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Encyclopedia > Kit Carson
Kit Carson
Kit Carson

Christopher Houston "Kit" Carson (December 24, 1809May 23, 1868) was an American frontiersman. Download high resolution version (532x640, 34 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Kit Carson Categories: U.S. history images ... Download high resolution version (532x640, 34 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Kit Carson Categories: U.S. history images ... is the 358th day of the year (359th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1809 (MDCCCIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Media:Example. ... A frontier is a political and geographical term referring to areas near or beyond a boundary, or of a different nature. ...

Contents

Early life

Born in Madison County, Kentucky, near the city of Richmond, Carson was raised in Franklin, Missouri, where his family moved before his second birthday. Carson's father, Lindsey Carson, was a farmer of Scots-Irish descent, who had fought in the Revolutionary War under General Wade Hampton. There were a total of fifteen Carson children: five by Lindsey Carson's first wife, and ten by Kit's mother, Rebecca Robinson. Kit was the eleventh child in the family. The Carson family settled on a tract of land owned by the sons of Daniel Boone, who had purchased the land from the Spanish, prior to the Louisiana Purchase. The Boone and Carson families became good friends, working, socializing, and intermarrying. Madison County is the name of twenty counties in the United States, named after President James Madison: Madison County, Alabama Madison County, Arkansas Madison County, Florida Madison County, Georgia Madison County, Iowa Madison County, Idaho Madison County, Illinois Madison County, Indiana Madison County, Iowa Madison County, Kentucky Madison County, Mississippi... Official language(s) English[1] Capital Frankfort Largest city Louisville Area  Ranked 37th  - Total 40,444 sq mi (104,749 km²)  - Width 140 miles (225 km)  - Length 379 miles (610 km)  - % water 1. ... Franklin is a city located in Howard County, Missouri. ... Scots-Irish (also called Scotch-Irish, primarily in the USA) is an Irish ethnic group which ultimately traces its roots back to Scotland. ... John Trumbulls Declaration of Independence, showing the five-man committee in charge of drafting the Declaration in 1776 as it presents its work to the Second Continental Congress The American Revolution refers to the period during the last half of the 18th century in which the Thirteen Colonies that... Wade Hampton (1752-February 4, 1835) served in the American Revolution and was a member of Congress from 1795-1797 and from 1803-1805, and a presidential elector in 1801. ... This 1820 oil painting by Chester Harding is the only portrait of Daniel Boone made from life. ... The Louisiana Purchase. ...


Kit was seven when his father was killed by a killer called texas chain saw. Lindsey Carson's death reduced the Carson family to a desperate poverty, forcing young Kit to drop out of school to work on the family farm, as well as engage in hunting. At age 14, Kit was apprenticed to a saddlemaker in the settlement of Franklin, Missouri. Franklin was situated at the eastern end of the Santa Fe Trail, which had opened two years earlier. Many of the clientele at the saddleshop were trappers and traders, from whom Kit would hear their stirring tales of the Far West. Carson is reported to have found work in the saddle shop suffocating: he once stated "the business did not suite me, and I concluded to leave [The workman's saddle shop]". Trail logo The Santa Fe Trail was an historic 19th century transportation route across southwestern North America connecting Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. ...


At sixteen, Carson secretly signed on with a large merchant caravan heading to Santa Fe tending the horses, mules, and oxen. During the winter of 1826-1827 he stayed with Matthew Kinkead, a trapper and explorer, in Taos, New Mexico which was known as the capital of the fur trade in the Southwest. Kinkead had been a friend of Carson's father in Missouri, and Kit began learning the skills of a trapper from him. Additionally he learned languages and became fluent in Spanish, Navajo, Apache, Cheyenne, Arapaho, Paiute, Shoshone, and Ute. Nickname: The City Different Location in the State of New Mexico Coordinates: Country United States State New Mexico County Santa Fe Founded 1607  - Mayor David Coss Area    - City  37. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1827 (MDCCCXXVII) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Taos (IPA: ) is a city in Taos County in the north-central region of New Mexico. ...


The trapper years (1829-40)

See Fur trade An Alberta fur trader in the 1890s. ...


After gaining experience along the Santa Fe Trail and in Mexico on various expeditions, Carson signed on with Ewing Young and forty other fur men in the Spring of 1829, his first official outing as a trapper. The journey took the band into unexplored Apache country along the Gila River. Ewing's group was approached and attacked by Apache Indians. It was during this encounter that Carson shot and killed one of the attacking Indians, the first time circumstances required him to act in a way that resulted in another's death. Trail logo The Santa Fe Trail was an historic 19th century transportation route across southwestern North America connecting Missouri with Santa Fe, New Mexico. ... Johann Wolfgang von Goethe 1829 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... // It has been suggested that Traditional Apache scout be merged into this article or section. ... The Gila River, a tributary of the Colorado, is shown highlighted on a map of the United States The Gila River (Oodham [Pima]: Hila Akimel) is a tributary of the Colorado River, 630 mile (1,014 km) long, in the southwestern United States. ...


Carson attended an annual mountain man rendezvous during the summer of 1835 (at age 24) which was held that year along the Green River in southwestern Wyoming. He became interested in an Arapahoe woman whose name was Singing Grass (Waa-ni-beh), whose tribe was camped nearby. Singing Grass is said to have been popular at the rendezvous, and also caught the attention of a French-Canadian trapper, Joseph Chouinard. When Singing Grass chose Carson over Chouinard, the rejected suitor became belligerent. Chouinard is reported to have disrupted the camp, and finally it seems Carson could tolerate the situation no longer. Words between the two were exchanged, and Carson and Chouinard charged each other on horses with drawn pistols: Carson blew off the thumb of his opponent, while Chouinard's shot missed. This incident is said to have made Carson renowned among the mountain men, but was considered to be uncharacteristic conduct for him. | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Green River may refer to: // Rivers Canada Green River in New Brunswick. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Scabby Bull, Arapaho 1806 Arapaho camp, ca. ...


Carson considered his years as a trapper to be "the happiest days of my life". Accompanied by Singing Grass, he worked with the Hudson Bay Company, as well as the renowned frontiersman Jim Bridger, trapping beaver along the Yellowstone, Powder, and Big Horn Rivers, and was found throughout what is now Colorado, Utah, Wyoming, Idaho, and Montana. Carson's first child, a daughter, was born in 1837, named Adeline. The couple's second daughter was born in 1839. Sadly, Carson's wife developed a fever shortly after the child's birth, and died. Jim Bridger Jim Bridger (right) is honored along with Pony Express founder Alexander Majors (left) and Kansas City founder John Calvin McCoy at Pioneer Square in Westport in Kansas City. ... Yellowstone River, Fishing Bridge, July 1959. ... Powder River may refer: The Powder River in Wyoming and Montana in the United States The Powder River in Oregon in the United States This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... The Wind-Bighorn rivers The Bighorn River is a tributary of the Yellowstone, approximately 461 mi (742 km) long, in the western United States in the states of Wyoming and Montana. ... Official language(s) English Capital Denver Largest city Denver Area  Ranked 8th  - Total 104,185 sq mi (269,837 km²)  - Width 280 miles (451 km)  - Length 380 miles (612 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Salt Lake City Largest city Salt Lake City Area  Ranked 13th  - Total 84,889 sq mi (219,887 km²)  - Width 270 miles (435 km)  - Length 350 miles (565 km)  - % water 3. ... Official language(s) English Capital Cheyenne Largest city Cheyenne Area  Ranked 10th  - Total 97,818 sq mi (253,348 km²)  - Width 280 miles (450 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English [1] Capital Boise Largest city Boise Area  Ranked 14th  - Total 83,642 sq mi (216,632 km²)  - Width 305 miles (491 km)  - Length 479 miles (771 km)  - % water 0. ... Official language(s) English Capital Helena Largest city Billings Area  Ranked 4th  - Total 147,165 sq mi (381,156 km²)  - Width 255 miles (410 km)  - Length 630 miles (1,015 km)  - % water 1  - Latitude 44°26N to 49°N  - Longitude 104°2W to 116°2W Population  Ranked... Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ...


At this time, the nation was undergoing a severe depression (see Panic of 1837). The fur industry was undermined by changing fashion styles: a new demand for silk hats replaced the demand for beaver fur. Also, the trapping industry had devastated the beaver population; this combination of facts ended the need for trappers. Carson stated, "Beaver was getting scarce, it became necessary to try our hand at something else".[1] 1840 Whig campaign poster blames Van Buren for hard times The Panic of 1837 was an economic depression, one of the most severe financial crises in the history of the United States. ...


He attended the last mountain man rendezvous, held in the summer of 1840 (again at Green River) and moved on to Bent's Fort, finding employment as a hunter. Carson married a Cheyenne woman in 1841 but this marriage lasted only several months. By 1842 he met and became engaged to the daughter of a prominent Taos family: Josefa Jaramillo. After receiving instruction from Padre Antonio José Martínez, he was baptized into the Catholic Church in 1842. When he was 34, he married 14-year-old Josefa, his third wife, on February 6, 1843. They raised fifteen children, the descendants of whom remain in the Arkansas Valley of Colorado. 1840 is a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Bents Fort Bents Old Fort is a National Historic Site in Bent County, Colorado. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Taos (IPA: ) is a city in Taos County in the north-central region of New Mexico. ... A daguerrotype of Padre Martínez, ca. ... The name Catholic Church can mean a visible organization that refers to itself as Catholic, or the invisible Christian Church, viz. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


A Guide with Frémont

Carson decided early in 1842 to return east to bring his daughter Adeline to live with relatives near Carson's former home of Franklin, for the purpose of providing her with an education. That summer he met John C. Frémont on a Missouri River steamboat in Missouri. Frémont was preparing to lead his first expedition and was looking for a guide to take him to South Pass. The two men made acquaintance, and Carson offered his services, as he had spent much time in the area. The five month journey, made with 25 men, was a success, and Fremont's report was published by Congress. His report "touched off a wave of wagon caravans filled with hopeful emigrants" heading West. 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first Presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... The Missouri River is a tributary of the Mississippi River in the United States. ... Paddle steamers — Lucerne, Switzerland. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... Type Bicameral Houses Senate House of Representatives United States Senate Majority Leader Harry Reid, D since January 4, 2007 Speaker of the House Nancy Pelosi, D since January 4, 2007 Members 535 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups (as of November 7, 2006 elections) Democratic Party Republican...


Frémont's success in the first expedition lead to his second expedition, undertaken in the summer of 1843, which proposed to map and describe the second half of the Oregon Trail, from South Pass to the Columbia River. Due to his proven skill as a guide in the first expedition, Carson's services were again requested. This journey took them along the Great Salt Lake into Oregon, establishing all the land in the Great Basin to be land-locked, which contributed greatly to the understanding of North American geography at the time. Their trip brought them into sight of Mount Rainier, Mount Saint Helens, and Mount Hood. Year 1843 (MDCCCXLIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Ox Team or the Old Oregon Trail 1852-1906 by Ezra Meeker. ... South Pass (elevation 7550 ft) is a mountain pass on the Continental Divide in the Rocky Mountains in southwestern Wyoming. ... The Columbia River (French: fleuve Columbia) is a river in the Pacific Northwest region of North America. ... Great Salt Lake, located in the northern part of the U.S. state of Utah, is the largest salt lake in the Western Hemisphere,[1] the fourth largest terminal lake in the world,[2] and the 33rd largest lake on Earth. ... Official language(s) (none)[1] Capital Salem Largest city Portland Area  Ranked 9th  - Total 98,466 sq mi (255,026 km²)  - Width 260 miles (420 km)  - Length 360 miles (580 km)  - % water 2. ... Drainage map showing the Great Basin in orange Various Definitions of the Great Basin (NPS) The Great Basin is a large, arid region of the western United States. ... Mount Rainier is a stratovolcano in Pierce County, Washington, located 54 miles (87 km) southeast of Seattle, Washington, in the United States. ... Mount St. ... For the community named Mount Hood, see Mount Hood, Oregon. ...


One purpose of this expedition had been to locate the Buenaventura, a major east-west river that was believed to connect the Great Lakes with the Pacific Ocean. Though its existence was accepted as scientific fact at the time, it was not to be found: Frémont's second expedition established that this mystical river was a fable. The non-existent Buenaventura River, alternatively San Buenaventura River, Río Buenaventura, etc. ...


The second expedition became snowbound in the Sierra Nevadas that winter, and was in danger of mass starvation: however, Carson's expertise pulled them through, in spite of being half-starved-their mules "ate one another's tails and the leather of the pack saddles." The expedition moved south into the Mojave Desert, enduring attacks by Natives, which killed one man. Also, when the expedition had crossed into California, they had officially invaded Mexico. The threat of military intervention by that country sent Fremont's expedition further southeast, into Nevada, at a watering hole known as Las Vegas. The party traveled on to Bent's Fort, and by August, 1844 returned to Washington, over a year after their departure. Another Congressional report on Fremont's expedition was published. By the time of the second report in 1845, Frémont and Carson were becoming nationally famous. The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range that is mostly in eastern California. ... For the indigenous American tribe, see Mohave. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... For information concerning Bents New Fort, visit the National Park Services website at: [1] ... Jan. ... Nickname: Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia Coordinates: , Country United States Federal District District of Columbia Government  - Mayor Adrian M. Fenty (D)  - District Council Chairperson: Vincent C. Gray (D) Ward 1: Jim Graham (D) Ward 2: Jack... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Somewhere along this route, Frémont and party came across a Mexican man and a boy who were survivors of an ambush by a band of Natives, who had killed two men, staked two women to the ground and mutilated them, and stolen 30 horses. Carson and fellow mountain man Alex Godey took pity on the two survivors. They tracked the Native band for 2 days, and upon locating them, rushed into their encampment. They killed two Native Americans, scattered the rest, and returned with the horses.

"More than any other single factor or incident, [the Mojave Desert incident] from Frémont's second expedition report is where the Kit Carson legend was born….." Sides, Blood and Thunder, pp. 61-4

On June 1, 1845 John Frémont and 55 men left St. Louis, with Carson as guide, on the third expedition. The stated goal was to "map the source of the Arkansas River", on the east side of the Rocky Mountains. But upon reaching the Arkansas, Frémont suddenly made a hasty trail straight to California, without explanation. Arriving in the Sacramento Valley in early winter 1846, he promptly sought to stir up patriotic enthusiasm among the American settlers there. He promised that if war with Mexico started, his military force would "be there to protect them." Frémont nearly provoked a battle with General Jose Castro near Monterey, which would have likely resulted in the annihilation of Frémont's group, due to the superior numbers of the Mexican troops. Frémont then fled Mexican-controlled California, and went north to Oregon, finding camp at Klamath Lake. June 1 is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1845 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Upper Klamath Lake Upper Klamath Lake is a large, shallow freshwater lake east of the Cascade Range in south central Oregon in the United States. ...


No watchman was posted on the night of May 9, 1846, when Carson awoke to the sound of a thump. Jumping up, he saw his friend and fellow trapper Basil Lajeunesse sprawled in blood. He called an alarm and immediately everyone else came to: they were under attack by Native Americans estimated to be several dozen in number. By the time the assailants were beaten off, two other members of Frémonts group were dead. The one dead warrior was judged to be a Klamath Lake Native. Frémont's group fell into "an angry gloom." Carson was beside himself, and Fremont reports he smashed away at the dead warrior's face until it was pulp. Fremont, Memoirs, p. 492. is the 129th day of the year (130th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


To avenge the deaths of his expedition members, Frémont chose to attack a Klamath Tribe fishing village named Dokdokwas, at the junction of the Williamson River and Klamath Lake, which took place May 10, 1846. The action completely destroyed the village, and involved the massacre of women and children. After the burning of the village, Carson was nearly killed by a Klamath warrior later that day: his gun misfired, and the warrior drew to fire a poison arrow; but Frémont, seeing Carson's predicament, trampled the warrior with his horse. Carson stated he felt that he owed Frémont his life due to this incident. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...

"The tragedy of Dokdokwas is deepened by the fact that most scholars now agree that Frémont and Carson, in their blind vindictiveness, probably chose the wrong tribe to lash out against: In all likelihood the band of Indians that had killed [Frémont's three men] were from the neighboring Modocs….The Klamaths were culturally related to the Modocs, but the two tribes were bitter enemies". Sides, Blood and Thunder, p. 87

Turning south from Klamath Lake, Frémont led his expedition back down the Sacramento Valley, and slyly promoted an insurrection of American settlers, which he then took charge of once circumstances had adequately developed, known as the Bear Flag Revolt. Events escalated when a group of Mexicans murdered two American rebels. Frémont then intercepted three Mexican men on June 28, 1846, crossing the San Francisco Bay, who landed near San Quentin. Frémont ordered Carson to execute these three men in revenge for the deaths of the two Americans.[2] Californias Yosemite Valley. ...


Mexican American War service

See: History of California to 1899 Californias Yosemite Valley. ...


Frémont's California Battalion next moved south to the provincial capital of Monterey, California, and met Commodore Robert Stockton there in mid-July of 1846. Stockton had sailed into harbor with two American warships and taken claim to Monterey for the United States. Learning that the war with Mexico was underway, Stockton made plans to capture Los Angeles and San Diego and proceed on to Mexico City. He joined forces with Frémont, and made Carson a lieutenant, thus initiating Carson's military career. Nickname: Location of Monterey, California County Monterey Government  - Mayor Chuck Della Sala Area  - City 30. ... Robert Field Stockton (20 August 1795–7 October 1866) was a United States naval officer, notable in the capture of California during the Mexican-American War, who was from a notable political family also served as a U.S. Senator from New Jersey. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 18,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded... The recorded history of the San Diego , California region goes back to the Spanish penetration of California in the 16th century. ...


Frémont's unit arrived in San Diego on one of Stockton's ships on July 29, 1846, and took over the town without resistance. Stockton, traveling on a separate warship, claimed Santa Barbara a few days later. (See Mission Santa Barbara and Presidio of Santa Barbara). Meeting up and joining forces in San Diego, they marched to Los Angeles and claimed this town without any challenge, and Stockton declared California to be United States territory on August 17, 1846. The following day, August 18, Stephen Watts Kearney rode into Santa Fe, New Mexico with his Army of the West and declared the New Mexican territory conquered. July 29 is the 210th day of the year (211th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Nickname: Santa Barbara is situated on the southward-facing coast at far right. ... Painting of the mission Known as The Queen of the Missions, Mission Santa Bárbara in California was founded on December 4, 1786 by Father Fermin Lasuen, who had taken over the Presidency of the California mission chain upon the death of Father Junipero Serra. ... 2005 view of the restored portion of the Presidio The Presidio of Santa Barbara was a military installation in Santa Barbara, California, built by Spain in 1782, with the mission of defending the Second Military District in California. ... The recorded history of Los Angeles, California is a complicated one, going back to the 16th century and a tiny Spanish settlement sometimes called Bahía de los fumos (Bay of the Smokes). // Historical population growth At the end of 2004, the population is estimated to be 3,912,200. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Portrait of Stephen W. Kearny Stephen Watts Kearny (August 30, 1794–October 31, 1848) was a United States Army officer, noted for action in the southwest during the Mexican-American War, in particular in the conquest of California. ...


Stockton and Frémont were eager to announce the conquest of California to President Polk, and wished for Carson to carry their correspondence overland to the President. Carson accepted the mission, and pledged to cross the continent within 60 days. He left Los Angeles with 15 men and 6 Delaware Native Americans on September 5. James Knox Polk (November 2, 1795–June 15, 1849) was the eleventh President of the United States, serving from March 4, 1845 to March 4, 1849. ... is the 248th day of the year (249th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Service with Kearney

Thirty one days later on October 6, Carson chanced to meet Kearney and his 300 dragoons at the deserted village of Valverde.[3] Kearney was under orders from the Polk Administration to subdue both New Mexico and California, and set up governments there. Learning that California was already conquered, he sent 200 of his men back to Santa Fe, and ordered Carson to guide him back to California so he could stabilize the situation there. Kearney sent the mail on to Washington by another courier.


For the next six weeks, Lt. Carson guided Kearny and the 100 dragoons west along the Gila River over very rugged terrain, arriving at the Colorado River on November 25. On some parts of the trail mules died at a rate of almost 12 a day. By December 5, three months after leaving Los Angeles, Carson had brought Kearney's men to within 25 miles their destination of San Diego. is the 329th day of the year (330th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


A Mexican courier was captured en route to Sonora Mexico carrying letters to General Jose Castro that reported a Mexican revolt which had recaptured California from Commodore Stockton: all the costal cities now were back under Mexican control, except for San Diego, where the Mexicans had Stockton pinned down and under siege. Kearney was himself in perilous danger, as his force was reduced both in numbers and in a state of physical exhaustion: they had to come out of the Gila River trail and confront the Mexican forces, or risk perishing in the desert.


The Battle of San Pasqual

While approaching San Diego, Kearney sent a rancher ahead to notify Commodore Stockton of his presence. The rancher, Edward Stokes, returned with 39 American troops and information that several hundred Mexican dragoons under Capt Andres Pico were camped at the Indian village of San Pasqual, lying on the route between him and Stockton. Kearney decided to raid Pico in order to capture fresh horses, and sent out a scouting party on the night of December 5-6. The Battle of San Pascual was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican_American War in what is now San Diego County, California, on the 6 and 7 December 1846. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


The scouting party encountered a barking dog in San Pasqual, and Captain Pico's troops were aroused from their sleep. Having been detected, Kearney decided to attack, and organized his troops to advance on San Pasqual. A complex battle evolved, where twenty-one Americans were killed and many more wounded: many from the long lances of the Mexican caballeros, who also displayed expert horsemanship. By the end of the second day, December 7, the Americans were nearly out of food and water, low on ammunition and weak from the journey along the Gila River. They faced starvation and possible annilation by the Mexican troops who vastly outnumbered them, and Kearney ordered his men to dig in on top of a small hill. is the 341st day of the year (342nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kearney then sent Carson and two other men to slip through the siege and get reinforcements. Carson, Edward Beale, and an Indian left on the night of December 8 for San Diego which was 25 miles away. Because their canteens made too much noise, they were left along the path. Because their boots also made too much noise, Carson and Beale removed these and tucked them under their belts. These they lost, and Carson and Beale traveled the distance to San Diego barefoot through desert, rock, and cactus. is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


By December 10, Kearney had decided all hope was gone, and planned to attempt a breakout the next morning: but that night, 200 American troops on fresh horses arrived, the Mexican army dispersed with the new show of strength. Kearney was able to arrive in San Diego by December 12. This action contributed to the prompt reconquest of California by the American forces. December 10 is the 344th day (345th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, 21 days before the next year. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Civil War and Indian campaigns

Following the recapture of Los Angeles in 1847, Frémont was appointed Govenor of California by Commodore Stockton. Frémont sent Carson to carry messeages back to Washington City. He stopped in St. Louis and met with Senator Thomas Benton, who was a prominent supporter of the settling the West and a proponent of Manifest Destiny, and had been prominent in getting Frémont's expedition reports published by Congress. Once in Washington, Carson delivered his messages to Secretary of State James Buchanan, as well as had meetings with Secretary of War William Marcy and President James Polk. Thomas Hart Benton (March 14, 1782–April 10, 1858), nicknamed Old Bullion, was an American Senator from Missouri and a staunch advocate of westward expansion of the United States. ... This painting (circa 1872) by John Gast called American Progress is an allegorical representation of Manifest Destiny. ... James Buchanan (April 23, 1791 – June 1, 1868) was the 15th president of the United States (1857–1861). ... William Learned Marcy ( December 12, 1786– July 4, 1857) was an American statesman. ...


Having completed this mission, Carson received orders to do it all again: return to California with messages, receive further messages there, and bring those back yet again to Washington. By the end of the Frémont expeditions and these courier missions, Carson felt he wanted to settle down with Joséfa, and decided in 1849 to go into farming in Taos.


Carson's public image as an action hero had been sealed by the Frémont expedition reports of 1845. In 1849, the first of many Carson action novels appeared. The first, written by Charles Averill, bore the name Kit Carson: The Prince of the Gold Hunters. This type of western pulp fiction was known as "blood and thunders". In Averill's novel, Carson finds a kidnapped girl, and saves her, vowing to her distraught parents in Boston that he would scour the American West until she was found.


This book was among the possessions found by Carson and Major William Grier when they recovered the body of Mrs Ann White in November, 1849. Mrs. White and her daughter had been taken captive by Jicarilla Apaches several weeks earlier. She had been traveling with her husband James White, a trader, to Santa Fe, when a group of Indians approached them as they camped along the Santa Fe trail. Mr. White tried to disperse the Indians with his rifle, but they attacked, killing everyone except Mrs White, her daughter, and a servant.


Carson and Grier tracked the Indians for twelve days to their camp on the Canadian River. Carson wanted an immediate attack, while Grier wanted to parlay with the Jicarillas. The conflict in views caused delay and allowed the Indians to disperse from camp and escape. In the process, Mrs. White appears to have attempted to flee, and was killed by an arrow through the heart.


While picking through the belongings that the Jicarillas had left in their camp, one of Major Grier's soldiers came across a book that the White family had carried with them from Missouri: the paperback novel starring Kit Carson. This book must have been shown to him, for he was to comment on it later. This was the first time that the real Kit Carson came in contact with his own myth.


The episode of the White massacre haunted Carson's memory for many years. He once stated "I have often thought that as Mrs White read the book, she prayed for my appearance, knowing that I lived nearby". His fear was that the book had given her a false hope. He wrote later "I have much regretted the failure to save the life of so esteemed a lady", and he was troubled by the implications and false image that developed around his celebrity status.


When the American Civil War began in April 1861, Kit Carson resigned his post as federal Indian agent for northern New Mexico and joined the New Mexico volunteer infantry which was being organized by Ceran St. Vrain. Although New Mexico Territory officially allowed slavery, geography and economics made the institution so impractical that there were only a handful of slaves within its boundaries. The territorial government and the leaders of opinion all threw their support to the Union. Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... The New Mexico Territory became an organized territory of the United States on September 9, 1850, and it existed until New Mexico became the 47th state on January 6, 1912. ... Slave redirects here. ... In this map:  Union states prohibiting slavery  Union territories  Border states on the Union side which allowed slavery  Kansas, which entered and fought with the Union as a free state after the Bleeding Kansas crisis  The Confederacy  Confederate claimed and sometimes held territories During the American Civil War, the Union...


Overall command of Union forces in the Department of New Mexico fell to Colonel Edward R. S. Canby of the Regular Army's 19th Infantry, headquartered at Ft. Marcy in Santa Fe. Carson, with the rank of Colonel of Volunteers, commanded the third of five columns in Canby's force. Carson's command was divided into two battalions each made up of four companies of the First New Mexico Volunteers, in all some 500 men. This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... Major General E.R.S Canby Edward Richard Sprigg Canby (November 9, 1817 – April 11, 1873) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War and Indian Wars. ... Nickname: The City Different Location in the State of New Mexico Coordinates: Country United States State New Mexico County Santa Fe Founded 1607  - Mayor David Coss Area    - City  37. ...


Early in 1862, Confederate forces in Texas under General Henry Hopkins Sibley undertook an invasion of New Mexico Territory. The goal of this expedition was to conquer the rich Colorado gold fields and redirect this valuable resource from the North to the South. 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Some Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government. ... Official language(s) No Official Language See languages of Texas Capital Austin Largest city Houston Area  Ranked 2nd  - Total 261,797 sq mi (678,051 km²)  - Width 773 miles (1,244 km)  - Length 790 miles (1,270 km)  - % water 2. ... Portrait of Henry Hopkins Sibley by Mathew Brady, ca. ...


Advancing up the Rio Grande, Sibley's command clashed with Canby's Union force at Valverde on February 21, 1862. The day-long Battle of Valverde ended when the Confederates captured a Union battery of six guns and forced the rest of Canby's troops back across the river with losses of 68 killed and 160 wounded. Colonel Carson's column spent the morning on the west side of the river out of the action, but at 1 p.m., Canby ordered them to cross, and Carson's battalions fought until ordered to retreat. Carson lost one man killed and one wounded. Río Bravo redirects here. ... is the 52nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders E.R.S. Canby Henry Hopkins Sibley Strength 3,000 2,500 Casualties 202 {68 killed, 160 wounded, 35 captured/missing} 187 The Battle of Valverde (February 20–February 21, 1862), fought in and around the town of Valverde in...


Colonel Canby had little or no confidence in the hastily recruited, untrained New Mexico volunteers, "who would not obey orders or obeyed them too late to be of any service." In his battle report, however, he did commend Carson, among other volunteer officers, for his "zeal and energy".


After the battle at Valverde, Colonel Canby and most of the regular troops were ordered to the eastern front, but Carson and his New Mexico Volunteers were fully occupied by "Indian troubles".


Prelude to Navajo campaign

Contact between the Navajo and the U.S. Army was prompted by a Navajo raid on Socorro, New Mexico near the end of September, 1846. General Kearney, passing nearby on his way to California after his recent conquest of Sant Fe, learned of the raid and sent a note to Col. William Doniphan, his second in command in Santa Fe. He asked Doniphan to send a regiment of soldiers into Navajo country and secure a peace treaty with them. Socorro is a city located in Socorro County, New Mexico in the Rio Grande Valley, at an elevation of 4579 feet. ... Alexander William Doniphan Alexander William Doniphan (July 9, 1808–August 8, 1887) was a noted 19th century American politician and soldier. ...


A detachment of 30 men made contact with the Navajo and spoke to the Navajo Chief Narbona in mid-October, about the same time that Carson met Gen. Kearney on the trail to California. A second meeting with Chief Narbona and Col. Doniphan occurred several weeks later. Doniphan informed the Navajo that all their land now belonged to the United States, and the Navajo and New Mexicans were now the "children of the United States". In spite of this, the Navajo signed a treaty, known as the Bear Spring treaty, on Nov. 21, 1846. The treaty forbade the Navajo to raid or make war on the New Mexicans, but allowed the New Mexicans the privledge of making war on the Navajo if they saw fit. [4] [5] This article is about the Navajo chief. ...


Despite the treaty, raiding continued in New Mexico by the Navajo, as well as the Jicarilla, Apache, Mescalero Apache, Ute, Comanche, and Kiowa. On August 16, 1849 the U.S. Army began an expedition into the heart of Navajo country on an organized reconnaissance for the purpose of impressing the Navajo with the might of the U.S. military, and to map the terrain for further operations and to plan forts. The expedition was lead by Col. John Washington, the miliary govenor of New Mexico at the time. The expedition included nearly a thousand infantry (U.S. and New Mexican volunteers), hundreds of horses and mules, a supply train, 55 Pueblo Indian scouts, and four artillery guns.


On August 29-30, 1849, Washington's expedition was in need of water, and began pillaging Navajo cornfields. It became clear the Navajo intended to resist further pillaging, with mounted warriors darting back and forth around Washington's troops. It is further documented that Washington's reasoning was that the pillaging of Navajo crops was justified because the Navajo would have to reimburse the U.S. government for the cost of the expedition.


In this setting, Washington was still able to communicate to the Navajo that in spite of the hostile situation, they and the whites could "still be friends if the Navajo came with their chiefs the next day and signed a treaty". This is in fact, exactly what the Navajo did.


The next day Chief Narbona came once again to "talk peace", along with several other headmen. An accord was reached on nearly every matter. When a New Mexican thought he saw his stolen horse and the Navajo protested its return, a scuffle broke out. (The Navajo position was that the horse had passed through several owners by this time, and now rightfully belonged to its Navajo owner). Col. Washington sided with the New Mexican. Since the Navajo owner now fled the scene, Washington told the New Mexican to go pick out any Navajo horse he wanted. The rest of the Navajo present figured out what has happening, and turned and fled. At this, Col. Washington ordered his soldiers to fire.


Seven Navajo were killed in the volleys; the rest ran and could not be caught. One of the dying was Chief Narbona, who was scalped by a New Mexican souvenir hunter. This massacre prompted the warlike Navajo leaders such as Manuelito to gain influence over those who were advocates of peace. Manuelito, Navajo chief Manuelito (1818-1893) was one of the principle war chiefs of the Navajo people before, during and after the Long Walk Period. ...


Carson's Navajo campaign

Raiding by Amerindians had been rather constant up through 1862, and New Mexicans were becoming more outspoken in their demand that something be done. Col. Canby devised a plan for the removal of the Navajo to a distant reservation and sent his plans to his superiors in Washington D.C. But that year, Canby was promoted to general and recalled back east for other duties. His replacement as commander of the Federal District of New Mexico was Brigadier General James H. Carleton.


Carleton believed that the Navajo conflict was the reason for New Mexico's "depressing backwardness". He naturally turned to Kit Carson to help him fulfill his plans of upgrading New Mexico, and his own career: Carson was nationally known and had been employed by a chain of preceding military commanders in their careers.

Carleton saw a way to harness the anxieties that had been stirred up [in New Mexico] by the Confederate invasion and the still-hovering fear that the Texans might return. If the territory was already on a war footing, the whole society alert and inflamed, then why not direct all this ramped up energy toward something useful? Carleton immediately declared a state of martial law, with curfews and mandatory passports for travel, and then brought all his newly streamlined authority to bear on cleaning up the Navajo mess. With a focus that bordered on obsession, he was determined finally to make good on Kearny's old promise that the United States would "correct all this".

Furthermore, Carleton believed there was gold in the Navajo's country, and felt they should be driven out in order to allow the development of this possibility. The immediate prelude to Carleton's Navajo campaign was to force the Mescalero Apache to Bosque Redondo. Carleton ordered Carson to kill all the men of that tribe, and say that he (Carson) had been sent to "punish them for their treachery and crimes".


Carson was appalled by this brutal attitude and refused to obey it. He accepted the surrender of more than a hundred Mescalero warriors who sought refuge with him. Nonetheless, he completed his campaign in a month.


When Carson learned that Carleton intended for him to pursue the Navajo he sent Carleton a letter of resignation dated February 3, 1863. Carleton refused to accept this and used the force of his personality to maintain Carson's cooperation. In language that was similar to his description of the Mescalero Apache, Carleton ordered Carson to lead an expedition against the Navajo, and to say to them, "You have deceived us too often, and robbed and murdered our people too long, to trust you again at large in your own country. This war shall be pursued against you if it takes years, now that we have begun, until you cease to exist or move. There can be no other talk on the subject."


Under Carleton's direction, Carson instituted a scorched earth policy, burning Navajo fields and homes, and confiscating or killing their livestock. He was aided by other Indian tribes with long-standing enmity toward the Navajos, chiefly the Utes. Carson was pleased with the work the Utes did for him, but they went home early in the campaign when told they could not confiscate Navajo booty. A scorched earth policy is a military tactic which involves destroying anything that might be useful to the enemy while advancing through or withdrawing from an area. ...


Carson also had difficulty with his New Mexico volunteers. Troopers deserted and officers resigned. Carson urged Carleton to accept two resignations he was forwarding, "as I do not wish to have any officer in my command who is not contented or willing to put up with as much inconvenience and privations for the success of the expedition as I undergo myself."


There were no pitched battles and only a few skirmishes in the Navajo campaign. Carson rounded up and took prisoner every Navajo he could find. In January 1864, Carson sent a company into Canyon de Chelly to attack the last Navajo stronghold under the leadership of Manuelito. The Navajo were forced to surrender because of the destruction of their livestock and food supplies. In the spring of 1864, 8,000 Navajo men, women and children were forced to march or ride in wagons 300 miles (480 km) to Fort Sumner, New Mexico. Navajos call this "The Long Walk". Many died along the way or during the next four years of imprisonment. In 1868, after signing a treaty with the U.S. government, remaining Navajos were allowed to return to a reduced area of their homeland, where the Navajo Reservation exists today. Thousands of other Navajo who had been living in the wilderness returned to the Navajo homeland centered around Canyon de Chelly. Canyon de Chelly National Monument, established April 1, 1931 as a unit of the National Park Service, is located in northeastern Arizona, within the boundaries of the Navajo Nation. ... Fort Sumner, was a military fort charged with the internment of nearby Navajo and Mescalero Apache populations from 1863-1868. ... The Long Walk The Long Walk of the Navajo, also called the Long Walk to Bosque Redondo, was a 20 day or more foot walk many Navajos made in 1864 to a reservation in southeastern New Mexico. ... Reservation may refer to: Reservation, a tract of land set apart for a special purpose: an area for indigenous peoples to live in: Indian reservation Indian reserve (in Canada) Reservation, an area where hunting animals is not permitted. ...


Southern Plains campaign

In November 1864, Carson was sent by General Carleton to deal with the Natives in western Texas. Carson and his troopers met a combined force of Kiowa, Comanche, and Cheyenne numbering over 1,500 at the ruins of Adobe Walls. In what is known as the Battle of Adobe Walls, the Native force led by Dohäsan made several assaults on Carson's forces which were supported by ten mountain howitzers. Carson inflicted heavy losses on the attacking warriors before burning the Indians' camp and lodges and returning to Fort Bascom. The Kiowa are a nation of Native Americans who lived mostly in the plains of west Texas, Oklahoma and eastern New Mexico at the time of the arrival of Europeans. ... For other uses, see Comanche (disambiguation). ... Cheyenne lodges with buffalo meat drying, 1870 For other uses, see Cheyenne (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States Kiowa Comanche Commanders Kit Carson Dohäsan Strength 321 soldiers 75 Indian scouts 5,000 Casualties 2 killed 10 wounded between 60 and 150 killed and wounded The First Battle of Adobe Walls was one of the largest battles between U.S. soldiers and Great Plains Indians... Loading a WW1 British 15 in (381 mm) howitzer 155 mm M198 Howitzer A howitzer or hauwitzer is a type of field artillery. ...


A few days later, Colonel John M. Chivington led U.S. troops in a massacre at Sand Creek. Chivington boasted that he had surpassed Carson and would soon be known as the great Indian killer. Carson was outraged at the massacre and openly denounced Chivington's actions. Colonel John Chivington (1821-1894), born in Lebanon, Ohio, was the hero of Glorietta Pass and the man responsible for the Sand Creek Massacre. ... Combatants United States of America Cheyenne, Arapaho Commanders John M. Chivington Black Kettle Strength 800 soldiers 500, mostly elderly, women and children Casualties 15 killed, 50 wounded 150-184 killed The Sand Creek massacre (also known as the Chivington massacre or the Battle of Sand Creek) was an incident in...


The Southern Plains campaign led the Comanches to sign the Little Rock Treaty of 1865. In October 1865, General Carleton recommended that Carson be awarded the brevet rank of brigadier-general, "for gallantry in the battle of Valverde, and for distinguished conduct and gallantry in the wars against the Mescalero Apaches and against the Navajo Indians of New Mexico." 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Gorgonia, Mescalero Medicine Man This article is about the Native American tribe; for other uses of the word see Mescalero (disambiguation). ...


Colorado

When the Civil War ended, and with the Indian campaigns successfully concluded, Carson left the army and took up ranching, finally settling in Fraksvill, Colorado.


Carson died at age 58 from an aneurysm in the surgeon's quarters in Fort Lyon, Colorado, located east of Las Animas. He is buried in Taos, New Mexico, alongside his wife, Josefa ("Josephine"), who died a month earlier of complications following child birth. His headstone inscription reads: "Kit Carson / Died May 23 1868 / Aged 58 Years." Post surgical photo of brain aneurysm survivor. ... Fort Lyon aka Fort Wise existed on the Colorado eastern plains until 1867, when a new fort was erected near the present-day town of Las Animas. ... Las Animas is a city in Bent County, Colorado, United States. ... is the 143rd day of the year (144th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Reputation

Many of the early images and recollections of Carson by his peers and early writers portray him in a positive light. Albert Richardson, who knew him personally in the 1850s, wrote that Kit Carson was "a gentleman by instinct, upright, pure, and simple-hearted, beloved alike by Indians, Mexicans, and Americans" (Richardson, p. 261).


Oscar Lipps also presented a positive image of Carson: "The name of Kit Carson is to this day held in reverence by all the old members of the Navajo tribe. They say he knew how to be just and considerate as well as how to fight the Indians" (Lipps, p. 59).


Carson's contributions to western history have been reexamined by historians, journalists and Native American activists since the 1960s. In 1968, Carson biographer Harvey L. Carter stated:

In respect to his actual exploits and his actual character, however, Carson was not overrated. If history has to single out one person from among the Mountain Men to receive the admiration of later generations, Carson is the best choice. He had far more of the good qualities and fewer of the bad qualities than anyone else in that varied lot of individuals. (Carter, p. 210)

Some journalists and authors during the last 25 years present a less benign view of Carson. Virginia Hopkins stated that "Kit Carson was directly or indirectly responsible for the deaths of thousands of Indians" (Hopkins, p. 40). Her viewpoint is contrasted with that of Tom Dunlay, who wrote in 2000 that Carson was directly responsible for less than fifty Indian deaths and that, as Carson was not there at the time, Indian deaths on the Long Walk or at Ft. Sumner were the responsibility of the U.S. Army and General James Carleton. (Dunlay, chapter 8) The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ...


Ed Quillen, publisher of Colorado Central magazine and columnist for The Denver Post, wrote that "Carson...betrayed [the Navajo], starved them by destroying their farms and livestock in Canyon de Chelly and then brutally marched them to the Bosque Redondo concentration camp." (Denver Post, April 27, 1993) In 1970, Lawrence Kelly noted that Carleton had warned 18 Navajo chiefs that all Navajo peoples "must come in and go to the Bosque Redondo where they would be fed and protected until the war was over. That unless they were willing to do this they would be considered hostile." (Kelly, p. 20-21) Quillen's contention that Bosque Redondo was a concentration camp has been challenged. For instance, several men went off the reservation and stole 1,000 horses from the Comanche Indians to the east. (The Navajo Treaty, p. 14.) ... Fort Sumner was a military fort in south eastern New Mexico charged with the internment of nearby Navajo and Mescalero Apache populations from 1863-1868. ... April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... Internment camp for Japanese in Canada during World War II Internment is the imprisonment or confinement[1] of people, commonly in large groups, without trial. ...


On January 19, 2006, Marley Shebala, senior news reporter and photographer for Navajo Times, quoted the Fort Defiance Chapter of the Navajo Nation as saying, "Carson ordered his soldiers to shoot any Navajo, including women and children, on sight." This view of Carson's actions may be from General James Carleton’s orders to Carson on October 12, 1862, concerning the Mescalero Apaches: "All Indian men of that tribe are to be killed whenever and wherever you can find them: the women and children will not be harmed, but you will take them prisoners and feed them at Ft. Stanton until you receive other instructions" (Kelly, p. 11). January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... is the 285th day of the year (286th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1862 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...


Hampton Sides stated in (Blood and Thunder, p. 334) that Carson felt the Native American tribes needed to have physical separation from whites, and thus reservations. But he believed "most of the Indian troubles in the West were caused by aggressions on the part of whites". He is said to have viewed the raids on settlements as mostly coming because of conditions of starvation and being driven to desperation by continuous encroachment upon their lands


Popular culture

The legend of Kit Carson began before he died, and has continued to grow through the years through dime novels, poems, movies, television, and comic books. These fictional tales tend to portray Carson as a heroic figure slaughtering two bears and a dozen Indians before breakfast, and when mixed with a few real historic events, the result is that Kit Carson becomes larger than life. An example of the original dime novel series, circa 1860. ...

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Novels

There are at least 25 titles that have been recorded, from Kit Carson, Prince of the Gold Hunters (1849) through Kit Carson, King of Scouts (1923).


There is also a children's novel, Adaline Falling Star, (2000) by Mary Pope Osborne. It tells the story of Kit Carson and his times through the eyes of his daughter from his first marriage. The books is recommended for children from Gr. 4-7 .


Films

There were four silent films made with Kit Carson as the "star" from 1903 to 1928. Hollywood produced 3 talking films: Fighting with Kit Carson, a serial (1933), revised as a single movie: The Return of Kit Carson (1947); Overland with Kit Carson (1939); and Kit Carson (1940), starring Jon Hall in the title role. The Adventures of Kit Carson was a TV series (1951-1955); Disney released Kit Carson and the Mountain Men in 1977, Dream West was a TV 1986 docudrama that includes Kit Carson and John C. Fremont as characters, and the History Channel produced "Carson and Cody, the Hunter Heroes" in 2003. Several other motion pictures include Kit Carson as a minor character. Fighting with Kit Carson (1933) is a Mascot movie serial. ... Jon maddog Hall is the Executive Director of Linux International [1], a non-profit association of computer vendors who wish to support and promote the Linux operating system. ...


Comics

In 1931 Kit Carson was the subject of J. Carrol Mansfield's daily comic strip High Lights of History and these strips were reprinted as a Big Little Book, Kit Carson(1933). Avon began a series of Kit Carson comic book that lasted 9 issues (1950-1955). Classics Illustrated No 112, titled The Adventures of Kit Carson (1953), is based on John C. Abbott's 1873 book, and Blazing the Trails West, another Classics Illustrated publication, includes a chapter on Kit Carson. Six Gun Heroes had two Kit Carson titles (1957 & 1958) and there was a Kit Carson No. 10 in 1963. Boy's Life includes a continuing strip story "Old Timere Tales of Kit Carson" from Mar. 1951 to May, 1953. There was a 1970 Walt Disney Comics Digest that included Kit Carson, and Carson strips are in several issues of Frontier Fighters and Indian Fighter. In England, there was a Kit Carson comic that lasted at least 350 issues (1950s), and 7 Kit Carson Annuals (1954-1960) Classics Illustrated were comic book adaptations from classic literature, a series that Russian-born Albert Lewis Kanter (1897-1973) began in 1941 for Elliot Publishing. ... Walt Disney Comics Digest was one of three digest size comics published by Gold Key Comics in the early 1970s. ...


Kit Carson is included in a number of 20th century novels and pulp magazine stories: Comanche Chaser by Dane Coolidge, On Sweet Water Trail by Sabra Conner, On to Oregon by H. W. Morrow, The Pioneers by C. R. Cooper, The Long Trail by J. Allan Dunn and Peltry by H. D. H. Smith.


In Willa Cather's novel Death Comes for the Archbishop, Kit Carson's multifaceted legend is explored, first as compassionate friend to the Indians, later as "misguided" soldier. Death Comes for the Archbishop is a 1927 novel by Willa Cather. ...


In the Italian comic Tex Willer, Kit Carson appears as Tex's sidekick. Tex Willer is a character in an Italian comics of the same name, created by writer Gian Luigi Bonelli and illustrator Aurelio Galleppini, first published in Italy on September 30, 1948. ...


Museum and place names

Carson's grave
Carson's grave

The Kit Carson Home and Museum in Taos, New Mexico, located in Carson's former home in Taos is open to the public for a small entry fee. [1] It is located on Kit Carson Road. A partial list of places named after Carson: Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (540 × 720 pixel, file size: 585 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo by Einar EInarsson Kvaran of Kit Carsons grave in Taos, New Mexico I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (540 × 720 pixel, file size: 585 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) photo by Einar EInarsson Kvaran of Kit Carsons grave in Taos, New Mexico I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the...

Motto: Proud of its Past. ... Map of the Carson National Forest Carson National Forest is a national forest in Northern New Mexico, United States. ... Capital Santa Fe Largest city Albuquerque Area  Ranked 5th  - Total 121,665 sq mi (315,194 km²)  - Width 342 miles (550 km)  - Length 370 miles (595 km)  - % water 0. ... Kit Carson Pass, named after the famed explorer Kit Carson, is a mountain pass through the Sierra Nevada range in Alpine County, California. ... The Sierra Nevada (Spanish for Snowy Range) is a mountain range that is almost entirely in the eastern portion of the U.S. state of California. ... The Carson River is a river in northern California and northwestern Nevada in the United States, approximately 150 mi (241 km) long. ... The Carson Sink is a large playa, approximately 300 sq mi (780 km²) in area, in the Lahontan Valley of northwestern Nevada. ... Main route of California Trail (thick red line), including Applegate-Lassen and Beckwourth variations (thinner red lines) The California Trail was a major overland emigrant route across the Western United States from Missouri to California in the middle 19th century. ... Kit Carson County is a county located in the U.S. state of Colorado. ... For the album by J.J. Cale and Eric Clapton, see The Road to Escondido Escondido is a city located in northern San Diego County, California just north of San Diego, California, USA. The name means hidden in Spanish-- it occupies a shallow valley ringed by rocky hills. ... Kit Carson is one of three Crestone peaks in the Sangre de Cristo mountain range. ... The Sangre de Cristo Mountains are a narrow mountain range running north and south along the east side of the Rio Grande Rift in southern Colorado and northern New Mexico. ... Oregon State Route 39 is an Oregon state highway that runs between the city of Klamath Falls in Southern Oregon, and the California border between Merrill, Oregon and Tulelake, California. ... Klamath Falls, is a city in Klamath County, Oregon, United States. ... Fort Carson is a census-designated place and United States Army post located in El Paso County, Colorado, outside of Colorado Springs. ... The City of Colorado Springs is the second most populous city in the State of Colorado and the 49th most populous city in the United States. ... Spokane County is a county located in the state of Washington. ... Richmond is the 6th largest city in Kentucky and the county seat of Madison County. ...

External links

Footnotes

  1. ^ Sides, H. , Blood and Thunder, p. 33
  2. ^ Two of the men, Ramon and Francisco de Haro, were sons of the mayor of Sonoma. They were traveling with their uncle, Jose de los Berreyesa. Carson at first asked Fremont if he should take the men prisoner. Frémont's plan was otherwise: "I have no use for prisoners, do your duty," was the response. When Carson hesitated Fremont yelled, "Mr. Carson, your duty," to which Carson then complied.
  3. ^ Valverde had once been an important Spanish village, but was deserted by the Spaniards due to frequent Navajo and Apache raids. Located about 150 miles south of Santa Fe, on the Rio Grande River, it was to be the later site of Carson's battle against the Confederate Texas forces in February, 1862.
  4. ^ Locke, R., The Book of the Navajo, pp. 204-212
  5. ^ Blood and Thunder, pp. 152-54

References

  • Carter, Harvey L. Dear Old Kit, University of Oklahoma Press, 1968.
  • Dunlay, Tom, Kit Carson and the Indians, University of Nebraska Press, 2000.
  • Gordon-McCutchan, R. C. (Editor) Kit Carson: Indian Fighter or Indian Killer?, University Press of Colorado, 1996. ISBN 0-87081-393-5
  • Hopkins, Virginia, Pioneers of the Old West, New York, NY: Crown Publishers, Inc., 1988. ISBN 0-517-64930-6.
  • Kelly, Lawrence, Navajo Roundup, Pruett Publications, 1970.
  • Lipps, Oscar. A Little History of the Navajo, Cedar Rapids, Iowa: The Torch Press, 1909.
  • Locke, Raymond, The Book of the Navajo, Mankind Publishing Company, 2001. ISBN 0-87687-500-2
  • Richardson, Albert, Beyond the Mississippi, Hartford, Conn.; American Publishing Co., 1867.
  • Sides, Hampton, Blood and Thunder, Doubleday, 2006. ISBN 0-385-50777-1.
  • (anon., Introduction by Martin A. Link) The Navajo Treaty - 1868., KC Publications, Las Vegas, Nevada, 1968.

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kit Carson Biography (2283 words)
Kit Carson was born in Missouri on December, 25, 1809 to a family that had been moving west west with the nation for over a century.
Kit made enough as a trapper and hunter to return to Taos where he married a girl of a fine family in that city.
Kit Carson returned to his own gold, his family and home in Taos U.S.A. Retirement to farming did not mean boredom.
Kit Carson - Picture - MSN Encarta (67 words)
Kit Carson, born Christopher Carson in Kentucky, ran away from home and traveled to Taos, New Mexico, where at 17 he began to make his living as a trapper, hunter, and guide.
Carson led U.S. explorer John C. Frémont on three expeditions through the Rocky Mountain region.
Accepting a commission as a colonel in the U.S. Army in 1861, Carson fought against Native American and Confederate forces.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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