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Encyclopedia > Kodungallur
  ?Kodungallur
Kerala • India
Coordinates: 10°08′N 76°08′E / 10.13, 76.13
Time zone IST (UTC+5:30)
Area
Elevation

• 9 m (30 ft)
District(s) Thrissur
Population 33,543 (2001)
Codes
Pincode
Telephone
Vehicle

• 680668
• +0480
• KL-8 / KL 47

Coordinates: 10°08′N 76°08′E / 10.13, 76.13 Image File history File links Acap. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links India_Kerala_locator_map. ... Image File history File links Locator_Dot. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ... Timezone and TimeZone redirect here. ... Location of Mirzapur and the 82. ... The geography of India is diverse, with landscape ranging from snow-capped mountain ranges to deserts, plains, rainforests, hills, and plateaus. ... Elevation histogram of the surface of the Earth – approximately 71% of the Earths surface is covered with water. ... The divisions of a district. ... An elephant carrying Thidambu during Thrissur pooram festival. ... 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... A Postal Index Number or PIN or Pincode is the post office numbering or post code system used by the Indian Postal Service (similar to the ZIP Code in the United States). ... For the past decade or so, telecommunication activities have gained momentum in India. ... Licence plates on the back of a taxi in Kolkata. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...

Kodungallur (anglicised name: Cranganore ) is a city and a municipality in Thrissur district in the Indian state of Kerala. It is known in ancient times as Shinkli, Muchiri (anglicised to Muziris), Muyirikkodu, Muchiripattinam was a famous and prosperous sea-port at the mouth of the Periyar (also known as Choorni Nadi) river in the southern Indian state of Kerala. It is located about 38 km from the present day city of Kochi at 10°13′N, 76°13′Eupon NH 17. Meteorite falls are those meteorites that were witnessed by people or automated devices as they transitted the atmosphere or impacted the Earth, and were subsequently collected. ... A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... An elephant carrying Thidambu during Thrissur pooram festival. ... India is a federal republic comprising twenty-eight states and seven union territories. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... South India is a geographic and linguistic-cultural region of India. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Cochin may refer to: Cochin China Kingdom of Kochi, a former princely state of India, merged with Travancore to form the State of Kerala Cochin city, the former name of the city of Kochi, in Kerala Hôpital Cochin, a famous hospital in Paris, France Cochin font, from the Adobe...


The name Muchiri (Malayalam for cleft lip) denotes the three branches of the Periyar river that open into the Arabian Sea at the town. Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... The Arabian Sea (Arabic: بحر العرب; transliterated: Bahr al-Arab) is a region of the Indian Ocean bounded on the east by India, on the north by Pakistan and Iran, on the west by Arabian Peninsula, on the south, approximately, by a line between Cape Guardafui, the north-east point of Somalia...

Contents

Geography

Kodungallur is located at 10.22° N 76.22° E[1]. It has an average elevation of 9 metres (29 feet). Kodungallur is situated 35 km away (towards north) from Kochi, 35 km away (towards south-west) from Thrissur and 45 km away (towards south) from Guruvayur near the Arabian Sea Shore. This article is about the unit of length. ... A foot (plural: feet or foot;[1] symbol or abbreviation: ft or, sometimes, ′ – a prime) is a unit of length, in a number of different systems, including English units, Imperial units, and United States customary units. ...


Ancient fame

The Bhagawati temple at Kodungallur is of great renown throughout the state of Kerala.

Kodungallur Bhagavathy.
Kodungallur Bhagavathy.
Kodungallur Bhagavathy Temple.
Kodungallur Bhagavathy Temple.

Kodungallur is important not only in the history of Kerala but also of India. It has reference in the epics Ramayana and Mahabharatha. The poets Pathanjali and Karthiyayan have referred to it in their poems; it also finds reference in the Chilappathikaram. Kodungallur is mentioned in the stone writings of Asoka as well and mention is found in the travelogues of both Plieni and Ptolemy under different names. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The Kodungallur temple is one of the four Devi temples which Bhargava Raman is said to have installed at the four boundaries of Kerala. The popular belief is that in order to save the devotees from the epidemic of chicken pox the Lokambika was installed in the Kodungallur temple by Bhargava Raman.This is one of those rare temples where the Brahmins are not performing the pooja.


Kodungallur was also the capital of Cheraman Perumal, the last Chera ruler, in the 7th century AD who is believed to have been abdicated his throne and divided his kingdom among thelocal chieftains and left for Mecca to embrace Islam After this, This place was later ruled by Perumpadapu Swaroopam for sometime. This article belongs in one or more categories. ... The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... Perumpadapu Swaroopam (also know as Madarajyam, Gosree Rajyam, Kuru Swaroopam) was the name of the Kingdom of Kochi. ...


Kodungallur situated on the west coast, was once a great port of the Chera rulers. Kodungallur was a critical trade link in Indian Ancient Maritime History. It was known as Muziris to Pliny the Elder (N.H. 6.26) who describes it as primum emorium Indiae. India has had a maritime history dating back almost 2,500 years. ... Pliny the Elder: an imaginative 19th Century portrait. ...


The port was familiar to the author of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea which described it as being situated on river Pseudostomos (Greek for "false mouth" - a precise translation of the Malayalam description of the mouth of the Periyar, Alimukam) two miles from its mouth [2]. Names, routes and locations of the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ...

Muziris, near the tip of India, in the Peutinger Table.
Muziris, near the tip of India, in the Peutinger Table.

The ancient Greek explorer, Hippalus landed at this port after discovering the patterns of the Indian monsoon trade winds on his way from the East coast of Africa. The evidence of the Peutinger Table suggests that there was a temple to the Roman emperor Augustus. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger table) is a map showing the road network in the Roman Empire. ... The term ancient Greece refers to the period of Greek history in Classical Antiquity, lasting ca. ... Hippalus was a Greek navigator who probably lived in the 1st century BCE. He is sometimes conjectured to have been the captain of the Greek explorer Eudoxus of Cyzicus ship. ... Bold text[[ // [[Image:Media:Example. ... The Tabula Peutingeriana (Peutinger table) is a map showing the road network in the Roman Empire. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... For other persons named Octavian, see Octavian (disambiguation). ...


The Greeks, the Romans (known locally as the Yavanas), and the Jews all have come to this place at different times in its ancient history. Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ...


Roman gold and silver coins bearing impressions of Roman Emperors Tiberius and Nero were discovered in the village of Parur near the town during 2000. For other persons named Tiberius, see Tiberius (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nero (disambiguation). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ...


A second-century papyrus from Egypt concerning the transshipment of goods originating in Muziris from the Red Sea to Alexandria attests the continued importance of the port in the Indian Ocean commerce a century after Pliny and the Periplus.[3] For other uses, see Papyrus (disambiguation). ... This article is about the city in Egypt. ...


Thomas the Apostle of Jesus with his followers is believed to have landed in Cranganore in the year AD 52 and preached the gospel. It thus became the earliest Nasrani Syrian Christian centre of Malabar with monuments built in the memory of Thomas still existing. The existence of a thriving Christian Community here attracted the attention of others and the Bishops who came from Persia chose this place for their residence. The bones of the right hand of St Thomas were placed in 1953 as a memento. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Jude Thomas. ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... This article is about the year 52. ... Gospel, from the Old English good tidings is a calque of Greek () used in the New Testament (see Etymology below). ... A Nasrani (also called as a Syrian - Malabar Christian) is a type of Christian from Kerala, South India who follows the earliest form of Christian-Jewish tradition of the early Christians. ... [Land of uncivilised] Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala Malabar (Malayalam: മലബാര്‍ ) is a region of southern India, lying between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea, and derived from the Malayalam word Mala mean Hill and Persian word Bar means Kingdom, and is same as the word meaning of Malayalam. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Anthem SorÅ«d-e MellÄ«-e Īrān Â² Capital (and largest city) Tehran Official languages Persian Demonym Iranian Government Islamic Republic  -  Supreme Leader  -  President Unification  -  Unified by Cyrus the Great 559 BCE   -  Parthian (Arsacid) dynastic empire (first reunification) 248 BCE-224 CE   -  Sassanid dynastic empire 224–651 CE   -  Safavid dynasty... Year 1953 (MCMLIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Malik Ibn Dinar and 20 others who were the followers of Prophet Muhammad, the founder of Islam, first landed here when they came to India. Islam received royal patronage in some states here, and later spread to other parts of India. He built a mosque there in the shape of a Hindu temple. It could also have been the first mosque in the Indian subcontinent as the exact date of making is not known but is believed to be in 629 AD. Though, generally it is considered to be the second mosque of the world after the mosque in Medina,Saudi Arabia Malik Ibn Dinar was one of the Sahaba (companions of the Prophet Muhammad). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ...

Cheraman Perumal Juma Masjid before it renovated and believed to be the first Masjid in India built in 629 AD by Malik Ibn Dinar.
The renovated Cheraman Juma Masjid
The renovated Cheraman Juma Masjid

The Syrian Church was firmly established here before the 9th century. In fact the Jews' settlement in Kodungallu was still earlier. The latter, claimed to hold grants dated A.D. 378. The cruelty of the Portuguese drove most of the Jews to Cochin. Up to 1314, when the Vypin harbour was formed, the only opening in the Cochin backwater, and outlet for the Periyar, was at Kodungalur, which must then have been the best harbour on the coast. In 1502 the Syrian Christians invoked the protection of the Portuguese. With the influence of Portuguese, most of the Syrian Christians accepted Latin Rite in Kodungallur. Kodungallur was an archdiocese before it was moved to Goa. Catholics in Kodungallur today belong to Kottappuram Diocese. In 1523 Portuguese built their first fort there, and in 1565 enlarged it. In 1661 the Dutch took the fort, the possession of which for the next forty years was contested between this nation, the zamorin, and the raja of Kodungalur. In 1776, Tipu Sultan seized the stronghold. The Dutch recaptured it two years later, and, having ceded it to Tipu Sultan in 1784, sold it to the Travancore raja, and again in 1789 to Tippoo, who destroyed it in the following year. After Tipu's death, The Kodungallur kovilakam controlled the lands of Kodungalur. The Kodungalur then formed an autonomous principality and a subordinate to the Raja of Cochin and remained thus until Indian Independence in 1947. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ... Malik Ibn Dinar was one of the Sahaba (companions of the Prophet Muhammad). ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Zamorin is the anglicised version of Samoothirippadu or Samoothiri or Swamy Thirumulpad, a title of the rulers of the erstwhile Hindu state of Kozhikode (previously known as Calicut)(Nediyirippu Swarupam), located in the present day state of Kerala, India, between the 14th and 18th century AD. Manavikraman Raja, the Samoothiri... For other uses, see Raja (disambiguation). ... Portrait of Tippu Sultan, 1792 Tippu (Tips) Sultan (full name Sultan Fateh Ali Tippu), also known as the Tiger of Mysore (November 20, 1750, Devanahalli – May 4, 1799, Srirangapattana), was the first son of Haidar Ali by his second wife, Fatima or Fakhr-un-nissa. ... The Indian independence movement was a series of steps taken in the Indian subcontinent for independence from British colonial rule, beginning with the Rebellion of 1857. ...


Flood of 1341

The flood of the river Periyar in 1341 AD resulted in the splitting of the river into two tributaries at Thottummukham. That silted up the natural harbour at the mouth of the river, and resulted in the creation of a new harbour at Kochi. During this time there was the rise of the Samoothiri Rajas of Kozhikode. A local area called the Putu Vaipu or Vypin The town was nearly completely destroyed by the Portuguese (Suarez de Menezes) on September 1, 1504 in retaliation for the Samoothiri Raja's actions against them[4]. Events The Queens College, a constituent college of the University of Oxford, is founded. ... Zamorin is the anglicised version of Samoothirippadu or Samoothiri or Swamy Thirumulpad, a title of the rulers of the erstwhile Hindu state of Kozhikode (previously known as Calicut)(Nediyirippu Swarupam), located in the present day state of Kerala, India, between the 14th and 18th century AD. Manavikraman Raja, the Samoothiri... , For the district with the same name, see Kozhikode District. ... is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1504 was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Zamorin is the anglicised version of Samoothirippadu or Samoothiri or Swamy Thirumulpad, a title of the rulers of the erstwhile Hindu state of Kozhikode (previously known as Calicut)(Nediyirippu Swarupam), located in the present day state of Kerala, India, between the 14th and 18th century AD. Manavikraman Raja, the Samoothiri...


Perumpadapu Swaroopam still has their roots here. Perumpadapu Swaroopam (also know as Madarajyam, Gosree Rajyam, Kuru Swaroopam) was the name of the Kingdom of Kochi. ...


The present day natural beauty of the place is enchanting, and it is a popular tourist destination today.


Sights

Kodungallur Bharanai festival
Kodungallur Bharanai festival
Elephant carrying Thidambu during Thalappoli festival
Elephant carrying Thidambu during Thalappoli festival

The present day town has some very interesting monuments for the tourist to view: Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 708 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 762 pixel, file size: 190 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Kodungallur Bharani Festival File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 708 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (900 × 762 pixel, file size: 190 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Kodungallur Bharani Festival File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

  • Kodungallur Bagavathy temple - believed to have been constructed during the reign of Chera King, Cheran Senkuttuvan, is famous for its Bharani and Thalappoli festival. The temple requires the pilgrim to carry pepper and turmeric powder as one of the offerings to the deity.
  • The Bharani festival at the Kodungallur Bhagawati temple is one of the grandest in Kerala. It is a month of festivities from the Bharani asterism in the month of Aquarius to 7 days after the Bharani asterism in the month of Pisces. Traditionally the temple (especially during the Bharani festival) has been associated with a lot of animal sacrifices. These customs have been done away with in the 20th century. The blood of the sacrificed used to be spilled over two stones in the prakaram, and as mentioned above, this practice is now stopped.William Logan, a social historian of Kerala, noted in 1887 that, "after Onam, the national festival, Kodungallur Bharani was the most important celebration in Kerala.
  • Cheraman Jama Masjid - built around 629 AD by Malik Ibn Dinar in the typical local style of architecture and the bodies of some of the original followers are said to have been buried here. This is said to be the first mosque constructed in India.
  • St. Mar Thomas Church - Christs apostle St Thomas landed in Kodungallur in 52 AD. The St.Thomas Church established by him houses ancient relics and is believed to the first Christian church in India .It is a famous church and very important among the Christians.
St. Mar Thoma Church
St. Mar Thoma Church
  • Thiruvanchikulam Mahadeva temple - One of the oldest Siva temples in south India where Lord Siva is said to live along with his whole family. This temple has got a healthy relation with south India's famous Chidambaram temple. This temple has another rare event called "Anayottam" which is part of the annual festival.
  • Edavilangu sivakrishnapuram temple- One of the oldest temples in kodungallur,actually this temple is under the Cochin Devaswom Board but now look after by the devotees of Edavilangu .Here,Lord Siva and Krishna are the main idols.

The Chera dynasty (Tamil: சேரர்) was one of the ancient Tamil dynasties that ruled southern India from ancient times until around the fifteenth century CE. The Early Cheras ruled over the Malabar Coast, Coimbatore, Karur and Salem Districts in South India, which now forms part of the modern day Kerala and... Events Jerusalem reconquered by Byzantine Empire from the Persian Empire (September). ... Malik Ibn Dinar was one of the Sahaba (companions of the Prophet Muhammad). ... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... No file by this name exists; you can upload it. ... No file by this name exists; you can upload it. ... This article is about the town in Cuddalore district. ...

Various names

Kodungallur has enjoyed various names over the past millennia. In addition to those mentioned previously these are Jangli, Gingaleh, Cyngilin, Shinkali, Chinkli/Jinkali, Shenkala, Cynkali, Columguria, Vangi, Musirippattanam, Mahodayapuram, Kotilingapuram, Kudalingapuram, Makodai, Kodunkaliyur, Thiruvallur, RaviVisvapuram and Balakreetapuram.There is also a belief that the name Kodungallur is derived from Kodi-linga-puram(Core Siva Lingas).


Demographics

As of 2001 India census[5], Kodungallur had a population of 33,543. Males constitute 47% of the population and females 53%. Kodungallur has an average literacy rate of 83%, higher than the national average of 59.5%: male literacy is 86%, and female literacy is 81%. In Kodungallur, 10% of the population is under 6 years of age. 2001 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and also: The International Year of the Volunteer The United Nations Year of Dialogue Among Civilizations Events January January 1 - A black monolith measuring approximately nine feet tall appears in Seattles Magnuson Park, placed by an anonymous... Image:1870 census Lindauer Weber 01. ...


References

  1. ^ Falling Rain Genomics, Inc - Kodungallur
  2. ^ Menachery, Professor George. Kodungallur - The Cradle of Christianity In India, Thrissur: Marthoma Pontifical Shrine, 2000, Ch.I
  3. ^ Thür, G. 1987. Hypotheken Urkunde eines Seedarlehens für eine Reise nach Muziris und Apographe für die Tetarte in Alexandria (zu P. Vindob. G. 40. 8222). Tyche 2:229-245.
  4. ^ Logan, William. Malabar Manual, Delhi, Asian Educational Services, 2000, 1186 pgs. pp 312, ISBN 81-206-0446-6 (Originally published in Madras, 1887).
  5. ^ Census of India 2001: Data from the 2001 Census, including cities, villages and towns. (Provisional). Census Commission of India. Retrieved on 2007-09-03.

This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain. Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st Century. ... is the 246th day of the year (247th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ...


See also

Perumpadapu Swaroopam (also know as Madarajyam, Gosree Rajyam, Kuru Swaroopam) was the name of the Kingdom of Kochi. ... Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews are the ancient prospetutess and their descendants of the South Indian erstwhile state of Kingdom of Cochin which includes the present day port city of Kochi. ... An unvelied tabernacle of a Knanaya Jewish Nasrani palli or Temple with 12 candlesticks in the background for the 12 tribes of ancient Israel. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... The Saint Thomas Christians are a group of Christians from the Malabar coast (now Kerala) in South India, who follow Syriac Christianity. ... For the district with the same name, see Thrissur district. ... This article is about a town in Ernakulam district. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kodungallur - Bhagawati Temple Festivals (322 words)
The festivals of significance at Kodungallur are Makara Sankaranti and the Bharani Festival.
Makara Sankaranti coinciding with Pongal in Tamilnadu is one of the important festivals at Kodungallur.
The Bharani festival at the Kodungallur Bhagawati temple is one of the grandest in Kerala.
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