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Encyclopedia > Kiwi
Kiwi

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Aves
Order: Struthioniformes
Family: Apterygidae
G.R. Gray, 1840
Genus: Apteryx
Shaw, 1813
Species

See text. Image File history File linksMetadata Karuwai_at_August_2005_Health_Check. ... Scientific classification or biological classification is a method by which biologists group and categorize species of organisms. ... For other uses, see Animal (disambiguation). ... Typical Classes See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... who cares though]] island species, have also lost the ability to fly. ... Families Struthionidae Casuariidae Dinornithidae Apterygidae Rheidae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of Gondwanian origin, most of them now extinct. ... George Shaw. ...

A kiwi is any of the species of small flightless birds endemic to New Zealand of the genus Apteryx (the only genus in family Apterygidae). At around the size of a domestic chicken, kiwi are by far the smallest living ratites. Most kiwi species are endangered. The kiwi is also a national symbol of New Zealand. Flightless birds evolved from flying ancestors; there are about forty species in existence today. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Families Struthionidae (ostriches) Rheidae (rheas) Casuariidae (emus etc. ... The Siberian Tiger is a subspecies of tiger that are critically endangered. ... National symbols are symbols of states, nations and countries in the world. ...

Contents

Species

Currently, there are five accepted species (one of which has four sub-species), plus one to be formally described.

  • The largest species is the Great Spotted Kiwi or Roroa, Apteryx haastii, which stands about 45 cm (17.7 inches) high and weighs about 3.3 kg. (Males about 2.4 kg) It has grey-brown plumage with lighter bands. The female lays just one egg, with both sexes incubating. Population is estimated to be over 20,000, distributed through the more mountainous parts of northwest Nelson, the northern West Coast, and the Southern Alps.
  • The very small Little Spotted Kiwi, Apteryx owenii is unable to withstand predation by introduced pigs, stoats and cats and is extinct on the mainland because of these reasons. About 1350 remain on Kapiti Island and it has been introduced to other predator-free islands and appears to be becoming established with about 50 'Little Spots' on each island. A docile bird the size of a bantam, it stands 25 cm (9.8 inches) high and the female weighs 1.3 kg. She lays one egg which is incubated by the male.
  • The Rowi, also known as the Okarito Brown Kiwi or Apteryx rowi, is a recently identified species, slightly smaller, with a greyish tinge to the plumage and sometimes white facial feathers. Females lay as many as three eggs in a season, each one in a different nest. Male and female both incubate. Distribution of these kiwi are limited to a small area on the west coast of the South Island of New Zealand.
  • The Tokoeka, Apteryx australis, relatively common species of kiwi known from south and west parts of South Island that occurs at most elevations. It is approximately the size of the Great Spotted Kiwi and is similar in appearance to the Brown Kiwi but its plumage is lighter in colour.
    • The Stewart Island Tokoeka, Apteryx australis lawryi, is a subspecies of Tokoeka from Stewart Island.
North Island Brown Kiwi
North Island Brown Kiwi
    • The Haast Tokoeka, Apteryx australis ?, is the rarest species of kiwi with only about 300 individuals. It was identified as a distinct form in 1993. It only occurs in a restricted area in South Island's Haast Range at an altitude of 1,500 m. This form is distinguished by a more strongly downcurved bill and more rufous plumage.
    • The Northern Fiordland Tokoeka ( Apteryx australis ?) and Southern Fiordland Tokoeka (Apteryx australis ?) live in the remote southwest part of South Island known as Fiordland. These sub-species of Tokoeka are relatively common and are nearly 40 cm (16 inches) tall.
  • The North Island Brown Kiwi, Apteryx mantelli or Apteryx australis before 2000 (and still in some sources), is widespread in the northern two-thirds of the North Island and, with about 35,000 remaining, is the most common kiwi. Females stand about 40 cm (16 inches) high and weigh about 2.8 kg, the males about 2.2 kg. The North Island Brown has demonstrated a remarkable resilience: it adapts to a wide range of habitats, even non-native forests and some farmland. The plumage is streaky red-brown and spiky. The female usually lays two eggs, which are incubated by the male.
Apteryx owenii, the Little Spotted Kiwi
Apteryx owenii, the Little Spotted Kiwi
The distribution of each species of kiwi
The distribution of each species of kiwi

Analysis of mitochondrial DNA, ecology, behaviour, morphology, geographic distribution and parasites of the North Island Brown Kiwi has led scientists to propose that the Brown Kiwi is three distinct species. The North Island Brown Kiwi; the Okarito Brown Kiwi (Rowi), whose distribution is restricted to a single site on the West Coast of the South Island of New Zealand; and a third distinct population of the North Island Brown Kiwi, the Southern Tokoeka, distributed in the in lowland forest to the north of Franz Josef glacier in the South Island and on Stewart Island, with a small population near Haast being another possibly distinct species, the Haast Tokoeka. Binomial name Apteryx haastii (Potts, 1872) Distribution The Great Spotted Kiwi or Roroa, Apteryx haastii is a realtively common species of kiwi from the South Island of New Zealand. ... Closeup on a single white feather A feather is one of the epidermal growths that forms the distinctive outer covering, or plumage, on a bird. ... Species A kiwi is any of the species of small flightless birds native to New Zealand of the genus Apteryx (the only genus in family Apterygidae). ... Binomial name Linnaeus, 1758 Range map The stoat (Mustela erminea) is a small mammal of the family Mustelidae. ... Bantams are known as the flower garden of the poultry world. ... Binomial name Apteryx rowi Tennyson et al. ... Binomial name Apteryx australis Shaw, 1813 The Tokoeka, Apteryx australis is a species of kiwi from New Zealands South Island. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (994 × 1325 pixel, file size: 911 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Te Tuatahi a nui, a male kiwi on Maungatautari mountain. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (994 × 1325 pixel, file size: 911 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Te Tuatahi a nui, a male kiwi on Maungatautari mountain. ... Fiordland is a region of New Zealand that is situated on the south-western corner of the South Island. ... Binomial name Apteryx mantelli The North Island Brown Kiwi, Apteryx mantelli or Apteryx australis before 2000 (and still in some sources), is a species of kiwi that is widespread in the northern two-thirds of the North Island and, with about 25,000 remaining, is the most common kiwi. ... 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (824x1180, 134 KB)Insert non-formatted text here Headline text Bold text map showing distribution of kiwi, to replace possibly unfree Image:KiwiMap. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (824x1180, 134 KB)Insert non-formatted text here Headline text Bold text map showing distribution of kiwi, to replace possibly unfree Image:KiwiMap. ... Mitochondrial DNA (some captions in German) Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) is the DNA located in organelles called mitochondria. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The term morphology in biology refers to the outward appearance (shape, structure, colour, pattern) of an organism or taxon and its component parts. ... Location of the Franz Josef glacier. ... Stewart Island is the third largest island of New Zealand. ... Haast is a town on the West Coast of New Zealand. ...


Behaviour and ecology

Prior to the arrival of humans in the 13th century or earlier, New Zealand's only endemic mammals were three species of bat, and the ecological niches that in other parts of the world were filled by creatures as diverse as horses, wolves and mice were taken up by birds (and, to a lesser extent, reptiles). (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Subclasses & Infraclasses Subclass †Allotheria* Subclass Prototheria Subclass Theria Infraclass †Trituberculata Infraclass Metatheria Infraclass Eutheria Mammals (class Mammalia) are warm-blooded, vertebrate animals characterized by the production of milk in female mammary glands and by the presence of: hair, three middle ear bones used in hearing, and a neocortex region in... “Chiroptera” redirects here. ... Two lichenes species on a rock, in two different ecological niches In ecology, a niche is a term describing the relational position of a species or population in an ecosystem. ...


Kiwi are shy and usually nocturnal. Their mostly nocturnal habits may be a result of habitat intrusion by predators, including humans. This seems evident in areas of New Zealand where introduced predators have been removed, such as sanctuaries, where kiwis are often seen in daylight. Kiwis are creatures with a highly developed sense of smell, most unusual in a bird, and are the only birds with nostrils at the end of their long bill. Kiwi eat small invertebrates, seeds, grubs, and many varieties of worms. They also may eat fruit, small crayfish, eels and amphibians. Unlike other birds, the kiwi can locate insects and worms underground without actually seeing or feeling them. This is due to their long beaks, with nostrils at the end of them. As the length of a birds beak is measured from the tip of the beak to the nostril, the Kiwi has the shortest beak of any bird. A nocturnal animal is one that sleeps during the day and is active at night - the opposite of the human (diurnal) schedule. ... Young boy smelling a flower Olfaction, which is also known as Olfactics is the sense of smell, and the detection of chemicals dissolved in air. ...

Kiwi on 1898 New Zealand stamp.
Kiwi on 1898 New Zealand stamp.

After an initial meeting during mating season (March to June), kiwi usually live as monogamous couples. The pair will meet in the nesting burrow every few days and call to each other at night. These relationships have been known to last for up to 20 years.[1] Kiwi eggs can weigh up to one quarter the weight of the female. Usually only one egg is laid. Although the kiwi is about the size of a domestic chicken, it is able to lay eggs that are about six times the size of a chicken's egg.[2] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 520 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1011 × 1166 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1898 New Zealand stamp 6 pence red (kiwi) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 520 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1011 × 1166 pixel, file size: 265 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) 1898 New Zealand stamp 6 pence red (kiwi) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this...


Their adaptation to a terrestrial life is extensive: like all ratites they have no keel on the breastbone to anchor wing muscles, and barely any wings either: the vestiges are so small that they are invisible under the kiwi's bristly, hair-like, two-branched feathers. While birds generally have hollow bones to save weight and make flight practicable, kiwi have marrow, in the style of mammals. With no constraints on weight from flight requirements, some Brown Kiwi females carry and lay a single 450 g egg. Families Struthionidae Casuariidae Dinornithidae Apterygidae Rheidae A ratite is any of a diverse group of large, flightless birds of Gondwanian origin, most of them now extinct. ... A spring scale measures the weight of an object In the physical sciences, weight is a measurement of the gravitational force acting on an object. ... BIC pen cap, about 1 gram. ... In most birds and reptiles, an egg (Latin ovum) is the zygote, resulting from fertilization of the ovum. ...


It was long presumed that the kiwi's closest relatives were the other New Zealand ratites, the moa. However recent DNA studies indicate that the Ostrich is more closely related to the moa and the kiwi's closest relatives are the Emu and the cassowaries. This theory suggests that the kiwi's ancestors arrived in New Zealand from elsewhere in Australasia well after the moa. According to British scientists, the kiwi may be an ancient import from Australia. Researchers of Oxford University have found DNA evidence connected to Australia's Emu and the Ostrich of Africa. Upon examining DNA from New Zealand's native moa, they believe that the kiwi is more closely related to its Australian cousins.[3] Genera Anomalopteryx (bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx (upland moa) Dinornis (giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ... Genera Anomalopteryx (bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx (upland moa) Dinornis (giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ... Binomial name (Latham, 1790) The Emu has been recorded in the areas shown in black. ... Species Casuarius casuarius Casuarius unappendiculatus Casuarius bennetti Cassowaries (genus Casuarius) are very large flightless birds native to the tropical forests of New Guinea and northeastern Australia. ... Australasia Australasia is a term variably used to describe a region of Oceania: Australia, New Zealand, and neighbouring islands in the Pacific Ocean. ... Genera Anomalopteryx (bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx (upland moa) Dinornis (giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Binomial name (Latham, 1790) The Emu has been recorded in the areas shown in black. ... Binomial name Carolus Linnaeus, 1758 The present-day distribution of Ostriches. ... The structure of part of a DNA double helix Deoxyribonucleic acid, or DNA, is a nucleic acid molecule that contains the genetic instructions used in the development and functioning of all known living organisms. ... Genera Anomalopteryx (bush moa) Euryapteryx Megalapteryx (upland moa) Dinornis (giant moa) Emeus Pachyornis Moa were giant flightless birds native to New Zealand. ...


Discovery and documentation

The first kiwi specimen to be studied by Europeans was a kiwi skin brought to George Shaw by Captain Andrew Barclay aboard the ship Providence, who was reported to have been given it by a sealer in Sydney Harbour around 1811. George Shaw gave the kiwi its scientific name and drew sketches of the way he imagined a live bird to look which appeared as plates 1057 and 1058 in volume 24 of The Naturalist's Miscellany in 1813. George Shaw. ... Sydney Opera House and Harbour Bridge located on Port Jackson Port Jackson is the natural harbour of Sydney, Australia, also known as Sydney Harbour and is the largest natural harbour in the world. ...


See also

  • Aroha Island
  • Bulford Kiwi a giant chalk Kiwi carved into a hillside in England by Kiwi Troops waiting to go home at the end of WW1 - still there today

Aroha Island is an island in the Northland Region of New Zealand owned and managed by the Queen Elizabeth II National Trust. ... The Bulford Kiwi is an immense drawing of a kiwi carved in the chalk on Beacon Hill above the then-military town of Bulford on the Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire. ...

References

  1. ^ KiwiRecovery.org
  2. ^ Producing an Egg. Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  3. ^ News In Science
  • Bizarre and Beautiful Noses. Sante Fe, New Mexico: John Muir Publications, 1993.
  • Burbidge M.L., Colbourne R.M., Robertson H.A., and Baker A.J. (2003). Molecular and other biological evidence supports the recognition of at least three species of brown kiwi. Conservation Genetics, 4(2):167-177
  • Cooper, Alan et al (2001). Complete mitochondrial genome sequences of two extinct moas clarify ratite evolution. Nature, 409: 704-707.
  • News In Science
  • NHNZ has made a 60 minute television documentary called Kiwi a Natural History, produced in 1991.

Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Apterygidae

  Results from FactBites:
 
TerraNature | New Zealand Ecology - Kiwi (1737 words)
New Zealanders are proud to be known as kiwis, the New Zealand dollar is a kiwi, the Kiwis are the national rugby league football team, and a fruit native to China that was first commercially cultivated in New Zealand for international trade is now known throughout the world as kiwi fruit.
Kiwi may occupy numerous dens and nesting burrows by rotation throughout their territory, which is marked by feces (another mammal habit) and fiercely defended for the life of the pair.
Kiwi use their good sense of smell and long strong bill to probe in litter and beneath the surface for food at night.
New Zealand travel tips, visitor information and Kiwi News. (1132 words)
Spotted Kiwis are found on offshore islands and forests in the North of the South Island.
Kiwi are burrowers and often move to a new burrow each day.
Kiwis have only remnants of wings, and like the moa to which they are related, lack a keel on the breastbone for attachment of flight muscles.
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