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Encyclopedia > Knanaya
The Nasrani Menorah also known as the Mar Thoma sliba
The Nasrani Menorah also known as the Mar Thoma sliba
Knanaya
Total population

2001: (approx) 252,600 This photograph was taken by me in December 2004. ... This photograph was taken by me in December 2004. ... Nestorianism is the Christian doctrine that Jesus existed as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, rather than as a unified person. ... Image File history File links Kna_people. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

Regions with significant populations
Majority Population:

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Language(s)
Malayalam, English, Hebrew.
Religion(s)
Majority Christianity and minorities of Judaism
Related ethnic groups
 Knanaya peoples: 
See also: Dravidian people,

Knanaya (Heb:קנאים, Ar:قينان), literally meaning "Knai people", are an endagamous Jewish people from Kerala, India.[1] Their heritage and culture is syriac-keralite, origin and descent Jewish, their language Malayalam, and their religion Kna Judaism. [1] Their loyalties are with the Nasrani community of Syriac Christians from Kerala. [1] Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The word Hebrew most likely means to cross over, referring to the Semitic people crossing over the Euphrates River. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Saint Thomas Christians are a group of Christians from the Malabar coast (now Kerala) in South India, who follow Syriac Christianity. ... Nestorianism is the Christian doctrine that Jesus existed as two persons, the man Jesus and the divine Son of God, rather than as a unified person. ... The Syrian Kuriz also known as Nasrani Menorah or the Mar Thoma sliva The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic group from Kerala, South India. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... For other uses, see Dravidian (disambiguation). ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ... Kerala (or Keralam, കേരളം) is a state in South India. ... For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... The Syrian Kuriz also known as Nasrani Menorah or the Mar Thoma sliva The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic group from Kerala, South India. ... Syriac Christianity is a culturally and linguistically distinctive community within Eastern Christianity. ...

Contents

History

Knanaya (قنانيا) are the descendants of 72 Syro-Aramaic Jewish families who fled from Edessa (or Urfa), the first city state that embraced Christianity, to Malabar coast in AD 345, under the leadership of a prominent merchant Knai Thomman (قناي تامن)(in English, Thomas the Zealot) following increasing persecution against Desposyni by the Byzantine Empire instituted by Constantine in 333AD.[2] They built a town in Kodungalloor with a church and 72 houses. The natives called it Mahadevar Pattanam (محاديفر پتنم) meaning "town of superiors". After Mar Joseph (مار جوسف) had a startling dream in which he saw the plight of the Christian church in Malabar (ملابار) established by St. Thomas, the Apostle, in the first Century. They consisted of 400 Christians from 72 families of various Syriac-Jewish clans. Included in the group was a Syriac Orthodox Bishop(Mor Joseph of Urfa), Bishops and deacons.With instructions from the Patriarch of Antioch, They sailed in three ships headed by a leading ship with the flag of King David. The Syriac-Jews were granted permission to engage in trade and settle down in Kodungallur by the then ruler of Malabar, Cheraman Perumal.[2] The event has been recorded on copper plates given to the community.[2] The heritage of Roman Edessa survives today in these columns at the site of Urfa Castle, dominating the skyline of the modern city of Åžanlı Urfa. ... Malabar Coast, Kerala Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala The Malabar Coast also known as the Malabarian Coast, is a long and narrow south-western shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent. ... Knai Thomman or in English, Thomas of Cana or Thomas the Zealot, is a very prominent Knanaya merchant from Edessa (Or Urfa). ... This article is about the Biblical king of Israel. ... , “Cranganore” redirects here. ... Malabar Coast, Kerala Bekal Fort Beach, Kerala The Malabar Coast also known as the Malabarian Coast, is a long and narrow south-western shore line of the mainland Indian subcontinent. ... This article belongs in one or more categories. ...


Before the arrival of the people, the early Nasrani people in the Malabar coast included some local converts and many converted Jewish people who had settled in Kerala during the Babylonian exile and after.[3] They came mostly from the Northern Kingdom of Israel. According to tradition, Kna Jews are also known as Southists (Thekkumbhagar in Malayalam) as they hailed from the southern province of Israel known in the Old Testament as the Kingdom of Judah. The distinction between the northern heavily exagamous Samarians and the southern zealously endagamous tribes of Judea led to the difference among the non-Knanaya Nasranis as Northists and the Knanaya as Southists. The Knanaya (Kanahi people) were a zealously endogamous community from the times of Abraham, Issac & Jacob by the word of God to Israel and (according to their tradition) emphasized by the actions of their ancestor (through alleged maccobean descent) in Num 25:10-13 wherein a covenant of perpectual priesthood is bestowed upon the Knanaya for the Zealousness shown by Q'nai Phinehas. This led the Knai people to continue to remain an endogamous group also within the Nasrani community.[3] 10th century BCE: The Land of Israel, including the United Kingdom of Israel Commonwealth of Israel redirects here. ... Malayalam (മലയാളം ) is the language spoken predominantly in the state of Kerala, in southern India. ... Kingdom of Judah (Hebrew מַלְכוּת יְהוּדָה, Standard Hebrew Malḫut Yəhuda, Tiberian Hebrew Malḵûṯ Yəhûḏāh) in the times of the Hebrew Bible, was the nation formed from the territories of the tribes of Judah, Simeon, and Benjamin after the Kingdom of Israel was divided, and was named after Judah... Kanahi (Hebrew: קנאי, plural: kanahim, קנאים); is a term given for a zealot. It literally means one who is jealous on behalf of God. ... Phinehas or Pinhas - פִּינְחָס, Standard Hebrew Pinəḥas, Tiberian Hebrew Pînəħās is a name shared by two characters in the Hebrew Bible. ...


The term known as Kanai or Q'nai, (קנאי singular form of Kanahim/קנאים) means "Jealous ones for God". The K'nai people are the biblical Aaronites referred to as Kanahi (overly jealous and with zeal), who came to Cana around 135AD from the southern province of Judea (whence the derives the term southists). They were deeply against the Roman rule of Israel and fought against the Romans for the sovereignty of the Jews. During their struggle the K'nai'im people became followers of the Jewish sect led by Jesus the Nazarene. Many of Jesus' followers had names typical among freedom fighters such as Zealot (Simon Cana), Daggerman (Judas Iscariot), Rock (Simon Peter), Thunderson (James & John) etc.. After the crucifixion of Jesus by the Romans in 33 CE, the Knanaya intensified their struggle against the Roman rule. Kanahi (Hebrew: קנאי, plural: kanahim, קנאים); is a term given for a zealot. It literally means one who is jealous on behalf of God. ... This article refers to a place mentioned in the New Testament. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about Jesus of Nazareth. ... Nazarene may refer to: an artist in the Nazarene movement a member of the Church of the Nazarene. ...


In 70 CE, hundreds of Kanahi evaded capture from the Romans and took shelter in the fortress at Masada. In 72 CE, after a two year siege, 960 Kanahi unwilling to give up to the Romans killed themselves before the Romans could capture them. This act of martyrdom is still commemorated in Israel. In 345 CE a small group of K'nanaim merchants travelled to the Jewish trade posts at Kodungallur in Kerala and settled there. Their descendants are today known in Kerala as Knanaya Nasranis.[4] Kanahi (Hebrew: קנאי, plural: kanahim, קנאים); is a term given for a zealot. It literally means one who is jealous on behalf of God. ... Combatants Jewish Sicarii Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown Masada (a romanisation of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on top of... Kanahi (Hebrew: קנאי, plural: kanahim, קנאים); is a term given for a zealot. It literally means one who is jealous on behalf of God. ... , “Cranganore” redirects here. ... , Kerala ( ; Malayalam: കേരളം; ) is a state on the Malabar Coast of southwestern India. ...


Contemporary Kna Judaism

Many of the Jewish customs are still preserved by the Knanaya. [5] Kna people are strictly endagamous and no one may convert to join the Kna people although marrying out is an increasing concern for the shrinking community. That being said there is a big question about whether to allow other Jews into the community as genetic testing indicates was certainly the practice in the past. The Knanaya and other Nasranis as a whole maintained close relationship with the Jews of Kerala, (known today as Cochin Jews) until the Portuguese inquisition of the Jews and Nasranis in the early 1500s. [5] Kna people are also the victims of increasing missionary efforts not only from Protestant groups ecouraging them to give up on their Jewish custioms and traditions, but also from some groups of Jewish persuasions who for obscure reasons would rather they did not exist. Although the Kna people are mostly Catholics, their religion should really be referred to as Kna Judaism and the Catholic churches have recognised this by allowing them their own Jewish diocese. Although they are strictly endagamous and will not accept converts into Kna Judaism from non-Jews, there is a big question about whether or not they should be allowing Halakhic Jews to marry into the community should they so desire it. Kna people trace their Judaism back to Archiereus Thomas Jude the brother of James Alphaeus and because of this they have frequently been called St. Thomas Christians. They descend from 72 priestly families descended from the same desposyni that Thomas Jude belonged to. the number 72 has a significance for the 72 nations of the world and each of the 72 families have their own unique family rule. One of the primary questions surrounding the acceptance of Jewish people marrying into the Kna Naya (Kna people) is which rule they could accept such Jews into. If a synchronisation could be established between the Jewish tradition of the person wishing to marry in and one of the 72 rules observed within Kna Judaism then the issue would be simplified. For other uses, see Jew (disambiguation). ... Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews are the ancient prospetutess and their descendants of the South Indian erstwhile state of Kingdom of Cochin which includes the present day port city of Kochi. ... 1500 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Jewish traditions among the Kna people have been adapted according to the environment they have been living in. Although grape produce is now consumed as a result of portuguese influence, this was originally not the case among the Kna Jews. The tradition is preserved in the consumption of Pesaha pal (passover coconut milk) instead of wine on the night of passover along with Pesaha-appam (unleavened passover bread). [5] . This tradition of Pesaha appam is observed by the entire Nasrani people till this day. [5] The bridal canopy is part of the Knanaya wedding ceremony, while the dead are buried facing the east. [5] Thanksgiving blessings which the Kna Jews use which follow the Hebrew Kiddush formula ברוך אתה ה' א‑לוהינו מלך העולם, המוציא לחם מן הארץ when initiating a Eucharistic Mass (Birkat HaMazon).


Knanaya community at present

An unvelied tabernacle of a Kna Jewish 'palli' or Temple with 12 candlesticks in the background for the 12 tribes of ancient Israel.
An unvelied tabernacle of a Kna Jewish 'palli' or Temple with 12 candlesticks in the background for the 12 tribes of ancient Israel.

Kna Jews today belong to three rites: the Liturgy of Antioch adopted in response to Portuguese persecutions, their original Liturgy of Edessa, and the anti-traditional Pentecostals. The first belonging to the Syriac Orthodox Church in India and second to the Syro-Malabar Catholic Church. [6] The pentecostals are from both pre-mentioned denominations. Knanaya are very much conscious about their origin and up until today safeguard their ethnic character by marrying people from within the community regardless of rite. A Knanaya Syriac Orthodox diocese, established in 1910, is administered by an archbishop who reports directly to the Patriarch of Antioch of the Syrian Orthodox Church. The Knanaya Catholics and their Jewish identity have been acknowledged by the Vatican under Pope Pius X, by instituting in 1911 a diocese only for the Jewish Christians (Syrian-catholic) of Kerala. [6] This diocese is called the Arch Diocese of Kottayam and is in the district of Kottayam in Kerala. [6] Image File history File linksMetadata A_Syro_Malabar_Catholic_Knanaya_Jewish_Nasrani_Church. ... Image File history File linksMetadata A_Syro_Malabar_Catholic_Knanaya_Jewish_Nasrani_Church. ... Antiochene Rite designates the family of liturgies originally used in the Patriarchate of Antioch: that of the Apostolic Constitutions; then that of St. ... ... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Syro-Malabar Church Official website The Syro-Malabar Catholic Church is a Major Archiepiscopal Church in communion with the Roman Catholic Church. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... Pope St. ... , For the district with the same name, see Kottayam district. ...


The approximate population of Kna Jews as of 2001: (divided by different denominations) Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

  • Knanaya Jacobite Syrian Orthodox Christians: 100,000
  • Knanaya Syrian Malabar Catholic Christians: 140,000

In all over 250,000 Knanaya Christian Jews continue in the ancient Hebrew-Christian tradition. Jewish Christians (sometimes called also Hebrew Christians or Christian Jews, but see below for differences) is a term which can have two meanings, an historical one and a contemporary one. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Today Knanaya are found in all major cities of India. Large numbers of Knanaya live in places such as Boston, Tampa, South Florida, Chicago, New York, New Jersey, Los Angeles, San Francisco, Houston, Dallas, Detroit, Philadelphia, Ohio, Las Vegas, Atlanta, Toronto, Washington D.C. and Minneapolis. Also there is a growing Knanaya community in the U.K mainly in Greater London, Manchester, and Cardiff. Knanaya are also seen in the countries of the Middle East, South Africa, Australia, New Zealand, Austria, Italy, Germany and Switzerland. There are conventions they attend to get together and plan for the future of the Knanaya community. The most recent North American Knanaya Catholic Convention was held in San Jose, California in July 2006. Tampas skyline For alternate meanings, see Tampa (disambiguation) Tampa is a city located in Hillsborough County on the west coast of Florida. ... Location of metropolitan area in the state of Florida Major cities Miami, Florida Fort Lauderdale, Florida West Palm Beach, Florida Area  - Total  - Water 15,896 km² (6,137 mi²) 2,621 km² (1,011 mi²) 16. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country State Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City 234. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Flag Seal Nickname: City of Angels Location Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates , Government State County California Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa (D) Geographical characteristics Area     City 1,290. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Houston redirects here. ... Dallas redirects here. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Official language(s) English de facto Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Greater Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... For other uses, see Las Vegas (disambiguation) and Vegas (disambiguation). ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland is a country in western Europe, and a member of the European Union. ... Greater London is the top-level administrative subdivision covering London, England. ... This article is about the City of Manchester in England. ... This article is about the capital city of Wales. ... A map showing countries commonly considered to be part of the Middle East The Middle East is a region comprising the lands around the southern and eastern parts of the Mediterranean Sea, a territory that extends from the eastern Mediterranean Sea to the Persian Gulf. ... For other uses, see San José. Nickname: Location of San Jose within Santa Clara County, California. ...


See also

Cochin Jews, also called Malabar Jews are the ancient prospetutess and their descendants of the South Indian erstwhile state of Kingdom of Cochin which includes the present day port city of Kochi. ... Kanahi (Hebrew: קנאי, plural: kanahim, קנאים); is a term given for a zealot. It literally means one who is jealous on behalf of God. ... Zealotry denotes zeal in excess, referring to cases where activism and ambition in relation to an ideology have become excessive to the point of being harmful to others, oneself, and ones own cause. ... The Syrian Kuriz also known as Nasrani Menorah or the Mar Thoma sliva The Syrian Malabar Nasrani people are an ethnic group from Kerala, South India. ... The Saint Thomas Christians are a group of Christians from the Malabar coast (now Kerala) in South India, who follow Syriac Christianity. ... Combatants Jewish Sicarii Roman Empire Commanders Elazar ben Yair Lucius Flavius Silva Strength 960 15,000 Casualties 953 Unknown Masada (a romanisation of the Hebrew מצדה, Metzada, from מצודה, metzuda, fortress) is the name for a site of ancient palaces and fortifications in the South District of Israel on top of...

Notes

  1. ^ a b c Menachery G. 1973, 1998; Vellian Jacob 2001; Weil,S. 1982; Podipara, Placid J. 1970
  2. ^ a b c Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Weil,S. 1982; James Hough 1893; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; Vellian Jacob 2001; Koder S. 1973
  3. ^ a b Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Weil,S. 1982; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; & Koder S. 1973
  4. ^ Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Weil, S. 1982; Poomangalam C.A 1998; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; Vellian Jacob 2001; Koder S. 1973
  5. ^ a b c d e Weil,S. 1982; Jessay, P.M. 1986; Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Thomas Puthiakunnel 1973; Vellian Jacob 2001; Koder S. 1973; Vellian, J 1988
  6. ^ a b c Weil, S. 1982; Jessay, P.M. 1986; Menachery G; 1973, 1998; Vellian Jacob 2001

References & Bibliography

  • Menachery G (1973) The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, Ed. George Menachery, B.N.K. Press, vol. 2, ISBN 81-87132-06-X, Lib. Cong. Cat. Card. No. 73-905568 ; B.N.K. Press
  • Vellian Jacob (2001) Knanite community: History and culture; Syrian church series; vol.XVII; Jyothi Book House, Kottayam
  • "In Universi Cristiani" (Latin Text of the Papal erection of the Knanaya Diocese of Kottayam)
  • Thomas Puthiakunnel, (1973) "Jewish colonies of India paved the way for St. Thomas", The Saint Thomas Christian Encyclopedia of India, ed. George Menachery, Vol. II., Trichur.
  • Koder S. (1973) 'History of the Jews of Kerala".The St. Thomas Christian Encyclopaedia of India,Ed. G. Menachery.
  • Vellian, J (1988) Marriage Customs of the Knanites, Christian Orient, 9, Kottayam.
  • Weil,S. (1982) "Symmetry between Christians and Jews in India: The Cananite Christians and Cochin Jews in Kerala. in Contributions to Indian Sociology,16.
  • Jessay, P.M. (1986) "The Wedding Songs of the Cochin Jews and of the Knanite Christians of Kerala: A Study in Comparison." Symposium.
  • James Hough (1893) "The History of Christianity in India".
  • Menachery G (ed); (1998) "The Indian Church History Classics", Vol.I, The Nazranies, Ollur, 1998. [ISBN 81-87133-05-8].
  • Poomangalam C.A (1998) The Antiquities of the Knanaya Syrian Christians; Kottayam, Kerala.
  • Podipara, Placid J. (1970) "The Thomas Christians". London: Darton, Longman and Tidd.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
KNANAYA COMMUNITY (148 words)
Being a community service, we are always striving to find new ways to get our message out to current and prospective community.
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Knanaya Catholic (736 words)
Knanaya Catholics are a separate group of Catholics within the Syro-Malabar Church and belonging to the Archdiocese of Kottayam.
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In January 1999, Mar Mathew Moolakkatt was appointed as the Auxiliary Bishop of the Diocese of Kottayam.
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