FACTOID # 29: 73.3% of America's gross operating surplus in motion picture and sound recording industries comes from California.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Knowledge Management

Knowledge Management ('KM') comprises a range of practices used by organisations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge. It has been an established discipline since 1995 [1] with a body of university courses and both professional and academic journals dedicated to it. Most large companies have resources dedicated to Knowledge Management, often as a part of 'Information Technology' or 'Human Resource Management' departments, and sometimes reporting directly to the head of the organisation. As effectively managing information is a must in any business,and knowledge and information are intertwined, Knowledge Management is a multi-billion dollar world wide market. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Information and communication technology spending in 2005 Information technology (IT), as defined by the Information Technology Association of America (ITAA), is the study, design, development, implementation, support or management of computer-based information systems, particularly software applications and computer hardware. ... Human resource management (HRM) is the strategic and coherent approach to the management of an organizations most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. ...


Knowledge Management programs are typically tied to organisational objectives and are intended to achieve specific outcomes, these can include, improved performance, competitive advantage innovation, lessons learnt transfer (for example between projects) and the general development of collaborative practices.


One aspect of Knowledge Management, knowledge transfer, has always existed in one form or another. Examples include on-the-job peer discussions, formal apprenticeship, discussion forums, corporate libraries, professional training and mentoring programs. However, with computers becoming more widespread in the second half of the 20th century, specific adaptations of technology such as knowledge bases, expert systems, and knowledge repositories have been introduced to further simplify the process. Knowledge transfer in the fields of Organizational development and organizational learning, is the practical problem of getting a packet of knowledge from one part of the organization to another (or all other) parts of the organization. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... An expert system, also known as a knowledge based system, is a computer program that contains the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts, related to a specific subject. ... A repository is a central place where data is stored and maintained. ...


Knowledge Management programs attempt to manage the process of creation (or identification), accumulation and application of knowledge across an organisation. As such Knowledge Management is frequently linked to the idea of the learning organisation although neither practice encompasses the other. Knowledge Management may be distinguished from Organisational Learning by a greater focus on specific knowledge assets and the development and cultivation of the channels through which knowledge flows Peter Senge defined a learning organization as human beings cooperating in dynamical systems (as defined in systemics) that are in a state of continuous adaptation and improvement. ...


Frequent Knowledge Management practices include:

The emergence of Knowledge Management has also generated new roles and responsibilities in organisations, an early example of which was the Chief Knowledge Officer. In recent years, Personal knowledge management (PKM) practice has arisen in which individuals apply KM practice to themselves, their roles and their career development. The organizational development (OD) concept of a community of practice (often abbreviated as CoP) refers to the process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in some subject or problem, collaborate to share ideas, find solutions, and build innovations. ... The Network Information Service or NIS is Sun Microsystems’ “Yellow Pages” (YP) client-server directory service protocol for distributing system configuration data such as user and host names between computers on a computer network. ... An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity to securely share part of an organizations information or operations with its employees. ... An extranet is a private network that uses Internet protocols, network connectivity, and possibly the public telecommunication system to securely share part of an organizations information or operations with suppliers, vendors, partners, customers or other businesses. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Wiki or wiki (pronounced wicky, weekee, or veekee; see pronunciation section below) is a website (or other hypertext document collection) that allows users to add content, as on an Internet forum, but also allows anyone to edit the content. ... Originally, a document management system was a computer program (or set of programs) used to track and store images of paper documents. ... A Chief Knowledge Officer is an organizational leader, responsible for ensuring that the organization maximizes the value it achieves through knowledge. CKO is not just a relabelling of the title Chief Information Officer - the CKO role is much broader. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In organizational development (or OD), the study of career development looks at: how individuals manage their careers within and between organizations and how organizations structure the career progress of their members, can be tied into succession planning within some organizations. ...


Knowledge Management has also been linked to knowledge manipulation - the creation, dissemination and use of knowledge is instrumental (Land, Nolas, Amjad). Hence actual knowledge management may constitute a kind of malpractice in which what purports to be knowledge is created to achieve an effect, such as the false accounts presented by ENRON.

Contents

Approaches to Knowledge Management

There is a broad range of thought on Knowledge Management with no unanimous definition. The approaches vary by author and school. Knowledge Management may be viewed from each of the following perspectives:

  • Techno-centric: A focus on technology, ideally those that enhance knowledge sharing/growth.
  • Organisational: How does the organisation need to be designed to facilitate knowledge processes? Which organisations work best with what processes?
  • Ecological: Seeing the interaction of people, identity, knowledge and environmental factors as a complex adaptive system.

In addition, as the discipline is maturing, there is an increasing presence of academic debates within epistemology emerging in both the theory and practice of knowledge management. British and Australian standards bodies both have produced documents that attempt to bound and scope the field, but these have received limited acceptance or awareness. An adaptive system is a system that is able to adapt its behavior according to changes in its environment or in parts of the system itself. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ...


Schools of thought in Knowledge Management

There are a variety of different schools of thought in Knowledge Management. These include:

  • the Intellectual Capital movement with Leif Edvinsson and Tom Stewart and more recently Nick Bontis
  • a focus on collaboration including concepts of Communities of Practice and a range of collaborative technologies, in turn linked to ....
  • a body of work derivative of Information theory associated with Larry Prusak and Tom Davenport and linked to the conversion of internalized tacit knowledge into explicit codified knowledge (SECI) allowing successful knowledge sharing as highlighted by Ikujiro Nonaka and Hiro Takeushi
  • Management of tangibles & intangibles, living networks, co-creation and whole systems through value networks and value network analysis. This work also includes linkages and connections to theory associated with the Learning Organizaation
  • Complexity approaches associated with David Snowden (see Cynefin) Max Boisot, J C Spender and others. Variations of this include the use of narrative (Snowden, David M. Boje and others as a form of fragmented knowledge

Intellectual capital makes an organization worth more than its balance sheet value. ... Arthur Thomas Stewart (January 11, 1892–October 10, 1972), more commonly known as Tom Stewart, was a Democratic United States Senator from Tennessee from 1939 to 1949. ... Nick Bontis (born May 27, 1969) is a Canadian academic, professional speaker and management consultant. ... Not to be confused with information technology, information science, or informatics. ... Value networks are complex sets of social and technical resources. ... Value network analysis is a business modeling methodology for understanding internal and external value networks. ... Complex adaptive systems, are a special case of complex systems. ... // Cynefin (pronounced kun-evin) is the name of a decision making framework which has been used in knowledge management as well as other applications including conflict resolution. ... David M. Boje is an endowed Bank of America professor of management at New Mexico State University (NMSU) in Las Cruces and is noted for his contribution to storytelling Organization story post-modern Grotesque body Management Studies, developing the concept of antenarrative as a non-linear speculation which provides material...

Key concepts in Knowledge Management

Dimensions of knowledge

A key distinction made by the majority of knowledge management practitioners is Nonaka's reformulation of Polanyi's distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge. The former is often subconscious, internalized, and the individual may or may not be aware of what he or she knows and how he or she accomplishes particular results. At the opposite end of the spectrum is conscious or explicit knowledge -- knowledge that the individual holds explicitly and consciously in mental focus, and may communicate to others. In the popular form of the distinction, tacit knowledge is what is in our heads, and explicit knowledge is what we have codified. Michael Polanyi (born Polányi Mihály) (March 11, 1891 – February 22, 1976) was a Hungarian–British polymath whose thought and work extended across physical chemistry, economics, and philosophy. ... The concept of tacit knowing comes from scientist and philosopher Michael Polanyi. ... Explicit knowledge is referred to the knowledge which has been articulated, codified and stored in certain mediums. ...


Nonaka and Takeuchi (1995) [2] argued that a successful KM program needs, on the one hand, to convert internalized tacit knowledge into explicit codified knowledge in order to share it, but, on the other hand, it also must permit individuals and groups to internalize and make personally meaningful codified knowledge they have retrieved from the KM system.


The focus upon codification and management of explicit knowledge has allowed knowledge management practitioners to appropriate prior work in information management, leading to the frequent accusation that knowledge management is simply a repackaged form of information management. [3] Information management is the cibai collection and lancau management of information from one or more sources and distribution to fuck one or more audiences who have a stake in that information or a right to that information. ...


Critics have argued that Nonaka and Takeuchi's distinction between tacit and explicit knowledge is oversimplified and that the notion of explicit knowledge is self-contradictory. Specifically, for knowledge to be made explicit, it must be translated into information (i.e., symbols outside of our heads).


Another common framework for categorizing the dimensions of knowledge include embedded knowledge (knowledge which has been incorporated into an artifact of some type, for example an information system may have knowledge embedded into its design) and embodied knowledge (representing knowledge as learned capability of the body’s nervous, chemical, and sensory systems). These two dimensions, while frequently used, are not universally accepted.


It is also common to distinguish between the creation of "new knowledge" (i.e., innovation) vs. the transfer of "established knowledge" within a group, organization, or community. Collaborative environments such as communities of practice or the use of social computing tools can be used for both creation and transfer.


Knowledge access stages

Knowledge may be accessed at three stages: before, during, or after knowledge-related activities.


For example, individuals undertaking a new project for an organization might access information resources to identify lessons learned for similar projects , access relevant information again during the project implementation to seek advice on issues encountered, and access relevant information afterwards for advice on after-project actions and review activities. Knowledge management practitioners offer systems, repositories, and corporate processes to encourage and formalize these activities with varying degrees of success.


Similarly, knowledge may be accessed before the project implementation, for example as the project team learns lessons during the initial project analysis. Similarly, lessons learned during the project operation may be recorded, and after-action reviews may lead to further insights and lessons being recorded for future access. Note: In this context recording knowledge relates only to those aspects of knowledge which can be codified as text, or drawings.


Different organizations have tried various knowledge capture incentives, including making content submission mandatory and incorporating rewards into performance measurement plans. There is considerable controversy over whether incentives work or not in this field and no firm consensus has emerged.


Adhoc knowledge access

One alternative strategy to encoding knowledge into and retrieving knowledge from a knowledge repository such as a database, is for individuals to make knowledge requests of subject matter experts on an ad hoc basis. A key benefit claimed for this strategy is that the response from the expert individual is rich in content and contextualized to the particular problem being addressed and personalized to the particular person or people addressing it. The downside of this strategy is that it is tied to the availability and memory recall skill of specific individuals in the organization. It does not capture their insights and experience for future use should they leave or become unavailable, and also does not help in the case when particular technical issues or problems previously faced change with time to the point where a new synthesis is required, the experts' memories being out of date. The emergence of narrative approaches to knowledge management attempts to provide a bridge between the formal and the ad hoc, by allowing knowledge to be held in the form of stories. This article is about computing. ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ...


Drivers of Knowledge Management

There are a number of claims as to 'drivers', or motivations, leading to organizations undertaking a knowledge management program.


Perhaps first among these is to gain the competitive advantage (in industry) and/or increased effectiveness that comes with improved or faster learning and new knowledge creation. Knowledge management programs may lead to greater innovation, better customer experiences, consistency in good practices and knowledge access across a global organization, as well as many other benefits, and knowledge management programs may be driven with these goals in mind. Government represents a highly active area, for example DiploFoundation Conference on Knowledge and Diplomacy (1999) outlines the range of specific KM tools and techniques applied in diplomacy. Competitive advantage (CA) is a position that a firm occupies in its competitive landscape. ... Best Practice is a management idea which asserts that there is a technique, method, process, activity, incentive or reward that is more effective at delivering a particular outcome than any other technique, method, process, etc. ...


Considerations driving a Knowledge Management program might include:

  • making available increased knowledge content in the development and provision of products and services
  • achieving shorter new product development cycles
  • facilitating and managing organizational innovation and learning
  • leverage the expertise of people across the organization
  • benefiting from 'network effects' as the number of productive connections between employees in the organization increases and the quality of information shared increases, leading to greater employee and team satisfaction
  • managing the proliferation of data and information in complex business environments and allowing employees rapidly to access useful and relevant knowledge resources and best practice guidelines
  • managing intellectual capital and intellectual assets in the workforce (such as the expertise and know-how possessed by key individuals) as individuals retire and new workers are hired

In business and engineering, new product development (NPD) is the term used to describe the complete process of bringing a new product or service to market. ...

Knowledge Management Technologies

The early Knowledge Management technologies were online corporate yellow pages (expertise locators) and document management systems. Combined with the early development of collaborative technologies (in particular Lotus Notes), KM technologies expanded in the mid 1990s. Subsequently it followed developments in technology in use in Information Management. In particular the use of semantic technologies for search and retrieval and the development of knowledge management specific tools such as those for communities of practice. Lotus Notes is a client-server collaborative software and e-mail system owned by Lotus Software, of the IBM Software Group. ...


More recently social computing tools (such as blogs and wikis) have developed to provide a more unstructured approach to knowledge transfer and knowledge creation through the development of new forms of community. However, such tools for the most part are still based on text, and thus represent explicit knowledge transfer. These tools face challenges distilling meaningful re-usable knowledge from their content.


Knowledge mapping is commonly used to cover functions such as a knowledge audit (discovering what knowledge exists at the start of a knowledge management project), a network survey (Mapping the relationships between communities involved in knowledge creation and sharing) and creating a map of the relationship of knowledge assets to core business process. Although frequently carried out at the start of a Knowledge Management programme, it is not a necessary pre-condition or confined to start up. Knowledge Management (KM) comprises a range of practices used by organisations to identify, create, represent, and distribute knowledge for reuse, awareness and learning. ...


Knowledge Management enablers

Historically, there have been a number of technologies 'enabling' or facilitating knowledge management practices in the organization, including expert systems, knowledge bases, various types of Information Management, software help desk tools, document management systems and other IT systems supporting organizational knowledge flows. An expert system is a class of computer programs developed by researchers in artificial intelligence during the 1970s and applied commercially throughout the 1980s. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Originally, a document management system was a computer program (or set of programs) used to track and store images of paper documents. ...


The advent of the Internet brought with it further enabling technologies, including e-learning, web conferencing, collaborative software, content management systems, corporate 'Yellow pages' directories, email lists, wikis, blogs, and other technologies. Each enabling technology can expand the level of inquiry available to an employee, while providing a platform to achieve specific goals or actions. The practice of KM will continue to evolve with the growth of collaboration applications, visual tools and other technologies. Since its adoption by the mainstream population and business community, the Internet has led to an increase in creative collaboration, learning and research, e-commerce, and instant information. This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Web conferencing is used to conduct live meetings or presentations over the Internet. ... Collaborative software is software designed to help people involved in a common task achieve their goals. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Look up Wiki in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


There are also a variety of organisational enablers for knowledge management programs, including Communities of Practice, Networks of Practice, before-, after- and during- action reviews (see After Action Review), peer assists, information taxonomies, coaching and mentoring, and so on. The organizational development (OD) concept of a community of practice (often abbreviated as CoP) refers to the process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in some subject or problem, collaborate to share ideas, find solutions, and build innovations. ... // Network of Practice Building on the work on communities of practice by Jean Lave and Etienne Wenger in the early 1990s, John Seely-Brown and Paul Duguid (2000) developed the concept of networks of practice (often abbreviated as NoPs). ... After Action Review The After Action Review, or AAR, is a structured review process used by the military that allows training participants to discover for themselves what happened, why it happened, and how it can be done better. ... A coach is a person who supports people (clients) to achieve their goals, with goal setting, encouragement and questions. ... Mentoring refers to a developmental relationship between a more experienced mentor and a less experienced partner referred to as a mentoree (sometimes vernacularized into mentee) or protégé. // Historical The roots of the practice are lost in antiquity. ...


Knowledge Management roles and organizational structure

Knowledge management activities may be centralized in a Knowledge Management Office, or responsibility for knowledge management may be located in existing departmental functions, such as the Human Resource (to manage intellectual capital) or IT departments (for content management, social computing etc.). Different departments and functions may have a knowledge management function and those functions may not be connected other than informally.


Knowledge Management Reasons of Failure or Success

There is no established evidence as to the reasons behind failure and success of Knowledge Management initiatives in organizations. Some argue that a failure to sustain investment is one factor, but it can equally be argued that if knowledge management delivered on its promises investment would continue. As with many management initiatives, particularly those with a heavy IT basis (as is the case in Knowledge Management), frequent questions are raised about the level of consultation necessary before a program is started; these questions are linked to issues of cultural change and a willingness to share and collaborate with colleagues There is no evidence that Knowledge Management, in all these respects, is any different from other management initiatives.


Academic institutes working in the field of KM

  • The Henley Knowledge Management Forum
  • The Institute for Knowledge and Information

Related articles

Intellectual capital makes an organization worth more than its balance sheet value. ... A Chief Knowledge Officer is an organizational leader, responsible for ensuring that the organization maximizes the value it achieves through knowledge. CKO is not just a relabelling of the title Chief Information Officer - the CKO role is much broader. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...

See also

Terminology extraction, term extraction, or glossary extraction, is a subtask of information extraction. ... The Battle Command Knowledge System (BCKS) is the change agent for implementing knowledge management (KM) capabilities into the training and military operations of the United States Army. ... The concept of a community of practice (often abbreviated as CoP) refers to the process of social learning that occurs when people who have a common interest in some subject or problem collaborate over an extended period to share ideas, find solutions, and build innovations. ... // Competitive Intelligence (CI) is both a process and a product. ... Complexity Theory has been used extensively in the field of strategic management and organizational studies, sometimes called Complexity strategy or Complex Adaptive Organization on the internet or in popular press. ... Computer-supported collaboration (CSC) research focuses on technology that affect groups, organizations communities and societies, e. ... Corporate Memory (CM) can be defined as the total body of data, information and knowledge required to deliver the strategic aims and objectives of an organization. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Enterprise Content Management (ECM) is any of the strategies and technologies employed in the information technology industry for managing the capture, storage, security, revision control, retrieval, distribution, preservation and destruction of documents and content. ... Enterprise Search is the practice of identifying and enabling specific content across the enterprise to be indexed, searched, and displayed to authorized users. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Social computing. ... An expert system, also known as a knowledge based system, is a computer program that contains the knowledge and analytical skills of one or more human experts, related to a specific subject. ... Information management is the cibai collection and lancau management of information from one or more sources and distribution to fuck one or more audiences who have a stake in that information or a right to that information. ... Intellectual capital makes an organization worth more than its balance sheet value. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... An extension of research into knowledge management, a knowledge ecosystem fosters knowledge exchange opportunities among individuals comprising one or more organizations, and allows dynamic knowledge exchange activities to evolve as environmental circumstances require. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Use of Knowledge management theories and practice in the context of Sustainable development. ... Key Knowledge Management Concepts Knowledge management discourse has adopted, invented and refined concepts from a wide range of disciplines and practices. ... Knowledge Management System (KM System) refers to a (generally IT based) system for managing knowledge in organizations, supporting creation, capture, storage and dissemination of expertise in the form of information. ... Knowledge representation is an issue that arises in both cognitive science and artificial intelligence. ... Knowledge transfer in the fields of Organizational development and organizational learning, is the practical problem of getting a packet of knowledge from one part of the organization to another (or all other) parts of the organization. ... Knowledge Visualization is a sub discipline of Information Design and Instructional Message Design (pedagogy; didactics, pedagogical psychology). ... Meta-knowledge or metaknowledge is possible to interpret as knowledge about knowledge. ... Morphological analysis (or General Morphological Analysis) is a method developed by Fritz Zwicky (1967, 1969) for exploring all the possible solutions to a multi-dimensional, non-quantified problem complex. ... Organizational learning is an area of knowledge within organizational theory that studies models and theories about the way an organization learns and adapts. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... // British Standards (BSI) [1] is the National Standards Body of the UK responsible for facilitating, drafting, publishing and marketing standards and related information products. ... Procedural knowledge or know-how is the knowledge of how to perform some task. ... Self service software allows authors (typically subject matter experts) to readily automate the deployment of, the timeliness of and compliance around a variety of processes of which they are involved in communicating without having to physically address the questions, needs and solicitations of end users who are inquiring about the... Sensemaking is defined as the process of creating situation awareness in situations of uncertainty. ... W3Cs Semantic Web logo The Semantic Web is an evolving extension of the World Wide Web in which web content can be expressed not only in natural language, but also in a format that can be read and used by software agents, thus permitting them to find, share and... Not to be confused with social network services such as MySpace, etc. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The concept of tacit knowing comes from scientist and philosopher Michael Polanyi. ... Explicit knowledge is referred to the knowledge which has been articulated, codified and stored in certain mediums. ... Value networks (value webs), are the human and technical resources in a business that work together to form relationships and add value to a product or service. ... Value network analysis is a business modeling methodology for understanding internal and external value networks. ...

References

  1. ^ (Stankosky, 2005)
  2. ^ (Nonaka, I. and Takeushi, H.,1995)
  3. ^ (Eg Wilson, T.D. (2002) "The nonsense of 'knowledge management'" Information Research, 8(1), paper no. 144 [Available at http://InformationR.net/ir/8-1/paper144.html])

Further reading

  • Amidon, D. (2002) The Innovation SuperHighway: Harnessing Intellectual Capital for Collaborative Advantage , Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-75067-592-6.
  • Allee, V.(1997) The Knowledge Evolution: Expanding Organizational Intelligence , Elsevier, ISBN 0-7506-9842-X.
  • Allee, V. (2003) The Future of Knowledge: Increasing Prosperity through Value Networks, Elsevier ISBN 0-7506-7591-8.
  • Becerra-Fernandez, I., A. González and R. Sabherwal (2004), Knowledge Management: Challengers, Solutions and Technologies, ISBN 0-13-101606-7.
  • Bhagat, P. M. (2005), Pattern Recognition in Industry, Elsevier, ISBN 0-08-044538-1.
  • Boisot, M. (1998), Knowledge Assets, Oxford, ISBN 0-19-829086-1.
  • Bontis, N. (2002), World Congress on Intellectual Capital Readings, Elsevier Butterworth-Heinemann , ISBN 0-7506-7475-X.
  • Brown, John Seely, Paul Duguid. (2002) The Social Life of Information , Harvard, ISBN 1-57851-708-7.
  • BRINT Institute. (1994-2007), A Case For Knowledge Management: Rethinking Management for the New World of Uncertainty and Risk, BRINT Institute LLC, New Hartford, NY. URL: Online Living Book
  • Buckman, R. H. (2004), Building a Knowledge-Driven Organization, McGraw Hill, ISBN 0-07-138471-5.
  • Bukowitz, Wendi, Ruth Williams. (1999) The Knowledge Management Fieldbook, Financial Times/Prentice Hall 1999, ISBN 0-27363-882-3.
  • Bray, D. (2006). Exploration, Exploitation, and Knowledge Management Strategies in Multi-Tier Hierarchical Organizations Experiencing Environmental Turbulence, North American Assoc. for Computational Social and Organizational Science (NAACSOS) Conference, June 2006. Article available on SSRN
  • Callaghan, J. (2002), Inside Intranets & Extranets: Knowledge Management and the Struggle for Power, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 0-333-98743-8.
  • Choo, C. & Bontis, N. (2002), The Strategic Management of Intellectual Capital and Organizational Knowledge , Oxford University Press, ISBN 0-19-513866-X.
  • Clare, M. and Detore A. (2000), Knowledge Assets Professional's Guide to Valuation and Financial Management, Apsen Publishers, ISBN 0-15-607000-6.
  • Collison, C. & Parcell, G (2004), Learning to Fly - Practical Knowledge Management From Leading and Learning Organizations, Capstone Publishing, ISBN 1-84112-509-1
  • Cross, R. and Parker, A. (2004), The Hidden Power Of Social Networks, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, Mass, ISBN 1-59139-270-5.
  • Davenport, T. (2005), Thinking for a Living: How to Get Better Performances And Results from Knowledge Workers , Harvard, ISBN 1-59139-423-6.
  • Davenport, T. and Prusak, L. (1997), Working Knowledge, Harvard 1998, ISBN 0-87584-655-6.
  • Desouza, K.C. (2005),New Frontiers of Knowledge Management,Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 1-40394-240-4
  • Desouza, K.C. and Awazu, Y. (2005), Engaged Knowledge Management: Engagement with New Realities, Palgrave Macmillan, ISBN 1-40394-510-1.
  • Despres, Charles, Danielle Chauvel. (2000), Knowledge Horizons: the present and promise of Knowledge Management , Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-75067-247-1.
  • Dixson, Nancy M, Nate Allen, Tony Burgess, and Pete Kilne. (2005), Company Command: Unleashing the Power of the Army Profession , Center for the Advancement of Leader Development & Organizational Learning, ISBN 0-97645-410-6.
  • Dixon, N. M. (2000), Common Knowledge: How Companies Thrive by Sharing What They Know, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA, ISBN 0-87584-904-0.
  • Drucker, Peter F. (1999), Management Challenges for the 21st Century , Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-75064-456-7.
  • Drucker P. F., D. Garvin, D. Leonard, S. Straus and J. S. Brown (1998), Harvard Business Review on Knowledge Management, HBS Press, ISBN 0-87584-881-8.
  • Edvinsson, L. and Malone, M. (1997), Intellectual Capital: Realising Your Company’s True Value by Finding its Hidden Brainpower. New York: HarperBusiness, ISBN 0-88730-841-4.
  • Easterby-Smith, M. and M. A. Lyles (editors). (2003). The Blackwell Handbook of Organizational Learning and Knowledge Management, Oxford, Blackwell Publishing, ISBN 0-631-22672-9.
  • Frid, R. (2004), Frid Framework for Enterprise Knowledge Management: A Common KM Framework for the Government of Canada, IUniverse Publishing, ISBN 0-595-30699-3.
  • Gammack, J., Hobbs, V. and Pigott, D. (2007), The Informatics Book, Thomson, South Melbourne. ISBN 0-17013-044-4.
  • Garvin, D. A. (2000), Learning in Action: A Guide to Putting the Learning Organization to Work, Harvard Business School Press, Boston, MA, ISBN 1-57851-251-4.
  • Nissen, M.E. (2006), Harnessing Knowledge Dynamics: Principled Organizational Knowing & Learning, IRM Press, Hershey, PA, ISBN 1-59140-774-5.
  • Müller-Prothmann, T. (2006): Leveraging Knowledge Communication for Innovation. Framework, Methods and Applications of Social Network Analysis in Research and Development, Frankfurt a. M. et al.: Peter Lang, ISBN 0-8204-9889-0.
  • Nonaka, I. and Takeushi, H. (1995), The Knowledge-Creating Company, New York: Oxford University Press.
  • O'Dell, C. and C. J. Grayson Jr. (1998), If Only We Knew What We Know: The Transfer of Internal Knowledge and Best Practice, Free Press, New York, ISBN 0-684-84474-5.
  • O'Sullivan, K. J. (2007), "Strategic Knowledge Management in Multinational Organizations" Idea Group Publishing, Hershey PA. ISBN 978-159904630-3
  • Polanyi, M. (1967), The Tacit Dimension, Doubleday, Garden City, NY, ISBN 0-385-06988-X.
  • Rumizen, M. C. (2001), Complete Idiot's Guide to Knowledge Management, Alpha, ISBN 0-02-864177-9.
  • Schwartz, D, editor (2005), Encyclopedia of Knowledge Management, Idea Group Reference, ISBN 1-59140-574-2.
  • Senge, Peter M. (1994), The Fifth Discipline, Currency (1994), ISBN 0-38526-095-4.
  • Stankosky, M., editor (2004), Creating the Discipline of Knowledge Management: The Latest in University Research, Butterworth-Heinemann, ISBN 0-7506-7878-X
  • Sveiby, K. E. (1997), The New Organizational Wealth: Managing & Measuring Knowledge-Based Assets, Berrett-Koehler, ISBN 1-57675-014-0.
  • Suresh, J. K. and Mahesh, K. (2006), Ten Steps to Maturity in Knowledge Management: Lessons in Economy, Chandos, Oxford, UK, ISBN 1-84334-130-1.
  • Stewart, T. (1997) Intellectual Capital: The New Wealth of Organisations, New York: Doubleday, ISBN 0-385-48228-0.
  • Tiwana, A. (2002), The Knowledge Management Toolkit: Orchestrating IT, Strategy, and Knowledge Platforms (2nd Edition), Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall, 2002, ISBN 0-13-009224-X.
  • United Nations (2003), Expanding Public Space for the Development of the Knowledge Society, Report of the Ad Hoc Expert Group Meeting on Knowledge Systems for Development, 4-5 September 2003, United Nations Department of Economic & Social Affairs, United Nations, New York, 2003, PDF: http://unpan1.un.org/intradoc/groups/public/documents/UN/UNPAN014138.pdf
  • von Krogh, Georg and Johan Roos. (1999), Managing Knowledge: Perspectives on Cooperation and Competition, Sage Publications Ltd, ISBN 0-76195-181-4.
  • Wenger, E., R. McDermott, W.Snyder. (2002), Cultivating Communities of Practice, Harvard, ISBN 1-57851-330-8.
  • Wenger, E. (1998), Communities of Practice: Learning, Meaning, and Identity, Cambridge University Press, ISBN 0-52166-363-6.
  • Wissensmanagement Forum (Hg.): An Illustrated Guide to Knowledge Management, Graz 2002, URL: http://www.wm-forum.org Download PDF Version

Articles

  • Alavi, M. and Leidner, D. (2001). "Review: Knowledge Management and Knowledge Management Systems: Conceptual Foundations and Research Issues," MIS Quarterly, 25, 1, 107-136.
  • Applen, J.D. (2002). "Technical Communication, Knowledge Management, and XML." Technical Communication. Arlington, VA. Volume 49. Number 3. pp. 301-13.
  • Bellenger, Gene (2002) "Emerging Perspectives", Systems Thinking Knowledge Management - Emerging Perspectives
  • Bontis, N., Dragonetti, N., Jacobsen, K. and G. Roos. (1999) "The Knowledge Toolbox: A review of the tools available to measure and manage intangible resources", European Management Journal, 17, 4, 391-402.
  • Bontis, N. (1999). "Managing Organizational Knowledge by Diagnosing Intellectual Capital: Framing and advancing the state of the field", International Journal of Technology Management,18, 5/6/7/8, 433-462.
  • Bontis, N. (2002). "The rising star of the Chief Knowledge Officer", Ivey Business Journal, March/April, 20-25.
  • Bray, D. (2007). "Literature Review - Knowledge Management Research at the Organizational Level", Social Science Research Network.
  • Cross, R., Parker, A., Prusak, L. and Borgatti, S.P. (2001), “Knowing what we know: supporting knowledge creation and sharing in social networks”, Organizational Dynamics Vol 30, No 2, pp. 100-120.
  • de Judicibus, D (2002). "La gestione della conoscenza", iged.it, ISSN 1720-6618
  • Ekbia, H. and Hara, N. (2004) The Quality of Evidence in Knowledge Management Literature: the Guru Version. At http://www.slis.indiana.edu/research/working_papers/files/SLISWP-04-01.pdf
  • Hamburg, Terstriep & Rehfeld (2006 Nov), "Knowledge-Based Services for Economic Agencies based on Internet Technologies",Icfai Journal of Knowledge Management, Icfai University Press. Article available on SSRN
  • Hansen, M. R., N. Nohria and T. Tierney (1999). 'What's your strategy for managing knowledge?' Harvard Business Review (March-April).
  • Huijsen, W., Driessen, S. J. and Jacobs, J. W. M. (2004a), “Explicit Conceptualizations for Knowledge Mapping”, Sixth International Conference on Enterprise Information Systems (ICEIS 2004), Vol 3, pp. 231-236, Porto, April 2004.
  • Knorr-Siedow, T. (2005) Knowledge management and enhanced policy application; in: Van Kempen, R. et alter: Restructuring large housing estates in Europe, Bristol, pp 321-341
  • Malhotra, Y (2005) "Integrating Knowledge Management Technologies in Organizational Business Processes: Getting Real Time Enterprises to Deliver Real Business Performance", Journal of Knowledge Management Vol . 9 no. 1 pp 7-28.
  • Malhotra, Y. (2000), "Knowledge Assets in the Global Economy: Assessment of National Intellectual Capital". Journal of Global Information Management, 8(3), July-Sep, 5-15.
  • Malhotra, Y. (2004), "Why Knowledge Management Systems Fail? Enablers and Constraints of Knowledge Management in Human Enterprises". In Michael E.D. Koenig & T. Kanti Srikantaiah (Eds.), Knowledge Management Lessons Learned: What Works and What Doesn't, Information Today Inc. (American Society for Information Science and Technology Monograph Series), 87-112.
  • Markus, M. (2001) "Toward a Theory of Knowledge Reuse: Types of Knowledge Reuse Situations and Factors in Reuse Success," Journal of Management Information Systems, 18, 1, 57-93.
  • [1] Mudambi, R. (2002) "Knowledge management in multinational firms", Journal of International Management, 8, 1, 1-9.
  • Nissen, M.E. (2006) "Dynamic Knowledge Patterns to Inform Design: A Field Study of Knowledge Stocks and Flows in an Extreme Organization," Journal of Management Information Systems, 22, 3, 225-263.
  • Powell, J and Swart, J (2005) "This is what the fuss is about"- a systemic modeling for organizational knowing , Journal of Knowledge Management Vol . 9 no. 2 pp 45-58
  • Powell, J and Swart, J (2005) "Men and Measures" - capturing knowledge requirement in firms through qualitative system modeling, Journal of Operational Research.
  • Serenko, A. and Bontis, Nick. (2004). "Meta-review of knowledge management and intellectual capital literature", Knowledge and Process Management, 11, 3, 185-198. [2]
  • Snowden, D J. "Complex Acts of Knowing: Paradox and Descriptive Self-Awareness." Journal of Knowledge Management, Special Issue 6, no. 2 (2002): 100-11. [3]
  • Swart, J (2006) "Intellectual Capital" : Disentangling an enigmatic concept, Journal of Intellectual Capital Vol 7 No 2 pp 136-159.
  • Thomas, J. C., Kellogg, W.A., and Erickson, T. (2001) The Knowledge Management puzzle: Human and social factors in knowledge management. IBM Systems Journal, 40(4), 863-884.
  • Vail III, E.F. (1999), “Mapping Organisational knowledge”, Knowledge Management Review, Vol 2, May/June, pp. 10-15.
  • Wexler, M.N. (2001), “The who, what and why of knowledge mapping”, Journal of Knowledge Management, Vol 5, No 3, pp. 249-263
  • Wilson, T.D. (2002) "The nonsense of 'knowledge management'" Information Research, 8(1), paper no. 144 [Available at http://InformationR.net/ir/8-1/paper144.html]

The Journal of Knowledge Management (JKM) is an interdisciplinary, peer-reviewed quarterly publication dedicated to the exchange of the latest research and practical information on all aspects of managing knowledge in organisations. ... The Journal of Knowledge Management (JKM) is an interdisciplinary, peer-reviewed quarterly publication dedicated to the exchange of the latest research and practical information on all aspects of managing knowledge in organisations. ... The Journal of Knowledge Management (JKM) is an interdisciplinary, peer-reviewed quarterly publication dedicated to the exchange of the latest research and practical information on all aspects of managing knowledge in organisations. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
What is knowledge management? (3488 words)
Unless the knowledge management approach incorporates methods of leveraging cumulative experience, the net result may not be positive, and the impact of implementation may be no more measurable than in traditional paper models.
Systematic approaches to knowledge management retain the traditional faith in rational analysis of the knowledge problem: the problem can be solved, but new thinking of many kinds is required.
Knowledge management has an important management component, but it is not an activity or discipline that belongs exclusively to managers.
Knowledge management - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2214 words)
One alternative strategy to encoding knowledge into and retrieving knowledge from a knowledge repository such as a database is for individuals to instead access expert individuals on an ad hoc basis, as needed, with their knowledge requests.
Knowledge management programs may lead to greater innovation, better customer experiences, consistency in good practices and knowledge access across a global organization, as well as many other benefits, and knowledge management programs may be driven with these goals in mind.
Knowledge management activities may be centralised in a Knowledge Management Office, or responsibility for knowledge management may be located in existing departmental functions, such as the Human Resource (to manage intellectual capital) or IT departments (for content management, social computing etc.).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m