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Encyclopedia > Knee
Knee joints
Diagram of human knee
Latin articulatio genus
Gray's subject #93 339
Nerve femoral, obturator, sciatic
MeSH Knee
Dorlands/Elsevier a_64/12161228

The knee is the lower extremity joint connecting the femur, fibula,patella, and the tibia.[1] Since in humans the knee supports nearly the entire weight of the body, it is the joint most vulnerable both to acute injury and to the development of osteoarthritis. Download high resolution version (800x729, 63 KB)Knee. ... For other uses, see Latins and Latin (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Nerve (disambiguation). ... The femoral nerve, the largest branch of the lumbar plexus, arises from the dorsal divisions of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves. ... The Obturator Nerve arises from the ventral divisions of the second, third, and fourth lumbar nerves; the branch from the third is the largest, while that from the second is often very small. ... The sciatic nerve (also known as the ischiatic nerve) is a large nerve that runs down the lower limb. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... Knee may mean (besides a knee joint typical of mammals): Look up knee in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... For other uses, see Joint (disambiguation). ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... For other uses, see Patella (disambiguation). ... This article is about the vertebrate bone. ... Osteoarthritis (OA, also known as degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease, or in more colloquial terms wear and tear), is a condition in which low-grade inflammation results in pain in the joints, caused by wearing of the cartilage that covers and acts as a cushion inside joints and destruction or...

Contents

Human anatomy

Upon birth, a baby will not have a conventional knee cap, but a growth formed of cartilage. In human females this turns to a normal bone knee cap by the age of 3, in males the age of 5.



The knee is a complex, compound, condyloid variety of a synovial joint which hovers. It actually comprises two separate joints. Synovial joints (or diarthroses, or diarthroidal joints) are the most common and most moveable type of joints in the body. ...

  • The femoro-tibial joint links the femur, or thigh bone, with the tibia, the main bone of the (lower) leg. The joint is bathed in a viscous (synovial) fluid which is contained inside the "synovial" membrane, or joint capsule.

The Febulus Remus is a part of the knee not known to many doctors or scientists, between the ligament and the bone of the knee joint, which is a vital part in strengthening the knee and leg. For other uses, see Patella (disambiguation). ... In anatomy, a sesamoid bone is a bone embedded within a tendon. ... Quads redirects here. ... The articular surface of the lower end of the femur occupies the anterior, inferior, and posterior surfaces of the condyles. ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... This article is about the vertebrate bone. ... Synovial fluid is a thin, stringy fluid found in the cavities of synovial joints. ... The joint capsules or articular capsules form complete envelopes for the freely movable bone joints. ...


The recess behind the knee is called the popliteal fossa. It can also be called a "knee pit." The popliteal fossa is a space or shallow depression located at the back of the knee-joint. ...


Ligaments

Name Capsule From To Description
anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) inside lateral condyle of femur anterior intercondylar area The critically important ACL prevents the tibia from being pushed too far anterior relative to the femur. It is often torn during twisting or bending of the knee.
posterior cruciate ligament (PCL) inside medial condyle of femur posterior intercondylar area Injury to this ligament is uncommon but can occur as a direct result of forced trauma to the ligament. This ligament prevents posterior displacement of the tibia relative to the femur.
capsular ligament - - - -
patellar ligament outside patella tuberosity of the tibia - Also occasionally called the patellar tendon because there is no definite separation between the quadriceps tendon (which surrounds the patella) and the area connecting the patella to the tibia. This very strong ligament helps give the patella its mechanical leverage and also functions as a cap for the condyles of the femur.
medial collateral ligament (MCL a.k.a. "tibial") outside medial epicondyle of the femur medial tibial condyle The MCL protects the medial side of the knee from being bent open by a stress applied to the lateral side of the knee (a valgus force).
lateral collateral ligament (LCL a.k.a. "fibular") outside lateral epicondyle of the femur head of fibula The LCL protects the lateral side from an inside bending force (a varus force).
oblique popliteal ligament outside medial condyle of tibia - Tendinous expansion of the semimembranosus muscle. Strengthens the back of the capsule
arcuate popliteal ligament outside Intercondylar area of tibia, and lateral condyle of femur, to below head of fibula Connects to the medial portion of the fibular head -This ligament strengthes the knee posterolaterally and usually when injured is in combination with a PCL and popliteus tendon injury.

The anterior cruciate ligament (or ACL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. ... The lateral condyle is one of the two projections on the lower extremity of femur. ... The anterior intercondyloid fossa (or intercondylar area) is the location where the anterior cruciate ligament attaches to the tibia. ... Diagram of the knee The posterior cruciate ligament (or PCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. ... The medial condyle is one of the two projections on the lower extremity of femur. ... Posteriorly, the medial condyle and lateral condyle are separated from each other by a shallow depression, the posterior intercondyloid fossa (or intercondylar area), which gives attachment to part of the posterior cruciate ligament of the knee-joint. ... The joint capsules or articular capsules form complete envelopes for the freely movable bone joints. ... The Patellar ligament (anterior ligament) is the central portion of the common tendon of the Quadriceps femoris, which is continued from the patella to the tuberosity of the tibia. ... For other uses, see Patella (disambiguation). ... Narrow below where the anterior surfaces of the condyles of the tibia end in a large oblong elevation, the tuberosity of the tibia, which gives attachment to the ligamentum patellae. ... In human anatomy, the quadriceps tendon connects the quadriceps femoris muscles to the superior aspects of the patella on the anterior of the thigh. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Anatomy stubs ... The femur or thigh bone is the longest, most voluminous, and strongest bone of the mammalian bodies. ... The medial collateral ligament or MCL (or tibial collateral ligament) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. ... The medial epicondyle of the femur is a large convex eminence to which the tibial collateral ligament of the knee-joint is attached. ... The medial condyle is the medial portion of the upper extremity of tibia. ... In orthopedics, a valgus deformity is a term for the outward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or joint. ... Diagram of the knee The lateral collateral ligament (or LCL) is one of the four major ligaments of the knee. ... The lateral epicondyle of the femur, smaller and less prominent than the medial epicondyle, gives attachment to the fibular collateral ligament of the knee-joint. ... The upper extremity or head of the fibula is of an irregular quadrate form, presenting above a flattened articular surface, directed upward, forward, and medialward, for articulation with a corresponding surface on the lateral condyle of the tibia. ... In orthopedics, a varus deformity is a term for the inward angulation of the distal segment of a bone or joint. ... The oblique popliteal ligament (posterior ligament) is a broad, flat, fibrous band, formed of fasciculi separated from one another by apertures for the passage of vessels and nerves. ... The medial condyle is the medial portion of the upper extremity of tibia. ... The arcuate popliteal ligament is an extracapsular ligament of the knee. ... The lateral condyle is one of the two projections on the lower extremity of femur. ... For other uses see fibula (disambiguation) The fibula or calf bone is a bone placed on the lateral side of the tibia, with which it is connected above and below. ...

Menisci

These are cartilaginous elements within the knee joint which serve to protect the ends of the bones from rubbing on each other and to effectively deepen the tibial sockets into which the femur attaches. They also play a role in shock absorption. There are two menisci in each knee, the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus. Either or both may be cracked, or torn, when the knee is forcefully rotated and/or bent. In anatomy, a meniscus is a moon-shaped figure. ... The medial meniscus is a fibrocartilage band that spans the medial knee, and lies on the head of the tibia. ... The lateral meniscus, also called the external semilunar fibrocartilage is a fibrocartilaginous band that spans the lateral knee. ...


Movements

The knee permits the following movements: flexion, extension, as well as slight medial and lateral rotation. Also, the knee has special locking and unlocking mechanisms, related to movement by the femoral condyles on the tibial plateau. The ligaments and menisci, along with the muscles which traverse the joint, prevent movement beyond the knee's intended range of motion. It is also classified as a hinge joint. In anatomy, Flexion is movement whereby bones or other objects are brought closer together. ... In metaphysics, extension is the property of taking up space; see Extension (metaphysics). ... In anatomy, a meniscus is a moon-shaped figure. ...


The range of movement is as follows: Flexion is permitted up to 120º when the hip is extended, 140º when the hip is flexed and 160º when the knee is flexed passively. Medial rotation is limited to 10º and lateral rotation to 30º .


Blood supply

The femoral artery and the popliteal artery help form the arterial network surrounding the knee joint (articular rete). There are 6 main branches:

The medial genicular arteries penetrate the knee joint The medial superior genicular runs in front of the Semimembranosus and Semitendinosus, above the medial head of the Gastrocnemius, and passes beneath the tendon of the Adductor magnus. ... The lateral superior genicular passes above the lateral condyle of the femur, beneath the tendon of the Biceps femoris, and divides into a superficial and a deep branch; the superficial branch supplies the Vastus lateralis, and anastomoses with the descending branch of the lateral femoral circumflex and the lateral inferior... The medial inferior genicular first descends along the upper margin of the Popliteus, to which it gives branches; it then passes below the medial condyle of the tibia, beneath the tibial collateral ligament, at the anterior border of which it ascends to the front and medial side of the joint... The lateral inferior genicular runs lateralward above the head of the fibula to the front of the knee-joint, passing in its course beneath the lateral head of the Gastrocnemius, the fibular collateral ligament, and the tendon of the Biceps femoris. ... The descending genicular artery (highest genicular artery) arises from the femoral just before it passes through the opening in the tendon of the Adductor magnus, and immediately divides into a saphenous and a musculo-articular branch. ...


Injury

Model demonstrating parts of an artificial knee
Model demonstrating parts of an artificial knee

In sports that place great pressure on the knees, especially with twisting forces, it is common to tear one or more ligaments or cartilages. An increasingly common victim to injury is the anterior cruciate ligament, often torn as a result of a rapid direction change while running or some other, violent twisting motion. It can also be torn by extending the knee forcefully beyond its normal range. In some such cases, other structures incur damage as well. Especially debilitating is the unfortunately common "unhappy triad" of torn medial collateral and anterior cruciate ligaments and a torn medial meniscus. This typically arises from a combination of inwards forcing and twisting. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2912x4368, 1090 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Knee Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (2912x4368, 1090 KB) Work by Rama File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Knee Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


Before the advent of arthroscopy and arthroscopic surgery, patients having surgery for a torn ACL required at least nine months of rehabilitation. With current techniques, such patients may be walking without crutches in two weeks, and playing some sports in but a few months. In Australian rules football, knee injuries are among the most common, especially in ruck contests, involving the crashing of two knees during the leap. These injuries forced new rule changes for the 2005 season. Arthroscopy (also called arthroscopic surgery) is a minimally invasive surgical procedure in which an examination and sometimes treatment of damage of the interior of a joint is performed using an arthroscope, a type of endoscope that is inserted into the joint through a small incision. ... Arthroscopic surgery, also known as arthroscopy, is the process where a joint is operated on using an arthroscope, a small fibre optic camera. ... Knees following ACL reconstruction surgery. ... High marking is a key skill and spectacular attribute of Australian rules football Precise field and goal kicking using the oval shaped ball is the key skill in Australian rules football Australian rules football, also known as Australian football, Aussie rules, or simply football or footy is a code of... In Australian rules football, a ruckman is a tall athletic player who contests at centre bounces and stoppages (such as boundary throw-ins and ball-ups). ...


In addition to developing new surgical procedures, ongoing research is looking into underlying problems which may increase the likelihood of an athlete suffering a severe knee injury. These findings may lead to effective preventive measures, especially in female athletes, who have been shown to be especially vulnerable to ACL tears from relatively minor trauma. Techniques to minimize the risk of an ACL injury while skiing are published by Vermont Safety Research


Animal anatomy

Look up knee in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

In humans the knee refers to the joints between the femur, tibia and patella. In quadrupeds, particularly horses and ungulates the term is commonly used to refer to the carpus, probably because of its similar hinge or ginglymus action. The joints between the femur, tibia and patella are known as the stifle in quadrupeds. In insects and other animals the term knee is used widely to refer to any ginglymus joint. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Ungulates (meaning roughly hoofed or hoofed animal) make up several orders of mammals, of which six survive: Artiodactyla: even-toed ungulates, cattle, sheep, goats, pigs, antelope, and many others Cetacea: whales and dolphins (which evolved from hoofed land animals) Perissodactyla: odd-toed ungulates such as horses and rhinos Proboscidea: elephants... This article is about Carpal bones. ... In the hinge joint (ginglymus), the articular surfaces are moulded to each other in such a manner as to permit motion only in one plane, forward and backward, the extent of motion at the same time being considerable. ... The stifle joint is complicated joint inside the body of a horse or dog similar to that of the human knee. ...


See also

Cartilage is a type of dense connective tissue. ... // Articular cartilage, most notably that which is found in the knee joint, is generally characterized by very low friction, high wear resistance, and poor regenerative qualities. ... The knee examination, in medicine, is performed as part of a physical examination, or when a patient presents with knee pain or a history that suggests a pathology of the knee joint. ... The leglock is a joint lock in martial arts which attacks the opponents leg joints, usually the knee but less commonly the hip. ... A reflex hammer is a medical instrument used by physicians to test deep tendon reflexes. ...

Additional images

References

  1. ^ eMedicine/Stedman Medical Dictionary Lookup!. Retrieved on 2008-01-15.

2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 15th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

The interphalangeal articulations of the foot (articulations of the phalanges) are ginglymoid joints, and each has a plantar and two collateral ligaments. ... In order to allow it to support the weight of the body in the erect posture with the least expenditure of material, the foot is constructed of a series of arches formed by the tarsal and metatarsal bones, and strengthened by the ligaments and tendons of the foot. ... The Longitudinal arch of the foot can be broken down into several smaller arches: // The main arches are the antero-posterior arches, which may, for descriptive purposes, be regarded as divisible into two types—a medial and a lateral. ... In addition to the longitudinal arches the foot presents a series of transverse arches. ... List of bones of the human skeleton Human anatomy is primarily the scientific study of the morphology of the adult human body. ... For other uses of the word head, see head (disambiguation). ... In humans, the adult skull is normally made up of 22 bones. ... In human anatomy, the forehead or brow is the bony part of the head above the eyes. ... For other uses, see Eye (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ear (disambiguation). ... The visible part of the human nose is the protruding part of the face that bears the nostrils. ... Sagittal section of nose mouth, pharynx, and larynx. ... For other uses, see Tongue (disambiguation). ... Teeth redirects here. ... The mandible (from Latin mandibÅ­la, jawbone) or inferior maxillary bone is, together with the maxilla, the largest and strongest bone of the face. ... For other uses, see Face (disambiguation). ... This article is about the anatomical feature. ... This article is about the part of the face. ... Image File history File links Human body features (external) Created by Vsion. ... For other uses, see Neck (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Throat (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Adams apple (disambiguation). ... The human torso Torso is an anatomical term for the greater part of the human body without the head and limbs. ... This article is about the body part. ... The vertebral column seen from the side Different regions (curvatures) of the vertebral column The vertebral column (backbone or spine) is a column of vertebrae situated in the dorsal aspect of the abdomen. ... For other uses, see Breast (disambiguation). ... The Tail of Spence (or Spences tail) is an extension of the tissue of the breast which extends into the axilla (armpit). ... Male Chest The chest is a part of the anatomy of humans and various other animals. ... The human rib cage is a part of the human skeleton within the thoracic area. ... The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A sex organ, or primary sexual characteristic, as narrowly defined, is any of those anatomical parts of the body which are involved in sexual reproduction and constitute the reproductive system in a complex organism; in mammals, these are: Female: Bartholins glands, cervix, clitoris, Fallopian tubes, labia, ovaries, Skenes... The clitoris is a sexual organ that is present only in female mammals. ... The vagina, (from Latin, literally sheath or scabbard ) is the tubular tract leading from the uterus to the exterior of the body in female placental mammals and marsupials, or to the cloaca in female birds, monotremes, and some reptiles. ... The penis (plural penises, penes) is an external male sexual organ. ... In some male mammals the scrotum is a protuberance of skin and muscle containing the testicles. ... Look up testes in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... In anatomy, the hip is the bony projection of the femur which is known as the greater trochanter, and the overlying muscle and fat. ... This article is about the bodily orifice. ... Bottom commonly refers to the human buttocks but also has other uses. ... A limb (from the Old English lim) is a jointed, or prehensile (as octopus tentacles or new world monkey tails), appendage of the human or animal body; a large or main branch of a tree; a representative, branch or member of a group or organization. ... Look up ARM in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about the joint in the arm. ... // The Human Forearm The forearm is the structure on the upper limb, between the elbow and the wrist. ... For the municipality in Germany, see Wrist, Germany. ... For other uses, see Hand (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Thumb (disambiguation). ... The second digit of a human hand is also referred to as the index finger, pointer finger, forefinger, trigger finger, digitus secundus, or digitus II. It is located between the first and third digits - that is, between the thumb and the middle finger. ... This article is about the vulgar gesture. ... The ring finger is the fourth digit of the human hand, and the second most ulnar finger, located between the middle finger and the little finger. ... The little finger, often called the pinky in American English and pinkie in Scottish English (from the Dutch word pink, meaning little finger), is the most ulnar and usually smallest finger of the human hand, opposite the thumb, next to the ring finger. ... In common usage, a human leg is the lower limb of the body, extending from the hip to the ankle, and including the thigh, the knee, and the cnemis. ... Manuel Márquez de León International Airport (IATA: LAP, ICAO: MMLP) is an international airport located at La Paz, Baja California Sur, Mexico. ... In humans the thigh is the area between the pelvis and buttocks and the knee. ... The calf or gastrosoleus is a pair of muscles—the gastrocnemius and soleus—at the back of the lower human leg. ... For other uses, see Heel (disambiguation). ... For a review of anatomical terms, see Anatomical position and Anatomical terms of location. ... For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... This article is about the body part. ... Toes on foot. ... For other uses, see Skin (disambiguation). ... For the 1968 stage production, see Hair (musical), for the 1979 film, see Hair (film). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Knee - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (714 words)
In human anatomy, the knee is the leg joint connecting the femur and the tibia.
The MCL protects the medial side of the knee from being bent open by a stress applied to the lateral side of the knee (a valgus force).
In Australian rules football, knee injuries are among the most common, with a great deal of controversy caused in ruck contests, where the crashing of two knees during the leap has caused injuries to numerous players.
Questions and Answers about Knee Problems (4974 words)
The knee joint is the junction of three bones -- the femur (thigh bone or upper leg bone), the tibia (shin bone or larger bone of the lower leg), and the patella (kneecap).
Separating the bones of the knee are pads of connective tissue called menisci, which are divided into two crescent-shaped discs positioned between the tibia and femur on the outer and inner sides of each knee.
Injury to the cruciate ligaments of the knee is sometimes referred to as a "sprain." The anterior cruciate ligament is most often stretched, torn, or both by a sudden twisting motion (for example, when the feet are planted one way and the knees are turned another way).
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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