毛大塚古墳) in Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ... Image File history File links Noge-Ōtsuka Kofun tumulus (野毛大塚古墳) in Setagaya-ku, Tokyo, Japan. ... Daisenryo Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Sakai, 5th century. ... For other uses, see Tokyo (disambiguation). ... Sakurai (桜井市; -shi) is a city located in Nara, Japan. ...


The spreading of keyhole kofun is generally assumed to be an evidence of Yamato court's expansion in this age. However, some argue that it simply shows the spreading of culture based on progress and distribution, and has little to do with political breakthroughs. Whether the keyhole kofun in Gaya was for a local chieftain influenced by Japanese culture or for an immigrated Japanese aristocrat is also debated.


Keyhole kofun disappeared later in 6th century, probably because of the drastic reformation which took place in the Yamato court; Nihonshoki records the introduction of Buddhism at this time. The last two great kofun are Imashirozuka kofun (length: 190m) of Osaka which is believed by current scholars to be the tomb of Emperor Keitai and Iwatoyama kofun (length: 135m) of Fukuoka which was recorded in Fudoki of Chikugo to be the tomb of Iwai, the political archrival of Keitai. Nihonshoki (Japanese: 日本書紀), sometimes translated as Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. ... Keitai (継体天皇 Keitai Tennō), or rather Keitai okimi was the 26th Japanese imperial ruler, according to the traditional order of succession. ...


Yamato court

Iron helmet and armour with gilt bronze decoration, Kofun period, 5th century. Tokyo National Museum.
Iron helmet and armour with gilt bronze decoration, Kofun period, 5th century. Tokyo National Museum.

While conventionally assigned to the period from 250 CE, the actual start of Yamato rule is disputed. The start of the court is also linked with the controversy of Yamataikoku and its fall. Regardless, it is generally agreed that Yamato rulers possessed keyhole kofun culture and held hegemony in Yamato up to 4th century. The regional autonomy of local powers remained throughout the period, particularly in places such as Kibi (current Okayama prefecture), Izumo (current Shimane prefecture), Koshi (current Fukui and Niigata prefectures), Kenu (northern Kantō), Chikushi (northern Kyūshū), and Hi (central Kyūshū); it was only in the 6th century that the Yamato clans could be said to be dominant over the entire southern half of Japan. On the other hand, official diplomatic relations with the Korean peninsula and China were likely to have been concentrated in Yamato, as Chinese and Korean history recorded no other rival provinces in the Japanese archipelago. Yamato's relationships with foreign states is likely to have begun in the late 4th century, according to the Seven-Branched Sword inscription. Download high resolution version (605x927, 84 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Download high resolution version (605x927, 84 KB) This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... The Tokyo National Museum. ... Yamataikoku (邪馬台国) was an ancient country in Japan, recorded in an old Chinese history book, Sanguo Zhi. ... Okayama Prefecture ) is located in the ChÅ«goku region on HonshÅ« island, Japan. ... Shimane Prefecture ) is located in the Chugoku region on Honshu island, Japan. ... Fukui Prefecture ) is located in the ChÅ«bu region on HonshÅ« island, Japan. ... Kantō region, Japan The Kantō region (Japanese: 関東地方, Kantō-chihō) is a geographical area of HonshÅ«, the largest island in Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Seven-Branched Sword (in Japanese: nanatsusaya no tachi or shichishitō; in Korean: Chiljido) is one of the national treasures of Japan. ...


The Yamato polity, which emerged by the late 5th century, was distinguished by powerful clans (豪族: Gōzoku). Each clan was headed by a patriarch (氏上: Ujikami) who performed sacred rites to the clan's kami to ensure the long-term welfare of the clan. Clan members were the aristocracy, and the kingly line that controlled the Yamato court was at its pinnacle. For other uses, see Polity (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other senses, see Patriarch (disambiguation). ... “Megami” redirects here. ...


The Kofun period of Japanese culture is also sometimes called the Yamato period by some Western scholars, since this local chieftainship arose to become the Imperial dynasty at the end of the Kofun period. Yamato and its dynasty however were just one rival polity among others throughout the Kofun era. Japanese archaeologists emphasise instead the fact that in the early half of the Kofun period other regional chieftainships, such as Kibi were in close contention for dominance or importance. Tsukuriyama Kofun of Kibi is the fourth largest kofun in Japan. Kibi Province (吉備国 -no kuni) was a province of Japan, in the area of Okayama Prefecture and eastern Hiroshima Prefecture. ...

Decorated sword hilts of the Kofun period, 6th century, Japan.
Decorated sword hilts of the Kofun period, 6th century, Japan.

The Yamato court ultimately exercised power over clans in Kyūshū and Honshū, bestowing titles, some hereditary, on clan chieftains. The Yamato name became synonymous with all of Japan as the Yamato rulers suppressed the clans and acquired agricultural lands. Based on Chinese models (including the adoption of the Chinese written language), they started to develop a central administration and an imperial court attended by subordinate clan chieftains but with no permanent capital. Japan's rulers of the time even petitioned the Chinese court for confirmation of royal titles. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 333 pixelsFull resolution (1442 × 600 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 333 pixelsFull resolution (1442 × 600 pixel, file size: 1. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Various styles of Chinese calligraphy. ...


The Yamato court had ties to the Gaya confederacy, called Mimana in Japanese. There is archaeological evidence from the Kofun tombs, which show similarities in form, art, and clothing of the depicted nobles. Based on the Nihonshoki, Japanese kokugaku historians claimed Gaya to be a colony of the Yamato state, a theory that is now widely rejected. More likely all these states were tributaries to the Chinese dynasties to some extent. Gaya was a confederacy of chiefdoms in the Nakdong River valley of southern Korea, growing out of the Byeonhan confederacy of the Samhan period. ... Kokugaku (国学; lit. ...

Territorial expansion of Yamato

In addition to archaeological findings indicating a local monarchy in the Kibi Province as an important rival, the legend of the 4th century Prince Yamato Takeru alludes to the borders of the Yamato and battlegrounds in the area. A frontier was obviously somewhere close to the later Izumo province (the eastern part of today's Shimane prefecture). Another frontier, in Kyūshū, was apparently somewhere north of today's Kumamoto prefecture. The legend specifically states that there was an eastern land in Honshu "whose people disobeyed the imperial court", against whom Yamato Takeru was sent to fight. That rivalling country may have been located rather close to the Yamato nucleus area itself, or relatively far away. The today Kai province is mentioned as one of the locations where prince Yamato Takeru sojourned in his said military expedition. Kibi Province (吉備国 -no kuni) was a province of Japan, in the area of Okayama Prefecture and eastern Hiroshima Prefecture. ... Yamato Takeru subjugates Kumaso Takeru. ... Yamato () was a province of Japan. ... Izumo (Japanese: 出雲国; Izumo no kuni) was an old province of Japan which today consists of the eastern part of Shimane prefecture in the Chugoku region. ... Shimane Prefecture ) is located in the Chugoku region on Honshu island, Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Kumamoto Prefecture (熊本県; Kumamoto-ken) is located on Kyushu Island, Japan. ... Yamato Takeru subjugates Kumaso Takeru. ... Kai province (甲斐国; -no kuni) is an old province in Japan that corresponds to Yamanashi prefecture today. ...

Reconstitution of a Kofun Era warehouse.
Reconstitution of a Kofun Era warehouse.

Northern frontier of this age was also explained in Kojiki as the legend of Shido Shogun's (四道将軍: Shoguns to four ways) expedition. Out of four shoguns, Ōbiko set northward to Koshi and his son Take Nunakawawake set to eastern states. The father moved east from northern Koshi while the son moved north on his way, and they finally met at Aizu(current western Fukushima). Although the legend itself is not likely to be a historical fact, Aizu is rather close to southern Tōhoku, where the north end of keyhole kofun culture as of late 4th century is located. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixelsFull resolution (3456 × 2304 pixel, file size: 1. ... Fukushima Prefecture (福島県 Fukushima-ken) is located in the Tohoku region on Honshu island, Japan. ...


Ōkimi

Kofun period jewelry. British Museum.
Kofun period jewelry. British Museum.

During the Kofun period, a highly aristocratic society with militaristic rulers developed. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 411 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1694 × 2470 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 411 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1694 × 2470 pixel, file size: 1. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Militarism or militarist ideology is the doctrinal view of a society as being best served (or more efficient) when it is governed or guided by concepts embodied in the culture, doctrine, system, or people of the military. ...


The Kofun period was a critical stage in Japan's evolution toward a more cohesive and recognized state. This society was most developed in the Kinai Region and the easternmost part of the Inland Sea. Japan's rulers of the time even petitioned the Chinese court for confirmation of royal titles. An inland sea is a shallow sea that covers central areas of continents during high stands of sea level that result in marine transgressions. ...


While the ruler's title are diplomatically King, they locally titled themselves as Ōkimi(Great King) during this period. Inscriptions in two swords, Inariyama Sword and Eta Funayama Sword had records of Amenoshita Shiroshimesu(治天下;"ruling of Heaven and Earth") and Ōkimi(大王) in common, to be a ruler that the bearers of these swords were subjected to. It reveals that rulers of this age also grasped religious authorities to justify their thrones through heavenly dignities. The title of Amenoshita Shiroshimesu Okimi was used up to 7th century, until being replaced by Tenno. The iron sword of Inariyama Kofun(ja: Inariyama Kofun Shutsudo Tekken稲荷山古墳出土鉄剣 or Kinsakumei Tekken金錯銘鉄剣) is a sword uncovered from Inariyama Kofun, the second biggest tombs of Sakitama ancient tombs area located in Saitama Prefecture of Japan. ...


Clans of the Yamato Court

Kofun royal crown, Tokyo National Museum
Kofun royal crown, Tokyo National Museum

Many of the clans and local chieftains consisting Yamato polity claimed its taproot to imperial family or other tribal Gods (Kami). The archeological evidence of such clans is found in Inariyama sword, on which the bearer recorded the names of his ancestors to claim its origin to Ōbiko(大彦) who was recorded in Nihon Shoki as a son of Emperor Kōgen. On the other hand, there are also considerable numbers of clans having origins in China or the Korean peninsula. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... The Tokyo National Museum. ... “Megami” redirects here. ... Nihonshoki (日本書紀) is the second oldest history book about the ancient history of Japan. ... Emperor Kōgen (孝元天皇 Kōgen Tennō) was the eighth imperial ruler of Japan to appear on the traditional list of emperors. ...


At 5th century, Kazuraki clan(葛城氏), descending from the legendary grandson of Emperor Kogen, was the most prominent power in the court and intermarried with imperial family. After Kazuraki faded in late 5th century, Ōtomo clan(大伴氏) temporarily took its place. When Emperor Buretsu died with no apparent heir, it was Otomo no Kanamura who recommended Emperor Keitai, a very distant imperial relative resided in Koshi (current Fukui Prefecture), to be a new monarch. However, Kanamura was resigned due to failures on diplomatic policies, and the court was eventually controlled by the Mononobe (物部氏) and Soga clans (蘇我氏) at the beginning of the Asuka period. Keitai (継体天皇 Keitai Tennō), or rather Keitai okimi was the 26th Japanese imperial ruler, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Mononobe clan (物部氏; mononobe-shi) was an old Japanese clan of Yamato period. ... The Soga clan was one of the most powerful clans in Yamato Japan. ...


Kofun society

Horse chariots during the Kofun period. Detail of bronze mirror (5th-6th century). Eta-Funayama Tumulus, Kumamoto. Tokyo National Museum.
Horse chariots during the Kofun period. Detail of bronze mirror (5th-6th century). Eta-Funayama Tumulus, Kumamoto. Tokyo National Museum.

Detail of horse charriots during the Kofun period (5th-6th century). ... Detail of horse charriots during the Kofun period (5th-6th century). ... The Tokyo National Museum. ...

Torai-Jin

Chinese and Korean immigrants who naturalized in ancient Japan were called "Torai-Jin" (渡来人). They introduced many aspects of Chinese culture to Japan; valuing their knowledge and culture, the Yamato government gave preferential treatment to Torai-Jins. Ancient Japan is a term used for the early periods of Japanese history. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ...


Chinese migration

Many important figures were also immigrants from China. Chinese immigrants also had considerable influence according to the Shinsen-Joujouroku (新撰姓氏録),[2] which was used as a directory of aristocrats. Yamato Imperial Court had officially edited the directory in 815, and 163 Chinese clans were registered.


According to Nihongi, The Hata clan hich was composed of descendants of Qin Shi Huang[3] arrived at Yamato in 403 (the fourteenth year of Oujin) leading the people of 120 provinces. According to the Shinsen-Shoujiroku, the Hata Clan were dispersed in various provinces during the reign of Emperor Nintoku and let undertake sericulture and the manufacturing of silk for the court. When the finance ministry was set up in Yamato Court, Hata Otsuchichi (秦大津父) was in charge of accounts as a minister of it. Nihonshoki (日本書紀) is the second oldest history book about the ancient history of Japan. ... The Hata clan (秦氏)(also called Hada or a number of other variations) was a group active in Japan during the Yamato period, according to the epic history Nihonshoki. ... The monarch known now as Qin Shi Huang (Chinese: ; Pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Chin Shih-huang) (November / December 260 BCE – September 10, 210 BCE), personal name Yíng Zhèng, was king of the Chinese State of Qin from 247 BCE to 221 BCE (officially still under the Zhou Dynasty... Daisen-Kofun, the tomb of Emperor Nintoku, Osaka Emperor Nintoku (仁徳天皇 Nintoku Tennō) was the 16th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... The finance minister is a cabinet position in a government. ...


In 409 (twentieth year of Oujin), Achi-no-Omi ancestor of the Yamato-Aya clan which was composed of also arrived with the people of 17 districts. According to the Shinsen-Shoujiroku, Achi obtained the permission to establish the Province of Imaki. The Kawachi-no-Fumi clan , descendants of Gaozu of Han, introduced aspects of Chinese writing to the Yamato court. Emperor Gao (256 BC or 247 BC–June 1, 195 BC), commonly known inside China as Gaozu (Chinese: ; pinyin: ), personal name Liu Bang, was the first emperor of the Chinese Han Dynasty, ruling over China from 202 BC until 195 BC, and one of only a few dynasty founders who...


The Takamoku clan is a descendant of Cao Cao. Takamuko-no-Kuromaro was a center member of Taika Reform.[4] Cáo Cāo (155 – March 15, 220, pronounced Tsau Tsau) was a regional warlord and the second last Chancellor of the Eastern Han Dynasty who rose to great power during its final years in ancient China. ... The Taika Reforms ) were a set of doctrines established by Emperor Kōtoku in the year 646. ...


Korean migration

Kofun period Haniwa chieftain, Ibaraki, circa 500 CE. British Museum.
Kofun period Haniwa chieftain, Ibaraki, circa 500 CE. British Museum.

Among the many Korean immigrants who settled in Japan beginning in the 4th century, some came to be the progenitors of Japanese clans. According to Nihongi, the oldest record of Silla immigrant is Amenohiboko, a legendary prince of Silla who settled to Japan at the era of Emperor Suinin, perhaps around 3rd or 4th century. Ironically, Amenohiboko is described in Nihongi as a maternal ancestor of Empress Jingū whose controversial legend says that she conquered Silla. On the other hand, Korean immigrants also include the Baekje royal family. King Muryeong of Baekje was born in Japan in 462, and left a son who settled there. In Emperor Ōjin's reign, Geunchogo of Baekje dedicated a large number of treasures and scholars to the Japanese emperor.[5] The elements of Chinese culture introduced to the Yamato Imperial Court are very important.[6] Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 282 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (861 × 1828 pixel, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 282 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (861 × 1828 pixel, file size: 267 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... The Haniwa (埴輪) are clay figures which were made for ritual use and buried with the dead as funerary objects during the Kofun period (3rd to 6th century CE) of Japanese history. ... Ibaraki may refer to: Ibaraki, Osaka Ibaraki prefecture This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The British Museum in London, England is one of the worlds greatest museums of human history and culture. ... Nihonshoki (日本書紀) is the second oldest history book about the ancient history of Japan. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Grave of Emperor Suinin, Nara Prefecture Emperor Suinin (垂仁天皇 Suinin Tennō) was the eleventh imperial ruler of Japan to appear on the traditional list of emperors. ... Empress Jingu setting foot in Korea. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... King Muryeong (462-523 r. ... Emperor ÅŒjin (応神天皇 ÅŒjin Tennō), or rather Ojin okimi was the 15th imperial ruler of Japan, according to the traditional order of succession. ... Geunchogo of Baekje (reigned 346–375) was the thirteenth king of the ancient Korean kingdom of Baekje, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ...


Language

Main article: Japanese language

Chinese, Korean and Japanese wrote accounts of history mostly in Chinese characters, making original pronunciations difficult to trace. Not to be confused with the Javanese language. ... Technical note: Due to technical limitations, some web browsers may not display some special characters in this article. ...


While writing was largely unknown to the indigenous Japanese of this period, the literary skills of foreigners seem to have increasingly become appreciated by the elites of some Japanese regions. The Inariyama sword, made in either China (tentatively dated 471 or 531) contains Chinese-character inscriptions in styles used in China, leading to speculation that the owner, though claiming to be a Japanese aristocrat, might possibly actually have been an immigrant.[7] Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Introduction of equine culture to Japan

Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century.
Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century.

Chinese chronicles make note that the horse was absent on the islands of Japan and they are first noted in the chronicles during the reign of Nintoku, most likely brought by China and Korean immigrants. The horse is one of the treasures presented when the king of Silla surrenders to Jingu of Japan according to the record of Nihonshoki.[8] Irrigation, sericulture, and weaving were also brought to Japan by China and Korean immigrants who are mentioned in the ancient Japanese histories. For instance, Chinese immigrant's Hata clan told Japan the sericulture. Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... Tack is any of the various accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... Emperor Nintoku (仁徳天皇) was the 16th imperial ruler of Japan. ... Empress Consort JingÅ« of Japan (c. ... Nihonshoki (Japanese: 日本書紀), sometimes translated as Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. ... Irrigation is the artificial application of water to the soil usually for assisting in growing crops. ... Sericulture is the rearing of silkworms for the production of raw silk. ... Tweed loom, Harris, 2004 Woven sheet Weaving is an ancient textile art and craft that involves placing two sets of threads or yarn called the warp and weft of the loom and turning them into cloth. ...

Kofun Haniwa soldier.
Kofun Haniwa soldier.

The cavalry wore armour, carried swords and other weapons, and used advanced military methods like those of north-east Asia. Evidence of these advances is seen in funerary figures (called haniwa; literally, clay rings), found in thousands of kofun scattered throughout Japan. The most important of the haniwa were found in southern Honshū—especially the Kinai region around Nara—and northern Kyūshū. Haniwa grave offerings were made in numerous forms, such as horses, chickens, birds, fans, fish, houses, weapons, shields, sunshades, pillows, and male and female humans. Another funerary piece, the magatama, became one of the symbols of the power of the imperial house. Much of the material culture of the Kofun period is barely distinguishable from that of the contemporaneous southern Korean peninsula, demonstrating that at this time Japan was in close political and economic contact with continental Asia (especially with the southern dynasties of China) through Korea. Indeed, bronze mirrors cast from the same mould have been found on both sides of the Tsushima Strait. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 237 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (342 × 864 pixel, file size: 455 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 237 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (342 × 864 pixel, file size: 455 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Haniwa (埴輪) are clay figures which were made for ritual use and buried with the dead as funerary objects during the Kofun period (3rd to 6th century CE) of Japanese history. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Swiss longsword, 15th or 16th century Look up Sword in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Haniwa (埴輪) are clay figures which were made for ritual use and buried with the dead as funerary objects during the Kofun period (3rd to 6th century CE) of Japanese history. ... The Haniwa (埴輪) are clay figures which were made for ritual use and buried with the dead as funerary objects during the Kofun period (3rd to 6th century CE) of Japanese history. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Kansai (Japanese: 関西) region of Japan, also known as the Kinki region (近畿地方, Kinki-chihō), lies in the Southern-Central region of Japans main island, Honshu. ... Nara Prefecture ) is part of the Kinki region on HonshÅ« Island, Japan. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Magatama Magatama(Japanese: 勾玉), are curved beads which first appeared in Japan during the Jomon period. ... In archaeology, culture refers to either of two separate but allied concepts: A material culture comprises physical objects from the past, the study of which is the basis of the discipline. ... The Tsushima Strait is the eastern channel of the Korea Strait Tsushima Strait (対馬海峡, also known in Western historical reference works as the Tsu Shima Strait or Tsu-Shima Strait) is that part of the Korea Strait located east and south of the Tsushima Islands. ...


Towards Asuka period

The Kofun period gave way to the Asuka period in mid-6th century AD by the introduction of Buddhism. The religion was officially introduced at the year 538, and this year is traditionally set for the epoch of the new period. Also, after the reunification of China by Sui Dynasty later in this century, Japan was deeply influenced by Chinese culture and consequently entered into a new cultural era. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... A silhouette of a Buddha statue at Ayutthaya, Thailand. ... The Sui Dynasty (Chinese: ; pinyin: ; 581-619[1]) followed the Southern and Northern Dynasties and preceded the Tang Dynasty in China. ...


Relation of Yamato court and Korean peninsula

According to the Book of Song, a Chinese emperor appointed five kings of Wa to the ruler of Baekje and Silla in 421.[9] Japan of the Kofun period was very positive towards the introduction of Chinese culture. [2]. Chinese and Korean immigrants played an important role in introducing Chinese civilization to early Japan.[3]. Not only are there many material objects from China via the Korean peninsula that were exported to Japan such as bronze mirrors, iron, and pottery. The Book of Song (Chinese: 宋書/宋书; Wade-Giles: Sungshu), is a the historical writing for the Chinese Song of Southern Dynasties covering the history from 420 to 479, and is one of the traditional Twenty-Four Histories. ... The five kings of Wa are kings of Japan who sent envoys to China during the 5th century to strengthen the legitimacy of their claims to power by gaining the recognition of the Chinese emperor. ... Baekje (October 18 BC – August AD 660) was a kingdom in the southwest of the Korean Peninsula. ... Silla (also spelled Shilla, traditional dates 57 BCE - 935 CE) was one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. ... Events February 8 - Constantius III becomes Co_Emperor of the Western Roman Empire June 7 - Roman Emperor Theodosius II marries Aelia Eudocia, formerly known as Athenais. ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... This article is about the Chinese civilization. ...

A late kofun, earthen covering gone. (Ishibutai kofun in Nara)
A late kofun, earthen covering gone. (Ishibutai kofun in Nara)

The special burial customs of the Goguryeo culture had an important influence on other cultures in Japan.[10] Decorated tombs and painted tumuli which date from the fifth century and later found in Japan are generally accepted as Korean peninsula exports to Japan. The Takamatsuzuka Tomb even has paintings of woman dressed in distinctive Clothes written in wall painting of Goguryeo and Tang Dynasty.[11] [12] And, the astronomy figure of China was being written. ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1153, 441 KB) Ishibutai Kofun. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x1153, 441 KB) Ishibutai Kofun. ... Nara Prefecture ) is part of the Kinki region on Honshū Island, Japan. ... Takamatsuzuka Tomb has beautiful mural painting The Takamatsuzuka Tomb ) or Tall Pine Tree Ancient Burial Mound in Japanese is an ancient tomb of circular shape located in Asuka village, Nara prefecture, Japan. ... For the band, see Tang Dynasty (band). ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Category:Kofun

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Kuni no miyatsuko (国造 - also read Kokuso or Kuni no Miyakko) were officials in ancient Japan at the time of the Yamato court. ... The Kumaso (熊襲) were a peoples of ancient Japan, believed to have lived in the south of Kyushu until at least the Nara period. ...

References

The Country Studies are works published by the Federal Research Division of the Library of Congress ( USA), freely available for use by researchers. ... The U.S. Constitution, adopted in 1789 by a constitutional convention, sets down the basic framework of American government in its seven articles. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Farris, William Wayne. Sacred Texts and Buried Treasures: Issues on the Historical Archaeology of Ancient Japan. University of Hawaii Press, 7. ISBN 0-8248-2030-4. 
  2. ^ "Shinsen-shōjiroku" shizoku ichiran 『新撰姓氏録』氏族一覧. transcribed by Kazuhide Kitagawa. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  3. ^ Nihon no myōji 7000 ketsu seishi ruibetsu taikan Hata uji 日本の苗字7000傑 姓氏類別大観 秦氏. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  4. ^ Nihon no myōji 7000 ketsu seishi ruibetsu taikan Takamuko uji 日本の苗字7000傑 姓氏類別大観 高向氏. Retrieved on 2006-10-15.
  5. ^ Nihonshoki Episode of Ojin 16 - 百濟國主照古王 以牡馬壹疋 牝馬壹疋 付阿知吉師以貢上
  6. ^ in Kozo Yamamura: The Cambridge History of Japan. Cambridge University Press, 311. ISBN 0-521-22354-7. 
  7. ^ Character written in Inariyama sword - 辛亥年七月中記、乎獲居臣、上祖名意富比垝、其児多加利足尼、其児名弖已加利獲居、其児名多加披次獲居、其児名多沙鬼獲居、其児名半弖比 / 其児名加差披余、其児名乎獲居臣、世々為杖刀人首、奉事来至今、獲加多支鹵大王寺在斯鬼宮時、吾左治天下、令作此百練利刀、記吾奉事根原也
  8. ^ ,Nihon Shoki: Episode of Jingu of Japan:從今以後,長與乾坤,伏為飼部.其不乾船柂而春秋獻馬梳及馬鞭.復不煩海遠以每年貢男女之調,非東日更出西,且除阿利那禮河返以之逆流,及河石昇為星辰,而殊闕春秋之朝,怠廢梳、鞭之貢,天神地祇共討焉
  9. ^ Book of Song [1]
  10. ^ Complex of Koguryo Tombs. UNESCO World Heritage Centre. Retrieved on 2006-05-31.
  11. ^ Sacred Texts and Buried Treasures: Issues on the Historical Archaeology of Ancient Japan, 95. 
  12. ^ MSN Encalta http://jp.encarta.msn.com/media_262538992_761577854_-1_1/content.html

This period is part of the Yamato period of Japanese History. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nihonshoki (Japanese: 日本書紀), sometimes translated as Chronicles of Japan, is the second oldest book of classical Japanese history. ... Nihonshoki (日本書紀) is the second oldest history book about the ancient history of Japan. ... The Book of Song (Chinese: 宋書/宋书; Wade-Giles: Sungshu), is a the historical writing for the Chinese Song of Southern Dynasties covering the history from 420 to 479, and is one of the traditional Twenty-Four Histories. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ...


< Yayoi | History of Japan | Asuka period > This article is about a Japanese historical era. ... The written history of Japan began with brief appearances in Chinese history texts from the first century AD. However, archaeological research indicates that people were living on the islands of Japan as early as the upper paleolithic period. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Japan Reference - Culture - Japanese History : Kofun Period 古墳時代 (775 words)
By the late Kofun period, the distinctive burial chambers, originally used by the ruling elite, also were built for commoners.
Kofun are also classified according to whether the entrance to the stone burial chamber is vertical (tate-ana) or horizontal (yoko-ana).
The Kofun period is seen as ending by A.D. 538, when the use of elaborate kofun by the Yamato and other elite fell out of use because of prevailing new Buddhist beliefs, which put greater emphasis on the transience of human life.
Kofun period - Encyclopedia, History, Geography and Biography (2248 words)
Kofun and the subsequent Asuka periods are sometimes referred to collectively as the Yamato period.
Much of the material culture of the Kofun period is barely distinguishable from that of the contemporaneous southern Korean peninsula, demonstrating that at this time Japan was in close political and economic contact with continental Asia (especially with the southern dynasties of China) through Korea.
The Kofun period of Japanese culture is also sometimes called the Yamato period by some Western scholars, since this local chieftainship arose to become the Imperial dynasty at the end of the Kofun period.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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