FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Klepht

Klephts (Greek κλέφτης, pl. κλέφτες - kleftis, kleftes, which originally meant just "thieves"), were bandits and warlike mountain folk who lived in the Greek countryside when Greece was a part of the Ottoman Empire. Due to the development of Turkish-Greek relations, though the word still means literally "thieves", it assumed a positive meaning for Greeks, and is no longer used in reference to common thieves. Butch Cassidy, a famous outlaw An outlaw, a person living the lifestyle of outlawry, is most familiar to contemporary readers as a stock character in Western movies. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ...


Klephts under Ottoman rule were generally men who were fleeing vendettas or taxes, debts and reprisals from Ottoman officials. They raided travellers and isolated settlements and lived in the rugged mountains and back country. Most klephtic bands participated in some form in the Greek War of Independence. A feud is a long-running argument or fight between parties—often groups of people, especially families or clans. ... “Taxes” redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... In warfare, a reprisal is a limited and deliberate violation of the laws of war to punish an enemy for breaking the laws of war. ... Look up Ottoman, ottoman in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Combatants Greek revolutionaries United Kingdom France Russian Empire  Ottoman Empire Egyptian Khedivate Commanders Theodoros Kolokotronis Alexander Ypsilanti Georgios Karaiskakis Omer Vryonis Mahmud Dramali Pasha ReÅŸid Mehmed Pasha Ibrahim Pasha. ...


The terms Kleptomania and Kleptocracy are derived from the same Greek root, κλέπτειν, "to steal" - though having in modern use a completely different connotation. Kleptomania (Greek: κλέπτειν, kleptein, to steal, μανία, mania) is an inability or great difficulty in resisting impulses of stealing. ... Kleptocracy (sometimes Cleptocracy) (root: Klepto+cracy = rule by thieves) is a pejorative, informal term for a government that is primarily designed to sustain the personal wealth and political power of government officials and their cronies (collectively, kleptocrats). ...

Contents

Origins

After the fall of Constantinople in 1453 and then Mistra in the Despotate of the Morea, the majority of the plains of Greece fell entirely into the hands of the Ottoman Empire. The only territories that did not fall under Ottoman rule were the mountain ranges populated by Greeks, as well as a handful of islands and coastal possessions under the control of Venice. This situation lasted until at least 1821 (although there were some parts of Greece that still remained in Ottoman hands until the 20th century) and this period of time in Greece is known as the Τουρκοκρατία or "Turkocracy." This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ... April 2 - Mehmed II begins his siege of Constantinople (Ä°stanbul). ... For a village in the prefecture of Ioannina, see Ioannina The Vale of Laconia seen from the battlements of Mystras Mystras (also Mistra, Mystra and Mistras Greek: Μύστρας ) was a fortified town in Morea (the Peloponnesus), on Mt. ... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... “Ottoman” redirects here. ... Borders of the Republic of Venice in 1796 Capital Venice Language(s) Venetian, Latin, Italian Religion Roman Catholic Government Republic Doge  - 1789–97 Ludovico Manin History  - Established 697  - Treaty of Zara June 27, 1358  - Treaty of Leoben April 17, 1797 * Traditionally, the establishment of the Republic is dated to 697. ... Year 1821 (MDCCCXXI) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Ottoman conquests were divided up into pashaluks (provinces); in the case of the lands that form modern Greece, these were Morea and Roumelia, which were further sub-divided into feudal chifliks (Turkish çiftlik (farm), Greek τσιφλίκι). Any surviving Greek troops, whether regular Byzantine forces, local militia, or mercenaries had either to join the Ottoman army as janissaries, serve in the private army of a local Ottoman notable, or fend for themselves. Many Greeks wishing to preserve their Greek identity, Orthodox Christian religion, and independence chose the difficult but liberated life of a bandit. These bandit groups soon found their ranks swelled with impoverished and/or adventurous peasants, societal outcasts, and escaped criminals. Vilâyet (also eyalet or pashaluk) was the Turkish name for the provinces of the Ottoman Empire. ... The Morea and surrounding states carved from the Byzantine Empire, as they were in 1265 (William R. Shepherd, Historical Atlas, 1911) The name Morea (Μωρέας) for Peloponnesos first appears in the 10th century in Byzantine chronicles. ... Rumelia (or Roumelia) (in Turkish Rumeli, the East Roman or Byzantine Empire), a name commonly used, from the 15th century onwards, to denote the part of the Balkan Peninsula subject to the Ottoman Empire. ... “Byzantine” redirects here. ... Lebanese Kataeb militia A Militia is an organization of citizens to provide defense, emergency or paramilitary service, or those engaged in such activity. ... Mercenary (disambiguation). ... The Janissaries comprised infantry units that formed the Ottoman sultans household troops and bodyguard. ... ...


"Wild" klephts and "tame" klephts

Klephts can be seen as the legendary Robin Hood, living in isolated mountains and seeking freedom. It would be incorrect to think of the klephts in quite the same terms as modern urban gangsters such as Al Capone. The klephts had more in common with the early Mafia of the Sicilian Vespers, or other outlaws like Pancho Villa and Rob Roy and mixed the politics of national liberation with quests for personal revenge, enhancement of clan status, and personal profiteering, although their main cause was often merely survival in the barren mountains of Greece and Albania. Robin Hood memorial statue in Nottingham. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Gangster (disambiguation). ... “Capone” redirects here. ... This article is about the criminal society. ... Sicilian Vespers (1846), by Francesco Hayez The Sicilian Vespers is the name given to a rebellion in Sicily in 1282 against the rule of the Angevin king Charles I, who had taken control of the island with Papal support in 1266. ... For other senses of this word, see outlaw (disambiguation). ... For the Filipino boxer, see Francisco Guilledo. ... Portrait engraving of Rob Roy circa 1820s Robert Roy MacGregor, (baptized March 7, 1671 – December 28, 1734) usually known simply as Rob Roy or alternately Red MacGregor, was a famous Scottish folk hero and outlaw of the early 18th century, who is sometimes known as the Scottish Robin Hood. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Survival may refer to: Survival skills Survival kit Survivalism Survival, a studio album by Grand Funk Railroad Survival (album), a Bob Marley reggae album Survival (Doctor Who), an episode of Doctor Who Survival (television), a British wildlife television program Survival International a charity Survival Festival, Australia This is a disambiguation...


Many klephts would spend part of their lives in service to Ottoman landowners, some of whom were Turkish colonists and others native Greeks who had either kept their position after the Turks invaded, or were from Phanariot families who received grants of land from the sultan. Klephts who worked in this capacity were referred to as "tame klephts" while those who were independent were known as "wild klephts." Phanariotes (from Phanar, the chief Greek quarter at Istambul, where the oecumenical patriarchate is situated) were those members of families resident in the Phanar quarter who between the years 1711 and 1821 were appointed voivodes of the Danubian principalities (Moldavia and Wallachia). ... Sultan (Arabic: سلطان) is an Islamic title, with several historical meanings. ...


Famous klephts

Athanasios Diakos (1788-1821). ... Georgios Karaiskakis. ... Markos Botsaris (c. ... Odysseas Androutsos (also Odysseus Androutsos, Greek: Οδυσσέας Ανδρούτσος) was a hero of the Greek War of Independence. ... Monument of Theodoros Kolokotronis in Athens. ...

Klephtico

The famous Greek dish Klephtico (or Kleftiko) slow cooked lamb (or other meat) can be translated as 'stolen meat'. The Klephts, not having flocks of their own, would steal lambs or goats and cook the meat in a sealed pit to avoid the smoke being seen. Greek cuisine is the cuisine of Greece or perhaps of the Greeks. ...


References

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Klepht - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (498 words)
Klephts (Greek κλέφτης, pl. κλέφτες - kleftis, kleftes, "thieves") were bandits who lived in the Greek countryside when that country was a part of the Ottoman Empire.
The klephts had more in common with the early Mafia of the Sicilian Vespers, or other outlaws like Pancho Villa and Rob Roy and mixed the politics of national liberation with quests for personal revenge, enhancement of clan status, and personal profiteering.
Many klephts would spend part of their lives in service to Ottoman landowners, some of whom were Turkish colonists and others native Greeks who had either kept their position after the Turks invaded, or were from Phanariot families who received grants of land from the sultan.
armatoloi: Information From Answers.com (1491 words)
Armatolikia were created in areas of Greece that had high levels of brigandage, or in regions that were difficult for Ottoman authorities to govern due to the inaccessible terrain, such as the Agrafa mountains of Thessaly, where the first armatoliki was established in the mid-1400s.
An armatoliki was usually commanded by a kapetanios, often a former klepht captain who had been hired by the governing Ottoman Pasha to combat, or at least contain, brigand groups in the region.
Therefore, it was not surprising that armatolos units were organised in very much the same way as the klephts, with a captain assisted by a lieutenant called a protopalikaro, who was usually a kinsman, and the remaining force made up of armatoloi.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m