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Encyclopedia > Knight
For other uses, see Knight (disambiguation) or Knights (disambiguation).

Knight is the English term for a social position originating in the Middle Ages. In the Commonwealth of Nations, knighthood is a non-heritable form of gentility, but is not nobility. In the High and Late Middle Ages, the principal duty of a knight was to fight as, and lead, heavy cavalry (see serjeanty); more recently, in the United Kingdom, knighthood has become a symbolic title of honour given to a more diverse class of people, from the late mountain climber Edmund Hillary to musician Paul McCartney. By extension, "knight" is also used as a translation of the names of other honorable estates connected with horsemanship, especially from classical antiquity. Look up knight in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Knights may refer to: The plural of knight, an English term for the lowest European aristocratic rank Darryl Knights, a professional English soccer player David Knights, a rock bass guitarist Lionel Charles Knights, an English literary critic Peter Knights, a former Australian rules football player and coach Letran Knights, varsity... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 767 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,208 × 1,727 pixels, file size: 919 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ]] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 767 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (2,208 × 1,727 pixels, file size: 919 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) ]] File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... A duel is a formalized type of combat. ... Ferdinand Victor Eugène Delacroix (April 26, 1798 – August 13, 1863) was one of the most important of the French Romantic painters. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Dante by Michelino The Late Middle Ages is a term used by historians to describe European history in the period of the 14th to 16th centuries (AD 1300–1500). ... Duty is a term loosely appliedDuty to any action (or course of action) whichDutyDuty is regarded as morally incumbent, apart from personal likes and dislikes or any external compulsion. ... Early 16th century French gendarmes, with complete plate armour and heavy lances. ... The examples and perspective in this article may not represent a worldwide view. ... A title is a prefix or suffix added to a persons name to signify either veneration, an official position or a professional or academic qualification. ... For other uses, see Honour (disambiguation). ... Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... Sir Edmund Percival Hillary, KG, ONZ, KBE (born 20 July 1919) is a New Zealand mountaineer and explorer. ... Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an English singer-songwriter, composer, multi-instrumentalist, poet, entrepreneur, painter, record producer, film producer, and animal-rights activist. ... Cleric, Knight, and Workman: the three estates in medieval illumination The estates of the realm were the broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners recognized in the Middle Ages, and also later, in some parts of Europe. ... Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD...


Knighthood is designated by the title "Sir" in the United Kingdom. The French title Chevalier, the Spanish Caballero (related to "chivalry"), the Italian Cavaliere, the German Ritter (related to the English word "Rider" and the Swedish word Ryttare), or the Polish Kawaler (for Modern Era knighthoods or Rycerz for medieval knighthoods) are commonly used in Continental Europe. Outside the British Commonwealth, the title is respected but may carry less significance, and thus may or may not appear, for example, in the mass media and other publications. There are technically differing levels of knighthood (see Order of the British Empire), but in practice these are even more symbolic than the title itself today and thus only express the greatness of the recipient's achievements in the eyes of the Crown. For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ...


The British legend of King Arthur, popularised throughout Europe in the Middle Ages by Geoffrey of Monmouth in his Historia Regum Britanniae ("History of the Kings of Britain") written in the 1130s, and Sir Thomas Malory's Le Morte d'Arthur (The Death of Arthur) written in 1485, were important in defining the ideal of chivalry which is essential to the European ideal of the knight as a elite warrior sworn to uphold the values of faith, loyalty, courage and honour such as Knights Templar. In a parallel development in Japan, Bushidō ("Way of the Warrior") written down between the 9th and 12th centuries and Heike monogatari ("Tale of the Heike") popularised by Kakuichi in 1371, defined the ideal of the Samurai warrior. For other uses, see Legend (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ... Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniæ (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) was written around 1136. ... Sir Thomas Malory (c. ... The Last Sleep of Arthur by Edward Burne-Jones Le Morte dArthur (spelled Le Morte Darthur in the first printing and also in some modern editions, Middle French for la mort dArthur, the death of Arthur) is Sir Thomas Malorys compilation of some French and English Arthurian... iDEAL is an Internet payment method in The Netherlands, based on online banking. ... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ... iDEAL is an Internet payment method in The Netherlands, based on online banking. ... For other uses, see Elite (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Faith (disambiguation). ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ... For other uses, see Courage (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Honour (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... Bushido redirects here. ... Way of the Warrrior is the tile of an ultra-violent fighting game released from the ill-faited 32-bit 3DO CD-ROM system by Naughty Dog. ... The Tale of the Heike (Japanese 平家物語, Heike monogatari) is an epic account of the struggle between the Minamoto and Taira clans for control of Japan at the end of the 12th century. ... The Tale of the Heike (Japanese 平家物語, Heike monogatari) is an epic account of the struggle between the Minamoto and Taira clans for control of Japan at the end of the 12th century. ... For other uses, see Samurai (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Warrior (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Origins of the knight

In the second century A.D. the nomadic tribes of the Central Asian steppes would pass through the Hindu Kush and raid the cities of what is now Iran. Their tactics consisted of a mass charge of mounted warriors firing arrows as they attacked. This onslaught overwhelmed their opponents. They were stopped only when the Sassanian rulers of Iran put armor on their warriors and their horses. These heavily armored cataphracts withstood the onslaught of arrows and then counterattacked with lances. This system of defense was effective but very expensive. There were not only the high costs of the armor for man and horse but the horses themselves were extra expensive because they were a special breed. In addition the warriors required extensive training. http://www. ... The Hindu Kush or Hindukush (هندوکش in Persian) is a mountain range in Afghanistan as well as in the Northern Areas of Pakistan. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... The term lance has become a catchall for a variety of different pole weapons based on the spear. ... Armor or armour (see spelling differences) is protective clothing intended to defend its wearer from intentional harm in combat and military engagements, typically associated with soldiers. ...


The Sassanian rulers of Iran financed these cataphracts by assigning them each an area which was responsible for providing their armor and horse and supporting them while they were trained. This arrangement led to the feudal social structure with the military elite at the top and the peasant-serfs at the bottom. Sassanian literature such as Karnamag-i Artaxshir-i Papakan (Deeds of Ardashir) and the Shahnameh (The Book of Kings) bear testimony to their pursuit of chivalry. Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... For other uses, see Elite (disambiguation). ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Costumes of Slaves or Serfs, from the Sixth to the Twelfth Centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel, from original Documents in the great Libraries of Europe. ... Head of king Shapur II (Sasanian dynasty A.D. 4th century). ... For other uses, see Literature (disambiguation). ... Shâhnameh Shāhnāmé, or Shāhnāma (Persian: )(alternative spellings are Shahnama, Shahnameh, Shahname, Shah-Nama, etc. ... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ...


Later the system of heavily armored cataphracts spread to the steppes north of the Black Sea and on into Europe. The Sarmatians, an Iranian-language-speaking people, displaced the Scythians in what is now south Russia and the Ukraine. Parthian cataphract fighting a lion. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Scythians (, also ) or Scyths ([1]; from Greek ), a nation of horse-riding nomadic pastoralists who spoke an Iranian language[2], dominated the Pontic steppe throughout Classical Antiquity. ...


The realm of the Sarmatians extended from the Han Empire in the east to the Roman Empire in the west. From the Chinese, among other things, the Sarmatians adopted the dragon motif. Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Chinese culture has roots going back over five thousand years. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ...


In the third century A.D.[citation needed] the Sarmatians fought the Romans near the mouth of the Danube River on the Black Sea. The Sarmatians lost the battle but they so impressed the Romans with their fighting prowess that the terms of the peace called for six thousand Sarmatian warriors and their horses to join the Roman army. The Emperor Marcus Aurelius sent 5500 of these Sarmatians to the northern border of the Roman Empire in Britain to guard it against attacks by the Celts. Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Danube River. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... The Roman army was a set of land-based military forces employed by the Roman Kingdom, Roman Republic and later Roman Empire as part of the Roman military. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... Celts, normally pronounced //, is a modern term used to describe any of the European peoples who spoke, or speak, a Celtic language. ...


Physical artifacts of this Sarmatian force have been found, including retirement villages. There are other things which may be cultural artifacts of the Sarmatian presence. There is a good chance that Celtic dragon image came from Sarmatian sources. The really intriguing possibility is a link between the Arthurian legends and the Sarmatians. In the religion of the Sarmatian the altar was a sword embedded in a stone. Arthur's father was Uther Pendragon. Pendragon means "dragon's head" and refers to the dragon-head symbol on a shield. The evidence suggests that the Sarmatians with their armor created a military caste that survived several centuries and provided the leadership in the early feudal era. An artifact (also artefact) is a term coined by Sir Julian Huxley meaning any object or process resulting from human activity. ... Sarmatian horseman Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... King Arthur is an important figure in the mythology of Britain. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Sarmatian Cataphract Sarmatians, Sarmatae or Sauromatae (the second form is mostly used by the earlier Greek writers, the other by the later Greeks and the Romans) were a people whom Herodotus (4. ... Look up Arthur in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Pendragon or Pen Draig, meaning head dragon or chief dragon (referring to a battle standard), is the name of several traditional Kings of the Britons: Aurelius Ambrosius, the son of Constantine II of Britain, is called Pendragon in the Vulgate Cycle. ... Pendragon or Pen Draig, meaning head dragon or chief dragon (referring to a battle standard), is the name of several traditional Kings of the Britons: Aurelius Ambrosius, the son of Constantine II of Britain, is called Pendragon in the Vulgate Cycle. ... For other uses, see Dragon (disambiguation). ... This article is about the defensive device. ... Sarmatia Europea in Scythia map 1697 AD Sarmatia Europæa separated from Sarmatia Asiatica by the Tanais (the River Don), based on Greek literary sources, in a map printed in London, ca 1770 Great steppe in early spring. ... Caste systems are traditional, hereditary systems of social classification, that evolved due to the enormous diversity in India (where all three primary races met, not by forced slavery but by immigration). ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


Knighthood as known in Europe was characterized by two elements, feudalism and service as a mounted combatant. Both arose under the reign of the Frankish emperor Charlemagne, from which the knighthood of the Middle Ages can be seen to have had its genesis. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste Feudalism, a term first used in the late modern period (17th century), in its most classic sense refers to a Medieval European political system comprised of a set of reciprocal legal and military obligations among the... An emperorrefers to Nick Herringshaw, a title, empress may only indicate the wife of an emperor (empress consort. ... For the American band, see Charlemagne (band). ...


Some portions of the armies of Germanic tribes (and super-tribes, such as the Suebi) which occupied Europe from the third century had always been mounted, and sometimes such cavalry in fact composed large majorities, such as in the armies of the Ostrogoths. However, it was the Franks who came to dominate Western and Central Europe after the fall of Rome in the West, and they generally fielded armies composed of large masses of infantry, with an infantry elite, the comitatus, which often rode to battle on horseback rather than marching on foot. Riding to battle had two key advantages: it relieved fatigue, particularly when the elite soldiers wore armour (as was increasingly the case in the centuries after the fall of Rome in the West); and it gave the soldiers more mobility to react to the raids of the enemy, particularly the invasions of Muslim armies which started occurring in the seventh century. So it was that the armies of the Frankish ruler and warlord Charles Martel, which defeated the Umayyad Arab invasions at the Battle of Tours in 732, were still largely infantry armies, the elites riding to battle but dismounting to fight in order to provide a hard core for the levy of the infantry warbands. The Germans (German: die Deutschen), or the German people, are a nation in the meaning an ethnos (in German: Volk), defined more by a sense of sharing a common German culture and having a German mother tongue, than by citizenship or by being subjects to any particular country. ... Suebi - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the English historian, Edward Gibbon. ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ... There is also a collection of Hadith called Sahih Muslim A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم, Persian: Mosalman or Mosalmon Urdu: مسلمان, Turkish: Müslüman, Albanian: Mysliman, Bosnian: Musliman) is an adherent of the religion of Islam. ... A warlord is a person with power who has de facto military control of a subnational area due to armed forces loyal to the warlord and not to a central authority. ... Charles Martel (or, in modern English, Charles the Hammer) (23 August 686 – 22 October 741) was proclaimed Mayor of the Palace, ruling the Franks in the name of a titular King, and proclaimed himself Duke of the Franks (the last four years of his reign he did not even bother... The Courtyard of the Umayyad Mosque in Damascus, one of the grandest architectural legacies of the Umayyads. ... Combatants Carolingian Franks Umayyad Caliphate Commanders Charles Martel ‘Abdul Rahman Al Ghafiqi† Strength Possibly 20,000-30,000 Unknown, but the earliest Muslim sources, still after the era of the battle[1] mention a figure of 80,000. ...


As the eighth century progressed into the Carolingian Age, however, the Franks were generally on the attack, and larger numbers of warriors took to their horses to ride with the Emperor in his wide-ranging campaigns of conquest. At about this time the Franks increasingly remained on horseback to fight on the battlefield as true cavalry rather than as mounted infantry, and would continue to do for centuries thereafter. Although in some nations the knight returned to foot combat in the fourteenth century, the association of the knight with mounted combat with a spear, and later a lance, remained a strong one. Also see: France in the Middle Ages. ... This 15th century depiction of Charlemagne and Pope Adrian I shows a well-bred Medieval horse with arched neck, refined head and elegant gait. ...


These mobile mounted warriors made Charlemagne’s far-flung conquests possible, and to secure their service he rewarded them with grants of land called benefices. These were given to the captains directly by the emperor to reward their efforts in the conquests, and they in turn were to grant benefices to their warrior contingents, who were a mix of free and unfree men. In the century or so following Charlemagne’s death, his newly enfeoffed warrior class grew stronger still, and Charles the Bald declared their fiefs to be hereditary. The period of chaos in the ninth and tenth centuries, between the fall of the Carolingian central authority and the rise of separate Western and Eastern Frankish kingdoms (later to become France and Germany, respectively), only entrenched this newly-landed warrior class. This was because governing power, and defense against Viking, Magyar and Saracen attack, became an essentially local affair which revolved around these new hereditary local lords and their demesnes. Originally a benefice was a gift of land (precaria) for life as a reward for services rendered. ... Charles the Bald[1] (numbered Charles II of France and the Holy Roman Emperor) (French: , German: ) (13 June 823 – 6 October 877), Holy Roman Emperor (875–877) and king of West Francia (840–877), was the youngest son of Emperor Louis the Pious, by his second wife Judith. ... For other uses, see Viking (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Hungarian ethnic group. ... Saracens was a term used in the Middle Ages for those who professed the religion of Islam. ... Lordship redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The resulting hereditary, landed class of mounted elite warriors, the knights, were increasingly seen as the only true soldiers of Europe, hence the exclusive use of miles for them.


The medieval institution

Two late 13th / early 14th century knights, wearing full mail armour and great helms at a joust (Codex Manesse).
Two late 13th / early 14th century knights, wearing full mail armour and great helms at a joust (Codex Manesse).

In the early Middle Ages the term knight designated a professional fighting man in the emerging feudal system. Some were as poor as the peasant class. However, over time, as this class of fighter became more prominent in post-Carolingian France, they became wealthier and began to hold and inherit land. Eventually, on the Continent of Europe, only those men could be knighted whose fathers or grandfathers had been knights; and the knightly families became known as the nobility. (In the British Isles, "nobility" is more restricted, to the Peerage.) Download high resolution version (1024x1434, 411 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Download high resolution version (1024x1434, 411 KB) The two-dimensional work of art depicted in this image is in the public domain in the United States and in those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Early great helms had large flat tops that were susceptible to crushing mace blows. ... Joust redirects here. ... Folio 371r shows Johannes Hadlaub Folio 124r shows Walther von der Vogelweide The Manesse Codex or Große Heidelberger Liederhandschrift (Heidelberg, University of Heidelberg Library, Cod. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... In a detail of Brueghels Land of Cockaigne (1567) a soft-boiled egg has little feet to rush to the luxuriating peasant who catches drops of honey on his tongue, while roast pigs roam wild: in fact, hunger and harsh winters were realities for the average European in the... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ... For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ...


From the 12th century, the concept continued being tied to cavalry, mounted and armoured soldiers. Because of the cost of equipping oneself in the cavalry, the term became associated with wealth and social status, and eventually knighthood became a formal title. Significantly the nobility, who at this time were also expected to be leaders in times of war, responded to this new class by becoming members of it. Nobles had their sons trained as gentlemen and as professional fighters in the household of another noble. When the young man had completed his training he was ready to become a knight, and would be honoured as such in a ceremony known as dubbing (knighting) from the French "adoubement." It was expected that all young men of noble birth be knights and often take oaths swearing allegiance, chastity, protection of other Christians, and respect of the laws laid down by their forebears, though this varied from period to period and on the rank of the individual Medieval Britain placed great importance on an individual’s status in society. Popular among this society were the knights, those that fought for kings and feudal lords and died for them. Eldest sons comprised of this class in society because of the inheritance passed on to them while the younger sons entered the church or became landless knights.[1] Not to be confused with Golgotha, which was called Calvary. ... For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ... This article is about a military rank. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Allegory of chastity by Hans Memling. ...

Heavy cavalry returned in the late fifteenth century, after reverses in the Hundred Years War. These are early sixteenth century French gendarmes.
Heavy cavalry returned in the late fifteenth century, after reverses in the Hundred Years War. These are early sixteenth century French gendarmes.

Image File history File links Gendarmes. ... Image File history File links Gendarmes. ...

Becoming a knight

The process of training for knighthood began before adolescence, inside the prospective knight’s home, where he learned courtesy and manners. A knight was usually the son of a vassal. Around the age of 7 to 8 years, he would be sent away to train and serve at a grander (kings) household as a page (this was so his mother or sisters would not spoil him). Here, he would serve as a kind of waiter and personal servant to his elders. For at least seven years a page was cared for by the women of the house, who instructed him in manners, courtesy, cleanliness, and religion. The women often taught the page to sing, dance, play an instrument (most commonly a lute) or on very rare occasions, to read; reading and writing were valuable but less necessary skills for knights. He would also learn how to playbattle, in order to learn adult battle techniques. He also acted as a personal servant to the knight, taking care of his master’s armor, equipment, and horse. This was to uphold the knight’s code of Chivalry that promoted generosity, courtesy, compassion, and most importantly, loyalty. The knight acted as a tutor and taught the squire all he needed to know to become a knight. As the squire grew older, he was expected to follow his master into battle, and attend to his master if the knight fell in battle. Some squires became knights for performing an outstanding deed on the battlefield, but most were knighted by their lord when their training was judged to be complete. Teen redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Office etiquette be merged into this article or section. ... // In sociology, manners are the unenforced standards of conduct which show the actor to be cultured, polite, and refined. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A page is a young male servant. ... A renaissance-era lute. ... In British, Australian, New Zealand, and some Canadian universities, a tutor is often but not always a postgraduate student or a lecturer assigned to conduct a seminar for undergraduate students, often known as a tutorial. ... For other uses, see Squire (disambiguation). ...


Several methods were used to become a knight. The first method “involved the King or tenant-in-chief conferring the title, known as ‘dubbing’”. The second method “had stronger religious undertones”. The future knight did things such as keeping vigil, “taking a purifying bath, heard Mass and had his spur put on”. The third method called for the future knight to read a service called “Benedicto Novi Militis”. There was, however, another method called apprenticeship wherein the individual is taken as a servant and was taught the manners and skills to be a knight. Aside from being military-trained, knights were taught chivalry, manners that enacted values such as “loyalty, generosity” and “social service”. These manners were supposed to be fulfilled by the knights in order to receive their privileges.[2]


In various traditions, knighthood was reserved for people with a minimum of noble quarters (as in many orders of chivalry), or knighthood became essentially a low degree of nobility, sometimes even conferred as a hereditary title below the peerage. For other uses, see Peerage (disambiguation). ...


Meanwhile kings strove, as an expression of absolutism, to monopolize the right to confer knighthood, even as an individual honour. Not only was this often successful, once established, this prerogative of the Head of State was even transferred to the successors of dynasties in republican regimes, such as the British Lord Protector of the Commonwealth. Absolutism is a historiographical term used to describe a form of monarchical power that is unrestrained by any other institutions, such as churches, legislatures, or social elites. ... For the comedy film of the same name, see Head of State (film). ... Succession is the act or process of pooing or of following in order or sequence. ... // For other uses, see Dynasty (disambiguation). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Lord Protector is a particular British English title for Heads of State, with two meanings (and full styles) at different periods of history. ...


Knighthood as a purely formal title bestowed by the British monarch unrelated to military service was established in the 16th century. (However, military knights remained among the Knights of Malta until 1798.) The British title of baronet was established by James I of England in 1611 as an inheritable knighthood, ranking below Baron (the lowest Peerage title). The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... For the brush-footed butterfly species, see Euthalia nais. ... James VI and I (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old, succeeding his mother Mary...


Knighthood and the feudal system

Death of Bertrand du Guesclin; C15th miniature by Jean Fouquet
Death of Bertrand du Guesclin; C15th miniature by Jean Fouquet

Originally, any man could make a knight, although there was greater honor in being knighted by more prestigious knights. There was an instance of three knights of Beauvais who needed a fourth knight to witness their contract; so they knighted a passing peasant and made him witness. Unfortunately, knighting serfs was already illegal there, and they were fined.[3] Image File history File links Mort_de_Bertrand_Du_Guesclin. ... Image File history File links Mort_de_Bertrand_Du_Guesclin. ... Statue of Bertrand du Guesclin in Dinan Bertrand du Guesclin at the Saint-Denis Basilica, near Paris Bertrand du Guesclin (c. ... Virgin and Child Surrounded by Angels (c. ... Beauvais is a town and commune of northern France, préfecture (capital) of the Oise département. ...


Once eligibility for knighthood became a monopoly of the nobles, or knightly class, they actually assumed knighthood less and less often. It added little to the honour they already had; dubbing had become a fashionable and expensive ceremony; and knighthood required much equipment, and burdensome duties.


The king, however, could order his subjects to become knights, and dispense with the laws against knighting the ignoble. So knights were most often made by the king, or his deputies; in the late Middle Ages, sovereigns began to forbid their subjects to make knights, as they forbade them other military preparations.


By about the late 13th century, partly in conjunction with the focus on courtly behavior, a code of conduct and uniformity of dress for knights began to evolve. Knights were eligible to wear a gold chain or golden spurs as a sign of their status (references exist to a white belt in the context of the knighting ceremony or "accolade",[4] but it is unknown if this symbolism was carried beyond that). Moreover, knights would usually swear allegiance to a superior in the feudal pyramid — either to a liege lord or to a military order. Knights who did not do so are known as knights errant. GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... GOLD refers to one of the following: GOLD (IEEE) is an IEEE program designed to garner more student members at the university level (Graduates of the Last Decade). ... A spur is a metal instrument composed of a shank, neck, and prick, rowel (sharp-toothed wheel), or blunted end fastened to the heel of a horseman. ... This article is about the color. ... Bold textA belt is a flexible band, typically made of leather or heavy cloth, and worn around the waist. ... Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


Knights were the warrior class defending the people of feudal Christianity and bound by a code of chivalry. Chivalry (like the samurai’s Bushido) was a set of customs that governed the knights' behavior, but was perhaps less scrupulously observed. Knights served mightier lords, usually as vassals, or were hired by them. Some had their own castles, while others joined a military order or a crusade. In reality, rules were often bent or blatantly broken by knights as well as their masters, for power, goods or honor. So-called robber knights or robber barons even turned to organized crime, some based in a castle. For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ... Japanese samurai in armor, 1860s. ... Look up vassal in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Typical toll tower on Rhine in Bingen The term robber baron (German: ) dates back to the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, originally referring to certain feudal lords of land through which the Rhine River in Europe flowed. ...

Knights of Christ, detail from Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck
Knights of Christ, detail from Ghent Altarpiece by Jan van Eyck

In times of war or national disorder the monarch would typically call all the knights together to do their annual service of fighting. This could be against threats to the nation or in defensive and offensive wars against other nations. Sometimes the knights responding to the call were the nobles themselves, and sometimes these men were hired by nobles to fight in their stead; some noblemen were disinclined or unable to fight. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (593x1785, 726 KB) Jan van Eyck painting Ghent Altarpiece, finished 1432. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (593x1785, 726 KB) Jan van Eyck painting Ghent Altarpiece, finished 1432. ... Portrait of a Man in a Turban (actually a chaperon), probably a self-portrait, painted 1433 Jan van Eyck or Johannes de Eyck (pronounced: vān ike)(c. ... Nobility is a traditional hereditary status (see hereditary titles) that exists today in many countries (mainly present or former monarchies). ...


As time went by, monarchs began to prefer standing (permanent) armies led by officers rather than knights, because they could be used for longer periods of time, were more professional and were generally more loyal. This was partly because those noblemen who were themselves knights, or who sent knights to fight, were prone to use the monarch's dependency on their resources to manipulate him. This move from knights to standing armies had two important outcomes: the implementation of a regular payment of "scutage" to monarchs by noblemen (a money payment instead of active military service) which would strengthen the concept and practice of taxation; and a general decrease in military discipline in knights, who became more interested in their country estates and chivalric pursuits, including their roles as courtiers. An officer is a member of a military, naval, or if applicable, other uniformed services who holds a position of responsibility. ... A standing army is an army composed of full time professional soldiers. ... The tax of scutage or escuage in the law of England involved the pecuniary commutation, under the feudal system, of the military service due from the holder of a knights fee. ... A tax is an involuntary fee paid by individuals or businesses to a state, or to functional equivalents of a state, including tribes, secessionist movements or revolutionary movements. ... One of the defining features of a professional military is a strict and sometimes elaborate code of courtesy. ... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ... A courtier is a person who attends upon, and thus receives a privileged position from, a powerful person, usually a head of state. ...


The Knights of Malta also dropped their traditional role of heavy cavalry as they moved from one island fortress to another across the Mediterranean Sea. Instead they became skilled in Naval warfare and engaged in frequent sea battles with the Ottoman Empire and the Barbary Pirates until nearly the end of the 18th century. The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... Fortifications (Latin fortis, strong, and facere, to make) are military constructions designed for defensive warfare. ... Mediterranean redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Motto دولت ابد مدت Devlet-i Ebed-müddet (The Eternal State) Anthem Ottoman imperial anthem Borders in 1683, see: list of territories Capital Söğüt (1299–1326) Bursa (1326–1365) Edirne (1365–1453) Ä°stanbul (1453–1922) Government Monarchy Sultans  - 1281–1326 (first) Osman I  - 1918–22 (last) Mehmed VI Grand Viziers  - 1320... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


In some countries, knighthood was merged into the nobility, remaining only as a low or genetic noble title; thus the aristocratic estate's chambers in the diets of the realms of Sweden and Finland were each called House of knights. Similarly the hereditary lords of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth when assembled would often call themselves The Equestrian Order (for their notorious admiration for ancient Rome after which they modelled their realm) although they were legally separate and elevated in privilege above the scartabelli (lower nobility) and knights created by their kings (the equites aurati) who would not automatically qualify into such assemblies. External link Riddarhuset - Official site Categories: Stub | Swedish history | Stockholm buildings ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ...


The knight owned a land that his tenants maintained while he was away fighting for the king. In exchange for the land’s maintenance, the knight promised protection to its tenants and those living in the land, which consisted of villeins, cottars and peasant farmers. Because the life of a knight was short, inheritance was hereditary. In most cases, the eldest sons received the inheritance unless the younger sons made it clear that the eldest was capable of supporting himself. Such conditions were applicable to different areas, as rules for inheritance varied in different places. Despite these rules, sons that did not receive inheritance usually moved to towns, or worked for the lands of their brother.[5]


Chivalric code

For more details on this topic, see chivalry.

The chivalrous knight was idealized as brave in battle, loyal to his king and God, and willing to sacrifice himself for the greater good. Towards his fellow Christians and countrymen, the knight was to be merciful, humble, and courteous. Towards noble ladies above all, the knight was to be gracious and gentle. For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Courage (disambiguation). ... For the surname Battle, see Battle (surname). ... (UTC):This page is about loyalty as faithfulness to a cause. ... This article is about the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... Marcus Aurelius and members of the Imperial family offer sacrifice in gratitude for success against Germanic tribes: contemporary bas-relief, Capitoline Museum, Rome For other uses, see Sacrifice (disambiguation). ... Mercy is a term used to describe the leniency or compassion shown by one person to another, or a request from one person to another to be shown such leniency or compassion. ... Humility is the state of being humble. ... True Politeness. ...


The decline of the medieval knight

Serbian knight armor, around 1440, Military Museum (Belgrade)

The causes of the decline of the armoured knight have been a source for much debate, and are likely to include a number of contributing factors. However, it is unlikely that developing technology rendered the knight obsolete; on the contrary, it contributed to their development. Plate armour was first developed to resist crossbow bolts of the early medieval period;[6] the rise of the English longbowmen during the Hundred Years' War led to the increase in -and sophistication of- plate armour, which culminated in the full harness worn by the beginning of the 15th century.[7] Quality plate was chosen by wealthy knights for its effectiveness; records show that from at least the 14th century armour was 'proved' before sale, and stamped to show it could resist handweapons and missiles (from crossbow and longbow and, later arquebus and pistol), fired at close range.[8] By the 14th century most plate was made from hardened steel and quality armour was increasingly being improved to resist threat from firearms.[9] This did not render the plate increasingly impracticable; a full harness of musket-proof plate from the 17th century weighed 70 lb, significantly less than 16th century tournament armour.[10] Anthem:  Serbia() on the European continent()  —  [] Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Slovak, Romanian, Croatian, Rusyn 1 Albanian 2 Demonym Serbian Government Parliamentary Democracy  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica    -  First state 7th century   -  Serbian Kingdom3 1217   -  Serbian Empire 1345   -  Independence lost... For alternative meanings, see number 1440. ... Military Museum in Belgrade The Military Museum in Belgrade was founded in 1878. ... Gothic armour Plate armour is personal armour made from large metal plates, worn on the chest and sometimes the entire body. ... This article is about the weapon. ... Self-yew English longbow, 6 ft 6 in (2 m) long, 470 N (105 lbf) draw force. ... Belligerents House of Valois Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany House of Plantagenet Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War (French: Guerre de Cent Ans) was a prolonged conflict between two royal houses for the French throne, vacant with... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppō) Example of an arquebus The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; from Dutch haakbus, meaning hook gun[2]) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... A Browning 9 millimeter Hi-Power Ordnance pistol of the French Navy, 19th century, using a Percussion cap mechanism Derringers were small and easily hidden. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... A Tournament, or tourney (from Old French torneiement, tornei[1]) is the name popularly given to chivalrous competitions or mock fights of the Middle Ages and Renaissance (12th to 16th centuries). ...


While infantry abandoned their cheap mass-produced armour in the late 16th century, good armour continued to be worn by horsemen.[11] Even in the Napoleonic wars many heavy cavalry divisions, including the French Cuirassiers, wore steel helmets and breastplates.[12] Combatants Austria[a] Portugal Prussia[a] Russia[b] Sicily[c] Sardinia  Spain[d]  Sweden[e] United Kingdom French Empire Holland[f] Italy Etruria[g] Naples[h] Duchy of Warsaw[i] Confederation of the Rhine[j] Bavaria Saxony Westphalia Württemberg Denmark-Norway[k] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack... French cuirassier armour, 1854 Cuirassiers were mounted cavalry soldiers equipped with armour and firearms, first appearing in late 15th-century Europe. ...


Early firearms revolutionised siege warfare but made little impact on the field.[13] Modern trials using 15th century handguns demonstrate that they were hard to fire and were unable to penetrate 2mm steel plate at 30 yards.[14] Firearms improved over the centuries, but by the early nineteenth century muskets had an accuracy of 40-75% (depending on make) at 100 yards; at 200 yards it was only 25-37%.[15] In battle they were effective at 50-100 yards when fired in volley.[16] Loading was slow, producing a musket fire rate of between three and five rounds a minute.[17] This offered little defence against charging cavalry, when an infantry division’s only defence was to form square, a manoeuvre which demanded firm discipline and tight formation to maintain the protective wall of bayonets to hold off the charge. A slightest break in formation left the men at mercy of the cavalry.[18] Thus, even against firearms, the armoured knight would remain effective. An infantry square is a battle tactic of infantry when faced with cavalry. ...


It seems likely that changing army structures and economic factors led to the decline of knights, rather than any obsolescence in their effectiveness. By the sixteenth century, the concept of a combined-arms professional army (with improved, trained infantry tactics) first developed by the Swiss had spread throughout Europe.[19] The rise in professional armies, with its emphasis on training and paid contracts - rather than ransom and pillaging which reimbursed knights in the past - and the high costs involved in outfitting and maintaining knights’ armour and horses led many of the traditional knightly classes to abandon their profession.[20]


Orders of knighthood

Military-monastic orders

For more details on this topic, see Military order.
The Seal of the Knights Templar
The Seal of the Knights Templar

Other orders were established in the Iberian peninsula, under the influence of the orders in the Holy Land and the Crusader movement of the Reconquista, in Avis in 1143, in Alcantara in 1156, in Calatrava in 1158, and in Santiago in 1164. Flag of the Knights Templar A military order is a Christian order of knighthood that is founded for crusading, i. ... Image File history File links Templarsign. ... The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the , Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta; French: Ordre des Hospitaliers) is a Christian organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080 to provide... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... This article concerns the former religious, catholic-founded order of knighthood. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... For the state, see Monastic state of the Teutonic Knights. ... Coat of arms Capital Königsberg (Kaliningrad) Religion Roman Catholicism Government Principality Hochmeister (Grand Master)  - 1209–39 Hermann von Salza  - 1510–25 Albert of Brandenburg-Ansbach Historical era Middle Ages  - Northern Crusades 1224  - Absorbed Livonia 1237  - Purchased Neumark 1404  - Hanseatic cities¹ leave, found Prussian Confed. ... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe, and includes modern day Spain, Portugal, Andorra and Gibraltar. ... This article is about historical Crusades . ... For other uses, see Reconquista (disambiguation). ... Coat of Arms Avis is a municipality in Portugal with a total area of 606. ... Alcantara may refer to: Alcântara, Maranhão, a Brazilian city in the state of Maranhão Alcántara, a municipality (pop. ... Calatrava is known for his organically inspired designs, such as LUmbracle at his Ciutat de les Arts i les Ciències in Valencia. ... Location Location of Santiago de Compostela Coordinates : , , Time zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer : CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Santiago de Compostela (Galician) Spanish name Santiago de Compostela Postal code 15700 Website santiagodecompostela. ...


Chivalric orders

For more details on this topic, see Chivalric order.

After the Crusades, the military orders became idealized and romanticized, resulting in the late medieval notion of chivalry, as reflected in the Arthurian romances of the time. The creation of chivalric orders was fashionable among the noblesse in the 14th and 15th centuries, as remains reflected in contemporary honours systems, and the term order itself. Examples of notable orders of chivalry include: Chivalric Orders were created by European monarchs after the failure of the Crusades. ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... For other uses, see Chivalry (disambiguation). ... King Arthur is an important figure in the mythology of Britain. ... An Order is a decoration, awarded by a government to an individual, usually for distinguished service to a nation or to humanity. ...

Charles I of Hungary Charles I of Hungary (Anjou France 1288 or 1291–Visegrád, Hungary July 16, 1342), also called Charles Robert, Carobert and Charles I Robert, was the king of Hungary from August 27, 1310. ... The insignia of a knight of the Order of the Garter. ... This article is about the King of England. ... According to a Serbian epic poetry, Miloš Obilić was the name of the Serbian knight who, at the Battle of Kosovo, between Serbia and the Ottoman Empire, assassinated the Ottoman sultan Murad I. On June 15th, 1389, Miloš made his way into the Ottoman camp on the pretext of being... The Order of the Dragon (Latin Societas Draconistrarum, German Der Drachenorden, Hungarian Sárkány Lovagrend, Romanian Ordinul Dragonului, Serbian Витешки ред Змаја) was an order of selected nobles modeled on the Order of Saint George of Hungary. ... Sigismund (February 14/15, 1368 - December 9, 1437) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1433 to 1437. ... The founder, Philip the Good , with at least six other Members wearing collars, 1447-8 Philip III, Duke of Burgundy, with the collar of the Order The Order of the Golden Fleece (Spanish: Orden del Toisón de Oro) is an order of chivalry founded in 1430 by Duke Philip... Philip III, Duke of Burgundy (Philip the Good or Philippe le Bon) (1396–1467) was Duke of Burgundy from 1419 until his death. ... The Order of Saint Michael (French: LOrdre de Saint-Michel) was the first French chivalric order, founded by Louis XI of France in 1469, in competitive response to the Burgundian Order of the Golden Fleece founded by Philip the Good, duke of Burgundy, Louis chief competitor for the allegiance... Louis XI (July 3, 1423 – August 30, 1483), called the Prudent (French: ) and the Universal Spider (Old French: luniverselle aragne) or the Spider King, was the King of France from 1461−83. ...

Honorific orders

From roughly 1560, purely honorific orders were established, designed as a way to confer prestige and distinction, unrelated to military service or chivalry in the more narrow sense. Such orders were particularly popular in the 17th and 18th centuries, and knighthood continues to be conferred in various countries:

There are other monarchies and also republics that also follow the practice. Modern knighthoods are typically awarded in recognition for services rendered to society, services which are no longer necessarily martial in nature. The British musician Elton John, for example, is a Knight Bachelor, thus entitled to be called Sir Elton. The female equivalent is a Dame. The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals personal bravery, achievement or service to the United Kingdom. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... Papal Orders of Chivalry are orders of knighthood bestowed by the Pope. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... Look up republic in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Look up S, s in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Sir Elton Hercules[1] John CBE[2] (born Reginald Kenneth Dwight on 25 March 1947) is a five-time Grammy and one-time Academy Award-winning English pop/rock singer, composer and pianist. ... The dignity of Knight Bachelor is a part of the British honours system. ...


In the British honours system the knightly style of Sir is accompanied by the given name, and optionally the surname. So, Elton John may be called Sir Elton or Sir Elton John, but never Sir John. Similarly, actress Judi Dench DBE may be addressed as Dame Judi or Dame Judi Dench, but never Dame Dench. Look up Appendix:Most popular given names by country in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A family name, or surname, is that part of a persons name that indicates to what family he or she belongs. ... Dame Judith Olivia Dench, CH, DBE, FRSA, (born 9 December 1934), usually known as Dame Judi Dench, is an Academy Award, Golden Globe, Tony, three-time BAFTA, and six-time Laurence Olivier Award-winning English actress. ...


Wives of knights, however, are entitled to the honorific "Lady" before their husband's surname. Thus Sir Paul McCartney's ex-wife was formally styled Lady McCartney (rather than Lady Paul McCartney or Lady Heather McCartney). The style Dame Heather McCartney could be used for the wife of a knight; however, this style is largely archaic and is only used in the most formal of documents, or where the wife is a Dame in her own right (such as Dame Norma Major, who was knighted six years before her husband Sir John Major was knighted). The husbands of Dames have no honorific; hence Dame Norma's husband remained The Rt Hon John Major until he received his own knighthood. Sir James Paul McCartney, MBE (born 18 June 1942) is an English singer-songwriter, composer, multi-instrumentalist, poet, entrepreneur, painter, record producer, film producer, and animal-rights activist. ... Norma, Lady Major, DBE (nee Wagstaff, previously Johnson; born 12 February 1942) is the wife of Sir John Major, the former British Prime Minister. ... For other persons named John Major, see John Major (disambiguation). ...


Outside the British honours system it is usually considered improper to address a knighted person as 'Sir' or 'Dame'. Some countries, however, historically did have equivalent honorifics for knights, such as Cavaliere in Italy (e.g. Cavaliere Benito Mussolini), and Ritter in Germany and Austro-Hungarian Empire (e.g. Georg Ritter von Trapp). The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... Mussolini redirects here. ... Ritter is the lowest-ranking title of lower nobility, in German-speaking areas, considered equal to the title Knight. ... Official languages Latin, German, Hungarian Established church Roman Catholic Capital & Largest City Vienna pop. ... Georg Ritter von Trapp Georg Ritter von Trapp (April 4, 1880 - May 30, 1947) headed the famous Austrian singing family memorialized in the musical The Sound of Music. ...


State Knighthoods in the Netherlands are issued in three orders, the Order of William, the Order of the Netherlands Lion, and the Order of Orange Nassau. Additionally there remain a few hereditary knights in The Netherlands. Knights Cross (3rd class) of the Order of William The Military Order of William is the oldest and, at the same time, highest honour of the Kingdom of The Netherlands. ... Order of Orange-Nassau Knights Medal, military division The Order of Orange-Nassau is a military and civil order of the Netherlands which was first created in 1890 by the Queen Regent Emma of the Netherlands, acting on behalf of her under-age daughter Queen Wilhelmina. ...


In France, among other orders are the Légion d'Honneur, the Ordre National du Mérite, the Ordre des Palmes académiques and the Ordre des Arts et des Lettres. The lowest of the ranks conferred by these orders is Chevalier, meaning Knight. Chiang Kai-sheks Légion dhonneur. ... The Ordre National du Mérite (in English: The National Order of Merit) is an Order of Chivalry awarded by the President of France. ... The Palmes académiques (English: Academic Palms) are awards given in France to academics and educators. ... The Ordre des Arts et des Lettres (Order of Arts and Literature) is an Order of France, established on May 2, 1957 by the Minister of Culture, and confirmed as part of lOrdre National du Mérite by President Charles de Gaulle in 1963. ...


In the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth the monarchs tried to establish chivalric orders but the hereditary lords who controlled the Union did not agree and managed to ban such assemblies. They feared the King would use Orders to gain support for absolutist goals and to make formal distinctions among the peerage which could lead to its legal breakup into two separate classes the King would later play one against the other and eventually limit the legal privileges of hereditary nobility. But finally in 1705 King August II managed to establish the Order of the White Eagle which remains Poland's most prestigious order of that kind. The head of state (now the President as the acting Grand Master) confers knighthoods of the Order to distinguished citizens, foreign monarchs and other heads of state. The Order has its Chapter. There were no particular honorifics that would accompany a knight's name as historically all (or at least by far most) its members would be royals or hereditary lords anyway. So today, a knight is simply referred to as "Name Surname, knight of the White Eagle (Order)". Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Order of the White Eagle (badge) The Order of the White Eagle (Polish Order Orła Białego) is Polands highest decoration awarded to both civilians and the military for their merits. ...


Modern ranks

Within most Continental European orders, and many other orders, the following rankings (or similar rank structures) exist:

  • Grand Cross or Grand Cordon
  • Grand Officer
  • Commander
  • Officer
  • Knight or Chevalier

Within the British honours system, and some members of the Commonwealth of Nations, the following rankings (or similar rank structures) exist, of which only the two highest ranks are considered knights: The British honours system is a means of rewarding individuals personal bravery, achievement or service to the United Kingdom. ... The Commonwealth of Nations as of 2008. ...

Consequently to the fact of being not an order of chivalry but an order of merits, some republican orders have created new ranks: e.g. Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand Cross... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in decreasing order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand... Commanders Badge of the Order of the British Empire The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is an order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions, in order of seniority: Knight or Dame Grand Cross... The Bundesverdienstkreuz (the official name is Verdienstorden der Bundesrepublik Deutschland, Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany) is the only general Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany. ...


Hereditary knighthoods in Great Britain and Ireland

There are traces of the Continental system of hereditary knighthood in British usage, however. There were three hereditary knighthoods in the Kingdom of Ireland: This article is about the Irish kingdom existing from 1541 to 1800. ...

  • Knight of Glin, the Black Knight, (FitzGerald of Limerick)
  • Knight of Kerry, the Green Knight, (FitzGerald of Kerry) - the current holder is Sir Adrian FitzGerald
  • The White Knight, (Fitzgibbon), now extinct.

It seems likely that the above "Palatine" hereditary knighthoods, created under the Earl of Desmond, were in some respects modeled on an archaic form of knighthood mentioned in the Chronicles of Jean Froissart (c.1337-c.1405). In Book IV, Ch. 64, we find the tale of four Irish kings being prepared to receive English knighthood. Initially, they seem dismissive of the idea, stating that they were knights already, explaining that "in Ireland, a king makes his son a knight, and should the child have lost his father, then the nearest relation." This was to take place at the age of seven years. This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Knight of Kerry is one of three British hereditary knighthoods, all of which existed in Ireland since feudal times. ... Edmund Fitzgibbon (1552?-1608) was an Irish nobleman of the Fitzgerald dynasty, who inherited the Anglo-Norman title of the White Knight and struggled to maintain his loyalty to the crown during the reign of Queen Elizabeth of England. ... Froissarts Chronicle was written in French by Jean Froissart. ... Jean Froissart (~1337 - ~1405) was one of the most important of the chroniclers of medieval France. ...


While "warrior orders" or "warrior clans" were described in ancient Ireland in the theoretical service of the High King or Provincial Kings, there is no evidence to support the survival of any such orders into the historical period. However, Gaelic Irish knighthood, in its archaic and hereditary context designating the untitled martial nobility, was clearly practiced well into the 14th century. This does not cite its references or sources. ...


Knighted Clergymen

Since the reign of Edward VII a Clerk in Holy Orders in the Church of England or in another Anglican Church has not normally received the accolade on being appointed to a degree of knighthood. He receives the insignia of his honour and may place the appropriate letters after his name or title but he may not be called Sir and consequently his wife may not be called Lady.[21][22] The Rt Revd the Hon Sir Paul Reeves did receive the accolade and is correctly called Sir but it is not clear how this situation arose. Ministers of other Christian Churches are entitled to receive the accolade. For example, His Eminence Sir Norman Cardinal Gilroy did receive the accolade on his appointment as Knight Commander of the Most Excellent Order of the British Empire in 1969. A knight who is subsequently ordained does not lose his title. A famous example of this situation was The Revd Sir Derek Pattinson, who was ordained just a year after he was appointed Knight Bachelor, apparently somewhat to the consternation of officials at Buckingham Palace.[23] A woman Clerk in Holy Orders may be appointed a Dame in exactly the same way as any other woman since there are no military connotations attached to the honour. A Clerk in Holy Orders who is a Baronet is entitled to use the title Sir. Edward VII (Albert Edward; 9 November 1841 – 6 May 1910) was King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, of the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India from 22 January 1901 until his death on 6 May 1910. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The Church of England is the officially established Christian church[3] in England, the Mother Church of the worldwide Anglican Communion and the oldest among the communions thirty-eight independent national churches. ... Main article: Anglicanism The Anglican Communion is a world-wide affiliation of Anglican Churches. ... Sir Paul Alfred Reeves, ONZ, GCMG, GCVO, CF, QSO, (Born December 6, 1932) was Archbishop and Primate of New Zealand from 1980 to 1985 and Governor-General of New Zealand from 22 November 1985 to 20 November 1990. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... His Eminence Cardinal Sir Norman Gilroy (born in Sydney on January 22, 1896, died October 21, 1977) was the first Australian born Cardinal of the Catholic Church. ... The Most Excellent Order of the British Empire is a British order of chivalry established on 4 June 1917 by King George V. The Order includes five classes in civil and military divisions; in decreasing order of seniority, these are Knight Grand Cross or Dame Grand Cross (GBE) Knight Commander... The Reverend Sir Derek Pattinson (1930-2006) was Secretary-General of the General Synod of the Church of England from 1972 until 1990. ... The dignity of Knight Bachelor is a part of the British honours system. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... A statue of an armoured knight of the Middle Ages For the chess piece, see knight (chess). ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... For the brush-footed butterfly species, see Euthalia nais. ...


Notes

  1. ^ Laing & Laing, p 27.
  2. ^ Laing & Laing, pp 27, 30.
  3. ^ Bloch, p. 322-3
  4. ^ Geoffroi de Charny (1306?-1356), Book of Chivalry
  5. ^ Laing & Laing, pp 31-32
  6. ^ Williams, p51
  7. ^ Carey et al, 149-50
  8. ^ Embleton, p 75
  9. ^ Williams pp 52, 54
  10. ^ Oakeshott, p 104
  11. ^ Williams, p 54
  12. ^ Bluth, p 127
  13. ^ Carey et al p 194
  14. ^ Edwards, p
  15. ^ Bull, p 131
  16. ^ Bluth, p 23
  17. ^ Bluth, p 35
  18. ^ Bluth p 127
  19. ^ Carey et al, pp 200-202
  20. ^ Robards, p 152
  21. ^ Crockford's Clerical Directory, accessed 27 October 2007
  22. ^ Royal Insight, April 2006, accessed 27 October 2007
  23. ^ Michael De-La-Noy, obituary in The Independent

Geoffroi de Charny (c1300? - 1356 ) was a French knight and author of several works on Chivalry. ...

References

  • Kaveh Farrokh, "Sassanian Elite Cavalry AD 224-642", Osprey Publishing.
  • David Nicolle, "Arthur and the Anglo-Saxon Wars: Anglo-Celtic Warfare, A.D.410-1066", Osprey Publishing.
  • Arnold, Benjamin, German Knighthood, 1050-1300 Oxford:Clarendon Press, 1985.
  • Bloch, Marc: Feudal Society, tr. Manyon London:Rutledge, Keagn Paul (1965)
  • Bluth, BJ; Marching with Sharpe, UK: HarperCollins, 2001, ISBN 0004145372
  • Boulton, D'Arcy Jonathan Dacre. The Knights of the Crown: The Monarchical Orders of Knighthood in Later Medieval Europe, 1325-1520. 2d revised ed. Woodbridge, Suffolk: Boydell Press, 2000.
  • Bull, Stephen; An Historical Guide to Arms and Armour, London: Studio Editions, 1991, ISBN 1851707239
  • Carey, Brian Todd; Allfree, Joshua B; Cairns, John. Warfare in the Medieval World, UK: Pen & Sword Military, 2006, ISBN 1844153398
  • Edwards, JC; "What Earthly Reason? The replacement of the longbow by handguns." Medieval History Magazine Is. 7, March 2004
  • Ellul, Max J. The Green Eight Pointed Cross. Watermelon, 2004.
  • Embleton, Gerry; Medieval Military Costume, UK: Crowood Press, 2000, ISBN 1861263716
  • Oakeshott, Ewart; A Knight and his Horse, Rev. 2nd Ed. USA: Dufour Editions, 1998 ISBN 0802312977
  • Forey, Alan John. The Military Orders: From the Twelfth to the Early Fourteenth Centuries. Basingstoke: Macmillan Education, 1992.
  • Laing, Lloyd and Jennifer. Medieval Britain: The Age of Chivalry. New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1996
  • Nicolle, David. The Age of Charlemagne. Osprey Publishing, 1984.
  • Robards, Brooks; The Medieval Knight at War, UK: Tiger Books, 1997, ISBN 1855019191
  • Shaw, William A. The Knights of England: A Complete Record from the Earliest Time 2v. London: Central Chancery, 1906 (Baltimore: Genealogical Publishing Co., 1970).
  • Williams, Alan; "The Metallurgy of Medieval Arms and Armour" in Companion to Medieval Arms and Armour, ed by Nicolle, David; UK: Boydell Press, 2002, ISBN 0851158722

Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Medieval History Magazine was a magazine dedicated to the medieval era, with a readership encompassing historians, re-enactors and other individuals interested in the history of the Middle Ages. ... Ewart Oakeshott (25 May 1916 — 30 September 2002), Fellow of the Society of Antiquaries is well known for his books about medieval arms and armour, and in particular for his classification of the medieval sword, the Oakeshott typology. ... David Nicolle is an historian specialising in the Military history of the Middle Ages, with a particular interest in the Middle East. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Knights

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