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Encyclopedia > Knossos
A portion of Arthur Evans' reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. This is Bastion A at the North Entrance, noted for the Bull Fresco above it.
A portion of Arthur Evans' reconstruction of the Minoan palace at Knossos. This is Bastion A at the North Entrance, noted for the Bull Fresco above it.

Knossos (alternative spellings Knossus, Cnossus, Gnossus, Greek Κνωσός pronounced [kno̞ˈso̞s]), is the largest Bronze Age archaeological site on Crete, probably the ceremonial and political center of the Minoan civilization and culture. It is a popular tourist destination today, as it is near the main city of Heraklion and has been substantially, if imaginatively "rebuilt", making the site accessible to the casual visitor in a way that a field of unmarked ruins is not. Own collection File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Own collection File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... An archaeological site is a place (or group of physical sites) in which evidence of past activity is preserved (either prehistoric or historic or contemporary), and which has been investigated using the discipline of archaeology. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ... For other uses, see Heraklion (disambiguation). ...


The city of Knossos remained important through the Classical and Roman periods, but its population shifted to the new Arab town of Ḫandaq (modern Heraklion) during the 9th century AD. By the 13th century, it was called Makryteikhos 'Long Wall'; the bishops of Gortyn continued to call themselves Bishops of Knossos until the 19th century.[1] Today, the name is used only for the archaeological site situated in the suburbs of Heraklion. For other uses, see Heraklion (disambiguation). ... Inheritance regulations, fragment of the 11th column of the Law Code of Gortyn, Louvre This article is about the ancient city in Crete; another place with the same name is Gortyna, Arcadia. ...

Contents

Discovery and excavation

"Prince of Lilies" or "Priest-king Relief", plaster relief at the end of the Corridor of Processions, restored by Gilliéron, believed by Evans to be a priest-king, wearing a lily crown with peacock feather, leading an unseen animal to sacrifice.
"Prince of Lilies" or "Priest-king Relief", plaster relief at the end of the Corridor of Processions, restored by Gilliéron, believed by Evans to be a priest-king, wearing a lily crown with peacock feather, leading an unseen animal to sacrifice.

The ruins at Knossos were discovered in 1878 by Minos Kalokairinos, a Cretan merchant and antiquarian. He conducted the first excavations, which brought to light part of the storage magazines in the west wing and a section of the west facade. After Kalokairinos, several people attempted to continue the excavations, but it was not until March 16, 1900 that archeologist Arthur Evans, an English gentleman of independent means, was able to purchase the entire site and conduct massive excavations. The excavation and restoration of Knossos, and the discovery of the culture he labelled Minoan, is inseparable from the individual Evans. Nowadays archeology is a field of academic teamwork and scientific rigour, but a century ago a project could be driven by one wealthy and self-taught person. Assisted by Dr. Duncan Mackenzie, who had already distinguished himself by his excavations on the island of Melos, and Mr. Fyfe, the British School at Athens architect, Evans employed a large staff of local labourers as excavators and within a few months had uncovered a substantial portion of what he named the Palace of Minos. The term palace may be misleading: in modern English, it usually refers to an elegant building used to house a head of state or similar. Knossos was a complex collection of over 1000 interlocking rooms, some of which served as artisans' workrooms and food processing centres (e.g. wine presses). It served as a central storage point, and a religious and administrative centre. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 403 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 1331 pixel, file size: 344 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Commony known as the Prince of Lillies For another image see Image:Knossos_the_prince_of_lillies. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 403 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 1331 pixel, file size: 344 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Commony known as the Prince of Lillies For another image see Image:Knossos_the_prince_of_lillies. ... is the 75th day of the year (76th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Ğ: For the film, see: 1900 (film). ... Sir Arthur John Evans (July 8, 1851 – July 11, 1941) was an English archaeologist. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Gentleman (disambiguation). ... Duncan Mackenzie was born in Rossshire Scotland, studied philosophy at Edinburgh University, and received his PhD from Vienna in classical archaeology. ... Milos (formerly Melos, and before the Athenian genocide Malos) is a volcanic island in the Aegean Sea. ... Created in 1886 as a home for British Classical scholars working abroad, the British School at Athens is now a major international center for Classical scholarship and houses one of the worlds foremost classical libraries. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ...


The site has had a very long history of human habitation, beginning with the founding of the first Neolithic settlement circa 7000 BCE. Over time and during several different phases that had their own social dynamic, Knossos grew until, by the 19th to 16th centuries BCE (during the 'Old Palace' and the succeeding 'Neo-palatial' periods), the settlement possessed not only a monumental administrative and religious center (i.e., the Palace), but also a surrounding population of 5000-8000 people. An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... The quintessential medieval European palace: Palais de la Cité, in Paris, the royal palace of France. ...


Legend

A labrys from Messara.
A labrys from Messara.

The palace is about 130 meters on a side and since the Roman period has been suggested as the source of the myth of the Labyrinth, an elaborate mazelike structure constructed for King Minos of Crete and designed by the legendary artificer Daedalus to hold the Minotaur, a creature that was half man and half bull and was eventually killed by the Athenian hero Theseus. Image File history File links Bronze_Ax_Messara_Crete. ... Image File history File links Bronze_Ax_Messara_Crete. ... The Messara is a light riding and draft horse found on the island of Crete off the coast of Greece. ... This article is about the mazelike structure from Greek mythology. ... For other uses, see Maze (disambiguation). ... Front face of the MINOS far detector. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... Daedalus and Icarus, by Charles Paul Landon, 1799 (Musée des Beaux-Arts et de la Dentelle, Alençon) In Greek mythology, Daedalus (Latin, also Hellenized Latin Daedalos, Greek Daidalos (Δαίδαλος) meaning cunning worker, and Etruscan Taitle) was a most skillful artificer, so skillful that he was said to have invented... This article is about the mythological monster. ... The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar in the episode of the idol of the Golden Calf made by Aaron and worshipped by the Hebrews in the wilderness of Sinai (Exodus). ... For other uses, see Hero (disambiguation). ... Theseus (Greek ) was a legendary king of Athens, son of Aethra, and fathered by Aegeus and Poseidon, with whom Aethra lay in one night (By some accounts, this was presented as a rape). ...


Labyrinth comes from the word labrys, referring to a double, or two-bladed, axe. Its representation had a religious and probably magical significance. It was used throughout the Mycenaean world as an apotropaic symbol; that is, the presence of the symbol on an object would prevent it from being "killed." Axe motifs were scratched on many of the stones of the palace. It appears in pottery decoration and is a theme of the Shrine of the Double Axes at the palace, as well as of many shrines throughout Crete and the Aegean. The etymology of the name is not known; it is probably not Greek. The form labyr-inthos uses a suffix generally considered to be pre-Greek. Minoan symbolic labrys of gold, 2nd millennium BC: many have been found in the sacred cave of Arkalochori on Crete) Labrys is the term for a doubleheaded axe, known to the Classical Greeks as pelekus πέλεκυς or sagaris (the term for a single-bladed axe being hēmipelekus half-pelekus, e. ... Mycenaean may refer to: Mycenae, coming from or belonging to this ancient town in Peloponnese in Greece Mycenaean Greece, the Greek-speaking regions of the Aegean Sea as of the Late Bronze Age, named (somewhat anachronistically) after the Mycenae of the Trojan War epics Mycenaean language, an ancient form of... Look up Aegean Sea in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The location of the labyrinth of legend has long been a question for Minoan studies. It might have been the name of the palace or of some portion of the palace. Throughout most of the 20th century the intimations of human sacrifice in the myth puzzled Bronze Age scholars, because evidence for human sacrifice on Crete had never been discovered and so it was vigorously denied. The practice was finally verified archaeologically (see under Minoan civilization). It is possible that the palace was a great sacrificial center and could have been named the Labyrinth. Its layout certainly is labyrinthine, in the sense of intricate and confusing. Human sacrifice is the act of killing a human being for the purposes of making an offering to a deity or other, normally supernatural, power. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ...


Many other possibilities have been suggested. The modern meaning of labyrinth as a twisting maze is based on the myth.


Art and architecture

Description of Palace

Magazine 4 with giant pithoi. The compartments in the floor were for grain and produce.
Magazine 4 with giant pithoi. The compartments in the floor were for grain and produce.

The great palace was built gradually between 1700 and 1400 BC, with periodic rebuildings after destruction. Structures preceded it on Kephala hill. The features currently most visible date mainly to the last period of habitation, which Evans termed Late Minoan. The palace has an interesting layout[2] - the original plan can no longer be seen because of the subsequent modifications. Also, there are not several main hallways. Instead, 1300 rooms are connected with corridors of varying sizes and direction. The six acres of the palace included a theatre, a main entrance on each of its four cardinal faces, and extensive storerooms (also called magazines). The storerooms contained pithoi (large clay vases) that held oil, grains, dried fish, beans, and olives. Many of the items were created at the palace itself, which had grain mills, oil presses, and wine presses. Beneath the pithoi were stone holes used to store more valuable objects, such as gold. The palace used advanced architectural techniques; for example, part of it was built up to five stories high. Image File history File links Cnosso98. ... Image File history File links Cnosso98. ... Model of the Palace of Minos on Kephala at the Museum in Iraklio. ... Pithoi at Knossos. ...


Liquid management

The palace had at least three separate liquid management systems, one for supply, one for drainage of runoff, and one for drainage of waste water.


Aqueducts brought fresh water to Kephala hill from springs at Archanes, about 10 km away. Springs there are the source of the Kairatos river, in the valley of which Kephala is located. The aqueduct branched to the palace and to the town. Water was distributed at the palace by gravity feed through terra cotta pipes to fountains and spigots. The pipes were tapered at one end to make a pressure fit, with rope for sealing. The water supply system would have been manifestly easy to attack. No hidden springs have been discovered as at Mycenae. This article is about the structure aqueduct, for the racecourse see Aqueduct Racetrack. ... The word spring has several meanings: spring (device), a common mechanical part. ... Archanes (also Arkhanes, Godart & Olivier abbreviaton: ARKH) is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan settlement in central Crete. ... Amnisos (also Amnissos, House of the Lilies) is the archaeological site of an ancient Minoan villa on Crete. ... Terra cotta is a hard semifired waterproof ceramic clay used in pottery and building construction. ... A clay tablet with writing in Linear B from Mycenae. ...


Sanitation drainage was through a closed system leading to a sewer apart from the hill. The Queen's Megaron contained an example of the first water flushing system toilet adjoining the bathroom. This toilet was a seat over drain flushed by pouring water from a jug. The bathtub located in the adjoining bathroom similarly had to be filled by someone heating, carrying, and pouring water, and must have been drained by overturning into a floor drain or by bailing. This toilet and bathtub were exceptional structures within the 1300-room complex. A sewer is an artificial conduit or system of conduits used to remove sewage (human liquid waste) and to provide drainage. ... For other uses, see Toilet (disambiguation). ...


As the hill was periodically drenched by torrential rains, a runoff system was a necessity. It began with channels in the flat surfaces, which were zig-zag and contained catchment basins to control the water velocity. Probably the upper system was open. Manholes provided access to parts that were covered.


Some links to photographs of parts of the water collection management system follow.

Ventilation

Due to its placement on the hill, the palace received sea breezes during the summer. It had porticoes and airshafts. Categories: Architectural elements | Stub ...


Lighting and heating

The palace was designed to take best advantage of natural lighting during the long days of the summer season. The suites of rooms were arranged around courtyards to provide more window openings, the doors were polythyra ("multiple-door") to provide more door opening area, stairs wound around the periphery of light wells, and corridors were open porticos wherever possible. One cannot imagine that the palace shut down at night for lack of light, however. Minoan Crete had a long tradition of ceramic lamps, which consisted of a reservoir of olive oil surrounded by niches for one or more wicks. The better lamps multiplied the niches and wicks to provide more candle-power. Photopic (black) and scotopic [1] (green) luminosity functions. ...


Winter must have presented the Palace of Minos with as much of a heating problem as its architecture solved the lighting problem. The wind would have swept through the open palace, increasing the chill factor, unless the openings were blocked. The door openings must have been provided with doors of wood or bronze, as in later Classical times. The Town Mosaic, a depiction of houses on faience found at Knossos, shows windows with cross-members and four panes, suggesting that some translucent substance was used to block the openings. There is no sign of glass panes. Faience or faïence is the conventional name in English for fine tin-glazed earthenware on a delicate pale buff body. ...


No central heating is in evidence. The rooms must have been heated individually. Fixed hearths were used to some degree but there is long tradition of portable ceramic hearths as well. The Minoans never made the transition from a portable hearth to a closed metal stove, which would have been technologically within their grasp and are much more efficient radiators. For the Grand Central Records albums, see Central Heating (Grand Central album) and Central Heating 2. ...


Fires within the palace were for the most part of charcoal, probably lit with olive oil, in hearths or braziers. The tall drafty rooms, probably with smoke openings at the top (the roofs did not survive), were designed to keep the smoke away from the humans and evacuate it as quickly as possible. The palace undoubtedly reeked of smoke within and gave a pillar of it without. The odor problem would have been solved with incense and perfumed unguents kept in pyxes, as far as it could be. Look up brazier in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A brass pyx for carrying the consecrated host A pyx or pix (Latin: pyxis, transliteration of Greek: pyxis, box-wood receptacle, from pyxos, box-tree) is a small container used in the Catholic Church and Anglican Churches to carry the consecrated host, the Eucharist, to the sick or invalid or...


The emphasis of palace civilizations in colder climes on home production of textiles is understandable. The open vests of the women and the loin cloths of the nearly nude men could only have been summer attire. No frescos of snow-clad mountains and frosty plains are in evidence, such as appear in Crete in the winter. Over such a length of time, no perishables, such as boots or winter robes, have survived, but the frescos cannot depict year-round ordinary life in Crete. This article is about the type of fabric. ...


Minoan Columns

The palace also includes the Minoan Column, a structure notably different from other Greek columns. Unlike the stone columns characteristic of Greek architecture, the Minoan column was constructed from the trunk of a cypress tree, common to the Mediterranian. While most Greek columns are smaller at the top and wider at the bottom to create the illusion of greater height, the Minoan columns are smaller at the bottom and wider at the top, a result of inverting the cypress trunk to prevent sprouting once in place. The columns at the Palace of Minos were painted red and mounted on stone bases with round, pillow-like capitals (i.e. tops). For other meanings of the term, see column (disambiguation). ... Monterey Cypresses (Cupressus macrocarpa) planted in Melbourne, Australia Cypress is the name applied to many plants in the conifer family Cupressaceae (cypress family). ... A capital of the Composite order In Western architecture, the capital (from the Latin caput, head) forms the crowning member of the column, which projects on each side as it rises, in order to support the abacus and unite the square form of the latter with the circular shaft. ...


Frescoes

Bull-leaping Fresco, Court of the Stone Spout
Bull-leaping Fresco, Court of the Stone Spout

Frescoes decorated the walls. As the remains were only fragments, fresco reconstruction and placement by the artist Piet de Jong is not without controversy. These sophisticated, colorful paintings portray a society which, in comparison to the roughly contemporaneous art of Middle and New Kingdom Egypt, was either conspicuously non-militaristic or did not choose to portray military themes anywhere in their art. (See Minoan civilisation) One remarkable feature of their art is the colour-coding of the sexes: the men are depicted with ruddy skin, the women as milky white. Almost all their pictures are of young or ageless adults, with few children or elders depicted. In addition to scenes of men and women linked to activities such as fishing and flower gathering, the murals also portray athletic feats. The most notable of these is bull-leaping, in which an athlete grasps the bull's horns and vaults over the animal's back. The question remains as to whether this activity was a religious ritual, possibly a sacrificial activity, or a sport, perhaps a form of bullfighting. Many people have questioned if this activity is even possible; the fresco might represent a mythological dance with the Great Bull. The most famous example is the Toreador Fresco, painted around 1550-1450 BCE, in which a young man, flanked by two women, apparently leaps onto and over a charging bull's back. It is now located in the Archaeological Museum of Herakleion in Crete. Image File history File links Fresco of an acrobat on a bull with two female acrobats on either side {{Archaeological Museum of Herakleion}} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Fresco of an acrobat on a bull with two female acrobats on either side {{Archaeological Museum of Herakleion}} File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... For other uses, see Fresco (disambiguation). ... The Middle Kingdom is the period in the history of ancient Egypt stretching from the establishment of the Eleventh Dynasty to the end of the Fourteenth Dynasty, roughly between 2030 BC and 1640 BC. The period comprises two phases, the 11th Dynasty, which ruled from Thebes and the 12th Dynasty... The New Kingdom is the period in ancient Egyptian history between the 16th century BCE and the 11th century BC, covering the Eighteenth, Nineteenth, and Twentieth Dynasties of Egypt. ... The Minoans were an ancient pre-Hellenic civilization on what is now Crete (in the Mediterranean), during the Bronze Age, prior to classical Greek culture. ... Bull-leaping, fresco from the Great Palace at Knossos, Crete The Bull Leaper, an ivory figurine from the palace of knossos, crete. ... A ritual is a set of actions, performed mainly for their symbolic value, which is prescribed by a religion or by the traditions of a community. ... Bullfighting, Edouard Manet, 1865–1866. ... The worship of the Sacred Bull throughout the ancient world is most familiar in the episode of the idol of the Golden Calf made by Aaron and worshipped by the Hebrews in the wilderness of Sinai (Exodus). ...


Throne Room

Throne from which the Throne Room was named.
Throne from which the Throne Room was named.

The centerpiece of the "Mycenaean" palace was the so-called Throne Room or Little Throne Room[3], dated to LM II. This chamber has an alabaster seat identified by Evans as a "throne" built into the north wall. On three sides of the room are gypsum benches. A sort of tub area is opposite the throne, behind the benches, termed a lustral basin, meaning that Evans and his team saw it as a place for ceremonial purification. Throneroom in the palace of Knossos. ... Throneroom in the palace of Knossos. ... Throne Room redirects here, for the album by CeCe Winans see Throne Room (album) A throne room is the room, often rather a hall, in the official residence of the crown, either a palace or a fortified castle, where the throne of a senior figure (usually a monarch) is set... Model of the Palace of Minos on Kephala at the Museum in Iraklio. ... A modern uplighter lamp made completely from Italian alabaster (white and brown types). ... The thrones for The Queen of Canada, and the Duke of Edinburgh (back) in the Canadian Senate, Ottawa are usually occupied by the Governor General and his/her spouse at the annual State Opening of Parliament. ... For other uses, see Gypsum (disambiguation). ...


The room was accessed from an anteroom through two double doors. The anteroom in turn connected to the central court, which was four broad steps up through four doors. The anteroom had gypsum benches also, with carbonized remains between two of them thought to be a possible wooden throne. Both rooms are located in the ceremonial complex on the west of the central court.

Griffin couchant facing throne.
Griffin couchant facing throne.

The throne is flanked by the Griffin Fresco, with two griffins couchant (lying down) facing the throne, one on either side. Griffins were important mythological creatures, also appearing on seal rings, which were used to stamp the identity of the bearer into pliable material, such as clay or wax. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 669 KB) Knossos - fresco in throne palace photo by Paginazero File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Knossos Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1280x960, 669 KB) Knossos - fresco in throne palace photo by Paginazero File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Knossos Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from... Roman griffon, Turkey This article is on the animal. ... This article is about the authentication means. ...


The actual use of the room and the throne is unclear. The two main theories are:

  • The seat of a priest-king or his consort, the queen. This is the older theory, originating with Evans. In that regard Matz speaks of the "heraldic arrangement" of the griffins, meaning that they are more formal and monumental than previous Minoan decorative styles. In this theory, the Mycenaean Greeks would have held court in this room, as they came to power in Knossos at about 1450. The "lustral basin" and the location of the room in a sanctuary complex cannot be ignored; hence, "priest-king." Because Evans was limited by personal experience to the view that any head of state must have been male, the strong possibility that the peaceful people of Crete were led by a priestess-queen would not have occurred to him.
  • A room reserved for the epiphany of a goddess[4], who would have sat in the throne, either in effigy, or in the person of a priestess, or in imagination only. In that case the griffins would have been purely a symbol of divinity rather than a heraldic motif.

The lustral basin was originally thought to have had a ritual washing use, but the lack of drainage has more recently brought some scholars to doubt this theory. It is now speculated that the tank was used as an aquarium. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ... Mycenaean may refer to: Mycenae, coming from or belonging to this ancient town in Peloponnese in Greece Mycenaean Greece, the Greek-speaking regions of the Aegean Sea as of the Late Bronze Age, named (somewhat anachronistically) after the Mycenae of the Trojan War epics Mycenaean language, an ancient form of... The effigy of John Gower in Southwark Cathedral, London. ... For other uses, see Divinity (disambiguation) and Divine (disambiguation). ...


Society

A long-standing debate between archaeologists concerns the main function of the palace, whether it acted primarily as an administrative center, a religious center -- or both, in a theocratic manner. Other important debates consider the role of Knossos in the administration of Bronze Age Crete, and whether Knossos acted as the primary center, or was on equal footing with the several other contemporary palaces that have been discovered on Crete. Many of these palaces were destroyed and abandoned in the early part of the 15th century BCE, possibly by the Mycenaeans, although Knossos remained in use until destroyed by fire about one hundred years later. It is worth noting that Knossos showed no signs of being a military site -- no fortifications or stores of weapons, for example. Minoan civilization was a remarkably unmilitaristic society. Likewise, the position of Minoan women was unusual compared to any other contemporary society in the aspect that it was matriarchal. Archaeology or sometimes in American English archeology (from the Greek words αρχαίος = ancient and λόγος = word/speech) is the study of human cultures through the recovery, documentation and analysis of material remains, including architecture, artefacts, biofacts, human remains, and landscapes. ... Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ... For other uses, see Crete (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek archaeological site. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ...


Notable people

Chersiphron (6th century BC), an architect of Knossos in Crete, was the builder of the Temple of Artemis at Ephesus, on the Ionian coast. ... (2nd millennium BC - 1st millennium BC - 1st millennium) The 6th century BC started on January 1, 600 BC and ended on December 31, 501 BC. // Monument 1, an Olmec colossal head at La Venta The 5th and 6th centuries BC were a time of empires, but more importantly, a time... Chersiphron (working early 6th century BCE) was an architect of Crete—of Gnosos in the corrupt text of Vitruvius that has survived— who was the builder of the original archaic Ionic Temple of Artemis at Ephesus in Asia Minor, which was one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World...

See also

Linear A incised on tablets found in Akrotiri, Santorini. ... This article is about the ancient syllabary. ... The Minoan civilization was a bronze age civilization which arose on Crete, an island in the Aegean Sea. ...

Sources

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Knossos
  • Benton, Janetta Rebold and Robert DiYanni.Arts and Culture: An introduction to the Humanities, Volume 1. Prentice Hall. New Jersey, 1998. [Pages 64-70]
  • Bourbon, F. Lost Civilizations Barnes and Noble, Inc. New York, 1998. [Pages 30-35]
  • CALENDAR HOUSE: Secrets of Time, Life & Power in Ancient Crete's Great Year. 2007: researched/written/published (CD) by Dr. Jack Dempsey.

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ...

References

  1. ^ (1996) The Making of the Cretan Landscape. Manchester University Press, pg. 94, 104. ISBN 0-7190-3646-1. 
  2. ^ Plot plans of the palace are given at the following sites: 1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
  3. ^ Matz, The Art of Crete and Early Greece, uses this term.
  4. ^ see Peter Warren: Minoan Religion as Ritual Action

Coordinates: 35°17′52.66″N, 25°9′47.36″E Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Knossos (788 words)
Knossos was undeniably the capital of Minoan Crete.
Knossos was inhabited for several thousand years, beginning with a neolithic settlement sometime in the seventh millennium BC, and was abandoned after its destruction in 1375 BC which marked the end of Minoan civilization.
The palace of Knossos was the center of administration of the entire island during Minoan times, and its position as such allowed for unprecedented growth and prosperity as witnessed by the plethora of storage magazines, workshops, and wall paintings.
Knossos (1305 words)
The palace of Knossos was the stage for a plethora of fascinating myths in ancient Greece.
Knossos was the place where the minotaur - a terrible monster with the body of a man and the head of a bull - lived to torment the bounty of six youths and six maidens who were sent by Athens every nine years in tribute to king Minos' hegemony.
The first archaeologist who excavated Knossos was (the appropriately named) Minos Kalokairinos who was a native of Crete and had already dug a few areas of the palace before Evans, unearthing in the process a wealth of artifacts that proved the existence of a previously unknown civilization.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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