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Encyclopedia > Knyaz

Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. It is usually translated into English as either Prince or Duke, although the correspondence is not exact. Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... The term prince, from the Latin root princeps, is used for a member of the highest ranks of the aristocracy or the nobility. ... A duke is a nobleman, historically of highest rank and usually controlling a duchy. ...

Contents

Etymology

The etymology is directly related to the English King, the German König, and the Scandinavian konung. It was probably borrowed early from the Proto-Germanic *Kuningaz, a form also borrowed by Finnish and Estonian (Kuningas). Map of the Pre-Roman Iron Age culture(s) associated with Proto-Germanic, c. ... The Germanic king originally had three main functions. ...


The title is pronounced and written similarly in different Eastern European languages. Map of Eastern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current national boundaries: Russia (dark orange), other countries of the former USSR (medium orange),members of the Warsaw pact (light orange), and other former Communist regimes not aligned with Moscow (lightest orange). ... European languages are the object of Eurolinguistics. ...


In West Slavic languages, such as Polish and Sorbian, the word has later come to denote "lord", and in Czech, Polish and Slovak also came to mean "priest" (kněz, ksiądz, kňaz) as well as "duke" (kníže, książę, knieža). This article or section should be merged with List of West Slavic languages The West Slavic languages is a subdivision of the Slavic language group (q. ...


Middle Ages

The meaning of the term changed over the course of history. Initially the term was used to denote the chieftain of a tribe. Later, with the development of feudal statehood, it become the title of a ruler of a state among East Slavs (княжество, kniazhestvo, traditionally translated as duchy or principality), for example, of Kievan Rus'. This article is about the leader. ... A duchy is a territory, fief, or domain ruled by a duke or duchess. ... A principality is a monarchical feudatory or sovereign state, ruled or reigned over by a Monarch with the title of prince or princess (a synonym is princedom) or (in the widest sense) a Monarch with another title within the generic use of the term prince. ... Kievan Rus′ was an early, mostly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ...


As the degree of centralization grew, the ruler acquired the title Velikii Kniaz (Великий Князь) (translated as Grand Prince or Grand duke, see Russian Grand Dukes). He ruled a Velikoe Knyazhestvo (Великое Княжество) (Grand Duchy), while a ruler of its vassal constituent (udel, udelnoe kniazhestvo or volost) was called udelny kniaz or simply kniaz. The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... The title Grand Prince (Latin, Magnus Princeps; German, Großfürst, Finnish Suuriruhtinas, Swedish Storfurste, Lithuanian Didysis kunigaikÅ¡tis, Russian Великий князь Velikii kniaz) ranks in honour below Emperor and Tsar but higher than a sovereign Prince (Fürst) or Royal Prince. ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... The title of Grand Duke (Latin, Magnus Dux; German, Großherzog, Russian, Великий князь) used in Slavic, Baltic, and Germanic countries, is ranked in honour below King but higher than a sovereign Duke (Herzog) or Prince (Fürst). ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ... Volost or volost (Russian: ) was a traditional administrative subdivision in Russia. ...


When Kievan Rus' became fragmented in the 13th century, the title Kniaz continued to be used in Ruthenian states, including Novgorod, Vladimir-Suzdal', Muscovy, Tver, Halych-Volynia, and in the Grand Duchy of Lithuania. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Ruthenia is a name applied to parts of Eastern Europe which were populated by Eastern Slavic peoples, as well as to various states that existed in this territory in the past. ... Velikiy Novgorod (Russian: ) is the foremost historic city of North-Western Russia, situated on the M10(E95) federal highway connecting Moscow and St. ... Vladimir-Suzdal Principality, Vladimir-Suzdal Rus (Владимирско-Суздальская Русь), or Vladimir-Suzdal Grand Duchy (Влади́миро-Су&#769... Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Tvers coat of arms depicts grand ducal crown placed on a throne. ... Halych-Volynia principality was the Ruthenian successor state of Kievan Rus on the territory of Rus menora (Rus propria) including the lands of Red Ruthenia, Black Ruthenia, and the remainder of southwestern Rus. This state also briefly controlled the region of Bessarabia and Moldavia. ... The Grand Duchy of Lithuania (Lithuanian: , Ruthenian: Wialikaje Kniastwa Litowskaje, Ruskaje, Å»amojckaje, Belarusian: , Ukrainian: , Polish: , Latin: ) was an Eastern and Central European state of the 12th[1] /13th century until the 18th century. ...


Russian title in modern times

As Muscovy gained dominion over much of former Kievan Rus', Velikii Kniaz Ivan IV of Russia in 1547 was crowned as Tsar. Since the mid-18th century, the title Velikii Kniaz has been revived to allude to sons and grandsons (through male lines) of the Russian Emperors. See titles for Tsar's family for details. Muscovy (Moscow principality (княжество Московское) to Grand Duchy of Moscow (Великое Княжество Московское) to Russian Tsardom (Царство Русское)) is a traditional Western name for the Russian state that existed from the 14th century to the late 17th century. ... Tsar Ivan the Terrible, by Viktor Vasnetsov Ivan IV Vasilyevich (Russian: ) (August 25, 1530, Moscow â€“ March 18, 1584, Moscow) was the Grand Prince of Moscow from 1533 to 1547 and Czar of Russia from 1547 until his death. ... Year 1547 was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , Croatian car, in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , Croatian car, in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ...


Kniaz continued as a hereditary title of Russian nobility patrilineally descended from Rurik (e.g., Repnin, Gorchakov) or Gediminas (e.g., Galitzine, Troubetzkoy). Members of Rurikid or Gedyminid families were called princes when they ruled tiny quasi-sovereign medieval principalities. After their demesnes were absorbed by Muscovy, they settled at the Moscow court and were authorised to continue with their princely titles. Categories of Russian nobility and royalty Kniaz (as ancient ruler) Velikiy Kniaz Boyar Tsar (Emperor), Tsarina (Empress, Empress consort) Tsar family Tsarevich, Tsarevna Velikiy Kniaz (Grand Duke) (as title), Velikaya Knyaginya (Grand Duchess), Velikaya Knyazhna (Grand Duchess) Dvoryanstvo Titled Dvoryanstvo Earl Baron Kniaz (as title) Related article Table of Ranks... Rurik or Riurik (Russian: , Old East Norse Rørik, meaning famous ruler) (ca 830 – ca 879) was a Varangian who gained control of Ladoga in 862 and built the Holmgard settlement (Ryurikovo Gorodishche) in Novgorod. ... Coat of arms of the Repnin family Repnin (Russian: Репнин), the name of an old Russian princely family of Rurikid stock. ... Coat of arms of the Gorchakov family Gorchakov, or Gortchakoff (Russian: Горчаков) is a Russian princely family of Rurikid stock, descended from Michael Vsevolodovich, prince of Chernigov, who, in 1246, was assassinated by the Mongols in Karakorum. ... Gediminas, duke of Lithuania - engraving of XVII ct. ... Peter I permitted the Galitzines to take an emblem of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania as their coat of arms The Galitzines, more correctly the Golitsyns (Russian: Голицын), are one of the largest and noblest princely houses of Russia. ... PogoÅ„ Litewska Coat of Arms Troubetzkoy, or Trubetskoy, or Trubetsky, or Trubecki, is a typical Ruthenian Gedyminid gentry family of Black Ruthenian stock, like other princely houses of Grand Duchy of Lithuania, later prominent in Russian history, science, and arts. ... Rurik Dynasty ... The Gediminaičiai (singular: Gediminaitis) were a dynasty of grand dukes of Lithuania that reigned from the 13th to the 16th century. ...


Since 18th-century, the title was occasionally granted by the Tsar, for the first time by Peter the Great to his associate Alexander Menshikov, and then by Catherine the Great to her lover Grigory Potemkin. After 1801, with the incorporation of Georgia into the Russian Empire, various titles of numerous local nobles were controversially rendered into Russian as "kniazes". Similarly, many petty Tatar nobles asserted their right to style themselves "kniazes" because they descended from Genghis Khan. Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekséyevich) (9 June 1672–8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his weak and sickly... Menshikov in Exile Aleksandr Danilovich Menshikov (Александр Данилович Меншиков) (1673 – 1729) was a Russian statesman, whose official titles included Generalissimo, Prince of the Holy Roman Empire... Catherine II (Екатерина II Алексеевна: Yekaterína II Alekséyevna, April 21, 1729 - November 6, 1796), born Sophie Augusta Fredericka, known as Catherine the Great, reigned as empress of Russia from... Prince Grigori Aleksandrovich Potemkin (Russian: Григорий Александрович Потемкин) (September 13, 1739 (NS: September 24) – October 5, 1791 (NS: October 16)) was a Russian... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... For other uses, see Genghis Khan (disambiguation). ...


Finally, within the Russian Empire of 1809-1917, Finland was called Grand Duchy of Finland (Velikoe Kniazhestvo Finlandskoe). Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Saint Petersburg Language(s) Russian Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721-1725 Peter the Great (first)  - 1894-1917 Nicholas II (last) History  - Established 22 October, 1721  - February Revolution 2 March, 1917 Area  - 1897 22,400,000 km2 8,648,688 sq... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... 1917 (MCMXVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar (see: 1917 Julian calendar). ... A grand duchy is a territory whose head of state is a Grand Duke or Grand Duchess. ...


See also


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