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Encyclopedia > Klezmer
Klezmer
Stylistic origins: Klezmer developed in Southeastern Europe alongside Rom, Greek, Romanian, Turkish and Bulgarian music.
Cultural origins: Jewish celebrations, especially weddings, in Eastern Europe
Typical instruments: Violin, Cymbalom, Clarinet, Accordion, Trombone
Mainstream popularity: Rare among non-Jews, well-followed by Jews in US, especially following 1980s revival
Subgenres
Neo-klezmer
Fusion genres
Hip-hop Klezmer - Klezcore - Jewish Jazz
Regional scenes
Germany - Israel - United States
Other topics
KlezKamp - Klezmer-loshn

Klezmer (from Yiddish כּלי־זמיר, etymologically from Hebrew k'li zemer כלי זמר, "musical instrument") is a musical tradition which parallels Hasidic and Ashkenazic Judaism. Around the 15th century, a tradition of secular (non-liturgical) Jewish music was developed by musicians called kleyzmorim or kleyzmerim. They draw on devotional traditions extending back into Biblical times, and their musical legacy of klezmer continues to evolve today. The repertoire is largely dance songs for weddings and other celebrations. Due to the Ashkenazi lineage of this music, the lyrics, terminology and song titles are typically in Yiddish. 19th century print of Roma musicians Typically nomadic, the Roma have long acted as wandering entertainers and tradesmen. ... Bulgarian music is part of the Balkan tradition, which stretches across Southeastern Europe, and has its own distinctive sound. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbal instrument. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... This article is about the instrument as a whole. ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... KlezKamp is a yearly Klezmer music and Yiddish culture festival in the Northeastern United states. ... Klezmer-loshn (Yiddish: Musicians Tongue) is an extinct dialect of Yiddish. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... A musical instrument is a device constructed or modified with the purpose of making music. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Devotional songs are hymns that accompany religious rituals. ... Ashkenazi Jews, also known as Ashkenazic Jews or Ashkenazim (אַשְׁכֲּנָזִי אַשְׁכֲּנָזִים Standard Hebrew, AÅ¡kanazi,AÅ¡kanazim, Tiberian Hebrew, ʾAÅ¡kănāzî, ʾAÅ¡kănāzîm, pronounced sing. ... Yiddish (Yid. ...


Originally, klezmer (plural klezmorim) referred to musical instruments, and was later extended to refer to musicians themselves. It was not until the mid-to-late 20th Century that the word was used to identify a musical genre. Early 20th Century recordings and writings most often refer to the style as "Yiddish" music, although it is also sometimes called Freilech music.

Contents

Style

Jewish and Israeli Music
Israeli Flag Magen David (main article) Magen David Israeli Flag
Religious music:
HistoricalContemporary
PiyyutNigunPizmonim
ZemirotBaqashot
Secular music:
IsraeliIsraeli Folk
KlezmerSephardicMizrahi
Not Jewish in Form:
ClassicalMainstream and Jazz
Dance:
Israeli Folk DancingBallet
HorahHava NagilaYemenite dance
Music for Holidays
ChanukahPassover • Shabbat
Israel
HatikvahJerusalem of Gold
Piyyutim
Adon Olam • GeshemLekhah Dodi
Ma'oz TzurYedid NefeshYigdal
Music of the Haggadah
Ma NishtanaDayenuAdir Hu
Chad GadyaEchad Mi Yodea
A poster advertsing a Klezmer festival on Unter den Linden in Berlin, May 2006
A poster advertsing a Klezmer festival on Unter den Linden in Berlin, May 2006

Klezmer is easily identifiable by its characteristic expressive melodies, reminiscent of the human voice, complete with laughing and weeping. This is not a coincidence; the style is meant to imitate khazone and paraliturgical singing. Several techniques are used to accomplish this. There are krekhts, 'sobs', and dreydlekh which are a form of trill. Jewish music, the music of Jews, is quite diverse and dates back thousands of years. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Jewish music, the music of Jews, is quite diverse and dates back thousands of years. ... Image File history File links Star_of_David. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Israel. ... This article is about the sacred and religious music of Judaism from Biblical to Modern times. ... This article is about the sacred and religious music of Judaism from Biblical to Modern times. ... This article is about contemporary Jewish religious music. ... A piyyut (plural piyyutim, Hebrew פיוט, IPA [pijút] and [pijutím]) is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. ... Nigun (pl. ... Pizmonim (Hebrew פזמונים, singular pizmon) are traditional Jewish songs and melodies that praise God. ... Negara Israel akan tetap ada, namun bangsa Jahudi harus bertobat dahulu, agar Mesias dapat memerintah di bumi, di Yerusalem. ... This article is about a type of Jewish religious music, Baqashot. ... See Secular Jewish culture for the main article on secular Jewish culture. ... Modern Israeli music is heavily influenced by its constituents, which include Jewish immigrants (see Jewish music) from more than 120 countries around the world, which have brought their own musical traditions, making Israel a global melting pot. ... The Sephardic Jews are one of the three main ethnicities among Diaspora Jews, the others being the Ashkenazi and Mizrahi. ... :This article is about the music of the Mizrahi Jews. ... See Secular Jewish culture for the main article on secular Jewish culture. ... See Secular Jewish culture for the main article on secular Jewish culture. ... See Secular Jewish culture for the main article on secular Jewish culture. ... See Secular Jewish culture for the main article on secular Jewish culture. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... See Secular Jewish culture for the main article on secular Jewish culture. ... Hora is the name of a circle dance in a number of countries. ... Hava Nagila (הבא נגילה in hebrew) is a Hebrew folk song, the title meaning Let us rejoice. ... In Yemen, where Jews were banned from dancing publicly, forms of dance evolved that are based on stationary hopping and posturing, such as can be done in a confined space. ... Chanukah music contains several songs associated with the festival of Chanukah. ... It has been suggested that Dayenu and Had Gadia be merged into this article or section. ... :This article is about a type of Jewish religious music, Zemirot. ... Hatikvah or Hatikva (Hebrew: הַתִּקְוָה, “The Hope”), sometimes styled HaTikva(h), is the national anthem of the State of Israel. ... Jerusalem of Gold (‎, Yerushalayim Shel Zahav) is a popular Israeli song written by Naomi Shemer in 1967. ... A piyyut (plural piyyutim, Hebrew פיוט, IPA [pijút] and [pijutím]) is a Jewish liturgical poem, usually designated to be sung, chanted, or recited during religious services. ... Adon Olam, with transliterated lyrics and melody, from the Jewish Encyclopedia. ... Geshem (גשם) is one of the Hebrew words for rain, applied mostly to the heavy rains which occur in Israel in the fall and winter. ... Lekhah Dodi (לכה דודי transliterated as Lecha Dodi, Lchah Dodi, Lekah Dodi or Lechah Dodi) is a Hebrew liturgical song recited Friday at dusk, usually at sundown, in synagogue to welcome Shabbat (the Jewish Sabbath) prior to the Maariv evening services. ... Maoz Tzur (Hebrew: מעוז צור), widely known in English as Rock of Ages, is a Jewish liturgical poem or piyyut. ... Yedid Nefesh is a name of a piyyut. ... The hymn which in the various rituals shares with Adon Olam the place of honor at the opening of the morning and the close of the evening service. ... It has been suggested that Dayenu and Had Gadia be merged into this article or section. ... Main article: Passover songs Ma Nishtana (Hebrew: מה נשתנה) are the four questions sung during the Passover seder. ... Main article: Passover songs Dayenu (Hebrew:) is a song that is part of the Jewish holiday of Passover. ... Main article: Passover songs Adir Hu (English: Mighty is He, Hebrew אדיר הוּא) is a hymn sung by Jews worldwide at the Passover Seder. ... Main article: Passover songs Chad Gadya (Aramaic: חַד גַדְיָה) is a playful cumulative song, written in Aramaic with Hebrew words interspersed. ... Main article: Passover songs Echad Mi Yodea (Yiddish: Mandabar uma nsapar) (Hebrew: אחד מי יודע echad mi yodea) (Who Knows One?) is a traditional cumulative song sung on Passover and found in the haggadah. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 275 KB) Photo by User:Adam Carr, May 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1600x1200, 275 KB) Photo by User:Adam Carr, May 2006 I, the creator of this work, hereby release it into the public domain. ... A view of Unter den Linden, showing the linden trees for which it is named Unter den Linden (in English: Under the Lindens), is a street in the centre of Berlin, the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... A hazzan (or chazzan, Hebrew for Cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... Krekhts (Yiddish for Sobs) are an ornamentation in klezmer music, especially on the violin. ... The trill is a musical ornament consisting of a rapid alternation between two adjacent notes of a scale (compare mordent and tremolo). ...


History

The Bible has several descriptions of orchestras and Levites making music. But after the destruction of the Second Temple in 70, many Rabbis discouraged musical instruments. But the importance of merrymaking at weddings was not diminished, and musicians came forth to fill that niche, klezmorim. The first klezmer known by name was Yakobius ben Yakobius, a 150s player of the aulus in Samaria. The earliest written record of the klezmorim is in the 15th century. It should be noted that it is unlikely that they played music recognizable as klezmer today since the style and structure of klezmer as we know it today is thought to have come largely from 19th century Bessarabia, where the bulk of today's traditional repertoire was written. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... In the Jewish tradition, a Levite (לוי Attached, Standard Hebrew Levi, Tiberian Hebrew Lēwî) is a member of the Hebrew tribe of Levi. ... A stone (2. ... This article is about the year 70. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... Centuries: 1st century - 2nd century - 3rd century Decades: 100s - 110s - 120s - 130s - 140s - 150s - 160s - 170s - 180s - 190s - 200s 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 Events and trends Significant people Antoninus Pius, Roman Emperor (138-161) Categories: 150s ... Several ancient Romans had the relatively uncommon praenomen Aulus: Aulus Agerius (a name for the plaintiff in a lawsuit) Aulus Caecina Aulus Caecina Alienus Aulus Cornelius Cossus Aulus Cremutius Cordus Aulus Gabinius Aulus Gellius Aulus Hirtius - consul after Caesar Aulus Licinius Nerva Silianus Aulus Persius Flaccus Aulus Plautius Aulus Terentius... “Shomron” redirects here. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ...


Klezmorim based their secular instrumental music upon the devotional vocal music of the synagogue, in particular cantorial music. Even so, klezmorim — along with other entertainers — were typically looked down on by Rabbis because of their secular traveling lifestyle. Klezmorim often travelled and played with Roma musicians ("lăutari"), since they occupied similar social positions. They had a great influence on each other musically and linguistically (the extensive klezmer argot in Yiddish includes some Roma borrowings). This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ... Devotional songs are hymns that accompany religious rituals. ... A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... A hazzan or chazzan (Hebrew for cantor) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... For the town in Italy, see Rabbi, Italy. ... The Roma people (pronounced rahma, singular Rom, sometimes Rroma, and Rrom) along with the closely related Sinti people are commonly known as Gypsies in English, and as Tsigany in most of Europe. ...


Klezmorim were respected for their musical abilities and diverse repertoire but they were by no means restricted to playing klezmer. Christian churches would sometimes ask for their services, and some Italian classical violin virtuosos received their instruction. Local aristocracy held the best klezmer in high regard and often used their services.


Like other professional musicians, klezmorim were often limited by authorities. Ukrainian restrictions lasting into the 19th century banned them from playing loud instruments. Hence musicians took up the violin, tsimbl (or cymbalom), and other string instruments. The first musician to bring klezmer to European concert audiences, Josef Gusikov, played a type of xylophone of his own invention, which he called a 'wood and straw instrument', laid out like a cymbalom, and attracted comments from Felix Mendelssohn (highly favourable) and Liszt (condemnatory). Later, around 1855 under the reign of Alexander II of Russia, Ukraine permitted loud instruments. The clarinet started to replace the violin as the instrument of choice. Also, a shift towards brass and percussion happened when klezmorim were conscripted into military bands. The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... Cymbalum // Overview The cymbalum, cymbalom, cimbalom (most common spelling), Å£ambal, tsymbaly, tsimbl or santouri is a musical instrument found mainly in the Roma music of Hungary, Romania, and Ukraine. ... It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbal instrument. ... Joseph Gusikov, from Lewalds Europa (1836) Michal Josef Gusikov (also spelt Guzikow or Gusikow) (2 September 1806, Shklov - 21 October 1837, Aachen) was a klezmer who gave the first performances of klezmer music to West European concert audiences on the wood and straw instrument which he invented. ... Kulintang a Kayo, a Philippine xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. ... Jakob Ludwig Felix Mendelssohn Bartholdy, born and known generally as Felix Mendelssohn (February 3, 1809 – November 4, 1847) was a German composer and conductor of the early Romantic period. ... Franz Liszt (October 22, 1811 – July 31, 1886) was a virtuoso pianist and composer. ... Alexander (Aleksandr) II Nikolaevich (Russian: Александр II Николаевич) (Moscow, 29 April 1818 – 13 March 1881 in St. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ...


As Jews left Eastern Europe and the shtetls, klezmer has spread throughout the globe, especially to the United States. Initially, not much of the klezmer tradition was maintained by U.S. Jews, there were only a few Yiddish folk singers. In the 1920s the clarinetists Dave Tarras and Naftule Brandwein caused a brief, influential revival. But as U.S. Jews began to adopt mainstream culture, the popularity of klezmer slowly waned, and Jewish celebrations were increasingly accompanied by non-Jewish music. A shtetl (Yiddish: , diminutive form of Yiddish shtot שטאָט, town, pronounced very similarly to the South German diminutiveStädtle, little town) was typically a small town with a large Jewish population in pre-Holocaust Central and Eastern Europe. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Dave Tarras, 1897-1989, born Dovid Tarraschuk in Ternivka, (a village in Teplytskyi Raion, Vinnytsia Oblast, Ukraine), possibly the most famous 20th century klezmer musician. ... Naftule Brandwein (1889-1963) was a Jewish clarinettist and one of the most influential figures in the history of klezmer music. ...


While traditional performances may have been on the decline, many Jewish composers who had secured mainstream success, such as Leonard Bernstein and Aaron Copland, continued to be influenced by the klezmeric idioms heard during their youth. Many believe that Gershwin was influenced by the Yiddish of his youth, and that the opening of "Rhapsody in Blue" was a nod to klezmer clarinetting.[citation needed] And, of course, much of Benny Goodman's clarinet style is clearly also derived from klezmer. Leonard Bernstein in 1971 Leonard Bernstein (IPA pronunciation: )[1] (August 25, 1918 – October 14, 1990) was an American conductor, composer, and pianist. ... Aaron Copland Aaron Copland (November 14, 1900 – December 2, 1990) was an American composer of concert and film music, as well as an accomplished pianist. ... George Gershwin photograph by Edward Steichen in 1927. ... Cover of the original sheet music of the two piano version of Rhapsody in Blue. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


At the same time, non-Jewish composers were also turning to klezmer for a prolific source of fascinating thematic material. Dmitri Shostakovich, in particular, admired klezmer music for embracing both the ecstasy and the despair of human life and quoted several melodies in his chamber masterpieces, the Piano Quintet in G minor, op. 57 (1940), the Piano Trio No. 2 in E minor, op. 67 (1944), and the String Quartet No. 8 in C minor, op. 110 (1960). Dmitri Shostakovich   (Russian: , Dmitrij Dmitrievič Å ostakovič) (September 25 [O.S. September 12] 1906–August 9, 1975) was a Russian composer of the Soviet period. ... Chamber music is a form of classical music, written for a small group of instruments which traditionally could be accommodated in a palace chamber. ... The Piano Quintet, opus 57, by Dmitri Shostakovich is one of his best known chamber works. ... The Piano Trio No. ... The String Quartet No. ...


In the 1970s there was a klezmer revival in the United States and Europe, led by Giora Feidman, Zev Feldman, Andy Statman, The Klezmorim, and the Klezmer Conservatory Band. They drew their repertoire from recordings and surviving musicians of U.S. klezmer. In 1985 Henry Sapoznik founded KlezKamp to teach klezmer and other Yiddish music. The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Giora Feidman (b. ... Andy Statman is a noted Klezmer clarinetist and bluegrass/newgrass mandolinist. ... The Klezmorim was a klezmer band formed in 1975. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: not even a stub If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... This article is about the year. ... Henry Sapoznik is an award winning author, record and radio producer and performer of traditional Yiddish and American music. ... KlezKamp is a yearly Klezmer music and Yiddish culture festival in the Northeastern United states. ...


Shortly thereafter, in the 1980s, there was a second revival as interest grew in more traditionally-inspired performances with string instruments, largely in non-Jews of the United States and Germany. Musicians began to track down older European klezmer, by listening to recordings, finding transcriptions, and making field recordings of the few klezmorim left in Eastern Europe. Key performers in this style are Joel Rubin, Budowitz, Khevrisa, Di Naye Kapelye, The Chicago Klezmer Ensemble, the violinists Alicia Svigals, [[Steven Greenman]http://www.stevengreenman.com] Steven Greenman and Cookie Segelstein, the flutist Adrianne Greenbaum, and the tsimbl player Pete Rushefsky. The New York City-based Klezmatics also emerged during this period. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Di Naye Kapelye is a Hungarian klezmer music group. ... Alicia Svigals is an American Klezmer violinist. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Klezmatics is an American klezmer music group. ...


Interest in klezmer has developed in avant-garde jazz musicians like John Zorn and Don Byron, who sometimes blend klezmer with jazz. A work similar to Marcel Duchamps Fountain Avant garde (written avant-garde) is a French phrase, one of many French phrases used by English speakers. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... John Zorn (born September 2, 1953 in Queens, USA) is an American avant-garde composer, arranger, record producer, saxophonist and multi-instrumentalist. ... Tuskegee Experiments, 1992 Don Byron (born November 8, 1958 in New York City) is a composer and jazz clarinet player. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ...


Repertoire

Historically, young klezmorim learned songs from their family and their elders in bands. However, there were several breaks in history where this transmission broke down, such as the Holocaust. Undoubtedly a lot was lost, especially wedding repertoire, since Jewish weddings would last several days, but technology of the time could only record a few minutes at a time. Fortunately, there remain a few older klezmorim that are able to recall some of this repertoire. Also, some transcriptions were done in the 19th century. For other uses, see Holocaust (disambiguation) and Shoah (disambiguation). ... Judaism considers marriage to be the ideal state of existence; a man without a wife, or a woman without a husband, are considered incomplete. ...


In the 20th century, klezmer is typically learned from fake books and transcriptions of old recordings. A fake book is a collection of musical lead sheets intended to help a performer quickly learn new songs. ... In music, transcription is the act of notating a piece or a sound which was previously unnotated. ...


Song types

Most klezmer pieces are intended to be danced to, from fast to slow tempo:

  • The freylekhs (also bulgar, bulgarish - literally "Bulgarian", volekhl/vulekhl - literally "Wallachian", or "Romanian") is a (3+3+2 = 8)/8 circle dance, usually in the Ahava Rabboh melodic mode. Typically piano, accordion, or bass plays a duple oom-pah beat. These are by far the most popular klezmer dances. The name "bulgar" (Yiddish "bulgarish", Moldavian "bulgarească") probably refers to the Bulgarian minority in southern Bessarabia, although their association with this particular dance has long been forgotten.
  • The sher is a set dance in 2/4. It is one of the most common klezmer dances.
  • The khosidl, or khusidl, named after the Hasidic Jews who danced it, is a more dignified embellished dance in 2/4 or 4/4. The dance steps can be performed in a circle or in a line.
  • The hora or zhok is a Moldavian (Romanian) -style dance in a hobbling 3/8 time with beats on 1 and 3, and is even more embellished. The Israeli hora derives its roots from the Moldavian or Bessarabian hora.
  • The kolomeike is a fast and catchy dance in 2/4 time, which originated in Ukraine, and is prominent in the folk music of that country.
  • The terkish is a 4/4 dance like the habanera. Terk in America is one famous arrangement by Naftule Brandwein, who used this form extensively.
  • The skotshne ("hopping") could be an instrumental display piece, but also a dance piece, like a more elaborate freylekhs.
  • The nigun, which means "melody" in both Yiddish and Hebrew, a mid-paced song in 2/4.
  • Waltzes were very popular, whether classical, Russian, or Polish. A padespan was a sort of Russian/Spanish waltz known to klezmers.
  • The mazurka and polka, Polish and Czech dances, respectively, were often played for both Jews and Gentiles.
  • Cakewalks were African-American folk dances popular around the start of the 20th century, even among Eastern European Jews.
  • The csárdás is a Hungarian dance popular among the Jews of Hungary, Slovakia, and the Carpathians. It started off slowly and gradually increased in tempo.
  • The sîrba, a Romanian/Moldavian dance in 2/3 or 2/4. It features hopping steps and short bursts of running, accompanied by triplets in the melody.
  • The Humoresque 'Halaka' dance, a traditional Israeli dance from Safed in Galilee; it has an ancient melody handed down from generation to generation.
  • The tango, the well-known dance that originated in Argentina. These were extremely popular around the world in the 1930s, and many Eastern European tangos were originally written by Jews.

Additionally, there are types not designed for dance: For the people of Central Asia see Bulgars Bulgar language is an extinct language commonly considered Turkic but more recently Indo-Iranian Bulgar, or bulgarish is Yiddish word for Romanian dance bugarească (means Bulgarian cf. ... The time signature (also known as meter signature) is a notational convention used in Western musical notation to specify how many beats are in each bar and what note value constitutes one beat. ... The Spanish scale (also called the Jewish scale, Ahava Rabboh or Freygish) is commonly used in Hebrew prayers and in Spanish music. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia (Basarabia in Romanian, Бесарабія in Ukrainian, Бессарабия in Russian, Бесарабия in Bulgarian, Besarabya in Turkish) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... A sher is a form of dance in Eastern European folk music, notably Russian and Klezmer music. ... Set dances, sometimes called country sets, are a popular form of folk dancing in Ireland. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Hora is the name of a circle dance in a number of countries. ... Hora is the name of a circle dance in a number of countries. ... The kolomyjka is a folk dance especially popular in the western part of Ukraine. ... Look up habanera in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Naftule Brandwein (1889-1963) was a Jewish clarinettist and one of the most influential figures in the history of klezmer music. ... Nigun (pl. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... “Hebrew” redirects here. ... The mazurka (Polish: mazurek, named after Polands Masuria district[1]) is a Polish folk dance in triple metre with a lively tempo, containing a heavy accent on the third or second beat. ... Street musicians in Prague playing a polka Polka is a type of dance, and also a genre of dance music. ... Cakewalk is a traditional African American form of music and dance which originated among slaves in the US South. ... Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ... Czardas or Csárdás (Hungarian csárdás, from csárda, a tavern, beer house) is a traditional Hungarian folk dance. ... Satellite image of the Carpathians. ... A Sîrba or Sârba (meaning Serbian [dance] in Romanian) is a Romanian dance normally played in 2/3 or 2/4 time. ... Moldavia (Moldova in Romanian) was a Romanian principality, originally created in the Middle Ages, now divided between Romania, Moldovan Republic and Ukraine. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Safed (Hebrew: צְפַת, Tiberian: , Israeli: Tsfat, Ashkenazi: Tzfas; Arabic: صفد ; KJV English: Zephath) is a city in the North District in Israel. ... Galilee (Arabic al-jaleel الجليل, Hebrew hagalil הגליל), meaning circuit, is a large area overlapping with much of the North District of Israel. ... A couple dances Argentine Tango. ... The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known as the World Depression. ...

  • A doina is an improvisational lament usually performed solo, and is extremely important in weddings. Its basis is the Moldavian (Romanian) shepherd's lament, so it has an expressive vocal quality, like the singing of the khazn. Although it has no form, it is not just random sounds in a Jewish mode--the musician works with very particular references to Jewish prayer and East European laments. Often these references might occur in the form of harmonic movements or modal manuvers which quote or otherwise invoke traditional Jewish cantorial practices. Typically it is performed on violin (Yiddish "fidl"), cymbalom (Yiddish "tsimbl") or clarinet, though has been done on everything from banjoes to xylophones. Often it is the first of a 3-part set, followed by a hora, then either a freylekhs or khusidl.
  • A taksim is a freeform prelude that introduces the motifs of the following piece, which is usually a freylekhs; it was largely supplanted by the doina by the beginning of the XX century.
  • A fantazi or fantasy is a freeform song, traditionally played at Jewish weddings to the guests as they dined. It resembles the fantasia of "light" classical music.

The Doina is a Southeastern European musical tune style, having its roots in the music of Romanian (Vlach) shepherds. ... A hazzan, chazzan or khazn (Hebrew for cantor, עברית: חזן) is a Jewish musician trained in the vocal arts who helps lead the synagogue in songful prayer. ... In music, a scale is an ordered series of musical intervals, which, along with the key or tonic, define the pitches. ... For other uses, see Banjo (disambiguation) The banjo is a stringed instrument of African American origin adapted from several African instruments. ... Kulintang a Kayo, a Philippine xylophone The xylophone (from the Greek meaning wooden sound) is a musical instrument in the percussion family which probably originated in Indonesia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The fantasia (also English: , German: , French: ) is a musical composition with its roots in the art of improvisation. ...

Song structure

Most klezmer songs are in several sections, each in a different key. Frequently sections alternate between major and minor keys. Instrumental songs often follow the type of chord progressions found in "oriental" music such as Greek music, whereas vocal Yiddish songs are often much simpler, and follow a style and chord progressions similar to Russian folk song. In music theory, the key identifies the tonic triad, the chord, major or minor, which represents the final point of rest for a piece, or the focal point of a section. ... In music theory, the major scale is one of the diatonic scales. ... A minor scale in musical theory is a diatonic scale whose third scale degree is an interval of a minor third above the tonic. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ...


A common ending for songs is an upwards chromatic run or glissando, followed by a slow staccato 8-5-1. The chromatic scale is a scale with twelve pitches, each a semitone or half step apart. ... Glissando (plural: glissandi) is a musical term that refers to either a continuous sliding from one pitch to another (a true glissando), or an incidental scale played while moving from one melodic note to another (an effective glissando). ... In musical notation, the Italian word staccato (literally detached, plural staccatos or staccati) indicates that notes are sounded in a detached and distinctly separate manner, with silence making up the latter part of the time allocated to each note. ...


Orchestration

Klezmer is generally instrumental, although at weddings klezmorim traditionally accompany the wedding entertainer. A typical orchestra would include a first violin, a contra-violin, a tsimbl (cimbalom or hammered dulcimer), a bass or cello, and sometimes a flute. The melody is generally assigned to the lead violin, while the remainder providing harmony, rhythm and some counterpoint (the latter usually coming from the second violin). The violin is a bowed string instrument with four strings tuned in perfect fifths. ... Cymbalum // Overview The cymbalum, cymbalom, cimbalom (most common spelling), ţambal, tsymbaly, tsimbl or santouri is a musical instrument found mainly in the Roma music of Hungary, Romania, and Ukraine. ... It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbal instrument. ... A diatonic hammered dulcimer made by Masterworks The hammered dulcimer is a stringed musical instrument with the strings stretched over a trapezoidal sounding board. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... The violoncello, usually abbreviated to cello, or cello (the c is pronounced as in the ch of check), is a bowed stringed instrument, a member of the violin family. ... ♠ This article is about the family of musical instruments. ...


Klezmer percussion tended, in early 20th Century recordings, to be minimal, no more than a woodblock or snare drum. (The snare drum is the more "authentic" of the two. The use of a wood block by modern klezmorim is the result of an attempt to imitate recordings from the early 20th Century, in which snare drums, whose volume tended to overwhelm the primitive recording equipment of the time, were replaced with quieter instruments.) In Eastern Europe percussion was often provided by a drummer who played a frame drum, or a poyk, sometimes called Baraban. (a poyk is a bass drum type drum often with a cymbal or piece of metal mounted on top. In Bulgaria, Serbia, and Macedonia, sometimes the pikeler would also play in the tapan style, i.e. with a switch in one hand on a thin tight head, and a mallet in the other, on a thicker, looser head. A woodcut is a method of printing in which an image is carved into the surface of a piece of wood, with the printing parts remaining level with the surface while the non-printing parts are removed, typically with chisels. ... The snare drum or side drum is a tubular drum made of wood or metal with skins, or heads, stretched over the top and bottom openings, and with a set of snares (cords) stretched across the bottom head. ... A framedrum is a membranophone that has a drumhead diameter greater than its depth. ...


Some Klezmer revival bands look to loud-instrument klezmer, jazz, and Dixieland for inspiration. Their band is similar to a typical jazz band, with some differences. They use a clarinet for the melody, and make great use of the trombone for slides and other flourishes. When a cymbalom sound is called for, a piano is played with sustain. There is usually a brass instrument ensemble, and sometimes there is a tuba for a bass. Performers in this style include The Klezmatics, Klezmer Conservatory Band and The Maxwell Street Klezmer Band. Other klezmer bands look back to different eras or regions, and attempt to recreate specific styles of klezmer--for example, the band Muzsikas has released albums in the 19th-century Romanian klezmer style, with only violins, tsimbls and other stringed instruments, giving even the happier passages a more haunting feel. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Dixieland music is a style of jazz. ... Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The trombone is a musical instrument in the brass family. ... A short grand piano, with the top up. ... Image of a trumpet, foreground, a piccolo trumpet behind, and a flugelhorn in background. ... The Klezmatics, Photo by Michael Macioce The Klezmatics is an American neo-klezmer music group based in New York City. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: not even a stub If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Muzsikás is a Hungarian musical group playing mainly folk music of Hungary and other countries and peoples of the region. ...


Time

In its original form, Klezmer was live music designed to facilitate dancing. Hence, the tempo would be altered as dancers tired — or better dancers joined in. Trying to maintain a steady tempo was counterproductive. Vocal songs would also come to a near-halt as the bandleader sang a particularly sad part, perhaps picking up slowly and eventually bursting into happy song once more (this is a feature of many Rom and Russian folk songs as well). Nonetheless, klezmorim were often mocked for their drifting tempos by fellow musicians. Languages Romani, languages of native region Religions Christianity, Islam Related ethnic groups South Asians (Desi) The Roma (singular Rom; sometimes Rroma, Rrom) or Romanies are an ethnic group living in many communities all over the world. ...


Like other musicians of their time, and many modern Jazz performers, early klezmorim did not rigidly follow the beat. Often they would slightly lead or trail it, giving a lilting sound. For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ...


Melodic modes

Klezmer is usually played in shteygerim, prayer modes of the synagogue. They are closely related to but distinct from Balkan modes. A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ...


Since klezmorim often had to perform for long events, it was difficult to keep the instruments in tune, especially the many-stringed cymbalom. This was not a great obstruction, since melody — not harmony — is the focus of klezmer. In fact, slight dissonances in harmony help give klezmer its character. It is also possible that you want to know about the Cymbal instrument. ...


Ahava Rabboh

Ahava Rabbah means "Abounding Love" in Hebrew, and refers to a prayer from the daily morning prayer service (shacharit). It is built on the fifth degree of the harmonic minor scale, with a descending tetrachord to the tonic being the most characteristic final cadence. It is also called the "Freygish", a Yiddish term derived from the German "Phrygisch", or Phrygian mode. It is considered the mode of supplication. Usually it is found in Hassidic music. It is similar to the Arabic Hijaz maqam. Most Klezmer makes use of the D Ahavah Rabboh scale (such as Nigun Rikud, Tish Nigun and numerous freylekhs), although there exist some that use other scales. The Spanish scale (also called the Jewish scale, Ahava Rabboh or Freygish) is commonly used in Hebrew prayers and in Spanish music. ... Jewish services (Hebrew: תפלה, tefillah ; plural תפלות, tefillot ; Yinglish: davening) are the prayer recitations which form part of the observance of Judaism. ... Yiddish (ייִדיש, Jiddisch) is a Germanic language spoken by about four million Jews throughout the world. ... Due to historical confusion, Phrygian mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ... Hasidic Judaism (Hebrew: Chasidut חסידות) is a Haredi Jewish religious movement. ... Hejaz (also Hijaz, Hedjaz) is a region in the northwest of present-day Saudi Arabia; its main city is Jeddah, but it is probably better-known for the holy city of Mecca. ... In Arabic music a maqaam (Arabic: ‎, Hebrew: ) is, a technique of improvisation that defines the pitches, patterns, and development of a piece of music and which is unique to Arabian art music. ...


Mi Sheberach

Mi Sheberach means "He who blessed" in Hebrew, from the Mi Shebarach prayer, recited after the honor of being called to the Torah reading. It is also called the Ukrainian, Altered Ukrainian, Doina, or Altered Dorian. It has a raised fourth, and is used often for the doina or dance pieces, like the Odessa Bulgar. When used in combination with the Ahavah Rabboh scale in the same piece (as in Mayn Shtetl Yas), the Mi Sheberach section is usually a whole tone below the Ahavah Rabboh scale (for example, D Ahavah Rabboh changes to C Mi Sheberach or vice versa). Due to historical confusion, Dorian mode can refer to two very different musical modes or diatonic scales. ... The Doina is a Southeastern European musical tune style, having its roots in the music of Romanian (Vlach) shepherds. ...


Adonoy Moloch

Adonoy Moloch means "my Lord reigns" in Hebrew. It is common in traditional synagogue services (they are the beginning words of many of the Psalms). It is similar to the Western Mixolydian mode and the Arabic Siga Maqam. A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogÄ“, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... Psalms (from the Greek: Psalmoi) (originally meaning songs sung to a harp, from psallein play on a stringed instrument, Ψαλμοί; Hebrew: Tehilim, תהילים) is a book of the Hebrew Bible, Tanakh or Old Testament. ... The Mixolydian mode is a musical mode or diatonic scale. ... Shiga Prefecture (滋賀県 Shiga-ken) is part of the Kinki region on Honshu island, Japan. ... In Arabic music a maqaam (Arabic: ‎, Hebrew: ) is, a technique of improvisation that defines the pitches, patterns, and development of a piece of music and which is unique to Arabian art music. ...


Mogen Ovos

Mogen Ovos means "our forebears' shield" in Hebrew. Is an older mode from the synagogue, derived from the Friday night prayers. It is similar to the Western natural minor scale and the Arabic Bayat Maqamat and Bayat-Nava. A synagogue (from ancient Greek: , transliterated synagogē, assembly; ‎ beit knesset, house of assembly; Yiddish: or Template:Lanh-he beit tefila, house of prayer, shul; Ladino: , esnoga) is a Jewish house of worship. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... A minor scale in musical theory is a diatonic scale whose third scale degree is an interval of a minor third above the tonic. ... In Arabic music a maqaam (Arabic: ‎, Hebrew: ) is, a technique of improvisation that defines the pitches, patterns, and development of a piece of music and which is unique to Arabian art music. ...


Yishtabach

Yishtabach means "it shall become superb" in Hebrew (from the daily morning services). It has a frequent lowering of the 2nd and 5th. It is related to Mogen Ovos, above. In the shacharit service, the short yishtabach (ישתבח) prayer is the final portion of the Pesukei DZimrah (verses of praise), recited before the second kaddish leading to the Shema. ...


Films

  • Jewish Soul Music: The Art of Giora Feidman (1980). Directed by Uri Barbash.
  • A Jumpin' night in the Garden of Eden (1988). Directed by Michal Goldman.
  • Fiddler on the Roof (1971) Directed by Norman Jewison.
  • Fiddlers on the Hoof (1989). Directed by Simon Broughton.
  • The Last Klezmer: Leopold Kozlowski: His Life and Music (1994). Directed by Yale Strom.
  • A Tickle in the Heart (1996). Directed by Stefan Schwietert.
  • Dummy (2002). Directed by Greg Pritikin.

Fiddler on the Roof is the 1971 film version of the Broadway musical of the same name. ... Norman Frederick Jewison, CC, BA, LL.D (born July 21, 1926) is a Canadian film director, producer, and actor. ... Yale Strom (violin, composer, filmmaker, writer, photographer, playwright) is a pioneer among revivalists in conducting extensive field research in Central and Eastern Europe and the Balkans among the Jewish and Rom communities. ... Dummy is a 2002 drama film/comedy film written and directed by Greg Pritikin. ... Chicago-born writer/director, Greg Pritikin is an independent filmmaker. ...

External links

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Klezmer - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2284 words)
Klezmer is easily identifiable by its characteristic expressive melodies, reminiscent of the human voice, complete with laughing and weeping.
Klezmer percussion tends to be minimal, no more than a woodblock or snare drum.
Klezmer is usually played in shteygerim, prayer modes of the synagogue.
Columbia Klezmer Band Homepage (66 words)
The Columbia Klezmer Band, founded in 2000, is a group of talented Columbia, Barnard, and JTS students from a variety of musical backgrounds.
Klezmer, the music we play, is the Jewish folk/dance music whose roots lie in old Eastern Europe.
Jeff Warschauer, one of the foremost exponents of the Klezmer mandolin who has played and taught throughtout the United States, in Europe, Australia, and New Zealand.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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