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Encyclopedia > Knights Templar
Knights Templar
Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon
Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici
Image:Templarsign.jpg
A Seal of the Knights Templar, with their famous image of two knights on a single horse, a symbol of their early poverty. The text is in Greek and Latin characters, Sigillum Militum Xpisti: followed by a cross, which means "the Seal of the Soldiers of Christ".
Active c. 1119–1314
Allegiance Papacy
Type Western Christian military order
Size 15,000–20,000 members at peak, 10% of whom were knights[1][2]
Headquarters Temple Mount, Jerusalem
Nickname Order of the Temple
Patron St. Bernard of Clairvaux
Attire White mantle with a red cross
Engagements The Crusades, including:
Battle of Montgisard (1177),
Battle of Hattin (1187),
Battle of Arsuf (1191),
Siege of Acre (1190–1191),
Siege of Acre (1291)
Reconquista
Commanders
First Grand Master Hugues de Payens
Last Grand Master Jacques de Molay

The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Latin: Pauperes commilitones Christi Templique Solomonici), commonly known as the Knights Templar or the Order of the Temple (French: Ordre du Temple or Templiers), were among the most famous of the Western Christian military orders.[3] The organization existed for approximately two centuries in the Middle Ages, having been founded in the aftermath of the First Crusade of 1096 to ensure the safety of the many Europeans who made the pilgrimage to Jerusalem after its conquest. Knights Templar may refer to: Knights Templar (military order) Knights Templar in England Knights Templar (Freemason degree) See also Templar Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem Knights Templar and popular culture This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Image File history File links Templarsign. ... Seals of the Knights Templars Officials of religious Orders had their own seals to validate documents approved by the Order. ... Also known as the Latin cross or crux ordinaria. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... The Temple Mount A reconstruction of Herods Temple in Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Baldwin IV, Raynald of Chatillon, Knights Templar Saladin Strength 375 knights, 80 Templars, Several thousand infantry About 30,000 Casualties 1100 killed 750 wounded About 27,000 The Battle of Montgisard was fought between Saladin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem on November 25, 1177. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Guy of Lusignan Raymond III of Tripoli Strength Est. ... The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated Saladin at Arsuf. ... The Siege of Acre was the most important event of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history of the crusades that the king was compelled to personally see to the defense of the Holy Land. ... The Siege of Acre took place in 1291 and resulted in the fall of Acre, the last territory of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of Knights Templar. ... Hugues de Payens (English: Hugh of Payens) (c. ... Jacques de Molay (est. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Church historian redirects here. ... Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ...


Officially endorsed by the Roman Catholic Church around 1129, the Order became a favored charity across Europe and grew rapidly in membership and power. Templar knights, in their distinctive white mantles each with a red cross, were among the most skilled fighting units of the Crusades.[4] Non-combatant members of the Order managed a large economic infrastructure throughout Christendom, inventing or adapting many financial techniques that were an early form of banking,[5][6] and building many fortifications across Europe and the Holy Land. Catholic Church redirects here. ... A dragon robe from Qing Dynasty of China A robe is a loose-fitting outer garment. ... A reliquary in the form of an ornate Christian Cross Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... This T-and-O map, which abstracts the known world to a cross inscribed within an orb, remakes geography in the service of Christian iconography. ... For other uses, see Bank (disambiguation). ... For the fortification of food, see Food fortification. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ...


The Templars' success was tied closely to the Crusades; when the Crusaders were defeated and lost the Holy Land, support for the Order faded. Rumors about the Templars' secret initiation ceremony created mistrust, and King Philip IV of France, deeply in debt to the Order, began pressuring Pope Clement V to take action. In 1307, many of the Order's members in France were arrested, tortured into giving false confessions, and then burned at the stake.[7] In 1312, Pope Clement, under continuing pressure from King Philip, disbanded the Order. The abrupt disappearance of a major part of the European infrastructure gave rise to speculation and legends, which have kept the "Templar" name alive until the present. “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... Clement V, born Bertrand de Goth (also occasionally spelled Gouth and Got) (1264 – April 20, 1314), was Pope from 1305 to his death. ... False Confession was a hardcore punk band in the early 1980s that emerged in the Oxnard, California area. ... Jan Hus burned at the stake Execution by burning has a long history as a method of punishment for crimes such as treason, heresy and witchcraft (burning, however, was actually less common than hanging, pressing, or drowning as a punishment for witchcraft). ...

Contents

History

Main article: Knights Templar The History of the Knights Templar incorporates about two centuries during the Middle Ages, from the Orders founding in the early 1100s, to when it was disbanded in the early 1300s. ...

Rise

The first headquarters of the Knights Templar, Al Aqsa Mosque, on Jerusalem's Temple Mount. The Crusaders called it the Temple of Solomon, as it was built on top of the ruins of the original Temple, and it was from this location that the Knights took their name of Templar.
The first headquarters of the Knights Templar, Al Aqsa Mosque, on Jerusalem's Temple Mount. The Crusaders called it the Temple of Solomon, as it was built on top of the ruins of the original Temple, and it was from this location that the Knights took their name of Templar.

After the First Crusade captured Jerusalem in 1099, many European pilgrims traveled to visit what they referred to as the Holy Places. However, though the city of Jerusalem was under relatively secure control, the rest of the Outremer was not. Bandits abounded, and pilgrims were routinely slaughtered, sometimes by the hundreds, as they attempted to make the journey from the coastline at Jaffa into the Holy Land.[8] Download high resolution version (1600x1050, 195 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1600x1050, 195 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem is not to be confused with the Dome of the Rock The Al-Aqsa Mosque (Arabic: المسجد الاقصى, Masjid Al-Aqsa, literally farthest mosque) is part of the complex of religious buildings in Jerusalem known as either the Majed Mount or Al-Haram ash... The Temple Mount A reconstruction of Herods Temple in Jerusalem. ... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Holy Land. ... Outremer, French for overseas, was the general name given the Crusader states established after the First Crusade; County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Jaffa (disambiguation). ...


Around 1119, two veterans of the First Crusade, the French knight Hugues de Payens and his relative Godfrey de Saint-Omer, proposed the creation of a monastic order for the protection of the pilgrims.[9] King Baldwin II of Jerusalem agreed to their request, and gave them space for a headquarters on the Temple Mount, in the captured Al Aqsa Mosque. The Temple Mount had a mystique, because it was above what was believed to be the ruins of the Temple of Solomon.[4][10] The Crusaders therefore referred to the Al Aqsa Mosque as Solomon's Temple, and it was from this location that the Order took the name of Poor Knights of Christ and the Temple of Solomon, or "Templar" knights. The Order, with about nine knights, had few financial resources and relied on donations to survive. Their emblem was of two knights riding on a single horse, emphasizing the Order's poverty. Hugues de Payens (English: Hugh of Payens) (c. ... A Knights Templar seal Godfrey of Saint-Omer (also known as Gaufred, Godefroi, or Godfrey de St Omer, Saint Omer) was a Flemish knight, one of the founding members of the Knights Templar in 1118. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Baldwin of Bourcq (died August 21, 1131) was the second count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and the third king of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death. ... The Temple Mount A reconstruction of Herods Temple in Jerusalem. ... The Al-Aqsa Mosque in Jerusalem is not to be confused with the Dome of the Rock The Al-Aqsa Mosque (Arabic: المسجد الاقصى, Masjid Al-Aqsa, literally farthest mosque) is part of the complex of religious buildings in Jerusalem known as either the Majed Mount or Al-Haram ash... Solomons Temple (Hebrew: בית המקדש, transliterated Beit HaMikdash), also known as the First Temple, was, according to the Bible, the first Jewish Temple in Jerusalem. ...


The Templars' impoverished status did not last long. They had a powerful advocate in Bernard of Clairvaux, a leading Church figure and a nephew of one of the founding knights. He spoke and wrote persuasively on their behalf, and in 1129 at the Council of Troyes, the Order was officially endorsed by the Church. With this formal blessing, the Templars became a favored charity across Europe, receiving money, land, businesses, and noble-born sons from families who were eager to help with the fight in the Holy Land. Another major benefit came in 1139, when Pope Innocent II's papal bull Omne Datum Optimum exempted the Order from obedience to local laws. This ruling meant that the Templars could pass freely through all borders, were not required to pay any taxes, and were exempt from all authority except that of the Pope.[11] Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... There have been a number of councils held at Troyes: 867 - proclaimed that no bishop could be disposed without reference to Holy See 1128 - convened by Pope Honorius II: recognized and confirmed the Order of the Knights Templar solved disputes involving the Bishop of Paris Categories: Stub ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Pope Innocent II (died September 24, 1143), born Gregorio Papareschi, was Pope from 1130 to 1143, and was probably one of the clergy in personal attendance on the antipope Clement III (Guibert of Ravenna). ... Papal bull of Pope Urban VIII, 1637, sealed with a leaden bulla. ... Omne Datum Optimum was the 1139 Papal Bull that initially endorsed the Order of the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon (Knights Templar), in which the Templar Rule was officially approved, and papal protection given. ... For other uses, see Pope (disambiguation). ...

"[A Templar Knight] is truly a fearless knight, and secure on every side, for his soul is protected by the armor of faith, just as his body is protected by the armor of steel. He is thus doubly-armed, and need fear neither demons nor men."
Bernard de Clairvaux, c. 1135, De Laude Novae Militae—In Praise of the New Knighthood[12]

With its clear mission and ample resources, the Order grew rapidly. Templars were often the advance force in key battles of the Crusades, as the knights on their heavily armed warhorses would set out to gallop full speed at the enemy, in an attempt to break opposition lines. One of their most famous victories was in 1177 during the Battle of Montgisard, where some 500 Templar knights helped to defeat Saladin's army of more than 26,000 soldiers.[13] A modern-day knight in late medieval style plate armor, demonstrating jousting at a Renaissance Fair. ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Baldwin IV, Raynald of Chatillon, Knights Templar Saladin Strength 375 knights, 80 Templars, Several thousand infantry About 30,000 Casualties 1100 killed 750 wounded About 27,000 The Battle of Montgisard was fought between Saladin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem on November 25, 1177. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ...

Map of Jerusalem, showing the location of the Templar headquarters on the Temple Mount
Map of Jerusalem, showing the location of the Templar headquarters on the Temple Mount

Although the primary mission of the Order was military, relatively few members were combatants. The others acted in support positions to assist the knights and to manage the financial infrastructure. The Templar Order, though its members were sworn to individual poverty, was given control of wealth beyond direct donations. A nobleman who was interested in participating in the Crusades might place all his assets under Templar management while he was away. Accumulating wealth in this manner across Europe and the Outremer, the Order in 1150 began generating letters of credit for pilgrims journeying to the Holy Land: pilgrims deposited their valuables with a local Templar preceptory before embarking, received an encrypted document indicating the value of their deposit, then used that document upon arrival in the Holy Land to retrieve their funds. This innovative arrangement may have been the first formal system to support the use of cheques; it improved the safety of pilgrims by making them less attractive targets for thieves, and also contributed to the Templar coffers.[4][14] Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Temple Mount A reconstruction of Herods Temple in Jerusalem. ... After a contract is concluded between buyer and seller, buyers bank supplies a letter of credit to seller. ... Example of a Canadian cheque. ...


Based on this mix of donations and business dealing, the Templar established financial networks across the whole of Christendom. They acquired large tracts of land, both in Europe and the Middle East; they bought and managed farms and vineyards; they built churches and castles; they were involved in manufacturing, import and export; they had their own fleet of ships; and at one point they even owned the entire island of Cyprus. The Order of the Knights Templar arguably qualifies as the world's first multinational corporation.[13] A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... multinational corporation (or transnational corporation) (MNC/TNC) is a corporation or enterprise that manages production establishments or delivers services in at least two countries. ...


Decline

1187's Battle of the Horns of Hattin, the turning point in the Crusades
1187's Battle of the Horns of Hattin, the turning point in the Crusades

In the mid-1100s, the tide began to turn in the Crusades. The Muslim world had become united under effective leaders such as Saladin, and dissension arose among Christian factions in and concerning the Holy Land. The Knights Templar were occasionally at odds with two other Christian orders, the Knights Hospitaller and the Teutonic Knights, and decades of internecine feuds weakened Christian positions, politically and militarily. After the Templars were involved in several unsuccessful campaigns, including the pivotal Battle of the Horns of Hattin, Jerusalem was captured by Saladin's forces in 1187. The Crusaders retook the city in 1229, although without Templar aid, but held it only briefly. In 1244, the Khwarezmi Turks recaptured Jerusalem, and the city did not return to Christian control until 1917 when the British captured it from the Ottoman Turks.[15] Image File history File links Download high resolution version (518x698, 193 KB) Painting of the Battle of Hattin from an unidentified medieval manuscript. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (518x698, 193 KB) Painting of the Battle of Hattin from an unidentified medieval manuscript. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Guy of Lusignan Raymond III of Tripoli Strength Est. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Guy of Lusignan Raymond III of Tripoli Strength Est. ... Khwarezmid Empire Template:History of Greater Turkey The Khwarezmian Empire, more commonly known as the empire of the Khwarezm Shahs[1] (Persian: , KhwārezmÅ¡hāḥīān, Kings of Khwarezmia) was a Turkoman[2][3][4] Sunni Muslim dynasty of Turkic mamluk[5] origin which ruled Central Asia and Iran, first... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320...


The Templars were forced to relocate their headquarters to other cities in the north, such as the seaport of Acre, which they held for the next century. But they lost that, too, in 1291, followed by their last mainland strongholds, Tortosa (in what is now Syria), and Atlit. Their headquarters moved to Limassol, Cyprus,[16] and a garrison on tiny Arwad Island, just off the coast from Tortosa. In 1300, there was some attempt to engage in coordinated military efforts with the Mongols[17] via a new invasion force at Arwad. In September 1302, however, the Templars were defeated by a Mamluk fleet in the Siege of Arwad, losing their last foothold in the Holy Land.[13][18] For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... Tartous (Arabic: طرطوس, also transliterated Tartus) is Syrias second largest port city after Latakia, and capital of Tartous governorate. ... Atlit is a small sea side village in Israel near Haifa. ... District Limassol Government  - Mayor Andreas Christou Population (2004)  - City 201. ... Harbor in Arwad Arwad viewed from the air Arwad – formerly Arado (Greek: Άραδο), Arados (Greek: Άραδος), Arvad, Arpad, Arphad, Antiochia in Pieria (Greek: Αντιόχεια της Πιερίας), Latin: Aradus, and also transliterated from the Arabic as Ar-Ruad – located in the Mediterranean Sea, is the only island in Syria. ... Among the Christian states in the Levant (in yellow) Little Armenia and the northern Frank kingdom of Antioch were the most regular allies of the Mongols. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyubs death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of Egypt Saudi Arabia Syria Palestine Israel Lebanon Jordan Turkey Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic... Ruad was the bridgehead of the Franks for a coordinated offensive with the Mongols. ...

Templar building at Saint Martin des Champs, France
Templar building at Saint Martin des Champs, France

With the Order's military mission now less important, European support for the organization began to dwindle. The situation was complex—over the two hundred years of their existence, the Templars had become a part of European daily life.[19] The organization's Templar Houses, hundreds of which were dotted around Europe, gave them a widespread presence at the local level.[2] The Templars still managed many businesses, and many Europeans had daily contact with the Templar network, for instance working at a Templar farm or vineyard, or using the Order as a bank in which to store personal valuables. The Order continued to not be subject to local government, making it everywhere a "state within a state." It also had a standing army that could pass freely through all borders, but that no longer had a well-defined mission. This situation heightened tensions with some European nobility, especially as the Templars were indicating an interest in founding their own monastic state, just as the Teutonic Knights had done in Prussia,[14] and the Knights Hospitaller were doing with Rhodes.[20] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 3. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 533 pixel Image in higher resolution (3072 × 2048 pixel, file size: 3. ... Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... This article is about the Greek city of Rhodes. ...


Arrests and dissolution

King Philip IV of France (1268–1314)
King Philip IV of France (1268–1314)

In 1305, the new Pope Clement V, based in France, sent letters to both the Templar Grand Master Jacques de Molay and the Hospitaller Grand Master Fulk de Villaret to discuss the possibility of merging the two Orders. Neither was amenable to the idea but Pope Clement persisted, and in 1306 he invited both Grand Masters to France to discuss the matter. De Molay arrived first. In early 1307, but de Villaret was delayed for several months. While waiting, De Molay and Clement discussed charges that had been made two years prior by an ousted Templar. It was generally agreed that the charges were false but Clement sent King Philip IV of France a written request for assistance in the investigation. King Philip was already deeply in debt to the Templars from his war with the English and decided to seize upon the rumors for his own purposes. He began pressuring the Church to take action against the Order, as a way of freeing himself from his debts.[21] Image File history File links Philippe_IV_Le_Bel. ... Image File history File links Philippe_IV_Le_Bel. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... Clement V, born Bertrand de Goth (also occasionally spelled Gouth and Got) (1264 – April 20, 1314), was Pope from 1305 to his death. ... Foulques de Villaret (d. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ... “Philip the Fair” redirects here. ...


On Friday October 13, 1307 (a date incorrectly linked with the origin of the Friday the 13th superstition),[22][23] Philip ordered de Molay and scores of other French Templars to be simultaneously arrested. The Templars were charged with numerous heresies and tortured to extract false confessions of blasphemy. The confessions, despite having been obtained under duress, caused a scandal in Paris. After more bullying from Philip, Pope Clement then issued the bull Pastoralis Praeeminentiae on November 22, 1307, which instructed all Christian monarchs in Europe to arrest all Templars and seize their assets.[24] is the 286th day of the year (287th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... January 18 - German king Albrecht I makes his son Rudolf king of Bohemia. ... This article is about the superstition. ... For other uses, see Heresy (disambiguation). ... Pastoralis Praeeminentiae was the name of a Papal Bull issued by Pope Clement V on November 22, 1307 to all Christian monarchs. ...


Pope Clement called for papal hearings to determine the Templars' guilt or innocence, and once freed of the Inquisitors' torture, many Templars recanted their confessions. Some had sufficient legal experience to defend themselves in the trials, but in 1310 Philip blocked this attempt, using the previously forced confessions to have dozens of Templars burned at the stake in Paris.[25][26] This article is about the Inquisition by the Roman Catholic Church. ...

Templars being burned at the stake
Templars being burned at the stake
Convent of Christ in Castle Tomar, Portugal. Built in 1160 as a stronghold for the Knights Templar, it became the headquarters of the renamed Order of Christ. In 1983, it was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site.
Convent of Christ in Castle Tomar, Portugal. Built in 1160 as a stronghold for the Knights Templar, it became the headquarters of the renamed Order of Christ. In 1983, it was named a UNESCO World Heritage Site.[27]

With Philip threatening military action unless the Pope complied with his wishes, Pope Clement finally agreed to disband the Order, citing the public scandal that had been generated by the confessions. At the Council of Vienne in 1312, he issued a series of papal bulls, including Vox in excelso, which officially dissolved the Order, and Ad providam, which turned over most Templar assets to the Hospitallers.[28] Image File history File links Templars_on_Stake. ... Image File history File links Templars_on_Stake. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 216 KB)((templarplaces ) Photo by Cristian Chirita 2004 Contact Info: Cristian. ... Download high resolution version (768x1024, 216 KB)((templarplaces ) Photo by Cristian Chirita 2004 Contact Info: Cristian. ... The Convent of the Order of Christ and Templar Castle, in Tomar was built in 1160 by Dom Gualdim Pais, provincial Master of the Order of the Temple in Portugal. ... Founded in 1318, the Military Order of Christ (Ordem dos Cavaleiros de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo) was the heritage of the Knights Templar in Portugal, after the suppression of the Templars in 1312. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Above all else, the Roman Catholic Council of Vienne was the Ecumenical Council that withdrew papal support for the Knights Templar, confirming the destruction of the rich Order by the bureaucrats of Philip IV of France. ... Vox in excelso is the name of a Papal Bull issued by Pope Clement V in 1312. ... Ad providam was the name of a Papal Bull issued by Pope Clement V in 1312. ...


As for the leaders of the Order, the elderly Grand Master Jacques de Molay, who had confessed under torture, retracted his statement. His associate Geoffrey de Charney, Preceptor of Normandy, followed de Molay's example, and insisted on his innocence. Both men were declared guilty of being relapsed heretics, and they were sentenced to burn alive at the stake in Paris on March 18, 1314. De Molay reportedly remained defiant to the end, asking to be tied in such a way that he could face the Notre Dame cathedral, and hold his hands together in prayer.[29] According to legend, he called out from the flames that both Pope Clement and King Philip would soon meet him before God. Pope Clement died only a month later, and King Philip died in a hunting accident before the end of the year.[30] Jacques de Molay (est. ... Geoffrey de Charney, or Geoffroy de Charnay, was Preceptor of Normandy for the Knights Templar, burned alive along with Jacques de Molay in 1314. ... For other uses, see Normandy (disambiguation). ... is the 77th day of the year (78th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events June 24 - Battle of Bannockburn. ... For other uses, see Notre Dame. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ...


With the last of the Order's leaders gone, the remaining Templars around Europe were either arrested and tried under the Papal investigation (with virtually none convicted), absorbed into other military orders such as the Knights Hospitaller, or pensioned and allowed to live out their days peacefully. Some may have fled to other territories outside Papal control, such as excommunicated Scotland or to Switzerland. Templar organizations in Portugal simply changed their name, from Knights Templar to Knights of Christ.[31] The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... Excommunication is a religious censure used to deprive or suspend membership in a religious community. ... This article is about the country. ... Founded in 1318, the Military Order of Christ (Ordem dos Cavaleiros de Nosso Senhor Jesus Cristo) was the heritage of the Knights Templar in Portugal, after the suppression of the Templars in 1312. ...


In 2001, a document known as the "Chinon Parchment" was found in the Vatican Secret Archives, apparently after having been filed in the wrong place in 1628. It is a record of the trial of the Templars, and shows that Clement initially absolved the Templars of all heresies in 1308, before formally disbanding the Order in 1312.[32][33] In October 2007, the Scrinium publishing house, which publishes documents for the Vatican, published secret documents about the trial of the Knights Templar, including the Chinon Parchment.[33] The Chinon parchment is a document from the Secret Vatican Archives that shows that Pope Clement V secretly pardoned the Knights Templar in 1314. ... The Vatican Secret Archives (Latin: Archivum Secretum Apostolicum Vaticanum), located in Vatican City, is the central repository for all of the acts promulgated by the Holy See. ...


It is currently the Roman Catholic Church's position that the medieval persecution of the Knights Templar was unjust; that there was nothing inherently wrong with the Order or its Rule; and that Pope Clement was pressured into his actions by the magnitude of the public scandal and the dominating influence of King Philip IV.[34][35] Catholic Church redirects here. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times. ... In Catholic theology, scandal is a behavior or attitude that leads another to sin. ...


Organization

This article is part of or related
to the Knights Templar series
Image File history File links Cross_of_the_Knights_Templar. ...

Knights Templar

Modern associations Main article: Knights Templar The History of the Knights Templar incorporates about two centuries during the Middle Ages, from the Orders founding in the early 1100s, to when it was disbanded in the early 1300s. ... Main article: Knights Templar The secrecy around the powerful medieval Order of the Knights Templar, and the speed with which they suddenly disappeared over the space of a few years, has led to many different Knights Templar legends. ... Seals of the Knights Templars Officials of religious Orders had their own seals to validate documents approved by the Order. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of Knights Templar. ... Main article: Knights Templar The history of the Knights Templar in England began when the French nobleman Hughes de Payens, the founder and Grand Master of the order of the Knights Templar, visited the country in 1118 to raise men and money for the Crusades. ... This article is solely about the medieval Order in Scotland. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... With their military mission and extensive financial resources, the Knights Templar funded a large number of building projects around Europe and the Holy Land, many of which structures remain standing today. ...

The Templars were organized as a monastic order, similar to Bernard's Cistercian Order, which was considered the first effective international organization in Europe.[36] The organizational structure had a strong chain of authority. Each country with a major Templar presence (France, England, Aragon, Portugal, Poitou, Apulia, Jerusalem, Tripoli, Antioch, Anjou, and Hungary[37]) had a Master of the Order for the Templars in that region. All of them were subject to the Grand Master (always a French knight), appointed for life, who oversaw both the Order's military efforts in the East and their financial holdings in the West. No precise numbers exist, but it is estimated that at the Order's peak there were between 15,000 and 20,000 Templars, of whom about a tenth were actual knights.[1][2] This box:      This page is about a Masonic organization. ... The Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem (SMOTJ), also known as the Ordo Supremus Militaris Templi Hierosolymitani (OSMTH) is an international association of autonomous national Grand Priories, whose goals are the preservation of the holy sites in and around Jerusalem; antiquarian research; charitable works; diplomatic lobbying and intervention. ... Monasticism (from Greek: monachos — a solitary person) is the religious practice in which one renounces worldly pursuits in order to fully devote ones life to spiritual work. ... Cistercians coat of arms The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin: ), otherwise White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which a black scapular or apron is sometimes worn) is a Roman Catholic order of enclosed monks. ... Main article: Knights Templar The history of the Knights Templar in England began when the French nobleman Hughes de Payens, the founder and Grand Master of the order of the Knights Templar, visited the country in 1118 to raise men and money for the Crusades. ... Anthem: Himno de Aragón Capital Zaragoza Official languages Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Coat of arms of Richard, Earl of Cornwall, Plantagenet claimant to the county of Poitou, now favored as the coat of arms of Poitou by people in Poitou Poitou was a province of France whose capital city was Poitiers. ... This article is bad because of the Italian region. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Antakya. ... Modern département of Maine-et-Loire, which largely corresponds to Anjou Anjou is a former county (c. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of Knights Templar. ...


It was Bernard de Clairvaux and founder Hugues de Payens who devised the specific code of behavior for the Templar Order, known to modern historians as the Latin Rule. Its 72 clauses defined the ideal behavior for the Knights, such as the types of robes they were to wear and how many horses they could have. Knights were to take their meals in silence, eat meat no more than three times per week, and were not to have physical contact of any kind with women, even members of their own family. A Master of the Order was assigned "4 horses, and one chaplain-brother and one clerk with three horses, and one sergeant brother with two horses, and one gentleman valet to carry his shield and lance, with one horse."[38] As the Order grew, more guidelines were added, and the original list of 72 clauses expanded to several hundred in its final form.[39][40]

One of the many reported flags of the Knights Templar.
One of the many reported flags of the Knights Templar.

There was a threefold division of the ranks of the Templars: the aristocratic knights, the lower-born sergeants, and the clergy. Knights were required to be of knightly descent, and to wear white mantles. They were equipped as heavy cavalry, with three or four horses, and one or two squires. Squires were generally not members of the Order, but were instead outsiders who were hired for a set period of time. Beneath the knights in the Order and drawn from lower social strata were the sergeants.[41] They were either equipped as light cavalry with a single horse,[42] or served in other ways such as administering the property of the Order or performing menial tasks and trades. Chaplains, constituting a third Templar class, were ordained priests who saw to the Templars' spiritual needs.[43] Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Knights Dueling, by Eugène Delacroix For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... An army unit consisting of mounted soldiers are commonly known as cavalry. ... A chaplain in the 45th Infantry Division leads a Christmas Day service in Italy, 1943. ... Ordination is the process in which clergy become authorized by their religious denomination and/or seminary to perform religious rituals and ceremonies. ...


The knights wore white robes with a red cross, and a white mantle; the sergeants wore a black tunic with a red cross on front and back, and a black or brown mantle.[44][45] The white mantle was assigned to the Templars at the Council of Troyes in 1129, and the cross was most probably added to their robes at the launch of the Second Crusade in 1147, when Pope Eugenius III, King Louis VII of France, and many other notables attended a meeting of the French Templars at their headquarters near Paris.[46][47][48] According to their Rule, the knights were to wear the white mantle at all times, even being forbidden to eat or drink unless they were wearing it.[49] There have been a number of councils held at Troyes: 867 - proclaimed that no bishop could be disposed without reference to Holy See 1128 - convened by Pope Honorius II: recognized and confirmed the Order of the Knights Templar solved disputes involving the Bishop of Paris Categories: Stub ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ... The Blessed Eugene III, né Bernardo Pignatelli (d. ... Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ...


Initiation,[50] known as Reception (receptio) into the Order, was a profound commitment and involved a solemn ceremony. Outsiders were discouraged from attending the ceremony, which aroused the suspicions of medieval inquisitors during the later trials. Pedro Berruguete. ...


New members had to willingly sign over all of their wealth and goods to the Order and take vows of poverty, chastity, piety, and obedience.[51] Most brothers joined for life, although some were allowed to join for a set period. Sometimes a married man was allowed to join if he had his wife's permission,[45] but he was not allowed to wear the white mantle.[52] Monastic vows are the public vows of poverty, chastity and obedience professed by the monks in the Catholic, Anglican and Orthodox tradition. ...


The red cross that the Templars wore on their robes was a symbol of martyrdom, and to die in combat was considered a great honor that assured a place in heaven.[53] There was a cardinal rule that the warriors of the Order should never surrender unless the Templar flag had fallen, and even then they were first to try to regroup with another of the Christian orders, such as that of the Hospitallers. Only after all flags had fallen were they allowed to leave the battlefield.[54] This uncompromising principle, along with their reputation for courage, their excellent training, and their heavy armament, made the Templars one of the most feared combat forces in medieval times.[55] For other uses, see Martyr (disambiguation). ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide...


Grand Masters

Starting with founder Hugues de Payens in 1118–1119, the Order's highest office was that of Grand Master, a position which was held for life, though considering the martial nature of the Order, this could mean a very short tenure. All but two of the Grand Masters died in office, and several died during military campaigns. For example, during the Siege of Ascalon in 1153, Grand Master Bernard de Tremelay led a group of 40 Templars through a breach in the city walls. When the rest of the Crusader army did not follow, the Templars, including their Grand Master, were surrounded and beheaded.[56] Grand Master Gérard de Ridefort was beheaded by Saladin in 1189 at the Siege of Acre. It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into List of Knights Templar. ... Hugues de Payens (English: Hugh of Payens) (c. ... The Siege of Ascalon took place in 1153, resulting in the capture of that Egyptian fortress by the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... Bernard de Tramelay (died August 16, 1153) was the fourth Grand Master of the Knights Templar. ... Gerard of Ridefort (died October 1, 1189) was Grand Master of the Knights Templar from 1184 until his death. ... The Siege of Acre was the most important event of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history of the crusades that the king was compelled to personally see to the defense of the Holy Land. ...


The Grand Master oversaw all of the operations of the Order, including both the military operations in the Holy Land and Eastern Europe, and the Templars' financial and business dealings in Western Europe. Some Grand Masters also served as battlefield commanders, though this was not always wise: several blunders in de Ridefort's combat leadership contributed to the devastating defeat at the Battle of Hattin. The last Grand Master was Jacques de Molay, burned at the stake in Paris in 1314 by order of King Philip IV.[26] In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... Statistical regions of Europe as delineated by the United Nations (UN definition of Eastern Europe marked red):  Northern Europe  Western Europe  Eastern Europe  Southern Europe Pre-1989 division between the West (grey) and Eastern Bloc (orange) superimposed on current borders: Russia (dark orange), other countries formerly part of the USSR... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Guy of Lusignan Raymond III of Tripoli Strength Est. ... Jacques de Molay (est. ...

Temple Church, London. As the chapel of the New Temple in London, it was the location for Templar initiation ceremonies. In modern times it is the parish church of the Middle and Inner Temples, two of the Inns of Court. It is a popular tourist attraction.
Temple Church, London. As the chapel of the New Temple in London, it was the location for Templar initiation ceremonies. In modern times it is the parish church of the Middle and Inner Temples, two of the Inns of Court. It is a popular tourist attraction.

ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 453 KB) The exterior of the Temple Church, London, focusing on the round church. ... ImageMetadata File history File links Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 453 KB) The exterior of the Temple Church, London, focusing on the round church. ... The Temple Church. ... Part of Middle Temple c. ... Combined coat of arms of the four Inns of Court. ... Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. ...

Legacy

See also: List of places associated with the Knights Templar

With their military mission and extensive financial resources, the Knights Templar funded a large number of building projects around Europe and the Holy Land. Many of these structures are still standing. Many sites also maintain the name "Temple" due to centuries-old association with the Templars.[57] For example, some of the Templars' lands in London were later rented to lawyers, which led to the names of the Temple Bar gateway and the Temple tube station. Two of the four Inns of Court which may call members to act as barristers are the Inner Temple and Middle Temple. With their military mission and extensive financial resources, the Knights Templar funded a large number of building projects around Europe and the Holy Land, many of which structures remain standing today. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... For the fish called lawyer, see Burbot. ... A statue of a griffin atop the Temple Bar monument, in front of the Royal Courts of Justice. ... Categories: Circle Line stations | District Line stations | London Underground stubs ... Combined arms of the four Inns of Court. ... For the musician, see Sikiru Ayinde Barrister. ... Combined coat of arms of the four Inns of Court. ... Part of Middle Temple c. ...


Distinctive architectural elements of Templar buildings include the use of the image of "two knights on a single horse", representing the Knights' poverty, and round buildings designed to resemble the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. This article is about building architecture. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ...


Modern Templar organizations

By papal decree, the property of the Templars was transferred to the Order of Hospitallers, which also absorbed many of the Templars' members. In effect, the dissolution of the Templars could be seen as the merger of the two rival orders.[58]


The story of the secretive yet powerful medieval Templars, especially their persecution and sudden dissolution, has been a tempting source for many other groups which have used alleged connections with the Templars as a way of enhancing their own image and mystery. [59] Since at least the 1700s the York Rite of Freemasonry has incorporated some Templar symbols and rituals,[4] and has a modern degree called "the Order of the Temple". The Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem, founded in 1804, has achieved United Nations NGO status as a charitable organization.[60] There is no clear historical link between the Knights Templar, which were dismantled in the 1300s, and any of these other organizations, of which the earliest emerged in the 1700s. However, there is often public confusion and many overlook the 400-year gap. The York Rite (also called the American Rite) is one of the two main appendant bodies of United States Freemasonry, which a Master Mason may join to further his knowledge of Freemasonry. ... This box:      This page is about a Masonic organization. ... The Sovereign Military Order of the Temple of Jerusalem (SMOTJ), also known as the Ordo Supremus Militaris Templi Hierosolymitani (OSMTH) is an international association of autonomous national Grand Priories, whose goals are the preservation of the holy sites in and around Jerusalem; antiquarian research; charitable works; diplomatic lobbying and intervention. ... UN redirects here. ... NGO redirects here. ... This article is about charitable organizations. ...


Legends and relics

The Knights Templar have become associated with legends concerning secrets and mysteries handed down to the select from ancient times. Rumors circulated even during the time of the Templars themselves. Freemasonic writers added their own speculations in the 19th century, and further fictional embellishments have been added in modern movies such as National Treasure and Kingdom of Heaven, video games, and best-selling novels such as Ivanhoe and The Da Vinci Code.[4] Main article: Knights Templar The secrecy around the powerful medieval Order of the Knights Templar, and the speed with which they suddenly disappeared over the space of a few years, has led to many different Knights Templar legends. ... For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... Look up Esotericism in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The idea of national treasure, like national epics and national anthems, is part of the language of Romantic nationalism, which arose in the late 18th century and 19th centuries. ... This article is about the film. ... For other uses, see Ivanhoe (disambiguation). ... The Da Vinci Code is a mystery/detective novel by American author Dan Brown, published in 2003 by Doubleday. ...

The Dome of the Rock, one of the structures at the Temple Mount
The Dome of the Rock, one of the structures at the Temple Mount

Many of the Templar legends are connected with the Order's early occupation of the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, and speculation about what relics the Templars may have found there, such as the Holy Grail or the Ark of the Covenant.[4][14][55] That the Templars were in possession of some relics is certain. Many churches still display relics such as the bones of a saint, a scrap of cloth once worn by a holy man, or the skull of a martyr: the Templars did the same. They were documented as having a piece of the True Cross, which the Bishop of Acre carried into battle at the disastrous Horns of Hattin.[61] When the battle was lost, Saladin captured the relic, which was then ransomed back to the Crusaders when the Muslims surrendered the city of Acre in 1191.[62] They also possessed the head of Saint Euphemia of Chalcedon.[63] The subject of relics also came up during the Inquisition of the Templars, as several trial documents refer to the worship of an idol of some type, referred to in some cases as a cat, a bearded head, or in some cases as Baphomet, according to one theory a French misspelling of the name Mahomet (Muhammad).[4][64] Image File history File linksMetadata Harhab_mini. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Harhab_mini. ... The Dome of the Rock in the center of the Temple Mount The Dome of the Rock, (Arabic: مسجد قبة الصخرة, translit. ... The Temple Mount A reconstruction of Herods Temple in Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Relic (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Holy Grail (disambiguation). ... A late 19th-century artists conception of the Ark of the Covenant, employing a Renaissance cassone for the Ark and cherubim as latter-day Christian angels. ... According to Christian tradition, the True Cross is the cross upon which Jesus was crucified. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... For other uses, see Akko (disambiguation). ... Saint Euphemia is a Christian saint. ... For other uses, see Baphomet (disambiguation). ... Muhammad in a new genre of Islamic calligraphy started in the 17th century by Hafiz Osman. ...


The supposed idol worship was included in the charges brought against the Templars leading to their arrest in the early fourteenth century.[65] This accusation of idol worship levied against the Templars has also led to the modern belief by some that the Templars practiced witchcraft.[66]


There was particular interest during the Crusader era in the Holy Grail myth, which was quickly associated with the Templars, even in the 12th century. The first Grail romance, the fantasy story Le Conte du Graal, was written in 1180 by Chrétien de Troyes, who came from the same area where the Council of Troyes had officially sanctioned the Templars' Order. In Arthurian legend, the hero of the Grail quest, Sir Galahad (a 13th-century literary invention of monks from St. Bernard's Cistercian Order), was depicted bearing a shield with the cross of Saint George, similar to the Templars' insignia. In a chivalric epic of the period, Parzival, Wolfram von Eschenbach refers to Templars guarding the Grail Kingdom.[67] A legend developed that, since the Templars had their headquarters at the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, they must have excavated in search of relics, found the Grail, and then proceeded to keep it in secret and guard it with their lives. However, in the extensive documents of the Templar inquisition there was never a single mention of anything like a Grail relic,[13] let alone its possession by the Templars. In reality, most scholars agree that the story of the Grail was just that, a fiction that began circulating in medieval times.[4][14] For other uses, see Fantasy (disambiguation). ... Perceval, the Story of the Grail (French:Perceval, le Conte du Graal) is the unfinished fifth romance of Chrétien de Troyes. ... Chrétien de Troyes was a French poet and trouvère who flourished in the late 12th century. ... There have been a number of councils held at Troyes: 867 - proclaimed that no bishop could be disposed without reference to Holy See 1128 - convened by Pope Honorius II: recognized and confirmed the Order of the Knights Templar solved disputes involving the Bishop of Paris Categories: Stub ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... For other uses, see Galahad (disambiguation). ... Saint-George is a municipality with 695 inhabitants (as of 2003) in the district of Aubonne in the canton of Vaud, Switzerland. ... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ... For the Danish band, see Parzival (band). ... Portrait of Wolfram from the Codex Manesse. ...


One legendary artifact that does have some connection with the Templars is the Shroud of Turin. In 1357, the shroud was first publicly displayed by the family of the grandson of Geoffrey de Charney, the Templar who had been burned at the stake with Jacques de Molay in 1314. The artifact's origins are still a matter of controversy. In 1988, a carbon dating analysis concluded that the shroud was made between 1260 and 1390, a span that includes the last half-century of the Templars.[68] Disagreement over the proper dating continues.[69] The first photo of the Shroud of Turin, taken in 1898. ... Geoffrey de Charney, or Geoffroy de Charnay, was Preceptor of Normandy for the Knights Templar, burned alive along with Jacques de Molay in 1314. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 (14C) to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to about 60,000 years. ...


See also

The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Burman, p. 45.
  2. ^ a b c Barber, in "Supplying the Crusader States" says, "By Molay's time the Grand Master was presiding over at least 970 houses, including commanderies and castles in both east and west, serviced by a membership which is unlikely to have been less than 7,000, excluding employees and dependants, who must have been seven or eight times that number."
  3. ^ Malcolm Barber, The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple. Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-42041-5.
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h The History Channel, Decoding the Past: The Templar Code, November 7, 2005, video documentary written by Marcy Marzuni
  5. ^ Martin, p. 47.
  6. ^ Nicholson, p. 4
  7. ^ Malcolm Barber, The Trial of the Templars. Cambridge University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-521-45727-0.
  8. ^ Burman, pp. 13, 19.
  9. ^ Read, The Templars. p. 91.
  10. ^ Barber, The New Knighthood, p. 7.
  11. ^ Burman, p. 40.
  12. ^ Stephen A. Dafoe. In Praise of the New Knighthood. TemplarHistory.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  13. ^ a b c d The History Channel, Lost Worlds: Knights Templar, July 10, 2006, video documentary written and directed by Stuart Elliott
  14. ^ a b c d Sean Martin, The Knights Templar: The History & Myths of the Legendary Military Order, 2005. ISBN 1-56025-645-1.
  15. ^ Martin, p. 99.
  16. ^ Martin, p. 113.
  17. ^ Demurger, p.139 "During four years, Jacques de Molay and his order were totally committed, with other Christian forces of Cyprus and Armenia, to an enterprise of reconquest of the Holy Land, in liaison with the offensives of Ghazan, the Mongol Khan of Persia.
  18. ^ Nicholson, p. 201. "The Templars retained a base on Arwad island (also known as Ruad island, formerly Arados) off Tortosa (Tartus) until October 1302 or 1303, when the island was recaptured by the Mamluks."
  19. ^ Nicholson, p. 5
  20. ^ Nicholson, p. 237
  21. ^ Barber, Trial of the Templars, 2nd ed. "Recent Historiography on the Dissolution of the Temple." In the second edition of his book, Barber summarizes the views of many different historians, with an overview of the modern debate on Philip's precise motives.
  22. ^ Friday the 13th. snopes.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  23. ^ David Emery. Why Friday the 13th is unlucky. urbanlegends.about.com. Retrieved on 2007-03-26.
  24. ^ Martin, p. 118.
  25. ^ Martin, p. 122.
  26. ^ a b Barber, Trial, p. 3.
  27. ^ Convent of Christ in Tomar. World Heritage Site. Retrieved on 2007-03-20.
  28. ^ Martin, pp. 123–124.
  29. ^ Martin, p. 125.
  30. ^ Martin, p. 140.
  31. ^ Martin, pp. 140–142
  32. ^ http://video.aol.com/video/knights-in-the-clear/2000137
  33. ^ a b "Long-lost text lifts cloud from Knights Templar", msn.com, October 12, 2007. Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  34. ^ "Knights Templar secrets revealed", CNN, 2007-10-12. Retrieved on 2007-10-12. 
  35. ^ Frale, Barbara (2004). "The Chinon chart—Papal absolution to the last Templar, Master Jacques de Molay". Journal of Medieval History 30 (2): 109–134. doi:10.1016/j.jmedhist.2004.03.004. Retrieved on 2007-04-01. 
  36. ^ Burman, p. 28.
  37. ^ Barber, Trial, p. 10.
  38. ^ Burman, p. 43.
  39. ^ Burman, pp. 30–33.
  40. ^ Martin, p. 32.
  41. ^ Barber, p. 190
  42. ^ Martin, p. 54.
  43. ^ "The Knights Templars" in the 1913 Catholic Encyclopedia.
  44. ^ Barber, p. 191
  45. ^ a b Burman, p. 44.
  46. ^ Barber, The New Knighthood, page 66: "According to William of Tyre it was under Eugenius III that the Templars received the right to wear the characteristic red cross upon their tunics, symbolising their willingness to suffer martyrdom in the defence of the Holy Land." (WT, 12.7, p. 554. James of Vitry, 'Historia Hierosolimatana', ed. J. Bongars, Gesta Dei per Francos, vol I(ii), Hanover, 1611, p. 1083, interprets this as a sign of martyrdom.)
  47. ^ Martin, The Knights Templar, page 43: "The Pope conferred on the Templars the right to wear a red cross on their white mantles, which symbolised their willingness to suffer martyrdom in defending the Holy Land against the infidel."
  48. ^ Read, The Templars, page 121: "Pope Eugenius gave them the right to wear a scarlet cross over their hearts, so that the sign would serve triumphantly as a shield and they would never turn away in the face of the infidels': the red blood of the martyr was superimposed on the white of the chaste." (Melville, La Vie des Templiers, p. 92.)
  49. ^ Burman, p. 46.
  50. ^ Martin, p. 52.
  51. ^ Sharan Newman,The Real History Behind the Templars, Berkeley Publishing, 2007, pp. 304-12.
  52. ^ Barber, Trial, p. 4.
  53. ^ Nicholson, p. 141
  54. ^ Barber, p. 193
  55. ^ a b Lynn Picknett and Clive Prince, The Templar Revelation, 1997, ISBN 0-684-84891-0.
  56. ^ Read, p. 137.
  57. ^ Martin, p. 58.
  58. ^ The Knights Templars, Catholic Encyclopedia 1913. Retrieved on 2007-10-13.
  59. ^ Finlo Rohrer. "What are the Knights Templar up to now?", BBC News Magazine, 2007-10-19. Retrieved on 2008-04-13. 
  60. ^ List of non-governmental organizations in consultative status with the Economic and Social Council as at 31 August 2006 (PDF). United Nations Economic and Social Council (August 31, 2006). Retrieved on 2007-04-01.
  61. ^ Read, p. 91.
  62. ^ Read, p. 171.
  63. ^ Martin, p. 139.
  64. ^ Barber, Trial of the Templars, p. 62.
  65. ^ Evelyn Lord, The Knights Templar in Britain, Pearson Education Limited, 2002. ISBN - 0-582-47287-3, p. 188.
  66. ^ Frank Sanello, The Knights Templars: God's Warriors, the Devil's Bankers, Taylor Trade Publishing, 2003. ISBN - 0-87833-302-9, p. 207-208.
  67. ^ Martin, p. 133.
  68. ^ "Science and the Shroud: Microbiology meets archeology in a renewed quest for answers", The Mission, Spring 1996. Retrieved on 2007-04-01
  69. ^ Raymond N. Rogers, "Studies on the Radiocarbon Sample from the Shroud of Turin", Thermochimica Acta 425 (2005). Steven D. Schafersman, "A Skeptical Response to 'Studies on the Radiocarbon Sample from the Shroud of Turin'...", Skeptic World Site, February 22, 2005. Both retrieved on 2007-12-20

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References

  • Barber, Malcolm. The New Knighthood: A History of the Order of the Temple. Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-42041-5.
  • Barber, Malcolm. The Trial of the Templars, 1st edition, Cambridge University Press, 1978. ISBN 0-521-45727-0
  • Barber, Malcolm. The Trial of the Templars, 2nd edition, Cambridge University Press, 2006. ISBN 978-0-521-67236-8
  • Barber, Malcolm (1992). "Supplying the Crusader States: The Role of the Templars", in BZ Kedar: The Horns of Hattin. Jerusalem and London, 314-326. 
  • Burman, Edward. The Templars: Knights of God. Destiny Books, 1986. ISBN 0-89281-221-4.
  • Frale, Barbara. "The Chinon chart—Papal absolution to the last Templar, Master Jacques de Molay". 2004. Journal of Medieval History 30 (2): 109–134. DOI:10.1016/j.jmedhist.2004.03.004.
  • Hietala, Heikki. The Knights Templar: Serving God with the Sword, 1996, Renaissance Magazine.
  • The History Channel, Decoding the Past: The Templar Code, November 7, 2005, video documentary written by Marcy Marzuni
  • The History Channel, Lost Worlds: Knights Templar, July 10, 2006, video documentary written and directed by Stuart Elliott
  • Martin, Sean, The Knights Templar: The History & Myths of the Legendary Military Order, 2005. ISBN 1-56025-645-1.
  • The Mission. "Science and the Shroud: Microbiology meets archaeology in a renewed quest for answers", Spring 1996.
  • Newman, Sharan. The Real History Behind the Templars. Berkeley Publishing Group, 2007. ISBN 978-0-425-21533-3.
  • Nicholson, Helen. The Knights Templar: A New History. Sutton, 2001. ISBN 0-7509-2517-5
  • Picknett, Lynn and Prince, Clive. The Templar Revelation, 1997, ISBN 0-684-84891-0.
  • Read, Piers Paul, The Templars. Da Capo Press, 1999. ISBN 0-306-81071-9.

Malcolm Barber is a scholar of medieval history, described as the worlds leading expert on the Knights Templar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Journal of Medieval History is a major international academic journal devoted to all aspects of the history of Europe in the Middle Ages. ... Renaissance Magazine is a quarterly American publication. ... For the Canadian equivalent of this channel, see History Television. ... Sean Martin (b. ... Lynn Picknett is a writer, researcher, and lecturer on the paranormal, the occult, and historical and religious mysteries. ... Piers Paul Read (born March 7, 1941 in Beaconsfield, Buckinghamshire, UK) is a novelist and non-fiction British writer and author. ...

Further reading

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
  • Brighton, Simon (2006-06-15). In Search of the Knights Templar: A Guide to the Sites in Britain (Hardback), London, England: Orion Publishing Group. ISBN 0-297-84433-4. 
  • Butler, Alan and Stephen Dafoe, The Warriors and the Bankers: A History of the Knights Templar from 1307 to the present, Templar Books, 1998. ISBN 0-9683567-2-9.
  • Partner, Peter. The Knights Templar and their Myth. Destiny Books; Reissue edition (1990). ISBN 0-89281-273-7.
  • Ralls, Karen. The Templars and the Grail, Quest Books, 2003. ISBN 0-8356-0807-7.
  • Smart, George. The Knights Templar: Chronology, Authorhouse, 2005. ISBN 1-4184-9889-0.
  • Upton-Ward, JM. The Rule of the Templars: The French Text of the Rule of the Order of the Knights Templar. The Boydell Press, 1992. ISBN 0-85115-315-1.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Knights Templar and the Middle Ages (646 words)
This is Anne's Knights Templar section with links to many stolen pages that contain information on the Knights Templar, the Middle Ages, medieval philosophy, history, mathematics, christianity, mystery and other things remotely related.
I am interested in the background and history of the Knights Templar, a christian order that influenced the history of Europe in the 12th, 13th and 14th century.
Isis Unveiled, a database of articles of occult nature: kabbala, paganism, tarot, knights templar and esoterism
Knights Templar - MSN Encarta (526 words)
The order was organized as the Poor Knights of Christ, but was called the Knights of the Temple, or Knights Templar, from its first headquarters in Jerusalem near what was then known as the Temple of Solomon.
The Templars built a number of fortresses in the Holy Land that became the chief defenses of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, the Christian state established in the Holy Land after the capture of Jerusalem.
The headquarters of the Knights Templar remained at Jerusalem until the fall of the city to the Muslims in 1187; it was later located successively at Antioch, Acre, Caesarea, and on the island of Cyprus.
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