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Encyclopedia > Kitchen

A kitchen is a room used for food preparation and sometimes entertainment. A modern kitchen is typically equipped with a stove and microwave oven and has a sink with water on tap for cleaning food and dishwashing. Modern kitchens often also feature a dishwasher. Some installations to store food usually also are present, either in the form of an adjacent pantry or more commonly cabinets and a refrigerator. Image File history File links Gnome-globe. ... A room, in architecture, is any distinguishable space within a structure. ... A stove is a heat-producing device. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Microwave oven and Microwave heating. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Dishwasher A two drawer DishDrawer dishwasher. ... A pantry is a room in a domestic house used for food storage. ... A cabinet is a usually oblong piece of furniture, often attached to a wall and made of wood, used throughout the world for the storage of clothes or other miscellaneous items. ... “Freezer” redirects here. ...


Although the main function of a kitchen is cooking, it can be the center of other activities as well, especially within homes, depending on its size, furnishing, and equipment. If a washing machine is present, washing and drying laundry is also done in the kitchen. The kitchen may also be the place where the family eats, provided it is large enough. Sometimes, it is the most comforting room in a house, where family and visitors tend to congregate. Look up home in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... Front-loading washing machine. ... Washing is one way of cleaning, namely with water and often some kind of soap or detergent. ... Italian street, with laundry hung to dry Laundry can be: items of clothing and other textiles that require washing, the act of washing clothing and textiles, the room of a house in which this is done. ... // For eat or EAT as an abbreviation or acronym, see EAT. In general terms, eating (formally, ingestion) is the process of consuming nutrition, i. ...

A modern western kitchen offers a stove, sink, and cabinets among other amenities.
A modern western kitchen offers a stove, sink, and cabinets among other amenities.

Contents

from . ... from . ... A stove is a heat-producing device. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A cabinet is a usually oblong piece of furniture, often attached to a wall and made of wood, used throughout the world for the storage of clothes or other miscellaneous items. ...

The evolution of the kitchen

The development of the kitchen has been intricately and intrinsically linked with the development of the cooking range or stove. Until the 18th century, open fire was the sole means of heating food, and the architecture of the kitchen reflected this. When technical advances brought new ways to heat food in the 18th and 19th centuries, architects took advantage of newly-gained flexibility to bring fundamental changes to the kitchen. Water on tap only became gradually available during industrialization; before, water had to be collected from the nearest well and heated in the kitchen. A stove is a heat-producing device. ... A stove is a heat-producing device. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... A forest fire Fire is a rapid oxidation process that creates light, heat, smoke, frost, and releases energy in varying intensities. ... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Cable tool water well drilling rig in Kimball, West Virginia. ...


Ancient history

The houses in Ancient Greece were commonly of the atrium-type: the rooms were arranged around a central courtyard. In many such homes, a covered but otherwise open patio served as the kitchen. Homes of the wealthy had the kitchen as a separate room, usually next to a bathroom (so that both rooms could be heated by the kitchen fire), both rooms being accessible from the court. In such houses, there was often a separate small storage room in the back of the kitchen used for storing food and kitchen utensils. Ancient Greece is the term used to describe the Greek-speaking world in ancient times. ... Looking up inside the 32-story atrium of the Shanghai Grand Hyatt, part of the Jin Mao Building. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


In the Roman Empire, common folk in cities often had no kitchen of their own; they did their cooking in large public kitchens. Some had small mobile bronze stoves, on which a fire could be lit for cooking. Wealthy Romans had relatively well-equipped kitchens. In a Roman villa, the kitchen was typically integrated into the main building as a separate room, set apart for practical reasons of smoke and sociological reasons of the kitchen being operated by slaves. The fireplace was typically on the floor, placed at a wall--sometimes raised a little bit--such that one had to kneel to cook. There were no chimneys. Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... Cooking is the act of preparing food. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... Ancient Rome was a civilization that grew from a small agricultural community founded on the Italian Peninsula circa the 9th century BC to a massive empire straddling the Mediterranean Sea. ... The Albertian Villa Medici in Fiesole: terraced grounds on a sloping site. ... Smoke from a wildfire Smoke is the airborne solid and liquid particulates and gases evolved when a material undergoes pyrolysis or combustion, together with the quantity of air that is entrained or otherwise mixed into the mass. ... Slave redirects here. ... Winter (fireplace), tacuinum sanitatis casanatensis (XIV century) A fireplace is an architectural element consisting of a space designed to contain a fire, generally for heating but sometimes also for cooking. ... Look up Chimney in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Middle Ages

The roasting spit in this European medieval kitchen was driven automatically by a propeller—the black cloverleaf-like structure in the upper left.
The roasting spit in this European medieval kitchen was driven automatically by a propeller—the black cloverleaf-like structure in the upper left.

Early medieval European longhouses had an open fire under the highest point of the building. The "kitchen area" was between the entrance and the fireplace. In wealthy homes there was typically more than one kitchen. In some homes there were upwards of three kitchens. The kitchens were divided based on the types of food prepared in them. [1] In place of a chimney, these early buildings had a hole in the roof through which some of the smoke could escape. Besides cooking, the fire also served as a source of heat and light to the single-room building. A similar design can be found in the Iroquois longhouses of North America. from Anonymous: Kuchemaistrey, Nuremberg, 1485. ... from Anonymous: Kuchemaistrey, Nuremberg, 1485. ... World map showing the location of Europe. ... In archaeology and anthropology, a long house or longhouse is a type of long, narrow single room building built by peoples in various parts of the world including Asia, Europe and North America. ... Languages Mohawk, Oneida, Onondaga, Cayuga, Seneca, Tuscarora, English, French Religions Christianity, Longhouse religion The Iroquois Confederacy (also known as the League of Peace and Power; the Five Nations; the Six Nations; or the People of the Long house) is a group of First Nations/Native Americans that originally consisted of... North America North America is a continent[1] in the Earths northern hemisphere and (chiefly) western hemisphere. ...


In the larger homesteads of European nobles, the kitchen was sometimes in a separate sunken floor building to keep the main building, which served social and official purposes, free from indoor smoke. Indoor Air Quality (IAQ) deals with the content of interior air that could affect health and comfort of building occupants. ...


The first known stoves in Japan date from about the same time. The earliest findings are from the Kofun period (3rd to 6th century). These stoves, called kamado, were typically made of clay and mortar; they were fired with wood or charcoal through a hole in the front and had a hole in the top, into which a pot could be hanged by its rim. This type of stove remained in use for centuries to come, with only minor modifications. Like in Europe, the wealthier homes had a separate building which served for cooking. A kind of open fire pit fired with charcoal, called irori, remained in use as the secondary stove in most homes until the Edo period (17th to 19th century). A kamado was used to cook the staple food, for instance rice, while irori served both to cook side dishes and as a heat source. The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... // Overview Events 212: Constitutio Antoniniana grants citizenship to all free Roman men 212-216: Baths of Caracalla 230-232: Sassanid dynasty of Persia launches a war to reconquer lost lands in the Roman east 235-284: Crisis of the Third Century shakes Roman Empire 250-538: Kofun era, the first... The 6th century is the period from 501 - 600 in accordance with the Julian calendar in the Christian Era. ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Charcoal is the blackish residue consisting of impure carbon obtained by removing water and other volatile constituents from animal and vegetation substances. ... The Edo period ), also called Tokugawa period, is a division of Japanese history running from 1603 to 1868. ... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ...


The kitchen remained largely unaffected by architectural advances throughout the Middle Ages; open fire remained the only method of heating food. European medieval kitchens were dark, smokey, and sooty places, whence their name "smoke kitchen". In European medieval cities around the 10th to 12th centuries, the kitchen still used an open fire hearth in the middle of the room. In wealthy homes, the ground floor was often used as a stable while the kitchen was located on the floor above, like the bedroom and the hall. In castles and monasteries, the living and working areas were separated; the kitchen was sometimes moved to a separate building, and thus couldn't serve anymore to heat the living rooms. In some castles the kitchen was retained in the same structure, but servants were strictly separated from nobles, by constructing separate spiral stone staircases for use of servants to bring food to upper levels. An extant example of such a medieval kitchen with servants's staircase is at Muchalls Castle in Scotland. In Japanese homes, the kitchen started to become a separate room within the main building at that time. As a means of recording the passage of time, the 10th century was that century which lasted from 901 to 1000. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... In common historic and modern usage, a hearth (Har-th) is a brick- or stone-lined fireplace or oven used for cooking and/or heating. ... Pierrefonds Castle, France. ... Monastery of St. ... Stairs, staircase, stairway, flight of stairs are all names for a construction designed to bridge a large vertical distance by dividing it into smaller vertical distances, called steps. ... Muchalls Castle, Kincardineshire Muchalls Castle stands overlooking the North Sea in the countryside of historic Kincardineshire, Scotland. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English (de facto)1; Gaelic[1]2 and Scots3 (recognised minority...

18th century cooks tended a fire and endured smoke in this Swiss farmhouse smoke kitchen.
18th century cooks tended a fire and endured smoke in this Swiss farmhouse smoke kitchen.

With the advent of the chimney, the hearth moved from the center of the room to one wall, and the first brick-and-mortar hearths were built. The fire was lit on top of the construction; a vault underneath served to store wood. Pots made of iron, bronze, or copper started to replace the pottery used earlier. The temperature was controlled by hanging the pot higher or lower over the fire, or placing it on a trivet or directly on the hot ashes. Using open fire for cooking (and heating) was risky; fires devastating whole cities occurred frequently. Download high resolution version (634x1064, 96 KB)The kitchen of the Althuus (meaning old house) on the Jerisberghof in Gurbrü near Kerzers, Canton of Berne, Switzerland. ... Download high resolution version (634x1064, 96 KB)The kitchen of the Althuus (meaning old house) on the Jerisberghof in Gurbrü near Kerzers, Canton of Berne, Switzerland. ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ... General Name, Symbol, Number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... Assorted ancient Bronze castings found as part of a cache, probably intended for recycling. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic pinkish red Standard atomic weight 63. ... Unfired green ware pottery on a traditional drying rack at Conner Prairie living history museum. ... A trivet, also known as a hot plate, is an object placed between a serving dish or bowl, and a dining table, usually to protect the table from heat damage. ...


Leonardo da Vinci invented an automated system for a rotating spit for spit-roasting: a propeller in the chimney made the spit turn all by itself. This kind of system was widely used in wealthier homes. Beginning in the late Middle Ages, kitchens in Europe lost their home-heating function even more and were increasingly moved from the living area into a separate room. The living room was now heated by tiled stoves, operated from the kitchen, which offered the huge advantage of not filling the room with smoke. The Mona Lisa Leonardo di ser Piero da Vinci (April 15, 1452 – May 2, 1519) was an Italian polymath: scientist, mathematician, engineer, inventor, anatomist, painter, sculptor, architect, musician, and writer. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... A masonry heater (or masonry stove) is a device for warming a home (or any interior space) that captures the heat from periodic burning of fuels (primarily wood), and then radiates that heat over a long period at a fairly constant temperature. ...


Freed from smoke and dirt, the living room thus began to serve as an area for social functions and increasingly became a showcase for the owner's wealth and was sometimes prestigiously furnished. In the upper classes, cooking and the kitchen were the domain of the servants, and the kitchen was set apart from the living rooms, sometimes even far from the dining room. Poorer homes often did not have a separate kitchen yet; they kept the one-room arrangement where all activities took place, or at the most had the kitchen in the entrance hall. A servant is a person who is hired to provide regular household or other duties, and receives compensation. ...


The medieval smoke kitchen (or Farmhouse kitchen) remained common, especially in rural farmhouses and generally in poorer homes, until much later. In a few European farmhouses, the smoke kitchen was in regular use until the middle of the 20th century. These houses often had no chimney, but only a smoke hood above the fireplace, made of wood and covered with clay, and used to smoke meat. The smoke then rose more or less freely, warming the upstairs rooms and protecting the woodwork from vermin. There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999...


Colonial American kitchens

In the Colonial American kitchen, the same distinction as for the medieval European kitchen is visible. The early settlers in the north often had no separate kitchen; a fireplace in a corner of the cabin served as the kitchen space. Later, the kitchen did become a separate room, but remained within the building. It has been suggested that Warning out of town be merged into this article or section. ... For the political organization that supports the United States Republican Party, see Log Cabin Republican. ...


The development in the southern states was quite different, but then, so were the climate and sociological conditions. In southern estates, the kitchen was often relegated to an outhouse, separated from the mansion, for much of the same reasons as in the feudal kitchen in medieval Europe: the kitchen was operated by slaves, and their working place had to be separated from the living area of the masters by the social standards of the time. In addition, the area's warm climate made operating a kitchen quite unpleasant, especially in the summer. Young people interacting within an ethnically diverse society. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Slave redirects here. ... For other uses, see Summer (disambiguation). ...


Completely separated "summer kitchens" also developed on larger farms further north to avoid that the main house was heated by the preparation of the meals for the harvest workers or tasks like canning. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Industrialization

A park interpreter demonstrates a typical rural American kitchen of 1918 at The Sauer-Beckmann Farmstead, a living history farm in Texas.
A park interpreter demonstrates a typical rural American kitchen of 1918 at The Sauer-Beckmann Farmstead, a living history farm in Texas.

Technological advances during industrialization brought major changes to the kitchen. Iron stoves, which enclosed the fire completely and were more efficient, appeared. Early models included the Franklin stove around 1740, which was a furnace stove intended for heating, not for cooking. Benjamin Thompson in England designed his "Rumford stove" around 1800. This stove was much more energy efficient than earlier stoves; it used one fire to heat several pots, which were hung into holes on top of the stove and were thus heated from all sides instead of just from the bottom. However, his stove was designed for large kitchens; it was too big for domestic use. The "Oberlin stove" was a refinement of the technique that resulted in a size reduction; it was patented in the U.S. in 1834 and became a commercial success with some 90,000 units sold over the next 30 years. These stoves were still fired with wood or coal. Although the first gas street lamps were installed in Paris, London, and Berlin at the beginning of the 1820s and the first U.S. patent on a gas stove was granted in 1825, it wasn't until the late 19th century that using gas for lighting and cooking became commonplace in urban areas. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1444x1254, 860 KB) Using this image for purposes of advertising or trade may violate the publicity rights of the person depicted in the image. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1444x1254, 860 KB) Using this image for purposes of advertising or trade may violate the publicity rights of the person depicted in the image. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Events May 31 - Friedrich II comes to power in Prussia upon the death of his father, Friedrich Wilhelm I. October 20 - Maria Theresia of Austria inherits the Habsburg hereditary dominions (Austria, Bohemia, Hungary and present-day Belgium). ... A furnace is a device for heating air or any other fluid. ... Benjamin Thompson. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto)1 Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total... // ON MAY 5 1853 MR.FADER HAD SEX WITH A MAN NAME MR WIEN THEN THEY HAD SON NAMEDMRS COTURE AND MR MANOOGIAN WENT INTO MRS HASKELLS OFFICE NAKED AND DANCED AROUND AND MASTERBATED ON HER CHEST AND SHE LICKED IT OFF THEN THEY HAD ORAL SEEX WITH NAPLOEAN OF... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Year 1834 (MDCCCXXXIV) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Trunks A tree trunk as found at the Veluwe, The Netherlands Wood is a solid material derived from woody plants, notably trees but also shrubs. ... Coal Coal (IPA: ) is a fossil fuel formed in swamp ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... Gas lighting is the process of burning piped natural gas or coal gas for illumination. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) The Eiffel Tower in Paris, as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Nationalistic independence helped reshape the world during this decade: Greece gains independence from the Ottoman Empire in the Greek War of Independence (1821-1827). ... Opening of the Stockton and Darlington Railway 1825 (MDCCCXXV) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ...


The urbanization in the second half of the 19th century induced other significant changes that ultimately would also change the kitchen. Out of sheer necessity, cities began planning and building water distribution pipes into homes, and built canalisations to deal with the waste water. Gas pipes were laid; gas was used first for lighting purposes, but once the network had grown sufficiently, it became available also for heating and cooking on gas stoves. At the turn of the 20th century, electricity had been mastered well enough to become a commercially viable alternative to gas and slowly started replacing the latter. But like the gas stove, the electrical stove had a slow start. The first electrical stove had been presented in 1893 at the Chicago world fair, but it wasn't until the 1930s that the technology was stable enough and began to take off. Urban areas require some method for collection and disposal of sewage. ... Wastewater is any water that has been adversely affected in quality by any anthropogenic influence. ... Lightning strikes during a night-time thunderstorm. ... Year 1893 (MDCCCXCIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Chicago has hosted two Worlds Fairs Worlds Columbian Exposition of 1893 Century of Progress Exposition of 1933 Category: ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ...


Industrialization also caused social changes. The new factory working class in the cities was housed under generally poor conditions. Whole families lived in small one or two-room apartments in tenement buildings up to six stories high, badly aired and with insufficient lighting. Sometimes, they shared apartments with "night sleepers", unmarried men that paid for a bed at night. The kitchen in such an apartment was often used as a living and sleeping room, and even as a bathroom. Water had to be fetched from wells and heated on the stove. Water pipes were laid only towards the end of the 19th century, and then often only with one tap per building or per story. Brick-and-mortar stoves fired with coal remained the norm until well into the second half of the century. Pots and kitchenware typically were stored on open shelves, and parts of the room could be separated from the rest using simple curtains. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The term working class is used to denote a social class. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A typical American bathroom A bathroom is a room that may have different functions depending on the cultural context. ...


In contrast, there were no dramatic changes for the upper classes. The kitchen, located in the basement or the ground floor, continued to be operated by servants. In some houses, water pumps were installed, and some even had kitchen sinks and drains (but no water on tap yet, except for some feudal kitchens in castles). The kitchen became a much cleaner space with the advent of "cooking machines", closed stoves made of iron plates and fired by wood and increasingly charcoal or coal, and that had flue pipes connected to the chimney. For the servants the kitchen continued to serve also as a sleeping room; they slept either on the floor, or later in narrow spaces above a lowered ceiling, for the new stoves with their smoke outlet no longer required a high ceiling in the kitchen. The kitchen floors were tiled; kitchenware was neatly stored in cupboards to protect them from dust and steam. A large table served as a workbench; there were at least as many chairs as there were servants, for the table in the kitchen also doubled as the eating place for the servants. A townhouse with basement windows showing A basement is one or more floors of a building that are either completely or partially below the ground floor. ... Floor numbering in a building can cause misunderstandings between speakers of different varieties of the English language. ... An electrically driven pump (electropump) for waterworks near the Hengsteysee, Germany. ... In a pipe organ, a flue pipe is any pipe that is sounded by a fipple, similar to that in a whistle or a flute a bec, rather than by a beating reed, see reed pipe. ... A cupboard is a type of cabinet, often made of wood, used indoors to store household objects such as food and crockery. ...


The middle class tried to imitate the luxurious dining styles of the upper class as best as it could. Living in smaller apartments, the kitchen was the main room—here, the family lived. The study or living room was saved for special occasions such as an occasional dinner invitation. Because of this, these middle-class kitchens often were more homely than those of the upper class, where the kitchen was a work-only room occupied only by the servants. Besides a cupboard to store the kitchenware, there were a table and chairs, where the family would dine, and sometimes—if space allowed—even a fauteuil or a couch. This is a list of food preparation utensils, also known as kitchenware. ...


Gas pipes were laid only in the late 19th century, and gas stoves started to replace the older coal-fired stoves. Gas was more expensive than coal, though, and thus the new technology first was installed in the wealthier homes. Where workers' apartments were equipped with a gas stove, gas distribution would go through a coin meter.


In rural areas, the older technology using coal or wood stoves or even brick-and-mortar open fireplaces remained common throughout. Gas and water pipes were first installed in the big cities; small villages were connected only much later.


Rationalization

The trend to increasing gasification and electrification continued at the turn of the 20th century. In industry, it was the phase of rationalisation, where work processes were attempted to be streamlined. Taylorism was born, and time-motion studies were used to optimize processes. These ideas also spilled over into domestic kitchen architecture due to a growing trend that called for a professionalization of household work, started in the mid-19th century by Catharine Beecher and amplified by Christine Frederick's publications in the 1910s. (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Taylorism or Scientific management is the name of the approach to management and Industrial/Organizational Psychology initiated by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his 1911 monograph The Principles of Scientific Management. ... This article needs to be wikified. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Catherine Beecher Catherine Esther Beecher (September 6, 1800 – May 12, 1878), the daughter of Lyman Beecher and sister to Harriet Beecher Stowe, was a very active supporter for the cause of womens education. ... // The 1910s represent the culmination of European militarism which had its beginnings during the second half of the 19th Century. ...

The Frankfurt kitchen was designed after Taylorist principles.
The Frankfurt kitchen was designed after Taylorist principles.

Working class women frequently worked in factories to ensure the family's survival, as the men's wages often did not suffice. Social housing projects led to the next milestone: the "Frankfurt kitchen". Developed in 1926, this kitchen measured 1.9m by 3.4m (approximately 6'2" by 11'2"), with a standard layout. It was built for two purposes: to optimize kitchen work to reduce cooking time (so that women would have more time for the factory) and to lower the cost of building decently-equipped kitchens. The design, created by Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky, was the result of detailed time-motion studies and heavily influenced by the railway dining car kitchens of the period. It was built in some 10,000 apartments in a social housing project of architect Ernst May in Frankfurt. Image File history File linksMetadata Frankfurterkueche. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Frankfurterkueche. ... The Frankfurt kitchen (view from the entrance) The Frankfurt kitchen was a milestone in domestic architecture, considered the fore-runner of modern built-in kitchens, for it realised for the first time a kitchen built after a unified concept, designed to enable efficient work and to be built at low... Taylorism or Scientific management is the name of the approach to management and Industrial/Organizational Psychology initiated by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his 1911 monograph The Principles of Scientific Management. ... Public housing describes a form of housing tenure in which the property is owned by a government authority, which may be central or local. ... The Frankfurt kitchen (view from the entrance) The Frankfurt kitchen was a milestone in domestic architecture, considered the fore-runner of modern built-in kitchens, for it realised for the first time a kitchen built after a unified concept, designed to enable efficient work and to be built at low... Year 1926 (MCMXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky (January 23, 1897 – January 18, 2000) was the first female Austrian architect and an activist in the anti-Nazi resistance movement. ... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ... Ernst May (July 27, 1886, Frankfurt am Main—September 11, 1970, Hamburg) was a German architect and city planner. ... For other uses, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ...


The initial reception was heavily critical: people were not accustomed to the changed processes also designed by Schütte-Lihotzky; it was so small that only one person could work in it; some storage spaces intended for raw loose food ingredients such as flour were reachable by children. But the Frankfurt kitchen embodied a standard for the rest of the 20th century in rental apartments: the "work kitchen". Too small to live or dine in, it was soon criticized as "exiling the women in the kitchen", but the post-World War II conservatism coupled with economic reasons prevailed. The kitchen once more was seen as a work place that needed to be separated from the living areas. Practical reasons also played a role in this development: just as in the bourgeois homes of the past, one reason for separating the kitchen was to keep the steam and smells of cooking out of the living room. For other uses, see Flour (disambiguation). ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Technicalization

Stainless steel appliances have been very poplular in modern kitchens.
Stainless steel appliances have been very poplular in modern kitchens.

The idea of standardized dimensions and layout developed for the Frankfurt kitchen took hold. The equipment used remained a standard for years to come: hot and cold water on tap and a kitchen sink and an electrical or gas stove and oven. Not much later, the refrigerator was added as a standard item. The concept was refined in the "Swedish kitchen" using unit furniture with wooden fronts for the kitchen cabinets. Soon the concept was amended by the use of smooth synthetic door and drawer fronts, first in white, recalling a sense of cleanliness and alluding to sterile lab or hospital settings, but soon after in lively, friendly colors, too. A trend began in the 1940s in the United States to equip the kitchen with electrified small and large kitchen appliances such as blenders, toasters, and later also microwave ovens. Following the end of World War II, massive demand in Europe for low-price, high-tech consumer goods led to Western European kitchens being designed to accommodate new appliances such as refrigerators and electric/gas cookers. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1440x2160, 501 KB) Summary A small, modern kitchen with popular stainless steel appliances. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1440x2160, 501 KB) Summary A small, modern kitchen with popular stainless steel appliances. ... The 630 foot high, stainless-clad (type 304L) Gateway Arch defines St. ... The term Appliance refers to two classes of objects: One class of objects includes items that are custom-fitted to an individual for the purpose of correction of a physical problem, such as prosthetic and energy input. ... “Freezer” redirects here. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... An electric blender Small appliance refers to a class of home appliances that are semi-portable or which are used on tabletops, countertops, or other platforms. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... An electric blender. ... A classically styled chrome two-slot toaster A toaster is a small electric kitchen appliance designed to toast slices of bread, an act also known as making toast. Most toasters can also be used to toast other foods such as teacakes, Pop Tarts, and crumpets. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Microwave oven and Microwave heating. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... World map showing the location of Europe. ...


Parallel to this development in tenement buildings went the evolution of the kitchen in homeowner's houses. There, the kitchens usually were somewhat larger, suitable for everyday use as a dining room, but otherwise the ongoing technicalization was the same, and the use of unit furniture became a standard also in this market sector.


General technocentric enthusiasm even led some designers to take the "work kitchen" approach even further, culminating in futuristic designs like Luigi Colani's "kitchen satellite" (1969, commissioned by the German high-end kitchen manufacturer Poggenpohl for an exhibit), in which the room was reduced to a ball with a chair in the middle and all appliances at arm's length, an optimal arrangement maybe for "applying heat to food", but not necessarily for actual cooking. Such extravaganzas remained outside the norm, though. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ...


In the former Eastern bloc countries, the official doctrine viewed cooking as a mere necessity, and women should work "for the society" in factories, not at home. Also, housing had to be built at low costs and quickly, which led directly to the standardized apartment block using prefabricated slabs. The kitchen was reduced to its minimums and the "work kitchen" paradigm taken to its extremes: in East Germany for instance, the standard tenement block of the model "P2" had tiny 4  kitchens in the inside of the building (no windows), connected to the dining and living room of the 55 m² apartment and separated from the latter by a pass-through or a window. A map of the Eastern Bloc 1948-1989. ... Doctrine, from Latin doctrina, (compare doctor), means a body of teachings or instructions, taught principles or positions, as the body of teachings in a branch of knowledge or belief system. ... GDR redirects here. ... A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ...


Free for all

Starting in the 1980s, the perfection of the extractor hood allowed an open kitchen again, integrated more or less with the living room without causing the whole apartment or house to smell. Before that, only a few earlier experiments, typically in newly built upper middle class family homes, had open kitchens. Examples are Frank Lloyd Wright's House Willey (1934) and House Jacobs (1936). Both had open kitchens, with high ceilings (up to the roof) and were aired by skylights. The extractor hood made it possible to build open kitchens in apartments, too, where both high ceilings and skylights were not possible. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... An extractor hood is a device that hangs above the stove in the kitchen. ... Frank Lloyd Wright (June 8, 1867 – April 9, 1959) was one of the worlds most prominent and influential architects. ... Year 1934 (MCMXXXIV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display full 1934 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The word skylight, when used alone, has several possible meanings in the English language. ...


The re-integration of the kitchen and the living area went hand in hand with a change in the perception of cooking: increasingly, cooking was seen as a creative and sometimes social act instead of work, especially in upper social classes. Besides, many families also appreciated the trend towards open kitchens, as it made it easier for the parents to supervise the kids while cooking. The enhanced status of cooking also made the kitchen a prestige object for showing off one's wealth or cooking professionalism. Some architects have capitalized on this "object" aspect of the kitchen by designing freestanding "kitchen objects". However, like their precursor, Colani's "kitchen satellite", such futuristic designs are exceptions. The Bath, a painting by Mary Cassatt (1844–1926). ... An architect at his drawing board, 1893 An architect is a person who is involved in the planning, designing and oversight of a buildings construction. ...


Another reason for the trend back to open kitchens (and a foundation of the "kitchen object" philosophy) is changes in how food is prepared. Whereas in the 1950s most cooking started out with raw ingredients and a meal had to be prepared from scratch, the advent of frozen meals and pre-prepared convenience food changed the cooking habits of many people, who consequently used the kitchen less and less. For others, who followed the "cooking as a social act" trend, the open kitchen had the advantage that they could be with their guests while cooking, and for the "creative cooks" it might even become a stage for their cooking performance. The "Trophy Kitchen" is highly equipped with top spec. appliances which are used to impress and project social status rather than cooking. This does not cite any references or sources. ... This article or section should include material from One-Hour Thanksgiving Dinner. ...


Domestic kitchen planning

Beecher's "model kitchen" brought early ergonomic principles to the home.
Beecher's "model kitchen" brought early ergonomic principles to the home.

Domestic kitchen design per se is a relatively recent discipline. The first ideas to optimize the work in the kitchen go back to Catharine Beecher's A Treatise on Domestic Economy (1843, revised and republished together with her sister Harriet Beecher Stowe as The American Woman's Home in 1869). Beecher's "model kitchen" propagated for the first time a systematic design based on early ergonomics. The design included regular shelves on the walls, ample work space, and dedicated storage areas for various food items. Beecher even separated the functions of preparing food and cooking it altogether by moving the stove into a compartment adjacent to the kitchen. From Catherine Beechers The American Womans Home, 1869. ... From Catherine Beechers The American Womans Home, 1869. ... Dildonics (or human factors) is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use (definition adopted by the International Dildonics Association in 2007). ... Catherine Beecher Catherine Esther Beecher (September 6, 1800 – May 12, 1878), the daughter of Lyman Beecher and sister to Harriet Beecher Stowe, was a very active supporter for the cause of womens education. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was a white American abolitionist and novelist, whose Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential, even in Britain. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Dildonics (or human factors) is the application of scientific information concerning humans to the design of objects, systems and environment for human use (definition adopted by the International Dildonics Association in 2007). ...


Christine Frederick published from 1913 a series of articles on "New Household Management" in which she analyzed the kitchen following Taylorist principles, presented detailed time-motion studies, and derived a kitchen design from them. Her ideas were taken up in the 1920s by architects in Germany and Austria, most notably Bruno Taut, Erna Meyer, and Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky. A social housing project in Frankfurt (the Römerstadt of architect Ernst May) realized in 1927/28 was the breakthrough for her Frankfurt kitchen, which embodied this new notion of efficiency in the kitchen. Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Taylorism or Scientific management is the name of the approach to management and Industrial/Organizational Psychology initiated by Frederick Winslow Taylor in his 1911 monograph The Principles of Scientific Management. ... The 1920s is a decade that is sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or the Roaring Twenties, usually applied to America. ... Bruno Julius Florian Taut (May 4, 1880, Konigsberg, Germany - December 24, 1938, Istanbul), was a prolific German architect, urban planner and author active in the Weimar period. ... Margarete Schütte-Lihotzky (January 23, 1897 – January 18, 2000) was the first female Austrian architect and an activist in the anti-Nazi resistance movement. ... Ernst May (July 27, 1886, Frankfurt am Main—September 11, 1970, Hamburg) was a German architect and city planner. ... Year 1927 (MCMXXVII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1928 (MCMXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Frankfurt kitchen (view from the entrance) The Frankfurt kitchen was a milestone in domestic architecture, considered the fore-runner of modern built-in kitchens, for it realised for the first time a kitchen built after a unified concept, designed to enable efficient work and to be built at low...


While this "work kitchen" and variants derived from it were a great success for tenement buildings, home owners had different demands and didn't want to be constrained by a 6.4  kitchen. Nevertheless, kitchen design was mostly ad-hoc following the whims of the architect. In the U.S., the "Small Homes Council", since 1993 the "Building Research Council", of the School of Architecture of the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign was founded in 1944 with the goal to improve the state of the art in home building, originally with an emphasis on standardization for cost reduction. It was there that the notion of the kitchen work triangle was formalized: the three main functions in a kitchen are storage, preparation, and cooking (which Catharine Beecher had already recognized), and the places for these functions should be arranged in the kitchen in such a way that work at one place does not interfere with work at another place, the distance between these places is not unnecessarily large, and no obstacles are in the way. A natural arrangement is a triangle, with the refrigerator, the sink, and the stove at a vertex each. A square metre (US spelling: square meter) is by definition the area enclosed by a square with sides each 1 metre long. ... Motto: (Out Of Many, One) (traditional) In God We Trust (1956 to date) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington D.C. Largest city New York City None at federal level (English de facto) Government Federal constitutional republic  - President George Walker Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence from... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign (UIUC), is the largest campus in the University of Illinois system. ... 1944 (MCMXLIV) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... A triangle. ...


This observation led to a few common kitchen forms, commonly characterized by the arrangement of the kitchen cabinets and sink, stove, and refrigerator:

  • A single-file kitchen (or one-way galley) has all of these along one wall; the work triangle degenerates to a line. This is not optimal, but often the only solution if space is restricted. This may be common in an attic space that is being converted into a living space, or a studio apartment.
  • The double-file kitchen (or two-way galley) has two rows of cabinets at opposite walls, one containing the stove and the sink, the other the refrigerator. This is the classical work kitchen.
  • In the L-kitchen, the cabinets occupy two adjacent walls. Again, the work triangle is preserved, and there may even be space for an additional table at a third wall, provided it doesn't intersect the triangle.
  • A U-kitchen has cabinets along three walls, typically with the sink at the base of the "U". This is a typical work kitchen, too, unless the two other cabinet rows are short enough to place a table at the fourth wall.
  • The block kitchen (or island) is a more recent development, typically found in open kitchens. Here, the stove or both the stove and the sink are placed where an L or U kitchen would have a table, in a freestanding "island", separated from the other cabinets. In a closed room, this doesn't make much sense, but in an open kitchen, it makes the stove accessible from all sides such that two persons can cook together, and allows for contact with guests or the rest of the family, since the cook doesn't face the wall anymore.

Modern kitchens often have enough informal space to allow for people to eat in it without having to use the formal dining room. Such areas are called "breakfast areas", "breakfast nooks" or "breakfast bars" if the space is integrated into a kitchen counter. Kitchens with enough space to eat in are sometimes called "eat-in kitchens". The dining room at Chatsworth House, Derbyshire, England A dining room is a room for consuming food. ...


Other kitchen types

A chef can prepare fresh food for hundreds in this 20th century canteen kitchen.

Restaurant and canteen kitchens found in hotels, hospitals, army barracks, and similar establishments are generally (in developed countries) subject to public health laws. They are inspected periodically by public-health officials, and forced to close if they don't meet hygienic requirements mandated by law. from [1]. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... from [1]. This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Chefs in training in Paris A chef is a professional cook, who may work in a restaurant, hotel, institutional food service or other professional kitchen. ... A place where Stuart Williams is often found ... Toms Restaurant, a restaurant in New York made familiar by Suzanne Vega and the television sitcom Seinfeld A restaurant is an establishment that serves prepared food and beverages to order, to be consumed on the premises. ... One of a number of cafeterias at Electronic City campus, Infosys Technologies Ltd. ... For other uses, see Hotel (disambiguation). ... For the record label, see Hospital Records. ... Public health is concerned with threats to the overall health of a community based on population health analysis. ...


Canteen kitchens (and castle kitchens) were often the places where new technology was used first. For instance, Benjamin Thompson's "energy saving stove", an early 19th century fully-closed iron stove using one fire to heat several pots, was designed for large kitchens; another thirty years passed before they were adapted for domestic use. Benjamin Thompson. ...


Today's western restaurant kitchens typically have tiled walls and floors and use stainless steel for other surfaces (workbench, but also door and drawer fronts) because these materials are durable and easy to clean. Professional kitchens are often equipped with gas stoves, as these allow cooks to regulate the heat quicker and more finely than electrical stoves. Some special appliances are typical for professional kitchens, such as large installed deep fryers, steamers, or a Bain Marie. (As of 2004, steamers—not to be confused with a pressure cooker—are beginning to find their way into domestic households, sometimes as a combined appliance of oven and steamer.) A cook is a person that prepares food for consumption. ... Deep frying is cooking food by submerging the whole food item in hot oil or fat, originating in Africa. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Bain-marie or Marys bath is a method utilised in industry (phamaceutical, cosmetics, conserves, etc. ... 2004 is a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... a pressure cooker Pressure cooker redirects here. ...


The fast food and convenience food trends have also changed the way restaurant kitchens operate. There is a trend for restaurants to only "finish" delivered convenience food or even just re-heat completely prepared meals, maybe at the utmost grilling a hamburger or a steak. Fast food is food prepared and served quickly at a fast-food restaurant or shop at low cost. ... This article or section should include material from One-Hour Thanksgiving Dinner. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Broiling. ... A hamburger (or simply burger) is a sandwich that consists of a cooked patty of ground meat that is fried, steamed, grilled, or broiled, and is generally served with various condiments and toppings inside a sliced bun baked specially for this purpose. ... A steak (from Old Norse steik, roast) is a slice from a larger piece of meat, typically beef. ...


The kitchens in railway dining cars present special challenges: space is constrained, and nevertheless the personnel must be able to serve a great number of meals quickly. Especially in the early history of the railway this required flawless organization of processes; in modern times, the microwave oven and prepared meals have made this task a lot easier. Galleys are kitchens aboard ships (although the term galley is also often used to refer to a railroad dining car's kitchen). On yachts, galleys are often cramped, with one or two gas burners fuelled by a gas bottle, but kitchens on cruise ships or large warships are comparable in every respect with restaurants or canteen kitchens. On passenger airplanes, the kitchen is reduced to a mere pantry, the only function reminiscent of a kitchen is the heating of in-flight meals (where they haven't been "optimized" away altogether) delivered by a catering company. An extreme form of the kitchen occurs in space, e.g. aboard a Space Shuttle (where it is also called the "galley") or the International Space Station. The astronauts' food is generally completely prepared, dehydrated, and sealed in plastic pouches, and the kitchen is reduced to a rehydration and heating module. Chicago, Burlington and Quincy Railroad lightweight dining car Silver Grill passes through Denver, Colorado on October 24, 1936. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into articles entitled Microwave oven and Microwave heating. ... A French galley and Dutch men-of-war off a port by Abraham Willaerts, painted 17th century. ... Italian Full rigged ship Amerigo Vespucci in New York Harbor, 1976 A ship is a large watercraft capable of offshore navigation. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Pacific Sky sails under Sydney Harbour Bridge A cruise ship or a cruise liner is a passenger ship used for pleasure voyages, where the voyage itself and the ships amenities are considered an essential part of the experience. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article refers to the tool of travel. ... A pantry is a room in a domestic house used for food storage. ... A professionally catered event Catering is the business of providing food service at a remote site. ... NASAs Space Shuttle, officially called Space Transportation System (STS), is the United States governments current manned launch vehicle. ... International Space Station insignia ISS Statistics Crew: 3 As of June 20, 2007 Perigee: 319. ... Astronaut Bruce McCandless II using a manned maneuvering unit outside the U.S. Space Shuttle Challenger in 1984. ... Dehydration (hypohydration) is the removal of water (hydro in ancient Greek) from an object. ...


Outdoor areas in which food is prepared are generally not considered to be kitchens, although an outdoor area set up for regular food preparation, for instance when camping, might be called an "outdoor kitchen". Military camps and similar temporary settlements of nomads may have dedicated kitchen tents. Car camping is camping in a tent, but nearby the car for easier access and for supply storage. ... Kazakh nomads in the steppes of the Russian Empire, ca. ...

The Food Technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire.
The Food Technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire.

In Schools where Home Economics (HE) or Food technology (previously known as Domestic science) is taught, there will be a series of kitchens with multiple equipment (similar in some respects to laboratories) solely for the purpose of teaching. These will consist of between 6 and 12 workstations, each with their own oven, sink and kitchen utensils. Image File history File links This is a picture of the Food Technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire. ... Image File history File links This is a picture of the Food Technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire. ... Marling School (centre number 57037) is a grammar school for boys located in Stroud, Gloucestershire in England, next to its sister school, Stroud High School. ... Stroud is a town and civil parish in the county of Gloucestershire, England. ... The food technology room at Marling School in Stroud, Gloucestershire. ... Family and consumer sciences, or home economics, is an academic discipline which combines aspects of consumer science, nutrition, cooking, parenting and human development, interior decoration, textiles, family economics and resource management as well as other related subjects. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Oven depicted in a painting by Millet An oven is an enclosed compartment for heating, baking or drying. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Kitchens around the world

Japan

An example of a Japanese Kitchen
An example of a Japanese Kitchen
Main article: Japanese kitchen

Kitchens in Japan are called Daidokoro (台所;lit. "kitchen"). Daidokoro is the place where food is prepared in a Japanese house. Until the Meiji era, a kitchen was also called kamado (かまど; lit. stove) and there are many sayings in the Japanese language that involve kamado as it was considered the symbol of a house and the term could even be used to mean "family" or "household". When separating a family, it was called Kamado wo wakeru, which means "divide the stove". Kamado wo yaburu (lit. "break the stove") means that the family was bankrupt. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 199 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kitchen Japanese kitchen Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 199 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kitchen Japanese kitchen Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Daidokoro (台所;lit. ... This building is public housing provided by the government of Tokyo. ... History of Japan Paleolithic Jomon Yayoi Yamato period ---Kofun period ---Asuka period Nara period Heian period Kamakura period Muromachi period Azuchi-Momoyama period ---Nanban period Edo period Meiji period Taisho period Showa period ---Japanese expansionism ---Occupied Japan ---Post-Occupation Japan Heisei The Meiji period (Japanese: Meiji Jidai 明治&#26178... A stove is a heat-producing device. ... Japanese  ) is a language spoken by over 130 million people, in Japan and Japanese emigrant communities around the world. ...


Africa

A kitchen in Zambia
A kitchen in Zambia

In some rural regions of Africa the kitchen may be a simple open-sided hut, separate from the living quarters. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 594 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1014 × 1024 pixel, file size: 313 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kitchen ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 594 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1014 × 1024 pixel, file size: 313 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Kitchen ...


References

  • Miklautz, E. et al. (Ed.): Die Küche — Zur Geschichte eines architektonischen, sozialen und imaginativen Raums, Verlag Böhlau, Vienna 1999; ISBN 3-205-99076-5. In German.
  • Two collections of architecture students' works on the kitchen: "Küchen" (PDF file, 3 MB) and "Küchen, 2. Gang" (PDF file, 5 MB). Both in German. 1

PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ...

Further reading

  • Andritzky, M. (Ed.): Oikos: Von der Feuerstelle zur Mikrowelle, Anabes, Giessen 1992; ISBN 3-87038-669-X. In German; out of print.
  • Beecher, C. E. and Beecher Stowe, H.: The American Woman's Home, 1869. The text is vailable at Project Gutenberg at [1].
  • Harrison, M.: The Kitchen in History, Osprey; 1972; ISBN 0-85045-068-3; out of print.
  • Lupton, E. and Miller, J. A.: The Bathroom, the Kitchen, and the Aesthetics of Waste, Princeton Architectural Press; 1996; ISBN 1-56898-096-5. The introduction is available online. In English.
  • Snodgrass, M. E.: Encyclopedia of Kitchen History; Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers; (November 2004); ISBN 1-57958-380-6.
  • Nicolas Cahill's Household and City Organization at Olynthus ISBN 0-300-08495-1

Catherine Beecher Catherine Esther Beecher (September 6, 1800 – May 12, 1878), the daughter of Lyman Beecher and sister to Harriet Beecher Stowe, was a very active supporter for the cause of womens education. ... Harriet Elizabeth Beecher Stowe (June 14, 1811 – July 1, 1896) was a white American abolitionist and novelist, whose Uncle Toms Cabin (1852) attacked the cruelty of slavery; it reached millions as a novel and play, and became influential, even in Britain. ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Project Gutenberg, abbreviated as PG, is a volunteer effort to digitize, archive, and distribute cultural works. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ...

See also

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Kitchens

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