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Encyclopedia > Kishinev pogrom
Herman S. Shapiro. "Kishinever shekhita, elegie" [Kishinev Massacre Elegy]. New York: Asna Goldberg, 1904. Irene Heskes Collection. The illustration in the center of this elegy depicts the April 1903 Kishinev massacre.

The Kishinev pogrom was a pogrom (anti-Jewish riot) that took place in Kishinev, then part of the Bessarabia province of Imperial Russia (currently called Chişinău, it is the capital of what is now independent Moldova) on April 6-7, 1903. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (482 × 640 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Herman S. Shapiro. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 451 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (482 × 640 pixel, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Herman S. Shapiro. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... County ChiÅŸinău Status Municipality Mayor Veaceslav Iordan, since 2007 Area 635 km² Population (2004) 647,513 [1] Density 1114 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Founded in 1436 Dialing code +373 22 Web site http://www. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic Sea to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... County ChiÅŸinău Status Municipality Mayor Veaceslav Iordan, since 2007 Area 635 km² Population (2004) 647,513 [1] Density 1114 inh/km² Geographical coordinates Founded in 1436 Dialing code +373 22 Web site http://www. ... April 6 is the 96th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (97th in leap years). ... April 7 is the 97th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (98th in leap years). ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

Contents

First pogrom

The riot started after an incident on February 6 when a Christian Russian boy, Michael Ribalenko, was found murdered in the town of Dubossary (now Dubăsari), about 25 miles north of Kishinev. Although it was clear that the boy had been killed by a relative (who was later found), the Russian-language anti-Semitic newspaper Бессарабец (Bessarabetz, meaning "Bessarabian"), published by Pavel Krushevan, insinuated that he was killed by the Jews. Another newspaper, Свет (Svet, "Light"), used the ages-old blood libel against the Jews (alleging that the boy had been killed to use his blood in preparation of matzo). February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Dubăsari (Russian: Дубоссары / Dubossary) is a town in eastern Moldova with a 2005 population of 49,000. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... 1927 map of Bessarabia from Charles Upson Clarks book Bessarabia or Bessarabiya (Basarabia in Romanian, Besarabya in Turkish, Бесарабія in Ukrainian) is a historical term for the geographic entity in Eastern Europe bounded by the Dniester River on the East and the Prut River on the West. ... Pavel Krushevan Pavel Aleksandrovich Krushevan (Russian language: Павел Александрович Крушеван; Romanian language: Pavel CruÅŸeveanu; January 15, 1860-June 5, 1909) was a journalist, editor, publisher and an official in the Imperial Russia. ... Blood libels were the false accusations that Jews used human blood, especially the blood of Christian children, in religious rituals. ... Machine-made shmura matzo Matzo (also Matzoh, Matzah, Matza, Hebrew מַצָּה maā) is a Jewish food item made of plain flour and water, which is not allowed to ferment or rise before it is baked. ...

The US President Theodore Roosevelt to Tsar Nicholas II of Russia: "Stop your cruel oppression of the Jews." A lithograph in relation to the first Kishinev pogrom. (Library of Congress)

The Kishinev pogrom spanned three days of rioting against the Jews. Forty-seven (some put the figure as high as 49) Jews were killed, 92 severely wounded, 500 slightly wounded and over 700 houses looted and destroyed. Vyacheslav von Plehve, the Minister of Interior, supposedly gave orders not to stop the rioters, but, in any case, no attempt was made by the police or military to intervene to stop the riots until the third day. Image File history File links 1904_Russian_Tsar-Stop_your_cruel_oppression_of_the_Jews-LOC_hh0145s. ... Image File history File links 1904_Russian_Tsar-Stop_your_cruel_oppression_of_the_Jews-LOC_hh0145s. ... The President of the United States of America is the head of state and head of government of the United States. ... Theodore (Teddy) Roosevelt, Jr. ... Nicholas II of Russia (18 May [O.S. 6 May] 1868 – 17 July [O.S. 4 July] 1918) (Russian: , Nikolay II) was the last Emperor of Russia, King of Poland,[1] and Grand Duke of Finland. ... Vyacheslav Konstantinovich von Plehve (Вячесла́в Константи́нович фон Пле́ве), also Pléhve, or Pleve (OS) April 8, (NS) April 20, 1846 Meshchovsk, Kaluga Guberniya – (OS) July 15, (NS) 28 July 1904 St Petersburg) was the director of the tsarist Russian Police and later Minister of the Interior. ...


The New York Times described the first Kishinev pogrom: The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

The anti-Jewish riots in Kishinev, Bessarabia, are worse than the censor will permit to publish. There was a well laid-out plan for the general massacre of Jews on the day following the Russian Easter. The mob was led by priests, and the general cry, "Kill the Jews," was taken- up all over the city. The Jews were taken wholly unaware and were slaughtered like sheep. The dead number 120 and the injured about 500. The scenes of horror attending this massacre are beyond description. Babes were literally torn to pieces by the frenzied and bloodthirsty mob. The local police made no attempt to check the reign of terror. At sunset the streets were piled with corpses and wounded. Those who could make their escape fled in terror, and the city is now practically deserted of Jews. [1]

Actual casualty figures ended up being lower than this initial description.


Second pogrom

A second pogrom took place on October 19-20, 1905. This time the riots began as political protests against the Tsar, but turned into an attack on Jews wherever they could be found. By the time the riots were over, 19 Jews were killed and 56 were injured. Jewish self-defense leagues organized after the first pogrom stopped some of the violence, but they were not wholly successful. Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... October 20 is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 72 days remaining. ... 1905 (MCMV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar). ... Tsar (Bulgarian, Serbian and Macedonian цар, Russian  , Croatian car, in scientific transliteration respectively car and car ), occasionally spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English, is a Slavonic term designating certain monarchs. ...


Results of the pogroms

A rejected petition to the Tsar of Russia by US citizens, 1903, now kept at the US National Archives

The Kishinev pogrom is considered the 20th century's first state-inspired action against Jews, though the pogroms of the 1880s were probably state-sponsored as well (see pogroms in Russia). Despite a world outcry, only two men were sentenced to seven and five years and twenty-two were sentenced for one or two years. This pogrom was instrumental in convincing tens of thousands of Russian Jews to leave to the West and to the land of Israel. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... // Development and commercial production of electric lighting Development and commercial production of gasoline-powered automobile by Karl Benz, Gottlieb Daimler and Maybach First commercial production and sales of phonographs and phonograph recordings. ... Pogrom (from Russian: ; from громить IPA: - to wreak havoc, to demolish violently) is a form of riot directed against a particular group, whether ethnic, religious or other, and characterized by destruction of their homes, businesses and religious centers. ... The term Western world or the West (also on rare occasions called the Occident) can have multiple meanings depending on its context (i. ... Kingdom of Israel: Early ancient historical Israel — land in pink is the approximate area under direct central royal administration during the United Monarchy. ...


The first pogrom became a symbol of the suffering of the Jews as well as a powerful example to the Jews of the time of the inability of Jews to defend themselves in a hostile world. As such, it became a rallying point for early Zionists, especially what would become Revisionist Zionism, inspiring early self-defense leagues under leaders like Vladimir Jabotinsky. Zionism is a political movement that supports a homeland for the Jewish people in the Land of Israel, where Jewish nationhood is thought to have evolved somewhere between 1200 BCE and late Second Temple times,[1][2] and where Jewish kingdoms existed up to the 2nd century CE. Zionism is... Palestine (comprising todays Israel, the West Bank and the Gaza strip) and Transjordan (todays Kingdom of Jordan) were all part of the British Mandate of Palestine. ... Zeev Jabotinsky in military uniform Zeev Vladimir (Evgenevich) Jabotinsky (or Zhabotinski) (October 18, 1880 - August 4, 1940) was a Zionist leader, author, orator, and founder of the Jewish Legion in World War I. During World War II a similar and larger unit known as the Jewish Brigade would follow. ...


A large number of artists and writers addressed the Kishinev pogrom. Russian authors such as Vladimir Korolenko wrote about the pogrom in House 13, while Tolstoy and Gorky wrote condemnations blaming the Russian government — a change from the earlier pogroms of the 1880s, when most members of the Russian intelligentsia were silent. It also had a major impact on Jewish art and literature. Playwright Max Sparber took the Kishinev pogrom as the subject for one of his earliest plays. Poet Chaim Bialik wrote "In the City of Slaughter," about the perceived passivity of the Jews in the face of the mobs: Vladimir Galktionovich Korolenko (Владимир Галактионович Короленко) (July 27, 1853- December 25, 1921) was a Russian short story writer and journalist. ... Coat of arms of Count Leo Tolstoy This article is about the Tolstoy family; for the famous novelist, see Leo Tolstoy. ... Aleksei Maksimovich Peshkov (In Russian Алексей Максимович Пешков) (March 28 [O.S. March 16] 1868–June 18, 1936), better known as Maxim Gorky (Максим Горький), was a Soviet/Russian author, a founder of the socialist realism literary method and a political activist. ... Hayyim Nahman Bialik (January 9, 1873–July 4, 1934), also commonly written as Chaim or Haim Nachman Bialik and in the Hebrew language as חיים נחמן ביאליק, was a Jewish poet who wrote in Hebrew. ...

...the heirs
Of Hasmoneans lay, with trembling knees,
Concealed and cowering—the sons of the Maccabees!
The seed of saints, the scions of the lions!
Who, crammed by scores in all the sanctuaries of their shame,
So sanctified My name!
It was the flight of mice they fled,
The scurrying of roaches was their flight;
They died like dogs, and they were dead!

Notes

  1. ^ "Jewish Massacre Denounced", New York Times, April 28, 1903, p 6. Actual casualty figures ended up being lower than this initial description.

References

  • Kishinev Pogrom site
  • Rosenthal, Herman and Rosenthal, Max, "Kishinef (Kishinev)", in the Jewish Encyclopedia (1901-1906)

 
 

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