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Encyclopedia > Kiya
A plaster study of a young woman wearing large earings, generally identified as Kiya. Currently on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.
A plaster study of a young woman wearing large earings, generally identified as Kiya. Currently on display at the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York City.

Kiya was a wife of Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten. Little is known about her, and her actions and role are poorly documented in the historical record in contrast to Akhenaten's first (and chief) wife, Nefertiti. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 474 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1056 × 1336 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 474 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1056 × 1336 pixel, file size: 1. ... Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... For other uses, see Pharaoh (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Akhenaten (disambiguation). ... Bust of Nefertiti from Berlins Altes Museum. ...

Contents

Name and titles

The name Kiya itself is cause for much debate. It has been suggested that it is a "pet" form, rather than a full name, and as such could well be a contraction of a foreign name, such as the Mitanni "Gilukhipa" or "Tadukhipa" daughter of Tushratta. However, no evidence currently exists to support the idea that she was not of native Egyptian origin. Moreover, the name Kiya "although fairly rare, is by no means unique and does not itself suggest a foreign origin."[1] In addition, Gilukhipa married Amenhotep III 28 years before his death, thus she was at least a generation older than Akhenaten, which makes it unlikely that they married. Kingdom of Mitanni Mitanni (cuneiform KUR URUMi-it-ta-ni, also Mittani Mi-ta-an-ni, in Assyrian sources Hanigalbat, Khanigalbat cuneiform Ḫa-ni-gal-bat ) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Mesopotamia from ca. ... Gilukhipa was daughter of Shuttarna II, king of Mitanni. ... Tadukhipa, in Hurrian language Tadu-Hepa, was the daughter of Tushratta, king of Mitanni (reigned ca. ... Tushratta was a king of the Mitanni at the end of the reign of Amenhotep III and throughout the reign of Akhenaten -- approximately the late 14th century BC. He was the son of Shuttarna II, and his daughter Tadukhipa was married to Akhenaten. ... Nebmaatre The Lord of Truth is Re[2] Nomen Amenhotep Hekawaset Amun is Satisfied, Ruler of Thebes[1] Horus name Kanakht Emkhaimaat The strong bull, appearing in truth Nebty name Semenhepusegerehtawy One establishing laws, pacifying the two lands Golden Horus Aakhepesh-husetiu Great of valour, smiting the Asiatics Consort(s...


In inscriptions, she is given the titles of "The Favorite", and "The Greatly Beloved", but never described as "Heiress" or "Great Royal Wife", which suggests that she herself was not of royal Egyptian blood. Her full titles read, "The wife and greatly beloved of the King of Upper and Lower Egypt, Living in Truth, Lord of the Two Lands, Neferkheperrure Waenre, the Goodly Child of the Living Aten, who shall be living for ever and ever, Kiya." Great Royal Wife (or ḥmt nswt wrt) is the term used to refer to the chief wife of an Egyptian pharaoh on the day of his coronation. ...


Discovery

Her existence was unknown until 1959, when her name and titles were noted on a small cosmetic container held at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. It had been bought almost 30 years previously without provenance from Egytologist Howard Carter.[2] Metropolitan Museum of Art New York Elevation The Metropolitan Museum of Art, often referred to simply as the Met, is one of the worlds largest and most important art museums. ... Plate LXXA shows detail on a ceremonial walking staff found buried with Tutankhamun; it depicts the two foes, or the Northern and Southern enemies of Egypt. ...


Several items of Kiya's funerary equipment have been discovered, such as the gilded coffin found in tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings, along with a set of (unfortunately, erased and recarved) canopic jars. However, Kiya's name may be faintly discerned on a jar at the Metropolitan Museum, as well as traces on a set of canopic jars depicting her likeness. Edward R. Ayrton discovered Tomb KV55 in Egypts Valley of the Kings on January 6, 1907; Ayrtons sponsor, Theodore M. Davis, published an account of the dig (The Tomb of Queen Tîyi) in 1910. ... Location of the valley in the Theban Hills, West of the Nile, October 1988 (red arrow shows location) The Valley of the Kings (Arabic: وادي الملوك Wadi Biban el-Muluk; Gates of the King)[1] is a valley in Egypt where for a period of nearly 500 years from the 16th to... 19th Dynasty canopic jars of alabaster (Berlin) Among the ancient Egyptians, canopic jars were covered funerary vases, intended to keep the viscera of mummified corpses. ...


There is considerable evidence to indicate that a temple was built specifically for her in Amarna, the Maru-Aten, also known as the "sun shade temple" (though the temple was later usurped for one of Akhenaten's daughters, Meritaten, who replaced Kiya's name with her own). Amarna The site of Amarna (commonly known as el-Amarna or incorrectly as Tel el-Amarna; see below) (Arabic: العمارنة al-‘amārnä) is located on the east bank of the Nile River in the modern Egyptian province of al-Minya, some 58 km (38 miles) south of the city of... Located to the south of the major city area of the city of Amarna, the Maru-Aten is a palace or sun-temple originally thought to have been constructed for Akhenatens queen Kiya, but on her death, her name and images were altered to that of Meritaten, his duaghter. ... Meritaten (her name means Beloved of Aten – Aten was the sun-god her father worshipped) was the firstborn of the six daughters of Egyptian pharaoh Akhenaten and Queen Nefertiti. ...


The British Egyptologists Aidan Dodson and Dyan Hilton wrote that:

Kiya is named and depicted on various blocks originating at Amarna, on vases in London and New York, four fragmentary kohl-tubes in Berlin and London, and a wine-jar docket. She may also be depicted by three uninscribed sculptor's studies. Her coffin and canopic jars were taken over for the burial of a king (probably Smenkhkare), which was ultimately discovered in tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings. Almost all of Kiya's monuments were usurped for daughters of Akhenaten, making it fairly certain that she was disgraced some time after Year 11 [of the king].[3]

Disgrace

There is clear evidence that Kiya fell from grace at Akhenaten's court. The last datable occurrence of Kiya's name occurs on a wine docket from Amarna which mentions Akhenaten's Year 11.[1] The exact date of her disappearance is unknown but must have occurred sometime after this date. As Jacabus van Dijk notes:

One of the Amarna blocks from Hermopolis (438/VIIA) throws new light on this question: the original inscription which originally mention Kyia" had "been replaced with a text mentioning Ankhesenpaaten in conjunction with the prenomen of Akhenaten."

This text was compounded with an epithet associated with Akhenaten's Year 12 Nubian campaign which suggests that her presumed downfall and the subsequent erasure of her name occurred around this time.[1]


There is some evidence that Kiya was the mother of Pharaoh Tutankhamun and/or Smenkhkare such as her title 'Greatly Beloved Wife' and that next to her death bed is a fanbearer and a wet nurse thought to be holding a baby boy. There is some evidence to suggest that the woman is indeed Kiya but her identification remains a mystery. King Tut redirects here. ... Ankhkheperure Living are the Manifestations of Re[2] Nomen Smenkhkare-Djeserkheperu Vigorous is the Soul of Re, Holy of Forms[1] Consort(s) Meritaten Died 1335 BC Ankhkheperure Smenkhkare (sometimes spelled Smenkhare and Smenkare; meaning Vigorous is the Soul of Ra) was a Pharaoh of the Eighteenth Dynasty who may...


Mummy

In recent research the mummy of Kiya has been identified as the Younger Lady in KV35. According to Joann Fletcher, who however did not identify the mummy with Kiya, a Nubian-style wig was found near the mummy, a style of wig associated with Kiya.[citation needed] Dr. JoAnn Fletcher is an Hononorary Research Fellow in the Department of Archaeology at the University of York and Consultant Egyptologist for Harrogate Museums and Arts. ...


Gallery of images

References

  1. ^ a b c Jacobus Van Dijk, "The Noble Lady of Mitanni and Other Royal Favourites of the Eighteeth Dynasty" in Essays on Ancient Egypt in Honour of Herman te Velde," Groningen, 1997, p. 35-37.
  2. ^ Dennis Forbes, "The Lady Wearing Large Earings: Royal Wife Kiya, Nefertiti's Rival", KMT. volume 17, number 3 (Fall 2006), p. 28.
  3. ^ Aidan Dodson & Dyan Hilton, The Complete Royal Families of Ancient Egypt, Thames & Hudson, 2004, p. 155.
  • Aldred, Cyril Akhenaten, King of Egypt (1991) ISBN 0-500-27621-8

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Kiya
  • Egypt, 2000-1000 B.C. - Canopic Jar Lid, New Kingdom, Dynasty 18, late reign of Akhenaten, ca. 1340–1336 B.C. Egyptian; From KV55, Valley of the Kings, western Thebes. Egyptian alabaster with glass and stone inlays; H. 20 1/2 in. (52.1 cm); Theodore M. Davis Collection, Bequest of Theodore M. Davis, 1915 (30.8.54) | Object P.
  • Kiya The Favorite - Includes a few photos of reliefs which may depict her.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Kiya - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (397 words)
Kiya was a wife of Egyptian Pharaoh Akhenaten.
Several items of Kiya's funerary equipment have been discovered, such as the gilded coffin found in tomb KV55 in the Valley of the Kings, along with a set of (unfortunately, erased and recarved) canopic jars.
There is considerable evidence to indicate that a temple was built specifically for her in Amarna, the Maru-Aten, also known as the "sun shade temple" (though the temple was later usurped for one of Akhenaten's daughters, Meritaten, who replaced Kiya as queen).
Kiya (817 words)
Kiya was a lesser ranked wife of Akhenaten, often known as 'The Favourite' and also 'Greatly Beloved Wife' - there were many representations of her at Amarna, where she is thought to have held considerable power.
Kiya died before Akhenaten and was buried with considerable funerary treasure, although her body and her children (she may have had a daughter and possibly two sons) have not been found.
But Kiya was certainly the most important of these 'second' wives, apart from her funerary furniture she also had a sunshade temple in the Maru-aten and chapels for her cult near the entrance to the Great Temple at Akhetaten.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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