FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Klaus Fuchs
Klaus Fuchs' ID badge at Los Alamos.
Klaus Fuchs' ID badge at Los Alamos.

Emil Julius Klaus Fuchs (December 29, 1911January 28, 1988) pronounced Fu'cks was a German-born theoretical physicist and atomic spy who was convicted of surreptitiously supplying information on the British and American atomic bomb research to the USSR during, and shortly after, World War II. Fuchs was an extremely competent scientist, responsible for many significant theoretical calculations relating to the first fission weapons and early models of the hydrogen bomb while a physicist at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Image File history File links Klaus_Fuchs_ID_badge. ... Image File history File links Klaus_Fuchs_ID_badge. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... is the 363rd day of the year (364th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1911 (MCMXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... January 28 is the 28th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... Theoretical physics employs mathematical models and abstractions of physics, as opposed to experimental processes, in an attempt to understand nature. ... The Rosenbergs Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (1915-1953) and Julius Rosenberg (1918-1953) were American Communists who were thrust into the world spotlight when they were tried, convicted, and executed for spying for the Soviet Union. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ...

Contents

Early life

Klaus Fuchs was born in Rüsselsheim, Germany, the third of four children to Lutheran pastor Emil Fuchs and his wife Else Wagner. Fuchs' father was later a professor of theology at Leipzig University, while his grandmother, mother, and one sister eventually committed suicide. Fuchs' other sister was diagnosed as schizophrenic. Rüsselsheim is the largest city in the Groß-Gerau district in the Rhein-Main region of Germany. ... Emil Fuchs (1874-1971) was a German theologian. ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... The University of Leipzig is one of the oldest universities in Europe. ... Rather than surrender to US soldiers, the Mayor (Bürgermeister) of Leipzig, Germany, committed suicide along with his wife and daughter on April 20, 1945. ... Schizophrenia is a psychiatric diagnosis denoting a persistent, often chronic, mental illness variously affecting behavior, thinking, and emotion. ...


Fuchs attended university at both Leipzig University and Kiel University, and while at the latter he became active in politics and joined the Social Democratic Party of Germany and, in 1932, the Communist Party of Germany. In 1933, after an encounter with the recently-installed Nazis, he fled to France and after that was able to use family connections to flee to Bristol, England. He earned his PhD in Physics from the University of Bristol in 1937, studying under Nevill Mott, and took a DSc at the University of Edinburgh while studying under Max Born. A paper of his on quantum mechanics appeared in the Proceedings of the Royal Society in 1936, which contributed to his getting a teaching position at Edinburgh in 1937. The University of Leipzig is one of the oldest universities in Europe. ... The University of Kiel, in full the Christian-Albrechts-Universität zu Kiel (in short: CAU), is a university in the city of Kiel, Germany. ... SPD redirects here. ... Year 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1932 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1932 KPD poster, End This System The Communist Party of Germany (German Kommunistische Partei Deutschlands – KPD) was a major political party in Germany between 1918 and 1933, and a minor party in West Germany in the postwar period. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday. ... The Nazi party used a right-facing swastika as their symbol and the red and black colors were said to represent Blut und Boden (blood and soil). ... This article is about the English city. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... PhD usually refers to the academic title Doctor of Philosophy PhD can also refer to the manga Phantasy Degree This is a disambiguation page — a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... The University of Bristol is a university in Bristol, England. ... Year 1937 (MCMXXXVII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Sir Nevill Francis Mott (September 30, 1905 – August 8, 1996) was a British physicist. ... Sc. ... The University of Edinburgh (Scottish Gaelic: ), founded in 1582,[4] is a renowned centre for teaching and research in Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Max Born (December 11, 1882 in Breslau – January 5, 1970 in Göttingen) was a mathematician and physicist. ... Fig. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Wartime work and espionage

At the outbreak of war, German citizens in Britain were interned, and Fuchs was put into camps on the Isle of Man and later in Quebec, Canada, from June to December 1940. However, Professor Born intervened on Fuchs' behalf. By early 1941, Fuchs had returned temporarily to Edinburgh. He was approached by Rudolf Peierls of the University of Birmingham to work on the "Tube Alloys" program — the British atomic bomb research project. A London GRU message of 10 August 1941 is a reference to the GRU reestablishing contact with Fuchs. His initial Soviet contact was known to Fuchs as "Sonia". Her real name was Ruth Werner - a German communist and a Major in Soviet Military Intelligence. Despite wartime restrictions, he was granted British citizenship in 1942 and signed the Official Secrets Act. After Nazi Germany invaded the Soviet Union in 1941, he would later testify, he began to transmit military secrets to the USSR, believing that the Soviets had a right to know what the United Kingdom (and later the United States) were working on in secret. (The exact dates on when he began passing information is somewhat inconsistent in the literature on the subject.) He testified that he had contacted a former friend in the German Communist Party, who put him in touch with someone at the Soviet embassy in Britain. His code-name was Rest. Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... Motto: Je me souviens (French: I remember) Capital Quebec City Largest city Montreal Official languages French Government - Lieutenant-Governor Pierre Duchesne - Premier Jean Charest (PLQ) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 75 - Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area  Ranked 2nd - Total 1,542,056 km² (595... Sir Rudolf Ernst Peierls, (June 5, 1907, Berlin – September 19, 1995, Oxford), was a German-born British physicist. ... Website http://www. ... // Tube Alloys was the code-name for the British nuclear weapon programme during World War II, when the very possibility of nuclear weapons was kept at such a high level of secrecy that it had to be referred to by code even in the highest circles of government. ... For other uses, see GRU (disambiguation). ... is the 222nd day of the year (223rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... Citizenship is membership in a political community (originally a city or town but now usually a country) and carries with it rights to political participation; a person having such membership is a citizen. ... 1942 (MCMXLII) was a common year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1942 calendar). ... Official Secrets Act warning sign, Foulness. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ...


In late 1943 Fuchs transferred along with Peierls to Columbia University, New York City to work on the Manhattan Project. Although Fuchs was an asset of GRU in Britain, his control was transferred to the NKGB when he moved to New York. From August 1944 Fuchs worked in the Theoretical Physics Division at Los Alamos, New Mexico under Hans Bethe. His chief area of expertise was the problem of imploding the fissionable core of the plutonium bomb, and was at one point given calculation work that Edward Teller had refused to do due to lack of interest. He was the author of techniques (such as the still-used Fuchs-Nordheim method) for calculating the energy of a fissile assembly which goes highly prompt critical. Later, he also filed a patent with John von Neumann, describing a method to initiate fusion in a thermonuclear weapon with an implosion trigger. He was one of the many Los Alamos scientists present at the Trinity test. Year 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link will display full 1943 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the creation of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, known as the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... The Peoples Commissariat for State Security (Народный комиссариат государственной безопасн&#1086... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Standard atomic weight (244) g·mol−1 Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Austria-Hungary-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb. ... In nuclear engineering, an assembly is prompt critical if for each nuclear fission event, one or more of the immediate or prompt neutrons released causes an additional fission event. ... John von Neumann (Hungarian Margittai Neumann János Lajos) (born December 28, 1903 in Budapest, Austria-Hungary; died February 8, 1957 in Washington D.C., United States) was a Hungarian-born American mathematician who made contributions to quantum physics, functional analysis, set theory, topology, economics, computer science, numerical analysis, hydrodynamics... The Trinity test was the first test of a nuclear weapon, conducted by the United States on July 16, 1945 at , thirty miles (48 km) southeast of Socorro on what is now White Sands Missile Range, headquartered near Alamogordo, New Mexico. ...


From the fall of 1947 to May of 1949, Fuchs gave to Alexandre Feklisov, his case officer, the principal theoretical outline for creating a hydrogen bomb and initial drafts for its development, at the stage they were being worked on in England and America in 1948. Fuchs provided the results of the test at Eniwetok atoll of uranium and plutonium bombs. Fuchs met with Feklisov six times. Fuchs provided key data on production of uranium 235. Fuchs revealed that American production was one hundred kilograms of U-235 a month and twenty kilograms of plutonium per month. From this the Soviet Union could calculate the number of atomic bombs possessed by the United States, and concluded the United States was not prepared for a nuclear war at the end of the 1940s or even into the early 1950s. The information Fuchs gave Soviet intelligence in 1948 coincided with Donald Maclean's reports from Washington. The Soviet Union knew the United States did not have enough nuclear weapons to deal with both the Berlin blockade and the victory of the Communists in China at the same time. Alexandre Feklisov Aleksandr Semyonovich Feklisov was the KGB Case Officer who recruited Julius Rosenberg and Klaus Fuchs, among others. ... Enewetak (or Eniwetok) is an atoll in the Marshall Islands of the central Pacific Ocean. ... Donald Duart Maclean Donald Duart Maclean (25 May 1913 – 6 March 1983) was a career British diplomat turned Soviet intelligence agent. ... Occupation zones after 1945. ... The Communist Party of China (CPC) (Simplified Chinese: ; Traditional Chinese: ; Pinyin: ), also known as the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), is the ruling political party of the Peoples Republic of China, a position guaranteed by the countrys constitution. ...


Fuchs later testified that he passed detailed information on the project to the Soviet Union through a courier, Harry Gold (whom he knew as "Raymond"), in 1945 and further information about the hydrogen bomb in 1946 and 1947. Fuchs attended a conference of the Combined Policy Committee (CPC) in 1947, a committee created to facilitate exchange of atomic secrets between the highest levels of government of the U.S., Great Britain and Canada; Donald Maclean, as British co-secretary of CPC, was also in attendance. In 1946 when Fuchs returned to England and the Harwell Atomic Energy Research Establishment as the first Head of the Theoretical Physics Division, he was confronted by intelligence officers as a result of the cracking of Soviet ciphers known as the VENONA project. Under prolonged interrogation by MI5 officer William Skardon, Fuchs confessed in January 1950. Fuchs told interrogators the KGB acquired an agent in Berkeley, California who informed the Soviet Union about electromagnetic separation research of uranium-235 in 1942 or earlier. He was prosecuted by Sir Hartley Shawcross and was convicted on March 1, 1950. He was sentenced the next day to fourteen years in prison, the maximum possible for passing military secrets to a friendly nation. A week after the verdict, on March 7, the Soviet Union issued a terse statement denying that Fuchs served as a Soviet spy. Harry Gold Harry Gold (b. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display full 1947 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Donald Duart Maclean Donald Duart Maclean (25 May 1913 – 6 March 1983) was a career British diplomat turned Soviet intelligence agent. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Atomic Energy Research Establishment near Harwell, Oxfordshire was the main centre for atomic energy research and development in the United Kingdom from the 1940s to the 1990s. ... The Venona project was a long-running and highly secret collaboration between intelligence agencies of the United States and United Kingdom that involved the cryptanalysis of messages sent by several intelligence agencies of the Soviet Union. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... William (Jim) Skardon (1945-1987) was a Special Branch officer who became an MI5 interrogator and head of The Watchers (physical surveillance teams). ... The KGB emblem and motto: The sword and the shield KGB (transliteration of КГБ) is the Russian-language abbreviation for Committee for State Security, (Russian: ; Komitet Gosudarstvennoy Bezopasnosti). ... Berkeley is a city on the east shore of San Francisco Bay in northern California, in the United States. ... // Isotope separation is the process of concentrating specific isotopes of a chemical element by removing other isotopes, for example separating natural uranium into enriched uranium and depleted uranium. ... Hartley Shawcross, Attorney-General of England and Wales 1945-51 The Right Honourable Hartley William Shawcross, Baron Shawcross, PC, GBE KC (February 4, 1902–July 10, 2003), was a British barrister and politician and the lead British prosecutor at the Nuremberg War Crimes tribunal. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Fuchs' statements to British and American intelligence agencies was used to implicate Harry Gold, a key witness in the trials of David Greenglass and Julius and Ethel Rosenberg in the USA. Harry Gold Harry Gold (b. ... David Greenglass (b. ... Julius Rosenberg (May 12, 1918 – June 19, 1953) and Ethel Greenglass Rosenberg (September 28, 1915 – June 19, 1953) were American Communists who received international attention when they were executed for passing nuclear weapons secrets to the Soviet Union. ...


Value of Fuchs' data to the Soviet project

As a result of Fuchs' information, the first Soviet bomb, RDS-1 (above) closely resembled, even in its external shape, the U.S.-developed Fat Man bomb.
As a result of Fuchs' information, the first Soviet bomb, RDS-1 (above) closely resembled, even in its external shape, the U.S.-developed Fat Man bomb.

Hans Bethe once said that Klaus Fuchs was the only physicist he knew who truly changed history. Because of the manner in which the head of the Soviet project, Lavrenty Beria, used foreign intelligence (as a third-party check, rather than giving it directly to the scientists, as he did not trust the information by default) it is unknown whether Fuchs' fission information had a substantial impact (and considering that the pace of the Soviet program was set primarily by the amount of uranium they could procure, it is hard for scholars to accurately judge how much time this saved the Soviets). Some former Soviet scientists said they were actually hampered by Fuchs' data, because Beria insisted that their first bomb ("Joe 1") should resemble the American plutonium bomb ("Fat Man") as much as possible, even though the scientists had discovered a number of improvements and different designs for a more efficient weapon. Image File history File linksMetadata RDS-1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata RDS-1. ... External links http://gawain. ... Fat Man is the codename of the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. ... Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. ... Lavrenty Beria Lavrentiy Pavlovich Beria (Georgian: ლავრენტი ბერია; Russian: Лаврентий Павлович Берия; (29 March 1899 – 23 December 1953), was a Soviet politician and chief of the Soviet security and police apparatus. ... External links http://gawain. ... Fat Man is the codename of the atomic bomb that was detonated over Nagasaki, Japan, by the United States on August 9, 1945. ...


Whether the information Fuchs passed relating to the hydrogen bomb would have been useful is still somewhat in debate. Most scholars have agreed with the assessment made by Hans Bethe in 1952, which concluded that by the time Fuchs left the thermonuclear program — the summer of 1946 — there was too little known about the mechanism of the hydrogen bomb for his information to be of any necessary use to the Soviet Union (the successful Teller-Ulam design was not discovered until 1951). Soviet physicists would later note that they could see as well as the Americans eventually did that the early designs by Fuchs and Edward Teller were useless. However, later archival work by the Soviet physicist German Goncharov has suggested that while Fuchs' early work (most of which is still classified in the United States, but copies of which were available to the Soviets) did not aid the Americans in their effort towards the hydrogen bomb, it was actually far closer to the final correct solution than was recognized at the time, and indeed spurred Soviet research into useful problems which eventually resulted in the correct answer. Since most of Fuchs' work on the bomb, including a 1946 patent on a particular model for the weapon, are still classified in the United States, it has been difficult for scholars to fully assess these conclusions. In any case, it seems clear that Fuchs could not have just given the Soviets the "secret" to the hydrogen bomb, since he did not himself actually know it. Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. ... The basics of the Teller–Ulam configuration: a fission bomb uses radiation to compress and heat a separate section of fusion fuel. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Austria-Hungary-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb. ...


Fuchs' work on the development of the hydrogen bomb and the passing of secrets to the Soviets were the subject of Episode 2 of the BBC series "Nuclear Secrets", entitled "Superspy". The programme was broadcast on January 22, 2007. The British Broadcasting Corporation, which is usually known as the BBC, is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world in terms of audience numbers, employing 26,000 staff in the United Kingdom alone and with a budget of more than GB£4 billion. ... January 22 is the 22nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...


Later life

After confessing, Fuchs was sentenced to fourteen years' imprisonment at a trial lasting less than 90 minutes, and stripped of his British citizenship in December 1950 (some claim that his confession was made to avoid the death penalty; however, according to at least one of his interrogators, he was actually labouring under the impression he would be allowed back to work at Harwell). He was released on June 23, 1959, after serving nine years and four months of his sentence at Wakefield prison. He was allowed to emigrate to Dresden, then in the German Democratic Republic (East Germany). He left Britain almost immediately and lived in Dresden with his father and a nephew. Capital punishment, or the death penalty, is the execution of a convicted criminal by the state as punishment for crimes known as capital crimes or capital offences. ... is the 174th day of the year (175th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Wakefield The Town Hall, Wood St. ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... “East Germany” redirects here. ...


In 1959, he married a friend from his years as a student Communist, Margarete Keilson. In the GDR, he continued his scientific career and achieved considerable prominence. He was elected to the Academy of Sciences and the SED central committee, and was later appointed deputy director of the Institute for Nuclear Research in Rossendorf, where he served until he retired in 1979. He received the Order of Merit of the Fatherland and the Order of Karl Marx. He died near Dresden in 1988. Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The German Academy of Natural Scientists Leopoldinais the oldest learned society in Germany. ... The party emblem represented the handshake between Communist Wilhelm Pieck and Social Democrat Otto Grotewohl when their parties merged in 1946 The Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED) (German: Sozialistische Einheitspartei Deutschlands) was the governing party of East Germany from its formation in 1949 until the elections of 1990. ... Central Committee most commonly refers to the central executive unit of a communist party, whether ruling or non-ruling. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Karl Marx Order The Order of Karl Marx (German: Karl-Marx-Orden) was the most important order, even endowed with 20,000 marks, in the German Democratic Republic (GDR). ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


See also

Theodore Halls ID badge photo from Los Alamos. ... Atom Spies, is a term referring to people in the United States, Great Britain, and Canada who are thought to have illicitly given information about nuclear weapons production or design to the Soviet Union during World War II and the early Cold War. ... Frank Wolff is a character from The Adventures of Tintin series of classic comic books drawn and written by Hergé, particularly in Destination Moon and Explorers on the Moon. ... The main characters and others from The Castafiore Emerald, one of the later books The Adventures of Tintin (French: ) is a series of Belgian comic books created by Belgian artist Hergé, the pen name of Georges Remi (1907–1983). ...

References

  • Ronald Friedmann: Klaus Fuchs. Der Mann, der kein Spion war. Das Leben des Kommunisten und Wissenschaftlers Klaus Fuchs, 2006, ISBN 3-938686-44-8
  • Hans Bethe, "Memorandum on the History of the Thermonuclear Program" (28 May 1952).[1]
  • Rodney P. Carlisle, "Fuchs, Klaus Emil Julius", American National Biography Online Feb. 2000, accessed 24 September 2005.
  • Mary Flowers, "Fuchs, (Emil Julius) Klaus (1911–1988)", rev., Oxford Dictionary of National Biography, Oxford University Press, 2004, [2], accessed 24 September 2005. (requires library access)
  • German A. Goncharov, "American and Soviet H-bomb development programmes: historical background," Physics - Uspekhi 39:10 (1996): 1033–1044.[3]
  • Alexei Kojevnikov, Stalin's Great Science: The Times and Adventures of Soviet Physicists (Imperial College Press, 2004), ISBN 1-86094-420-5 (discusses use of Fuchs's passed on information by Soviets, based on now-declassified files)
  • Ruth Werner [4]
  • Nuclear Secrets Superspy BBC Television, accessed 23 February 2007 [5]

May 28 is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... BBC Television is a service of the British Broadcasting Corporation which began in 1932. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ...

Bibliography

  • Robert Chadwell Williams, Klaus Fuchs: Atom Spy (Harvard University Press, 1987) ISBN 0-674-50507-7

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Klaus Fuchs - Wikipedia (605 words)
Klaus Fuchs (Foto auf seinem Los-Alamos-Dienstausweis während des 2.
Fuchs wurde 1911 als Sohn des evangelischen Theologen Emil Fuchs geboren, machte sein Abitur 1928 in Eisenach und trat früh der Sozialistischen Arbeiterjugend bei.
Klaus Fuchs, Ruth Werner und der größte Spionagefall der Geschichte.
Klaus Fuchs - Wikipedia (284 words)
Klaus Fuchs was de zoon van de toonaangevende Duitse Quaker theoloog en socialist (Religieus-Socialistische Bond en de SPD) professor Emil Fuchs.
Klaus Fuchs groeide op in Duitsland en sloot zich in 1930 aan bij de Sociaal-Democratische Partij van Duitsland (SPD).
Van 1932 tot 1933 was hij was hij politiek voorzitter van de "Rode Studenten." In juli 1933 emigreerde Fuchs naar Groot-Brittannië en daar promoveerde hij in 1937 in de wiskunde en in 1938 in de natuurkunde.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m