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Encyclopedia > Knights Hospitaller
Knights Hospitaller
Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta
Ordre des Hospitaliers

The Hospitalier Maréchal Mathieu de Clermont defending the walls. Siege of Acre, 1291. Versailles.
Active c. 1099–1798
Allegiance Papacy
Type Western Christian military order
Headquarters Jerusalem
Nickname Order of Knights Hospitaller
Patron St. John the Baptist
Battles/wars The Crusades, including:
Siege of Acre (1291)

The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Order of St. John, Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide care for poor and sick pilgrims to the Holy Land. After the Christian conquest of Jerusalem in 1099 during the First Crusade it became a religious/military order under its own charter, and was charged with the care and defense of the Holy Land. Following the loss of the Holy Land by Christian forces, the Order operated from Rhodes, over which it was sovereign, and later from Malta where it administered a vassal state under the Spanish viceroy of Sicily. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 446 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (1,012 × 1,359 pixels, file size: 664 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... Maréchal is the French equivalent of English Marshal. ... The Siege of Acre was the most important event of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history of the crusades that the king was compelled to personally see to the defense of the Holy Land. ... This article is about the city of Versailles. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Western Christianity... Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... St. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... The Siege of Acre took place in 1291 and resulted in the fall of Acre, the last territory of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... A puppet state is a state whose government, though notionally of the same culture as the governed people - owes its existence (or other major debt) to being installed, supported or controlled by a more powerful entity, typically a foreign power. ... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...


When Napoleon captured Malta in 1798 the Knights ceased to be associated with any one place, but gave rise to successors in existence until the present. For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ...

Contents

History

Foundation and early history

Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries and defending Knights of Saint John, Siege of Rhodes, 1522.
Gun-wielding Ottoman Janissaries and defending Knights of Saint John, Siege of Rhodes, 1522.

In 600, Abbot Probus was commissioned by Pope Gregory the Great to build a hospital in Jerusalem to treat and care for Christian pilgrims to the Holy Land. In 800, Charlemagne, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire, enlarged Probus' hospital and added a library to it. About 200 years later, in 1005, Caliph Al Hakim destroyed the hospital and three thousand other buildings. In 1023, merchants from Amalfi and Salerno in Italy were given permission by the Caliph Ali az-Zahir of Egypt to rebuild the hospital in Jerusalem. The hospital, which was built on the site of the monastery of Saint John the Baptist, took in Christian pilgrims traveling to visit the Christian holy sites. It was served by Benedictine Brothers. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 596 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1046 × 1052 pixel, file size: 557 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 596 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (1046 × 1052 pixel, file size: 557 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Faithful reproductions of two-dimensional original works cannot attract copyright in the U.S. according to the rule in Bridgeman Art Library v. ... The Janissaries (or janizaries; in Turkish: Yeniçeri, meaning New Troops) comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Knights Hospitaller Commanders Suleiman the Magnificent Mustafa Pasha Philippe Villiers de LIsle-Adam Strength 110,000 soldiers 10,000 janissaries 60,000 slaves 400 ships 600 knights 4,500 soldiers citizens Casualties 50,000 Unknown The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin... Saint Gregory I, or Gregory the Great (called the Dialogist in Eastern Orthodoxy) (circa 540 - March 12, 604) was pope of the Catholic Church from September 3, 590 until his death. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Charlemagne (left) and Pippin the Hunchback. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... For main article see: Caliphate The Caliph (pronounced khaleef in Arabic) is the head of state in a Caliphate, and the title for the leader of the Islamic Ummah, an Islamic community ruled by the Sharia. ... Tāriqu l-ḤakÄ«m, called bi Amr al-Lāh (Arabic الحاكم بأمر الله Ruler by Gods Command), was the sixth Fatimid Caliph in Egypt, ruling from 996 to 1021. ... Amalfi is a town and commune in the province of Salerno, in the region of Campania, Italy, on the Gulf of Salerno, 24 miles southeast of Naples. ... Salerno is a town in Campania, south-western Italy, the capital of the province of the same name. ... ˤAlÄ« az-Zāhir (20 June 1005 – 13 June 1036) (Arabic: الظاهر بالله) was the Seventh Caliph of the Fātimids (1021 - 1036). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... St. ... For the college, see Benedictine College. ...


The monastic hospitaller order was founded following the First Crusade by the Blessed Gerard, whose role as founder was confirmed by a Papal bull of Pope Paschal II in 1113. Gerard acquired territory and revenues for his order throughout the Kingdom of Jerusalem and beyond. His successor, Raymond du Puy de Provence, established the first significant Hospitaller infirmary near the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem. Initially the group cared for pilgrims in Jerusalem, but the order soon extended to providing pilgrims with an armed escort, which soon grew into a substantial force. Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... Gerard ( 1040–1120), variously surnamed Tum, Tune, Tenque or Thom, founder of the order of the Knights of St. ... A Papal bull is a particular type of patent or charter issued by a pope. ... Paschal II, né Ranierius (born in Bleda, near Forlì, Romagna - d. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... Raymond du Puy de Provence was the second Grand Master of the Order of St John of Jerusalem (Knights Hospitaller). ... For the town in the Republic of Ireland, see Hospital, County Limerick. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ...


The Hospitallers and the Knights Templar, formed in 1119, became the most powerful Christian groups in the area. The order came to distinguish itself in battles with the Muslims, its soldiers wearing a black surcoat with a white cross.
This article is about the medieval military order. ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ...


By the mid-12th century the order was clearly divided into military brothers and those who worked with the sick. It was still a religious order and had privileges granted by the Papacy; for example, the order was exempt from all authority save that of the Pope, and it paid no tithes and was allowed its own religious buildings. Many of the more substantial Christian fortifications in the Holy Land were built by the Templars and the Hospitallers. At the height of the Kingdom of Jerusalem the Hospitallers held seven great forts and 140 other estates in the area. The two largest of these, their bases of power in the Kingdom and in the Principality of Antioch, were the Krak des Chevaliers and Margat. The property of the Order was divided into priories, subdivided into bailiwicks, which in turn were divided into commanderies. Frederick Barbarossa, the Holy Roman Emperor, pledged his protection to the Knights of St. John in a charter of privileges granted in 1185. The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135. ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... Krak des Chevaliers, also transliterated Crac des Chevaliers, is a Crusader fortress in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval military architectures in the world. ... View of Margat from ground level Path leading to Margat Margat, also known as Marqab (from the Arabic Qalaat al-Marqab, قلعة المرقب, Castle of the Watchtower) was a Crusader fortress in modern Syria. ... A priory is a monastery governed by a prior or prioress. ... A bailiwick is the area of jurisdiction of a bailiff. ... Commandry (British English), or commandery (American English), was the smallest division of the European landed estate or manor under the control of a commendator, or commander, of an order of knights. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ...

Grand Master and senior knights Hospitaller in the 14th century

grand master & senior knights hospitaller after 1307 move to rhodes This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Grand Master is the typical title of the supreme head (in some national orders below the Sovereign Head of state) of various orders of knighthood, including military orders, various religious orders, and some sectarian orders such as the Ancient Order of Hibernians and the Orange Order. ...

Knights of Cyprus and Rhodes

The rising power of Islam eventually expelled the Knights from Jerusalem. After the fall of the Kingdom of Jerusalem (Jerusalem itself fell in 1187), the Knights were confined to the County of Tripoli, and when Acre was captured in 1291 the order sought refuge in the Kingdom of Cyprus. Finding themselves becoming enmeshed in Cypriot politics, their Grand Master Guillaume de Villaret created a plan of acquiring their own temporal domain, selecting Rhodes to be their new home. His successor Fulkes de Villaret executed the plan, and on 15 August 1309, after over two years of campaigning, the island of Rhodes surrendered to the knights. They also gained control of a number of neighboring islands and the Anatolian ports of Bodrum and Kastelorizo. For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ... The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Roman Catholic Crusader kingdom on the island of Cyprus in the late Middle Ages. ... Grand Master is the typical title of the supreme head (in some national orders below the Sovereign Head of state) of various orders of knighthood, including military orders, various religious orders, and some sectarian orders such as the Ancient Order of Hibernians and the Orange Order. ... Guillaume de Villaret (d. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... Foulques de Villaret (d. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events August 15 - The city of Rhodes surrenders to the forces of the Knights of St. ... This article is about the Greek island of Rhodes. ... This article is about two nested areas of Turkey, a plateau region within a peninsula. ... Bodrum (Turkish: from Petronium; formerly Halicarnassus (Turkish: , Ancient Greek: Αλικαρνασσός)) is a Turkish port in Muğla Province. ... Location map Kastelorizo, current official name in Greek is Μεγίστη/Megisti; (Turkish: Meis , Italian: Castelrosso), is a small Greek island located in the Eastern Mediterranean. ...

The Knights castle at Rhodes.
The Knights castle at Rhodes.

The Knights Templar were dissolved in 1312 and much of their property was given to the Hospitallers. The holdings were organized into eight tongues (one each in Aragon, Auvergne, Castile, England, France, Germany, Italy, and Provence). Each was administered by a Prior or, if there was more than one priory in the tongue, by a Grand Prior. At Rhodes and later Malta, the resident knights of each tongue were headed by a Bailli. The English Grand Prior at the time was Philip Thame, who acquired the estates allocated to the English tongue from 1330 to 1358. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... Tongues (fr. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Auvergne coat of arms Auvergne (Occitan: Auvèrnhe/Auvèrnha) was the name of an historically independent county in the center of France, as well as later a province of France. ... The starting point of Crown of Castile can be considered when the union of the Kingdoms of Castile and Leon in 1230 or the later fusion of their Cortes (their Parlaments). ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Coat of arms of Provence Provence (Provençal Occitan: Provença in classical norm or Prouvènço in Mistralian norm) was a Roman province and now is a region of southeastern France on the Mediterranean Sea adjacent to Italy. ... Prior is a title, derived from the Latin adjective for earlier, first, with several notable uses. ... A Bailiff in a United States courtroom Bailiff (from Late Latin bajulivus, adjectival form of bajulus) is a governor or custodian; cf. ...

Rhodes and other possessions of the Knights Hospitaller of St. John.
Rhodes and other possessions of the Knights Hospitaller of St. John.

On Rhodes the Hospitallers, now known as the Knights of Rhodes, were forced to become a more militarized force, fighting especially with the Barbary pirates. They withstood two invasions in the 15th century, one by the Sultan of Egypt in 1444 and another by the Ottoman Sultan Mehmed II in 1480 who, after capturing Constantinople, made the Knights a priority target. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Sultan of Egypt was the title used for the leader of a number of Muslim dynasties that ruled over Egypt. ... Ottoman redirects here. ... Mehmed II (Ottoman Turkish: محمد ثانى , Turkish: ), (also known as el-Fatih (الفاتح), the Conqueror, in Ottoman Turkish, or, in modern Turkish, Fatih Sultan Mehmet) (March 30, 1432 – May 3, 1481) was Sultan of the Ottoman Empire for a short time from 1444 to 1446, and later from 1451 to 1481. ... Combatants  Byzantine Empire Ottoman Sultanate Commanders Constantine XI †, Loukas Notaras, Giovanni Giustiniani †[1] Mehmed II, ZaÄŸanos Pasha Strength 80,000[2] 80,000[1]-200,000[1][3] Casualties 4,000 dead[4] [5][6] unknown The Fall of Constantinople refers to the capture of the Byzantine Empires...

In 1494 they created a stronghold on the peninsula of Halicarnassus (now Bodrum). They used pieces of the partially destroyed Mausoleum of Maussollos, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, to strengthen Bodrum Castle.[1] Rhodes is the easternmost island of Greece, located 11 miles west of Turkey. ... Bodrum (Turkish: from Petronium; formerly Halicarnassus (Turkish: , Ancient Greek: Αλικαρνασσός)) is a Turkish port in Muğla Province. ... A fanciful interpretation of the Mausoleum of Maussollos, from a 1572 engraving by Marten Heemskerk (1498–1574), who based his reconstruction on descriptions The Tomb of Maussollos, Mausoleum of Maussollos or Mausoleum of Halicarnassus (in Greek, ), was a tomb built between 353 and 350 BC at Halicarnassus (present Bodrum, Turkey... Bodrum Castle (Bodrum Kalesi), located in southwest Turkey in the city of Bodrum, was built by the Knights Hospitaller starting in 1402 as the Castle of St. ...


In 1522 an entirely new sort of force arrived: 400 ships under the command of Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent delivered 200,000 men to the island. Against this force the Knights, under Grand Master Philippe Villiers de L'Isle-Adam, had about 7,000 men-at-arms and their fortifications. The siege lasted six months, at the end of which the surviving defeated Hospitallers were allowed to withdraw to Sicily. Suleiman I (Ottoman Turkish: Sulaymān, Turkish: ; formally Kanuni Sultan Süleyman in Turkish) (November 6, 1494 – September 5/6, 1566), was the tenth and longest‐serving Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, reigning from 1520 to 1566. ... Philippe Villiers de LIsle-Adam was Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller from 1521 to 1538. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Knights Hospitaller Commanders Suleiman the Magnificent Mustafa Pasha Philippe Villiers de LIsle-Adam Strength 110,000 soldiers 10,000 janissaries 60,000 slaves 400 ships 600 knights 4,500 soldiers citizens Casualties 50,000 Unknown The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately... Sicily ( in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ...

Combatants Ottoman Empire Knights Hospitaller Commanders Suleiman the Magnificent Mustafa Pasha Philippe Villiers de LIsle-Adam Strength 110,000 soldiers 10,000 janissaries 60,000 slaves 400 ships 600 knights 4,500 soldiers citizens Casualties 50,000 Unknown The Siege of Rhodes of 1522 was the second and ultimately...

Knights of Malta

Armoiries of the Knights Hospitaller, intermixed with those of Pierre d'Aubusson, on a bombard ordered by the latter. The top inscription further reads: "F. PETRUS DAUBUSSON M HOSPITALIS IHER".
Armoiries of the Knights Hospitaller, intermixed with those of Pierre d'Aubusson, on a bombard ordered by the latter. The top inscription further reads: "F. PETRUS DAUBUSSON M HOSPITALIS IHER".

After seven years of moving from place to place in Europe the Knights became established in 1530 when the Holy Roman Emperor, King Charles V of Spain, as King of Sicily, gave them Malta, Gozo and the North African port of Tripoli in perpetual fiefdom in exchange for an annual fee of a single Maltese falcon, which they were to send on All Souls Day to the King's representative, the Viceroy of Sicily. (This historical fact was used as the plot hook in Dashiell Hammett's famous book The Maltese Falcon.) Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 623 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1038 × 999 pixel, file size: 285 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Top inscription of the following bombard: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 623 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1038 × 999 pixel, file size: 285 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Top inscription of the following bombard: File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old... Pierre dAubusson (1423 - 1503) was a Grand Master of the order of St John of Jerusalem (the Knights Hospitaller), and a zealous opponent of the Turks. ... A bombard is a type of medieval cannon or mortar, used chiefly in sieges for throwing heavy stone balls. ... For the Carlist claimant King Carlos V, see Infante Carlos, Count of Molina. ... Gozo (Maltese: Għawdex) is an island of the Maltese archipelago in the Mediterranean Sea, the island is part of the Southern European country Malta and is the second largest after the island of Malta itself within the archipelago. ... Tripoli (Arabic: طرابلس Tarābulus) is the capital city of Libya. ... All Souls Day by William Bouguereau All Souls Day (formally, Commemoratio omnium Fidelium Defunctorum or Commemoration of all the Faithful Departed), also called Defuncts Day in Mexico and Belgium, is the day set apart for the commemoration of the faithful departed. ... A narrative hook (or hook) is a literary technique in the opening of a story that hooks the readers attention so that he will read on. ... Samuel Dashiell Hammett (May 27, 1894 – January 10, 1961) was an American author of hardboiled detective novels and short stories. ... Actors Bogart, Lorre, Astor and Greenstreet in The Maltese Falcon (1941) The Maltese Falcon (1930) is a detective novel by Dashiell Hammett that has been adapted several times for the cinema. ...


The Hospitallers continued their actions against the Muslims and especially the Barbary pirates. Although they had only few ships they quickly drew the ire of the Ottomans, who were unhappy to see the order resettled. In 1565 Suleiman sent an invasion force of about 40,000 men to besiege the 700 knights and 8000 soldiers and expel them from Malta. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Ottoman redirects here. ...


At first the battle went as badly for the Hospitallers as Rhodes had: most of the cities were destroyed and about half the knights killed. On 18 August the position of the besieged was becoming desperate: dwindling daily in numbers, they were becoming too feeble to hold the long line of fortifications. But when his council suggested the abandonment of Il Borgo and Senglea and withdrawal to Fort St. Angelo, Grand Master Jean Parisot de la Valette refused. is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Senglea is a fortified city in the east of Malta, mainly in the Grand Harbour area. ... Fort St Angelo is a large fortification on the island of Malta. ... Grand Master is the typical title of the supreme head (in some national orders below the Sovereign Head of state) of various orders of knighthood, including military orders, various religious orders, and some sectarian orders such as the Ancient Order of Hibernians and the Orange Order. ... Jean Parisot de Valette Jean Parisot de Valette (born in 1494[?]; died in Malta, 21 August 1568) was born into a noble family in Quercy. ...


The Viceroy of Sicily had not sent help; possibly the Viceroy's orders from Philip II of Spain were so obscurely worded as to put on his own shoulders the burden of the decision whether to help the Knights at the expense of his own defences[citation needed]. A wrong decision could mean defeat and exposing Sicily and Naples to the Ottomans. He had left his own son with La Valette, so he could hardly be indifferent to the fate of the fortress. Whatever may have been the cause of his delay, the Viceroy hesitated until the battle had almost been decided by the unaided efforts of the Knights, before being forced to move by the indignation of his own officers. Philip II (Spanish: ; Portuguese: ) (May 21, 1527 – September 13, 1598) was King of Spain from 1556 until 1598, King of Naples and Sicily from 1554 until 1598, king consort of England (as husband of Mary I) from 1554 to 1558, Lord of the Seventeen Provinces (holding various titles for the...


On 23 August came yet another grand assault, the last serious effort, as it proved, of the besiegers. It was thrown back with the greatest difficulty, even the wounded taking part in the defence. The plight of the Turkish forces, however, was now desperate. With the exception of Fort St. Elmo, the fortifications were still intact. Working night and day the garrison had repaired the breaches, and the capture of Malta seemed more and more impossible. Many of the Ottoman troops in crowded quarters had fallen ill over the terrible summer months. Ammunition and food were beginning to run short, and the Ottoman troops were becoming increasingly dispirited at the failure of their attacks and their losses. The death on 23 June of skilled commander Dragut, a corsair and admiral of the Ottoman fleet, was a serious blow. The Turkish commanders, Piyale Pasha and Mustafa Pasha, were careless. They had a huge fleet which they used with effect on only one occasion. They neglected their communications with the African coast and made no attempt to watch and intercept Sicilian reinforcements. {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Re-enactment of 16th century military drills conducted by the Knights. ... Turgut Reis Turgut Reis (1485-1565) was a Turkish privateer and Ottoman admiral as well as Bey of Algiers; Beylerbey of the Mediterranean; and first Bey later Pasha of Tripoli. ... Piyale Pasha (circa 1515-1578), also known as Piale Pasha in the West or Pialí Bajá in Spain (Turkish: Piyale Paşa), was an Ottoman-Turkish admiral between 1553 and 1567 and a high ranking Ottoman Vizier after 1568. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


On 1 September they made their last effort, but the morale of the Ottoman troops had deteriorated seriously and the attack was feeble, to the great encouragement of the besieged, who now began to see hopes of deliverance. The perplexed and indecisive Ottomans heard of the arrival of Sicilian reinforcements in Mellieħa Bay. Unaware that the force was very small, they broke off the siege and left on 8 September. The Great Siege of Malta may have been the last action in which a force of knights won a decisive victory.[1] is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 251st day of the year (252nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants Ottoman Empire Knights Hospitaller Spanish Empire Commanders Lala Kara Mustafa Pasha Piyale Pasha Turgut Reis † Salih Reis Uluç Ali Reis Jean de Valette Strength 22,000-48,000 6,100-8,500 Casualties < 2,500 - 3,500 2,500, plus 7,000 civilians, and 500 slaves The Siege of...


When the Ottomans departed the Hospitallers had 600 men able to bear arms. The most reliable estimate puts the number of the Ottoman army at its height at some 40,000 men, of whom 15,000 eventually returned to Constantinople. The siege is portrayed vividly in the frescoes of Matteo Perez d'Aleccio in the Hall of St. Michael and St. George, also known as the Throne Room, in the Grand Master's Palace in Valletta. Four of the original modellos, painted in oils by Perez d'Aleccio between 1576 and 1581, can be found in the Cube Room of the Queen's House at Greenwich, London. After the siege a new city had to be built – the present city named Valletta in memory of the Grand Master who had withstood the siege. The siege of Malta - Arrival of the Turkish fleet The siege of Malta - Capture of St. ... Valletta (Maltese: , commonly referred to as Il-Belt - The City) is the capital city of Malta. ... The siege of Malta - Arrival of the Turkish fleet The siege of Malta - Capture of St. ... The Queens House, Greenwich The Queens House, Greenwich, (designed by architect Inigo Jones for Anne of Denmark (the queen of King James I of England) and afterwards used by Queen Henrietta Maria) is one of the most important buildings in British architectural history. ... This page is about Greenwich in England. ... Valletta (Maltese: , commonly referred to as Il-Belt - The City) is the capital city of Malta. ...

Re-enactment of 16th century military drills conducted by the Knights. Fort Saint Elmo, Valletta, Malta, 8 May 2005.
Re-enactment of 16th century military drills conducted by the Knights. Fort Saint Elmo, Valletta, Malta, 8 May 2005.

In 1607 the Grand Master of the Hospitallers was granted the status of Reichsfürst (Prince of the Holy Roman Empire, even though the Order's territory was always south of the Holy Roman Empire). In 1630 the Grand Master was awarded ecclesiastic equality with cardinals, and the unique hybrid style His Most Eminent Highness, reflecting both qualities qualifying him as a true Prince of the Church. Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1741 KB)Reenactment of 16th-century military drills by the Knights. ... Download high resolution version (2272x1704, 1741 KB)Reenactment of 16th-century military drills by the Knights. ... Fort St Elmo is a fortification on the island of Malta. ... Valletta (Maltese: , commonly referred to as Il-Belt - The City) is the capital city of Malta. ... is the 128th day of the year (129th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fürst (plural Fürsten) is a German title of nobility, usually translated into English as Prince. The female form is Fürstin (plural Fürstinnen). ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... For other uses, see Cardinal (disambiguation). ... The term Prince of the church is nowadays used nearly exclusively for Roman Catholic Cardinals. ...


Following the Christian victory over the Ottoman fleet in the Battle of Lepanto in 1571, the Knights continued to attack pirates and Muslim shipping, and their base became a centre for slave trading well into the 18th century, selling captured Africans and Turks and freeing Christian slaves. A thousand slaves were needed to equip and man each of the Order's galleys[citation needed]. Three battles have been known as the Battle of Lepanto: Battle of Lepanto (1499) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1500) during the Turkish-Venetian Wars Battle of Lepanto (1571) defeat of the Turkish fleet An earlier battle near modern Lepanto was called the Battle of Naupactus (429... World map showing location of Africa A satellite composite image of Africa Africa is the worlds second_largest continent in both area and population, after Asia. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ...


Turmoil in Europe

The Order lost many of its European holdings following the rise of Protestantism, but survived on Malta. The property of the English branch was confiscated in 1540. In 1577, the German Bailiwick of Brandenburg became Lutheran, but continued to pay its financial contribution to the Order until the branch was turned into a merit Order by the King of Prussia in 1812. The "Johanniter Orden" was restored as a Prussian Order of Knights Hospitaller in 1852. Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Lutheranism is a major branch of Protestant Christianity that identifies with the teachings of the sixteenth-century German reformer Martin Luther. ... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ...

Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander
Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander

The Knights of Malta had a strong presence within the Imperial Russian Navy and the pre-revolutionary French Navy. When De Poincy was appointed governor of the French colony on St. Kitts in 1639 he was a prominent Knight of St. John and dressed his retinue with the emblems of the order. The Order's presence in the Caribbean was eclipsed with his death in 1660. He also bought the island of Saint Croix as his personal estate and deeded it to the Knights of St. John. In 1665, St. Croix was bought by the French West India Company, ending the Order's presence in the Caribbean. Image File history File links Baron Vassiliev, a 19th century knight commander, wearing the uniform of the Order of Malta. ... Image File history File links Baron Vassiliev, a 19th century knight commander, wearing the uniform of the Order of Malta. ... Russian Navy Jack Russian Navy Ensign The Imperial Russian Navy refers to the Navy of Imperial Russia, before the Soviet Union. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The French Navy, officially called the National Navy (French: Marine Nationale) is the maritime arm of the French military. ... Phillippe de Longvilliers de Poincy (1583 - 1660) was a French nobleman and Bailiff Grand Cross of the Knights of St John. ... Saint Kitts (also/previously known as Saint Christopher) is an island in the Caribbean. ... West Indies redirects here. ... Saint Croix from space, January 1993 Saint Croix is one of the United States Virgin Islands, a United States territory, in the Caribbean. ... In the history of French trade, the French West India Company was a chartered company established in 1664. ...


In 1789 France erupted in revolution and anti-clerical and anti-aristocratic furor, forcing many French knights and nobles to flee for their lives. Many of the Order's traditional sources of revenue from France were lost permanently. The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ...


The decree of the French National Assembly Abolishing the Feudal System (1789) abolished the Order in France: V. Tithes of every description, as well as the dues which have been substituted for them, under whatever denomination they are known or collected (even when compounded for), possessed by secular or regular congregations, by holders of benefices, members of corporations (including the Order of Malta and other religious and military orders), as well as those devoted to the maintenance of churches, those impropriated to lay persons and those substituted for the portion congrue, are abolished (...) (The Decree Abolishing the Feudal System, August 11, 1789, J.H. Robinson, ed., Readings in European History 2 vols. (Boston: Ginn, 1906), 2: 404-409) The French Revolutionary Government seized the assets and properties of the Order in France in 1792.


The loss of Malta

Their Mediterranean stronghold of Malta was captured by Napoleon in 1798 during his expedition to Egypt. As a ruse, Napoleon asked for safe harbor to resupply his ships, and then turned against his hosts once safely inside Valletta. Grand Master Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim failed to anticipate or prepare for this threat, provided no effective leadership, and readily capitulated to Napoleon, arguing that the order's charter prohibited fighting against Christians. He resigned his office and retreated into obscurity. The order continued to exist in a diminished form and negotiated with European governments for a return to power. The Tsar of Russia gave the largest number of knights shelter in St. Petersburg and this gave rise to the Russian tradition of the Knights Hospitaller and recognition within the Russian Imperial Orders. Mediterranean redirects here. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Ferdinand von Hompesch zu Bolheim (9 November 1744 in Bolheim (Württemberg, Germany) – 12 May 1805 in (Montpellier, France) He was the 71st Grand Master of the Order of Saint John, the first German to be elected to the office. ... Tsar, (Bulgarian &#1094;&#1072;&#1088;�, Russian &#1094;&#1072;&#1088;&#1100;; often spelled Czar or Tzar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to 1917. ... Saint Petersburg (Russian: &#1057;&#1072;&#1085;&#1082;&#1090;-&#1055;&#1077;&#1090;&#1077;&#1088;&#1073;&#1091;&#769;&#1088;&#1075;, English transliteration: Sankt-Peterburg), colloquially known as &#1055;&#1080;&#1090;&#1077;&#1088; (transliterated Piter), formerly known as Leningrad (&#1051;&#1077;&#1085;&#1080;&#1085;&#1075;&#1088;&#1072;&#769;&#1076;, 1924&#8211;1991) and... 19th-Century Commanders Badge, Russian Grand Priory Brother Gerard created the Order of St John of Jerusalem as a distinctive Order from the previous Benedictine establishment of Hospitallers (Рыцари Хоспитоллер). It provided medical care and protection for pilgrims visiting Jerusalem. ...


In 1798, following Napoleon's taking of Malta, the order was dispersed, but with a large number of refugee knights sheltering in St Petersburg, where they elected the Russian Emperor, Paul I as their Grand Master – a rival to Grand Master Ferdinand Hompesch, then held in disgrace. Hompesch abdicated in 1799, under pressure from the Austrian Court, leaving Paul as the de facto Grand Master. As Grand Master Paul I created, in addition to the Roman Catholic Grand Priory, a Russian tradition within the Hospitaller Order – the "Russian Grand Priory" of no less than 118 Commanderies dwarfing the rest of the Order, and open to all Christians. Paul's election as Grand Master was never ratified under Roman Catholic Canon law, and the Russian Priory was a de facto rather than a de jure part of the Roman Catholic Order. Paul I of Russia (Russian: ; Pavel Petrovich) (October 1, 1754-March 23, 1801) was the Emperor of Russia between 1796 and 1801. ... De facto is a Latin expression that means in fact or in practice. It is commonly used as opposed to de jure (meaning by law) when referring to matters of law or governance or technique (such as standards), that are found in the common experience as created or developed without... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


By the early 1800s, the order had been severely weakened by the loss of its priories throughout Europe. Only 10% of the order's income came from traditional sources in Europe, with the remaining 90% being generated by the Russian Grand Priory until 1810. This was partly reflected in the government of the Order being under Lieutenants, rather than Grand Masters in the period 1805 to 1879, when Pope Leo XIII restored a Grand Master to the order. This signalled the renewal of the order's fortunes as a humanitarian and religious organization. Hospitaller work, the original work of the order, became once again its main concern. The hospital and welfare activities, undertaken on a considerable scale in World War I, were greatly intensified and expanded in World War II under the Grand Master Fra' Ludovico Chigi della Rovere Albani (Grand Master 1931-1951). 19th-Century Commanders Badge, Russian Grand Priory Brother Gerard created the Order of St John of Jerusalem as a distinctive Order from the previous Benedictine establishment of Hospitallers (Рыцари Хоспитоллер). It provided medical care and protection for pilgrims visiting Jerusalem. ... Pope Leo XIII (March 2, 1810—July 20, 1903), born Vincenzo Gioacchino Raffaele Luigi Pecci, was the 256th Pope of the Roman Catholic Church, reigning from 1878 to 1903, succeeding Pope Pius IX. Reigning until the age of 93, he was the oldest pope, and had the third longest pontificate... There are a number of meanings for humanitarianism: humanitarianism, humanism, the doctrine that peoples duty is to promote human welfare. ...


Modern successors

Sovereign Military Order of Malta

Flag of the Order of Malta
Flag of the Order of Malta

In 1834, the revived Order established a new headquarters in Rome. The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and of Malta, better known as the Sovereign Military Order of Malta (SMOM), remains a Roman Catholic religious order which claims sovereignty under international law and has been granted permanent observer status at the United Nations, although its claims of sovereignty are disputed by a handful of scholars. Motto Tuitio Fidei et Obsequium Pauperum(Latin) Defence of the faith and assistance to the poor Anthem (Latin) Hail, thou White Cross Capital Palazzo Malta, Rome Official languages Italian Government  -  Grand Master Fra Andrew Bertie Currency Scudo The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Sovereign_Military_Order_of_Malta. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_Sovereign_Military_Order_of_Malta. ... For other uses, see Rome (disambiguation). ... Motto Tuitio Fidei et Obsequium Pauperum(Latin) Defence of the faith and assistance to the poor Anthem (Latin) Hail, thou White Cross Capital Palazzo Malta, Rome Official languages Italian Government  -  Grand Master Fra Andrew Bertie Currency Scudo The Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem, of Rhodes and... Catholic Church redirects here. ... A Taoist monk playing an instrument. ... “Sovereign” redirects here. ... In addition to the current 191 member states, the United Nations welcomes several other international agencies, entities, and one non-member state (for several years prior to their admission after a referendum in 2002, Switzerland was also an observer state). ... UN and U.N. redirect here. ...


Revival in Britain as the Venerable Order of St. John of Jerusalem

The property of the Order in England was confiscated by Henry VIII because of a dispute with the Pope over the dissolution of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon, which eventually led to the dissolution of the monasteries. Although not formally suppressed, this caused the activities of the English Langue to come to an end. A few Scottish Knights remained in communion with the French Langue of the Order. In 1831, a British Order was founded by Frenchmen claiming to act on behalf of the Order in Italy, and eventually became known as the Most Venerable Order of St John of Jerusalem in the British Realm. It received a Royal Charter from Queen Victoria in 1888 and spread across the United Kingdom, the British Commonwealth, and the United States of America. However, it was only recognized by the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in 1963. Its most well-known activities are based around St. John Ambulance. This article is about the order after its revival in the 19th century. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Henry VIII redirects here. ... Katherine of Aragon (Alcalá de Henares, 16 December 1485 – 7 January 1536), Castilian Infanta Catalina de Aragón y Castilla, also known popularly after her time as Catherine of Aragon, was the first wife and Queen Consort of Henry VIII of England. ... Monastery of St. ... This article is about the country. ... The term Communion is derived from Latin communio (sharing in common). ... This article is about the order after its revival in the 19th century. ... Queen Victoria redirects here. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2007 Headquarters Marlborough House, London, UK Official languages English Membership 53 sovereign states Leaders  -  Queen Elizabeth II  -  Secretary-General Kamalesh Sharma Appointed 24 November 2007 Establishment  -  Balfour Declaration 18 November 1926   -  Statute of Westminster 11 December 1931   -  London Declaration 28 April 1949  Area  -  Total... St John Ambulance vehicle in a London street. ...


Protestant continuation in continental Europe

Following the Protestant Reformation, most German chapters of the Order declared their continued adherence to the Order while accepting Protestant theology. As the Balley Brandenburg des Ritterlichen Ordens Sankt Johannis vom Spital zu Jerusalem, the order continues today, gaining increasing independence from its Catholic mother order. The Protestant branch spread into several other countries (i.e. Hungary, the Netherlands, and Sweden). These sub-branches are now autonomous as well. Badge of the Johanniter Order. ... Reformation redirects here. ... Protestantism encompasses the forms of Christian faith and practice that originated with the doctrines of the Reformation. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Balley Brandenburg des Ritterlichen Ordens Sankt Johannis vom Spital zu Jerusalem, English: Brandenburg Bailiwick of the Knights Order of the Hospital of St John in Jerusalem, also called Johanniter Order, German Protestant branch of the Knights Hospitaller. ...


This branch holds the official title Brandenburg Bailiwick of the Knights' Order of the Hospital of St John in Jerusalem. Badge of the Johanniter Order. ...


All four branches are in loose alliance with the British order in the Alliance of Orders of St John of Jerusalem. This article is about the order after its revival in the 19th century. ...


Mimic orders

Following the end of World War II, and taking advantage of the lack of State Orders in the Italian Republic, an Italian called himself a Polish Prince and did a brisk trade in Maltese Crosses as the Grand Prior of the fictitious "Grand Priory of Podolia" until successfully prosecuted for fraud. Another fraud claimed to be the Grand Prior of the Holy Trinity of Villeneuve, but gave up after a police visit, although the organisation resurfaced in Malta in 1975, and then by 1978 in the USA, where it still continues. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... This article is about the symbol. ...


The large passage fees collected by the American Association of "SMOM" in the early 1950s may well have tempted a man named Charles Pichel to create his own "Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem, Knights Hospitaller" in 1956. Pichel avoided the problems of being an imitation of "SMOM" by giving his organization a mythical history, claiming that the American organization he led had been founded within the genuine Russian tradition of the Knights Hospitaller in 1908; a spurious claim, but which nevertheless misled many including some academics. In truth, the foundation of his organisation had no connection to the genuine Russian tradition of the Knights Hospitaller. Once created, the attraction of Russian Nobles into membership of Pichel’s 'Order' lent some plausibility to his claims. 19th-Century Commanders Badge, Russian Grand Priory Brother Gerard created the Order of St John of Jerusalem as a distinctive Order from the previous Benedictine establishment of Hospitallers (Рыцари Хоспитоллер). It provided medical care and protection for pilgrims visiting Jerusalem. ...


These organizations have led to scores of other mimic, or self-styled, Orders. Two offshoots of the Pichel Order were successful in allegedly gaining the patronage of the late King Peter II of Yugoslavia, and King Michael of Romania. The former Order, based in California, gained a substantial following under leadership of the late Williams Formhals, who for some years, and with the support of historical organisations such as The Augustan Society, claimed to be a Polish prince of the Sangusko family. For other uses, see Monarch (disambiguation). ... Peter II of Yugoslavia, locally known as Kralj Petar II Karađorđević (Serbian Cyrillic: Краљ Петар II Карађорђевић) (6 September 1923 – 3 November 1970), was the second, as well as the last, King of the Kingdom of Yugoslavia. ... King Michael and Queen Anne King Michael (Romanian Mihai) of Romania (born October 25, 1921) was the son of King Carol II and reigned from July 20, 1927 to June 8, 1930, and again from September 6, 1940 until December 30, 1947. ...


See also

This is a list of Grand Masters of the Knights Hospitaller. ... The following were the Lord Priors of St John of Jerusalem in England, the Knights Hospitallers, until it was stripped of its properties and income by Henry VIII: Gabnabius, (or Gabnebius) of Naples, the first prior. ... 19th-Century Commanders Badge, Russian Grand Priory Brother Gerard created the Order of St John of Jerusalem as a distinctive Order from the previous Benedictine establishment of Hospitallers (Рыцари Хоспитоллер). It provided medical care and protection for pilgrims visiting Jerusalem. ... Krak des Chevaliers, also transliterated Crac des Chevaliers, is a Crusader fortress in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval military architectures in the world. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Francesco Ghetaldi-Gondola (II) August 8, 1833 was the son of Segismondo Ghetaldi-Gondola and Malvina Orsola Bosdari. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.zum.de/whkmla/military/16cen/malta1565.html accessed September 14, 2007
  • Cohen, R. [1920] (2004-04-15). in Julie Barkley, Bill Hershey and PG Distributed Proofreaders: Knights of Malta, 1523-1798. Project Gutenberg. Retrieved on 2006-05-29. 
  • Nicholson,, Helen J. (2001). The Knights Hospitaller. ISBN 1-84383-038-8. 
  • Noonan, Jr., James-Charles (1996). The Church Visible: The Ceremonial Life and Protocol of the Roman Catholic Church. Viking, p.196. ISBN 0-670-86745-4. 
  • Read, Piers Paul (1999). The Templars. Imago, p.118. ISBN 85-312-0735-5. 
  • Some Notes About the Sovereign Military Order of Malta in the U.S.A. "Nobilta" (Rivista di Araldica, Genealogia, Ordini Cavallereschi September/October 1999). Istituto Araldico Genealogico Italiano., Vol VII, No. 32. Reference by Carl Edwin Lindgren relating only to the Order in the United States.
  • Tyerman, Christopher (2006). God's War: A New History of the Crusades. Allen Lane, p.253. ISBN 0-7139-9220-4. 
  • Peyrefitte, Roger. Knights of Malta. Translated from the French by Edward Hyams. Secker & Warburg, London, 1960, page 96.

Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive and distribute cultural works. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

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  Results from FactBites:
 
Highbeam Encyclopedia - Search Results for Knights Hospitaller (1151 words)
Knight Hospitaller A member of a military religious order, formally the Knights Hospitallers of St John of Jerusalem, so called after the dedication of their headquarters in Jerusalem to St John the Baptist.
Knight Templar A member of a military religious order properly called the Poor Knights of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, founded in 1118 by Hugh de Payens, a knight of Champagne in France.
Malta's Masterpieces - Constructed by the knights who originally aided sick pilgrims to the holy land, the city of Valletta on the Mediterranean Island of Malta survives as a testament to its builders.
Knights Hospitaller - definition of Knights Hospitaller in Encyclopedia (2838 words)
The Knights Templar were dissolved in 1312 and much of their property was given to the Hospitallers.
In gratitude the Knights declared Ferdinand von Hompesch deposed and Emperor Paul I was elected as the new Grand Master.
SMOM is considered to be the most direct successor to the medieval Knights Hospitaller, also known as the Knights of Malta, and today operates as a largely charitable and ceremonial organization.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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