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Encyclopedia > Klingon language
Klingon
tlhIngan Hol 
Pronunciation: /ˈt͡ɬɪŋɑn xol/
Created by: Marc Okrand  1984 
Setting and usage: Star Trek films and television series TNG, DS9, Voyager, and Enterprise
Total speakers: ~16 fluent[citation needed]
Category (purpose): constructed languages
 artistic languages
  fictional languages
   Klingon 
Category (sources): constructed languages
 a priori languages
Language codes
ISO 639-1: none
ISO 639-2: tlh
ISO 639-3: tlh

The Klingon language (tlhIngan Hol in Klingon) is the constructed language spoken by Klingons in the fictional Star Trek universe. Deliberately designed by Marc Okrand to be "alien", it contains many peculiarities, such as Object Verb Subject (OVS) word order. The basic sound (along with a very few words) was first devised by James Doohan ("Scotty") for Star Trek: The Motion Picture. That film marked the first time the language had been heard on screen, all previous appearances of the Klingons being in English. Klingon was subsequently developed by Okrand into a fully fledged language. Marc Okrand is the creator of the Klingon language. ... This article is about the year. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... Space station Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (ST:DS9 or STDS9 or DS9 for short) is a science fiction television series produced by Paramount and set in the Star Trek universe. ... The starship Voyager (NCC-74656), an Intrepid-class starship. ... The starship Enterprise (NX-01) Star Trek: Enterprise is a science fiction television series set in the Star Trek universe. ... A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... An artistic language (artlang) is a constructed language designed for aesthetic pleasure. ... Quenya, written in Tengwar and Latin-based alphabets Fictional languages are by far the largest group of artistic languages. ... A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... An artificial or constructed language (known colloquially as a conlang among aficionados), is a language whose vocabulary and grammar were specifically devised by an individual or small group, rather than having naturally evolved as part of a culture as with natural languages. ... ISO 639-1 is the first part of the ISO 639 international-standard language-code family. ... ISO 639-2 is the second part of the ISO 639 standard, which lists codes for the representation of the names of languages. ... ISO 639-3 is an international standard for language codes. ... The Unicode Standard, Version 5. ... A constructed or artificial language — known colloquially as a conlang — is a language whose phonology, grammar, and/or vocabulary have been devised by an individual or group, instead of having naturally evolved as part of a culture. ... This article is about the fictional race. ... This article is about the entire Star Trek franchise. ... Marc Okrand is the creator of the Klingon language. ... Object Verb Subject (OVS) or Object Verb Agent (OVA) is one of the permutations of expression used in linguistic typology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Star Trek: The Motion Picture (Paramount Pictures, 1979; see also 1979 in film) is the first feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series and is released on Friday, December 7. ...


Klingon is sometimes referred to as Klingonese (most notably in the Star Trek: The Original Series episode "The Trouble with Tribbles", where it was actually pronounced by a Klingon character as /klɪŋgoni/), but among the Klingon-speaking community this is often understood to refer to another Klingon language that is described in John M. Ford's Star Trek novels as Klingonaase. The starship Enterprise as it appeared on Star Trek Star Trek is a culturally significant science fiction television series created by Gene Roddenberry in the 1960s. ... The Trouble With Tribbles is a second-season episode of Star Trek: The Original Series, first broadcast on December 29, 1967 and repeated June 21, 1968. ... John M. Ford portrait 2000 John Milo Mike Ford (April 10, 1957 – September 25, 2006) was an American science fiction and fantasy writer, game designer, and poet. ... Klingonaase is a non-canon fictional language appearing in works by John M. Ford related to the science fiction series Star Trek, in which it is depicted as the language of the Klingon race. ...


A small number of people, mostly dedicated Star Trek fans or language aficionados, can converse in Klingon. Its vocabulary, heavily centered on Star Trek or 'Klingon' concepts such as "spacecraft" or "warfare", can sometimes make it cumbersome for everyday use — for instance, while there are words for "transporter ionizer unit" (jolvoy') or "bridge (of a ship)" (meH), there is currently no word for "bridge (that you drive over)". Nonetheless, mundane conversations are common among skilled speakers. This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Klingon starships are fictional spacecraft that appear in the television and film installments of the fictional universe of Star Trek. ... // The Star Trek fictional universe contains a very large number of weapons. ...

Contents

History

Though mentioned in the original Star Trek series, Klingon was first used on-screen in Star Trek: The Motion Picture (1979); for Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (1984), Okrand enlarged the lexicon and developed grammar around the original dozen words Doohan had created. It would be used intermittently in later movies featuring the original cast: in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (1991), translation difficulties would serve as a plot device. Star Trek: The Motion Picture (Paramount Pictures, 1979; see also 1979 in film) is the first feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series and is released on Friday, December 7. ... Star Trek III: The Search for Spock (Paramount Pictures, 1984; see also 1984 in film) is the third feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (Paramount Pictures, 1991; see also 1991 in film) is the sixth feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... Look up translate in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A plot device is a person or an object introduced to a story to affect or advance the plot. ...


With the advent of the series Star Trek: The Next Generation (1987) – in which one of the main characters was a Klingon, Worf – and successors, the language and various cultural aspects for the fictional species were expanded. In the Star Trek: The Next Generation episode A Matter of Honor, several Klingons speak a language that the Universal Translator seems unable to translate, until one Klingon orders the others to "speak their (i.e. humans') language." The use of untranslated Klingon words interspersed with conversation translated into English was commonplace in later seasons of Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, when Klingons became a more important part of the series' overall plot arcs. The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... Worf, played by Michael Dorn, is a main character in both Star Trek: The Next Generation and Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, and also the films based on The Next Generation. ... The title as it appeared in most episodes opening credits. ... ... The universal translator is a fictional device common to many science fiction works, especially on television. ... Space station Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (ST:DS9 or STDS9 or DS9 for short) is a science fiction television series produced by Paramount and set in the Star Trek universe. ...


Worf would later reappear among the regular characters in Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (1992) and B'Elanna Torres, a Klingon-human hybrid, would become a main character on Star Trek: Voyager (1995). Later in the pilot episode of the prequel series Star Trek: Enterprise, "Broken Bow" (2001), the Klingon language is described as having "eighty polyguttural dialects constructed on an adaptive syntax"; however, Klingon as described on television is often not entirely congruous with Klingon developed by Okrand. Space station Star Trek: Deep Space Nine (ST:DS9 or STDS9 or DS9 for short) is a science fiction television series produced by Paramount and set in the Star Trek universe. ... BElanna Torres, played by Roxann Dawson, is a character in Star Trek: Voyager. ... This article is about a biological term. ... The starship Voyager (NCC-74656), an Intrepid-class starship. ... A prequel is a work that portrays events which include the structure, conventions, and/or characters of a previously completed narrative, but occur at an earlier time. ... The starship Enterprise (NX-01) Star Trek: Enterprise is a science fiction television series set in the Star Trek universe. ... Broken Bow is the pilot episode (episode number 001 (Paramount Pictures, n. ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... For other uses, see Syntax (disambiguation). ... The Star Trek canon consists of the television series Star Trek (the original series), Star Trek: The Next Generation, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager, Star Trek: Enterprise, and the ten motion pictures based upon the series. ...


Language

The Klingon language has a following and numerous reference works. A description of the actual Klingon language can be found in Okrand's book The Klingon Dictionary (Published by Pocket Books, Simon & Schuster, 1985, second edition with new addendum 1992, ISBN 0-671-74559-X). Other notable works include The Klingon Way (with Klingon sayings and proverbs), Klingon for the Galactic Traveler and the two audio productions Conversational Klingon and Power Klingon. The Klingon Dictionary is a book by Marc Okrand describing the Klingon language. ...

The Klingon Hamlet
The Klingon Hamlet

Three books have also been published in the tongue: ghIlghameS (Gilgamesh), Hamlet (Hamlet), and paghmo' tIn mIS (Much Ado About Nothing). These last two choices were inspired by a remark from High Chancellor Gorkon in Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country that "Shakespeare is best read in the original Klingon" (some fans assumed it to be a joke, though another explanation subsequently surfaced that a future Klingon time traveler had translated some Klingon operas and sold them to Shakespeare[citation needed]). Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... ghIlghameS is the Klingon language translation of the Babylonian Epic of Gilgamesh. ... For other uses, see Gilgamesh (disambiguation). ... The Klingon Hamlet (full title: The Tragedy of Khamlet, Son of the Emperor of Qonos) was a project to translate William Shakespeares play Hamlet into the invented language Klingon of the television series Star Trek. ... For other uses, see Hamlet (disambiguation). ... Title page of the first quarto (1600) Much Ado About Nothing is a comedy by William Shakespeare. ... In the Star Trek universe, Gorkon (David Warner) was the Chancellor of the Klingon Empire and leader of its High Council in the late 23rd Century - from 2291 until his assassination in 2293. ... Star Trek VI: The Undiscovered Country (Paramount Pictures, 1991; see also 1991 in film) is the sixth feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ...

Qapla'
Qapla'

Some Trekkies take the time to learn it and at some Star Trek conventions one can hear enthusiasts use it amongst themselves. They often greet each other with the Klingon word nuqneH (literally: "What do you want?"). This is the only greeting in Klingon. Another phrase commonly heard among Star Trek fans is Qapla', the Klingon word for "success". Image File history File links Qapla'.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Klingon language ... Image File history File links Qapla'.svg‎ File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Klingon language ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Science fiction conventions are gatherings of the community of fans (called science fiction fandom) of various forms of speculative fiction including science fiction and fantasy. ...


Paramount Pictures owns a copyright to the official dictionary and other canonical descriptions of the language. Some people dispute the validity of Paramount's claim of copyright on the language itself in light of the U.S. Supreme Court's Feist decision[1], but no challenge has actually been brought to court. Paramount Pictures Corporation is an American motion picture production and distribution company, based in Hollywood, California. ... Not to be confused with copywriting. ... Canon, in the context of a fictional universe, comprises those novels, stories, films, etc. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      The Supreme Court of the United States (sometimes colloquially referred to by the... Feist Publications, Inc. ...


It is commonly postulated that features of the Klingon language were taken from various real Earth languages which Okrand has studied, particularly Native American languages. It is known however, that a design principle of the Klingon language was dissimilarity to existing natural languages. Native American languages are the indigenous languages of the Americas, spoken by Native Americans from the southern tip of South America to Alaska and Greenland. ...


According to Guinness World Records for 2006, it is the most spoken fictional language by number of speakers. Guinness World Records 2008 edition. ...


Mind Performance Hacks mentions learning a constructed language for reasons related to the Sapir-Whorf Hypothesis, suggesting that knowing an alternate language may provide a different method of critical thought when tackling a difficult problem; the book mentions Klingon as one such language. Other mentioned languages include Lojban and Solresol, as well as a passing reference to Sindarin (Elf, J.R.R. Tolkien). In linguistics, the Sapir-Whorf hypothesis (SWH) states that there is a systematic relationship between the grammatical categories of the language a person speaks and how that person both understands the world and behaves in it. ... Lojban (IPA ) is a constructed human language based on predicate logic. ... Solresol is an artificial language, devised by a Frenchman, Jean François Sudre, beginning in 1817. ... Sindarin is an artificial language (or conlang) developed by J. R. R. Tolkien. ... J. R. R. Tolkien in 1916. ...


Canon

An important concept to spoken and written Klingon is canonicity. Only words and grammatical forms introduced by Marc Okrand are considered proper, canonical Klingon.


It is a bone of contention among Klingonists as to what level of neologism is permissible.[2] A neologism (Greek νεολογισμός [neologismos], from νέος [neos] new + λόγος [logos] word, speech, discourse + suffix -ισμός [-ismos] -ism) is a word, term, or phrase which has been recently created (coined) — often to apply to new concepts, to synthesize pre-existing concepts, or to make older terminology sound more contemporary. ...


Sources of Canon

The following are works which are considered to be canon Klingon and are the sources of Klingon vocabulary and grammar for all other works.[3]

Books
The Klingon Dictionary (TKD)
The Klingon Way (TKW)
Klingon for the Galactic Traveler (KGT)
Sarek, a novel which includes some tlhIngan Hol
Federation Travel Guide, a pamphlet from Pocketbooks.
Audio Tapes
Conversational Klingon (CK)
Power Klingon (PK)
Other Sources
certain articles in HolQeD (the journal of the KLI) (HQ)
certain Skybox Trading Cards (SKY)
a Star Trek Bird of Prey poster (BoP)
Star Trek: Klingon, a CD-ROM game (KCD, also STK)
On-line and in-person text/speech by Marc Okrand (mostly newsgroup postings)

The letters in parentheses following each item (if any) indicate the acronym by which the source is referred to when quoting canon. Sarek is a novel by A. C. Crispin, set in the fictional Star Trek universe. ...


Notable speakers

Some Klingonists have gained relative notoriety for various accomplishments. The Klingon Language Institute can award the title Friend of Maltz to a Klingonist who has furthered the language in various ways.


Rich Yampell

Rich Yampell (known to Klingonists as Captain Krankor) is a software engineer, currently residing in Bellevue, Washington State, USA. Probably the world's first ever conversational speaker of Klingon, he has been a source of inspiration for numerous enthusiasts of Klingon, many of whom now rank themselves among experienced Klingon speakers. He is the author of the book "The Grammarian's Desk," published in 1996 by the Klingon Language Institute, a collection of the columns he wrote for the Institute's scholarly journal "HolQeD." Captain Krankor is also the author and co-author of numerous songs, such as the Klingon Anthem "taHjaj wo' " (music and lyrics), " 'Iv maH" (music and lyrics), "yIH bom" (music).


d'Armond Speers

Dr. d'Armond Speers is an American computational linguist and a member of the KLI.


He graduated from Georgetown University in the Spring of 2002. His dissertation topic was "Representation of American Sign Language for Machine Translation." [4] Georgetown University is an elite private research university located in Georgetown, Washington, D.C., United States. ...


Dr. Speers is known for having undertaken the endeavour to raise his child bilingually in English and Klingon; Speers spoke in Klingon and his wife in English. A few years into his life, the child began rejecting Klingon and gravitating towards English, as he could use English with many more speakers. The fact that Klingon lacked many words for things that were important in a baby's life, such as "diaper," and "pacifier," was a lesser issue. At the time of Speers' attempt, Klingon even lacked words for many objects common around the house, such as "table". The experiment ultimately failed when the child refused to use Klingon when he got older. [5] The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...


Lawrence M. Schoen

Dr. Lawrence M. Schoen is the founder and current director of the KLI. He is the editor of the Institute's scholarly journal "HolQeD," and co-creator of the Klingon song "yIH bom" (lyrics). With only two exceptions, he has been the organizer of the KLI's annual summer conference, or qep'a'.


He obtained a bachelor's degree in psycholinguistics from California State University, Northridge, and then master's and doctoral degrees in psychology from Kansas State University. He has worked as a professor, teaching and doing research, at New College of Florida, Lake Forest College, Chestnut Hill College, and West Chester University. More recently he serves as the director of research and chief compliance officer for the Wedge Medical Center. California State University, Northridge (also known as CSUN, Cal State Northridge, or C-Sun) is a public university in the San Fernando Valley, within the city limits of Los Angeles, California, USA. Part of the California State University system, CSUN was founded in 1958 as San Fernando Valley State College... Kansas State University, officially called Kansas State University of Fashion and Design [2] but commonly shortened to K-State, is an institution of higher learning located in Manhattan, Kansas, in the United States. ... New College of Florida is a highly selective public liberal arts college located in Sarasota, Florida. ... Lake Forest College, founded in 1857, is a liberal arts college located in Lake Forest, Illinois. ... Chestnut Hill College is a coeducational Catholic college in the Chestnut Hill section of Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, USA. It was founded in 1924 as a womens college by the Sisters of Saint Joseph. ... West Chester University, located in West Chester, Pennsylvania, was founded in 1871. ...


He is also a professional science fiction author, a lifetime member of SFWA, and in 2007 was nominated for the John W. Campbell Award for Best New Writer. Science Fiction Writers of America, or SFWA, (SFWA is pronounced seff-wah) was founded in 1965 by Damon Knight and James Blish. ... The John W. Campbell Award for the Best New Writer in Science Fiction is awarded annually by the World Science Fiction Society. ...


He resides in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania USA, and maintains a post office box in Flourtown, PA, the international headquarters of the KLI.


Jyrki Kasvi

Jyrki Kasvi is a Finnish politician and member of Finnish Parliament, representing the Green League. His personal website is available in Klingon as well as Finnish, English and Swedish. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Jyrki Kasvi, a Finnish MP representing the Green League speaking in the Plenum Hall of the Finnish Parliament. ... The Eduskunta (in Finnish), or the Riksdag (in Swedish), is the Parliament of Finland. ... This article refers to the political party, for the university environmental performance table, see Green League 2007 The Green League (in Finnish: Vihreä liitto, ; in Swedish: Gröna förbundet), is a green political party in Finland. ...

Phonology

Klingon has been developed with a phonology that, while based on human natural languages, is intended to sound alien. When initially developed, Paramount Pictures (owners of the Star Trek franchise) wanted the Klingon language to be guttural and harsh and Okrand wanted it to be unusual, so he selected sounds that combined in ways not generally found in other languages. The effect is mainly achieved by the use of a number of retroflex and uvular consonants in the language's inventory. Although natural languages use a number of different airstream mechanisms besides the common pulmonic egressive, these other mechanisms are not used in Klingon. This is perhaps because these sounds are a lot more difficult to learn to produce if one's language does not use them. Klingon has twenty-one consonants (the list below shows twenty-two - the '<D>' has two similar sounds) and five cardinal vowels. Klingon is normally written in a variant of the Latin alphabet (see below). In this orthography, upper and lower case letters are not interchangeable (uppercase letters mostly represent sounds different to those expected by English speakers). In the discussion below, standard Klingon orthography appears in <angle brackets>, and the phonemic transcription in the International Phonetic Alphabet is written between /slashes/. Phonology (Greek phonē = voice/sound and logos = word/speech), is a subfield of linguistics which studies the sound system of a specific language (or languages). ... The term natural language is used to distinguish languages spoken by humans for general-purpose communication from constructs such as computer-programming languages or the languages used in the study of formal logic, especially mathematical logic. ... An alien language is a general term for any language that might be used by putative extraterrestrial lifeforms. ... i eat poop alot A media franchise is an intellectual property involving the characters, setting, and trademarks of an original work of media (usually a work of fiction), such as a film, a work of literature, a television program, or a video game. ... The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... In phonetics, initiation is the action by which an air-flow is created through the vocal tract. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Cardinal vowels are a set of reference vowels used by phoneticians in describing the sounds of languages. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Majuscules or capital letters (in the Roman alphabet: A, B, C, ...) are one type of case in a writing system. ... Minuscule, or lower case, is the smaller form (case) of letters (in the Roman alphabet: a, b, c, ...). Originally alphabets were written entirely in majuscule (capital) letters which were spaced between well-defined upper and lower bounds. ... In human language, a phoneme is the theoretical representation of a sound. ... Articles with similar titles include the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ...


Consonants

The inventory of consonants in Klingon is spread over a number of places of articulation. In spite of this, the inventory has many gaps: Klingon has no velar plosives, and only one sibilant. Deliberately, this arrangement is quite bizarre by the standards of human languages. The combination of aspirated voiceless alveolar plosive /tʰ/ and voiced retroflex plosive /ɖ/ is particularly unusual, for example. The consonants <D> /ɖ/ and <r> (/r/) can be realized as /ɳ/ and /ɹ/, respectively. Places of articulation (passive & active): 1. ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... A sibilant is a type of fricative or affricate, made by directing a jet of air through a narrow channel towards the sharp edge of the teeth. ... The voiceless alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...

  Labial Dental or alveolar Retroflex Postalveolar
or palatal
Velar Uvular Glottal
Central Lateral
Plosive voiceless p /pʰ/ t /tʰ/       q /qʰ/ ' /ʔ/
voiced b /b/   D /ɖ/        
Affricate voiceless   tlh /t͡ɬ/ ch /ʧ/ Q /q͡χ/
voiced       j /ʤ/      
Fricative voiceless     S /ʂ/   H /x/    
voiced v /v/         gh /ɣ/    
Nasal m /m/ n /n/   ng /ŋ/    
Trill   r /r/
([ɹ])
       
Approximant w /w/ l /l/   y /j/      

Labials are consonants articulated either with both lips (bilabial articulation) or with the lower lip and the upper teeth (labiodental articulation). ... Dentals are consonants such as t, d, n, and l articulated with either the lower or the upper teeth, or both, rather than with the gum ridge as in English. ... Alveolar consonants are articulated with the tongue against or close to the superior alveolar ridge, which is called that because it contains the alveoli (the sockets) of the superior teeth. ... Sub-apical retroflex plosive In phonetics, retroflex consonants are consonant sounds used in some languages. ... Postalveolar (or palato-alveolar) consonants are consonants articulated with the tip of the tongue between the alveolar ridge (the place of articulation for alveolar consonants) and the palate (the place of articulation for palatal consonants). ... Palatal consonants are consonants articulated with the body of the tongue raised against the hard palate (the middle part of the roof of the mouth). ... Velars are consonants articulated with the back part of the tongue (the dorsum) against the soft palate (the back part of the roof of the mouth, known also as the velum). ... Uvulars are consonants articulated with the back of the tongue against or near the uvula, that is, further back in the mouth than velar consonants. ... Glottal consonants are consonants articulated with the glottis. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... An affricate is a consonant that begins like a stop (most often an alveovelar, such as [t] or [d]) and that doesnt have a release of its own, but opens directly into a fricative (or, in one language, into a trill). ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... In phonetics, a voiceless consonant is a consonant that does not have voicing. ... A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ...

Vowels

In contrast to consonants, Klingon's inventory of vowels is simple and similar to many human languages, such as Spanish. There are five vowels spaced evenly around the vowel space, with two back rounded vowels, and two front or near-front unrounded vowels — the most common for human languages. There is also a back unrounded vowel.


The two front vowels, <e> and <I>, represent sounds that are found in English but are more open and lax than a typical English speaker might assume when reading Klingon text written in the Latin alphabet, causing the consonants of a word to be more prominent. This enhances the sense that Klingon is a clipped and harsh-sounding language.

Vowels
<a> — /ɑ/open back unrounded vowel (in English spa)
<e> — /ɛ/ — open-mid front unrounded vowel (in English bed)
<I> — /ɪ/ — near-close near-front unrounded vowel (in English bit)
<o> — /o/ — close-mid back rounded vowel (in French eau)
<u> — /u/close back rounded vowel (in Spanish tu)

Diphthongs can be analyzed phonetically as the combination of the five vowels plus one of the two semivowels /w/ and /j/ (represented by <w> and <y>, respectively). Thus, the combinations <ay>, <ey>, <Iy>, <oy>, <uy>, <aw>, <ew> and <Iw> are possible. There are no words in the Klingon language that contain *<ow> or *<uw>. Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels Near-close Close-mid Mid Open-mid Near-open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... Vowels See also: IPA, Consonants Near‑close Close‑mid Mid Open‑mid Near‑open Open Where symbols appear in pairs, the one to the right represents a rounded vowel. ... In phonetics, a diphthong (also gliding vowel) (Greek δίφθογγος, diphthongos, literally with two sounds, or with two tones) is a monosyllabic vowel combination involving a quick but smooth movement from one vowel to another, often interpreted by listeners as a single vowel sound or phoneme. ... Semivowels (also glides, more rarely: semiconsonants) are non-syllabic vowels that form diphthongs with syllabic vowels. ...


Vowel stress

In verbs, the stressed syllable is usually the verb itself, as opposed to a prefix or any suffixes except when a suffix ending with ' is separated from the verb by at least one other suffix, in which case the suffix ending in ' is also stressed. In addition, stress may shift to a suffix which is meant to be emphasized.


In nouns, the final syllable of the stem (the noun itself, excluding any affixes) is stressed. If any syllables ending in ' are present, the stress shifts to those syllables.


The stress in other words seems to be variable, but this is not a serious issue because most of these words are only one syllable in length. Still, there are some words which should fall under the rules above, but do not, although using the standard rules would still be acceptable.


Syllabification

Klingon syllable structure is extremely strict: a syllable must start with a consonant (which includes the glottal stop) followed by one vowel. In prefixes and other more rare syllables, this is enough. More commonly, this consonant-vowel pair is followed by one consonant or one of three biconsonantal codas: /-w' -y' -rgh/. Thus, ta "record", tar "poison" and targh "targ" (a type of animal) are all legal syllable forms, but *tarD and *ar are not. Despite this, there is one suffix that takes the shape vowel+consonant: the endearment suffix -oy. For the computer operating system, see Syllable (operating system). ...


Grammar

Klingon is an agglutinative language, using mainly affixes in order to alter the function or meaning of words. Some nouns have inherently plural forms: jengva' "plate" vs. ngop "plates", for instance. An agglutinative language is a language in which the words are formed by joining morphemes together. ...


Klingon nouns take suffixes to indicate grammatical number, gender, two levels of deixis, possession and syntactic function. In all, 29 noun suffixes from five classes may be employed: jupoypu'na'wI'vaD "for my beloved true friends". Speakers are limited to no more than one suffix from each class to be added to a word, and the classes have a specific order of appearance. In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... In linguistics, grammatical gender is a morphological category associated with the expression of gender through inflection or agreement. ... In pragmatics and linguistics, deixis (Greek: δειξις display, demonstration, or reference, the meaning point of reference in contemporary linguistics having been taken over from Chrysippus, Stoica 2,65) is a process whereby words or expressions rely absolutely on context. ...


Gender in Klingon does not indicate sex, as in English, or have an arbitrary assignment as in Danish or many other languages. It indicates whether a noun refers to a body part, a being capable of using language, or neither of these.


Verbs in Klingon are even more complex, taking a prefix indicating the number and person of the subject and object, plus suffixes from nine ordered classes, plus a special suffix class called rovers. Each of the four known rovers has its own unique rule controlling its position among the suffixes in the verb. Verbs are marked for aspect, certainty, predisposition and volition, dynamic, causative, mood, negation, and honorific, and the Klingon verb has two moods: indicative and imperative. It has been suggested that Verbal agreement be merged into this article or section. ... In linguistics, the grammatical aspect of a verb defines the temporal flow (or lack thereof) in the described event or state. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... Negation (i. ... An honorific is a word or expression that conveys esteem or respect and is used in addressing or referring to a person. ... In linguistics, many grammars have the concept of grammatical mood (or mode), which describes the relationship of a verb with reality and intent. ... Imperative programming, as opposed to functional programming, is a sort of programming employing side-effect as central execution feature. ...


The most common word order in Klingon is Object Verb Subject, and in some cases the word order is the exact reverse of word order in English: In linguistic typology, word order is the order in which words appear in sentences. ... Object Verb Subject (OVS) or Object Verb Agent (OVA) is one of the permutations of expression used in linguistic typology. ...

 
 DaH mojaq-mey-vam DI-vuS-nIS-be' 'e' vI-Har now suffix-PL-DEM 1PL.A.3PL.P-limit-need-NEG that 1SG.A.3SG.P-believe "I believe that we do not need to limit these suffixes now." 

Note that hyphens are used in the above only to illustrate the use of affixes. Hyphens are not used in Klingon. Image File history File links Klingon_sentence_a. ...


Unlike most artificial auxiliary languages, which seek to either emulate elements of several evolved human languages in order to be easier to learn, or to be more regular with fewer exceptions than is the case in evolved existing languages, the Klingon language tries to break away from the most common features of other languages and embraces the exceptions to its own rules. An international auxiliary language (sometimes abbreviated as IAL or auxlang) is a language used (or to be used in the future) for communication between people from different nations who do not share a common native language. ...


Writing systems

The official Klingon writing system is the Latin alphabet as used above, but on the television series, the Klingons use their own alien writing system. In The Klingon Dictionary this alphabet is named as pIqaD, but no information is given about it. When Klingon symbols are used in Star Trek productions they are merely decorative graphic elements, designed to emulate real writing and create an appropriate atmosphere. In the Star Trek movies and television shows, the Klingons use their own alien writing system. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world today. ... Write redirects here. ...


The Astra Image Corporation designed the symbols (currently used to "write" Klingon) for Star Trek: The Motion Picture, although these symbols are often incorrectly attributed to Michael Okuda.[6] They based the letters on the Klingon battlecruiser hull markings (three letters) first created by Matt Jeffries, and on Tibetan writing because the script had sharp letter forms — used as a testament to the Klingons' love for knives and blades. Star Trek: The Motion Picture (Paramount Pictures, 1979; see also 1979 in film) is the first feature film based on the popular Star Trek science fiction television series and is released on Friday, December 7. ... Michael Okuda is an graphic designer who is best known for his work on Star Trek. ... Klingon starships are fictional spacecraft that appear in the television and film installments of the fictional universe of Star Trek. ... Walter Matthew Matt Jefferies (August 12, 1921 - July 21, 2003) was an aviation and mechanical artist, set designer and writer, best known for designing the original starship Enterprise for the Star Trek television series. ... The Tibetan script was created in the mid-7th century, by Thonmi Sambhota, a Tibetan official, with the assistance of some Indian Buddhist monks. ...


Vocabulary

A design principle of the Klingon language is the great degree of lexical-cultural correlation in the vocabulary. For example, there are several words meaning "to fight" or "to clash against", each having a different degree of intensity. There is a plethora of words relating to warfare and weaponry and also a great variety of curses (cursing is considered a fine art in Klingon culture). This helps lend a particular character to the language.


There are also a very large number of "in jokes" built into the language.[7] For example, the word for "pair" is chang'eng, a reference to the twins Chang and Eng, and the word for "fish" is ghotI'. A painting of Chang and Eng Bunker, circa 1836 Chang Bunker and Eng Bunker (May 11, 1811 _ January 17, 1874), born in Siam (now Thailand), to a Chinese father Ti-eye and Nok, the daughter of a Chinese immigrant and a native Cham mother, were the twin brothers whose... Note: This page or section contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...


Cultural references

  • A 2004 episode of 'My Wife And Kids'. In the bowling alley, Junior uses the Klingon language to ward off a rude man dressed in a Star Trek outfit who had just pushed in the line.
  • In 1996, Simon & Schuster Interactive published a PC computer game called Star Trek: Klingon. The second CD of this game included a Klingon Language Lab, which used speech recognition software from Dragon Systems to teach proper pronunciation of various Klingon terms.
  • In 1999, The Onion published a satirical article claiming that the number of Klingon speakers exceeded the number of Navajo speakers.[8] This is quite false, as Navajo, the most vigorous indigenous language in the United States, is spoken by over 100,000 people, far more than the highest estimate of Klingon speakers.[citation needed]
  • The sixth episode of the tenth season of Frasier, "Star-Mitzvah", which first aired November 5, 2002, had Frasier reading a short blessing in Klingon at his son's Bar Mitzvah having been tricked into believing it was Hebrew.
  • In the Aqua Teen Hunger Force episode "Super Computer," Frylock names the computer he invented the "OoGhiJ MIQtxxXA" which he claims is Klingon for "Superior Galactic Intelligence." While the second word has no meaning in Okrand's Klingon, the first word is similar orthographically to the Klingon word QoghIj "brain".
  • Apple's Mac OS X operating system supports a number of different languages, however applications may not support the user's preferred language. So the operating system allows the user to pick the order that languages will be selected from the available options. Klingon is included in the possible selections although it is not included with the operating system itself.[9]
  • In Witch Hunt, an NCIS episode, agents raid a fancy dress party where a person is dressed as a Klingon. He insults Special Agent Gibbs by saying Hab SoSlI' Quch!. McGee translates this to "Your mother has a smooth forehead" and reveals he speaks Klingon, but not fluently.
  • Klingon is available in the Language Tools on Google, and most of the site is translated. [10]
  • In May 2003, the Multnomah County, Oregon Department of Human Services named Klingon on a list of 55 languages for which it might conceivably need interpreters; this story was circulated out-of-context as an urban legend claiming that the department was looking to hire a Klingon interpreter. County Chair Diane Linn called the listing the "result of an overzealous attempt to ensure that our safety net systems can respond to all customers and clients."[11]
  • In the 2004 The Simpsons episode 330 (15.17), My Big Fat Geek Wedding, an altar can be seen on a SciFi convention, bearing the engraved letters love from the Klingon pIqaD alphabet. However, this is not an actual word in Klingon.
  • In 2004 E.R. Episode 220 (10.19), Just a Touch, which first aired April 22, 2004, Abby must deal with half a dozen psychiatric patients, and one of them speaks only Klingon.
  • In 2005 a documentary film called Earthlings: Ugly Bags Of Mostly Water was released. The film shows members of the Klingon Language Institute talking about their hobby of speaking Klingon. Short interviews with Michael Dorn are interspersed with interviews with Institute members.
  • Big Brother (UK series 7) in 2006 featured a "geek task" where housemates had to learn some Klingon phrases and then carry on a simple conversation with Big Brother in Klingon.
  • In 2002 Farscape Episode 10401 (4.1), Crichton Kicks, John Crichton shouts a Klingon offense at a group of invaders before stating to Sikozu, "You didn't get that? Yeah, 'cause it's Klingon!"
  • Drew Hayden Taylor's 2002 play The Buz'gem Blues features a First Nations activist character who also has a hidden background as a Trekkie. In one scene he talks about working on a Klingon-Cree dictionary as a teenager.
  • In "The Big Bang Theory", the character Howard Wolowitz can speak six languages, including Klingon.

My Wife and Kids is an American sitcom which ran on ABC from March 28, 2001 until May 29, 2005, starring Damon Wayans and Tisha Campbell. ... Dragon Systems, Inc. ... The Onion is a United States-based parody newspaper published weekly in print and daily online. ... Reading Adahooniigii — The Navajo Language Monthly Navajo or Navaho (native name: Diné bizaad) is an Athabaskan language (of Na-Dené stock) spoken in the southwest United States by the Navajo people (Diné). It is geographically and linguistically one of the Southern Athabaskan languages (the majority of Athabaskan languages are spoken... For other uses, see Buffy the Vampire Slayer (disambiguation). ... Seeing Red is episode 19 of season 6 of the television series Buffy the Vampire Slayer. ... is the 127th day of the year (128th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Frasier is an American sitcom starring Kelsey Grammer as psychiatrist Dr. Frasier Crane. ... is the 309th day of the year (310th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Celebration of Bar Mitzvah at the Western Wall in Jerusalem. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... Team America: World Police Team America: World Police is a 2004 movie by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, the creators of the Comedy Central television program South Park. ... Team America: World Police is a 2004 movie by Trey Parker and Matt Stone, the creators of the Comedy Central television program South Park. ... For the movie, see Aqua Teen Hunger Force Colon Movie Film for Theaters. ... Mac OS X (pronounced ) is a line of graphical operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc. ... This article is about the musician himself. ... Straight Outta Lynwood track listing White & Nerdy Pancreas Canadian Idiot Ill Sue Ya Polkarama! Virus Alert Confessions Part III Weasel Stomping Day Close But No Cigar Do I Creep You Out Trapped in the Drive-Thru Dont Download This Song White & Nerdy is the second single from Weird... JavaScript is a scripting language most often used for client-side web development. ... Witch Hunt is a fourth season episode of NCIS. Spoiler warning: It is Halloween and the team is working at NCIS when a call comes in that a Marine has been shot and his daughter been kidnapped. ... NCIS is a CBS network show about a team of special agents from the Naval Criminal Investigative Service of the United States Navy and United States Marine Corps. ... Supervisory Special Agent Leroy Jethro Gibbs is a fictional Chief investigator from the NCIS television series by CBS Television, played by Mark Harmon. ... There are multiple individuals named Timothy McGee. ... A programming language is an artificial language that can be used to control the behavior of a machine, particularly a computer. ... varaq is a programming language based loosely upon the grammatical structure of the Klingon language. ... This article is about the corporation. ... For other uses, see Eddie Murphy (disambiguation). ... Daddy Day Care is a 2003 comedy film, starring Eddie Murphy. ... Steven James Zahn (born November 13, 1967) is an American comedian and actor of both film and stage. ... Enterprise or USS Enterprise are the names of several fictional starships, some of which are the focal point for various television series and films in the Star Trek franchise created by Gene Roddenberry. ... Multnomah County (IPA: ) is one of 36 counties in the U.S. state of Oregon. ... An urban legend or urban myth is similar to a modern folklore consisting of stories often thought to be factual by those circulating them. ... United States of America, showing states, divided into counties. ... A chair or seat is also a seat of office, authority, or dignity, such as the chairperson of a committee, or a professorship at a college or university, or the individual that presides over business proceedings. ... Kyle after a full viewing of The Passion of the Christ The Passion of the Jew is episode 804 of the Comedy Central series, South Park. ... This article is about the TV series. ... is the 90th day of the year (91st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Mel Columcille Gerard Gibson (born January 3, 1956) is an American-Australian actor, Academy Award winning director and producer. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... My Big Fat Geek Wedding is the 17th episode of The Simpsons fifteenth season, first aired on April 18, 2004. ... ER is an Emmy-winning American serial medical drama created by novelist Michael Crichton and set primarily in the emergency room of fictional County General Hospital in Cook County, Chicago, Illinois. ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Dr. Abby Lockhart (previously Nurse Abby Lockhart) is a fictional medical doctor on the television series ER. She is portrayed by Maura Tierney. ... Big Brother UK series 7, is currently in broadcast in the United Kingdom as part of the Big Brother reality television series. ... This article contains a list of recurring characters from The Simpsons with descriptions. ... This article is about the novel. ... Farscape (1999–2003) is a science fiction television series, featuring a present-day astronaut who accidentally travels through a wormhole to a distant part of the galaxy. ... John Robert Crichton, Jr. ... Sikozu Svala Shanti Sugaysi Shanu (called Sikozu) is a fictional character on the television science fiction series Farscape played by Raelee Hill. ... Drew Hayden Taylor Drew Hayden Taylor (born 1962 in Curve Lake, Ontario) is a Canadian playwright and journalist. ... First Nations is a Canadian term of ethnicity which refers to the aboriginal peoples located in what is now Canada, and their descendants who are neither Inuit nor Métis. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Cree is the name for a group of closely-related Algonquian languages spoken by approximately 50,000 speakers across Canada, from Alberta to Labrador. ... For the universal model, see Big Bang. ...

See also

  • Alien language
  • Klingonaase, an earlier, non-canonical Klingon language put forth by author John M. Ford.
  • Stovokor, a heavy metal band who sing exclusively in Klingon

An alien language is a general term for any language that might be used by putative extraterrestrial lifeforms. ... Klingonaase is a non-canon fictional language appearing in works by John M. Ford related to the science fiction series Star Trek, in which it is depicted as the language of the Klingon race. ... Cover illustration of Metal of Honor Stovokor is a death metal band from Portland, Oregon (USA). ...

References

  1. ^ Ernest Miller (March 08 2004). Klingon is Copyrighted. The Importance of....
  2. ^ [www.angelfire.com/trek/yensw/PDF/thesis.pdf Klingon as Linguistic Capital, Yens Wahlgren, June 2000]
  3. ^ KLI Wiki, Canon sources
  4. ^ d'Armond Speers homepage
  5. ^ Gavin Edwards: Babble On Revisited, Wired Magazine, Issue 7.08, August 1999
  6. ^ Symbols attributed to Okuda: the Klingon Language Institute's Klingon FAQ (edited by d'Armond Speers), question 2.13 by Will Martin (August 18 1994). Symbols incorrectly attributed to Okuda: KLI founder Lawrence M. Schoen's "On Orthography" (PDF), citing J. Lee's "An Interview with Michael Okuda" in the KLI's journal HolQed 1.1 (March 1992), p. 11. Symbols actually designed by Astra Image Corporation: Michael Everson's Proposal....[3].
  7. ^ Puns in the Vocabulary of tlhIngan Hol
  8. ^ Klingon Speakers Now Outnumber Navajo Speakers. The Onion (July 28, 1999).
  9. ^ Derek Gulbranson (9 March 2006). Mac OS X Supports Klingon.
  10. ^ Google in Klingon.
  11. ^ Klingon Interpreter. Urban Legends Reference Pages (13 May 2003).

Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ...

External links

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Parlez-vous français? Qapla’! More Grade 11 boys proficient in Klingon than French: local survey

Image File history File links Wikibooks-logo-en. ... Wikibooks logo Wikibooks, previously called Wikimedia Free Textbook Project and Wikimedia-Textbooks, is a wiki for the creation of books. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links WikiNews-Logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Sociolinguistics is the study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cultural norms, expectations, and context on the way language is used. ... Sociology (from Latin: socius, companion; and the suffix -ology, the study of, from Greek λόγος, lógos, knowledge [1]) is the systematic and scientific study of society, including patterns of social relationships, social action, and culture[2]. Areas studied in sociology can range from the analysis of brief contacts between anonymous...


  Results from FactBites:
 
A Brief History of Klingon (print version) (1290 words)
The truth of the matter, according to Okrand, is that when he found himself drawing too heavily from one language or language family he switched to a radically different source before continuing.
In January of 1992, the Klingon Language Institute was created; its mission was to gather together Klingon speakers -- not just those with access to electronic mail -- and create a common forum for exploration of the language.
Lawrence M. Schoen is a free-lance writer and director of the Klingon Language Institutes, a nonprofit corporation which facilitates the scholarly exploration of the Klingon language and culture.
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