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Encyclopedia > Kish (Sumer)
Ancient Mesopotamia
EuphratesTigris
Assyriology
Cities / Empires
Sumer: UrukUrEridu
KishLagashNippur
Akkadian Empire: Akkad
BabylonIsinSusa
Assyria: AssurNineveh
Dur-Sharrukin – Nimrud
BabyloniaChaldea
ElamAmorites
HurriansMitanni
KassitesUrartu
Chronology
Kings of Sumer
Kings of Assyria
Kings of Babylon
Language
Cuneiform script
SumerianAkkadian
ElamiteHurrian
Mythology
Enûma Elish
GilgameshMarduk
Mesopotamian mythology

Kish [kish] (Tall al-Uhaymir) was an ancient city of Sumer, now in central Iraq. The Sumerian king list states it was the first city to have kings after the Deluge. A French archeological team under Henri de Genouillac excavated there between 1912 and 1914, and later an Anglo-American team under Stephen Langdon from 1923 to 1933. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Euphrates (the traditional Greek name, Arabic: الفرات; Al-Furat, Hebrew: פְּרָת, Kurdish and Turkish: Fırat, Old Persian: Ufrat, Syriac: ܦܪܘܬ or ܦܪܬ; Frot or Prâth, Akkadian: Pu-rat-tu) is the westernmost of the two great rivers that define Mesopotamia (the other being the Tigris). ... The Tigris River (Arabic: دجلة Dijla, Hebrew: חדקל ḥiddeqel, Kurdish: Dîjle, Pahlavi: Tigr, Old Persian: Tigrā-, Syriac: ܕܩܠܬ Deqlath, Turkish: Dicle, Akkadian: Idiqlat) is the eastern member of the pair of great rivers that define Mesopotamia, along with the Euphrates, which flows from the mountains of Anatolia through Iraq (the name Mesopotamia... Assyriology is the historical and archaeological study of ancient Mesopotamia. ... It has been suggested that Edubba be merged into this article or section. ... Uruk (Sumerian Unug, Biblical Erech, Greek Orchoë and Arabic Warka), was an ancient city of Sumer and later Babylonia, situated east of the present bed of the Euphrates, on the line of the ancient Nil canal, in a region of marshes, about 140 miles SSE from Baghdad. ... Ur seen across the Royal tombs, with the Great Ziggurat in the background, January 17, 2004 Ur was an ancient city in southern Mesopotamia, located near the original mouth of the Euphrates and Tigris rivers on the Persian Gulf and close to Eridu. ... Eridu (or Eridug) was an ancient city seven miles southwest of Ur . ... Lagash or Sirpurla was one of the oldest cities of Sumer and later Babylonia. ... The city of Nippur [nipoor] (Sumerian Nibru, Akkadian Nibbur) was one of the most ancient of all the Babylonian cities of which we have any knowledge, the special seat of the worship of the Sumerian god, Enlil, ruler of the cosmos subject to An alone. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Akkad (or Agade) was a city and its region of northern Mesopotamia, situated on the left bank of the Euphrates, between Sippar and Kish (located in present-day Iraq, ca. ... Babylon is the Greek variant of Akkadian Babilu (bāb-ilû, meaning Gateway of the god, translating Sumerian Kadingirra), an ancient city in Mesopotamia (modern Al Hillah, Iraq). ... An International Securities Identifying Number (ISIN) uniquely identifies a fungible security, its structure is defined in ISO 6166. ... Winged sphinx from the palace of Darius the Great at Susa. ... Relief from Assyrian capital of Dur Sharrukin, showing transport of Lebanese cedar (8th c. ... Assur, also spelled Ashur, from Assyrian Aššur, was the capital of ancient Assyria. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Human-headed winged bull, found during Bottas excavation. ... Nimrud is an ancient Assyrian city located south of Nineveh on the river Tigris. ... Babylonia, named for its capital city, Babylon, was an ancient state in the south part of Mesopotamia (in modern Iraq), combining the territories of Sumer and Akkad. ... Chaldea, the Chaldees of the KJV Old Testament, was a Hellenistic designation for a part of Babylonia. ... Elam (Persian: ایلام) is one of the most ancient civilizations on record. ... Amorite (Hebrew ’emōrî, Egyptian Amar, Akkadian Tidnum or Amurrūm (corresponding to Sumerian MAR.TU or Martu) refers to a Semitic people who occupied the country west of the Euphrates from the second half of the third millennium BC, and also the god they worshipped (see Amurru). ... The Hurrians were a people of the Ancient Near East, who lived in northern Mesopotamia and areas to the immediate east and west, beginning approximately 2500 BC. They probably originated in the Caucasus and entered from the north, but this is not certain. ... Mitanni or Mittani (in Assyrian sources Hanilgalbat, Khanigalbat) was a Hurrian kingdom in northern Syria during the later 2nd millennium BC. The name was later used as a geographical term for the area between the Khabur and Euphrates rivers in Neo-Assyrian times. ... The Kassites were a Near Eastern mountain tribe of obscure origins, who spoke a non-Indo-European, non-Semitic language. ... Urartu (Biainili in Urartian) was an ancient kingdom in eastern Anatolia, centred in the mountainous region around Lake Van (present-day Turkey), which existed from about 1000 BC, or earlier, until 585 BC. The name may correspond to the Biblical Ararat. ... The Chronology of the Ancient Orient deals with the notoriously difficult task of assigning years of the Common Era to various events, rulers and dynasties of the 3rd and 2nd millennia BC. The chronology of this region is based on five sets of primary materials. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... This page lists the Kings of Assyria from earliest times. ... The following is a list of the Kings of Babylon, a major city of ancient Mesopotamia, in modern Iraq. ... The cuneiform script is one of the earliest known forms of written expression. ... The Sumerian language of ancient Sumer was spoken in Southern Mesopotamia from at least the 4th millennium BC. Sumerian was replaced by Akkadian as a spoken language around 2000 BC, but continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial and scientific language in Mesopotamia until about 1 AD. Then, it... Akkadian (lišānum akkadītum) was a Semitic language (part of the greater Afro-Asiatic language family) spoken in ancient Mesopotamia, particularly by the Assyrians and Babylonians. ... Elamite is an extinct language, which was spoken in the ancient Elamite Empire. ... Hurrian is a conventional name for the language of the Hurrians, a people who entered northern Mesopotamia around 2300 BC and had mostly vanished by 1000 BC. // Language interrelations Hurrian is an agglutinative language which belongs to neither the Semitic nor the Indo-European language families. ... This article is in need of attention. ... Enûma Elish is the creation epic of Babylonian mythology. ... According to the Sumerian king list, Gilgamesh was the fifth king of Uruk (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), the son of Lugalbanda. ... Marduk [märdook] (Sumerian spelling in Akkadian AMAR.UTU solar calf; Biblical Merodach) was the name of a late generation god from ancient Mesopotamia and patron deity of the city of Babylon, who, when Babylon permanently became the political center of the Euphrates valley in the time of Hammurabi... This article is in need of attention. ... It has been suggested that Edubba be merged into this article or section. ... The Sumerian king list is an ancient text in the Sumerian language listing kings of Sumer from Sumerian and foreign dynasties. ... The Deluge by Gustave Doré The story of a Great Flood sent by God or the gods to destroy civilization as an act of divine retribution is a widespread theme in myths. ... Steven W. Langdon (born July 15, 1946, Stratford, Ontario) is a Canadian academic, politician and former parliamentarian. ...

Murex bearing the name of Rimush, king of Kish, ca. 2270 BC, Louvre
Murex bearing the name of Rimush, king of Kish, ca. 2270 BC, Louvre

More than 5,000 years ago the first empire in the world was founded by the King of Kish. While the name of that king is lost to history along with most of the history of his empire, the imposing title remains. Ever since that time every emperor to conquer the area known as Sumeria, now in Iraq, from the Sargon, who overthrew Kish and established the Akkadian Empire, to Saddam Hussein has taken the title of King of Kish. For over 5,000 years that title has been synonymous with power. It has meant authority. In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh despite all his power is a vassal of the King of Kish. While he makes an attempt to display that he could be independent, by defying Kish's authority, his display is brief and in the end he comes back and pledges his fealty. Indeed, some scholars believe that both the ancient Sumerian and the Biblical flood stories arise from one of the greatest floods in history, the flood that destroyed Kish near the height of its power...while Kish recovered somewhat and had kings again this destruction enabled other empires to form. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1950x1630, 2101 KB) Description fr: Murex (mollusque de la famille des muricidæ) portant le nom de Rimush, roi de Kish, v. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1950x1630, 2101 KB) Description fr: Murex (mollusque de la famille des muricidæ) portant le nom de Rimush, roi de Kish, v. ... Species see text Murex (Linnaeus, 1758) is a genus of tropical carnivorous marine gastropods. ... Rimush. ... (24th century BC - 23rd century BC - 22nd century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2334 - 2279 BC (short chronology) Sargon of Akkads conquest of Mesopotamia 2217 - 2193 BC - Nomadic invasions of Akkad 2205 BC - Foundation of the Xia Dynasty of China by... I.M. Peis Louvre Pyramid: one of the entrances to the galleries lies below the glass pyramid. ... Sargon of Akkad, or Sargon the Great (Akkadian Sharru-kin ܫܪܘܟܢ, the true king, reigned 2334 BC - 2279 BC, short chronology), founder of the Dynasty of Akkad. ... The Akkadian Empire usually refers to the Semitic speaking state that grew up around the city of Akkad north of Sumer, and reached its greatest extent under Sargon of Akkad. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti, (Arabic ), born April 28, 1937 , was the President of Iraq from 1979 until he lost power over Iraq when American troops arrived in Baghdad on April 9, 2003. ... The Epic of Gilgamesh is a literary work from Babylonia, dating from long after the time that king Gilgamesh was supposed to have ruled. ... Noah or Nóach (Rest, Standard Hebrew נוֹחַ Nóaḥ, Tiberian Hebrew נֹחַ Nōªḥ; Arabic نوح Nūḥ) is a character from the Book of Genesis who builds an ark to save his family and the worlds animals from the Deluge, the universal flood. ...


From what little we know of the Empire of Kish it appears to have operated a fairly centralized bureaucracy to run a system of tithe and tax that primarily dealt in agricultural goods and animals. The structure of Kishite bureaucracy and government can in some way be reconstructed from Akkadian practices, as the Akkadian kings copied much from the leaders of Kish who in turn preserved a great deal from the earlier days of the Empire. We can tell this because of the physical structures that have been excavated. Excavation of large buildings that appear to have been central storage facilities with attached office rooms for bureaucrats have told us much about both Kishite architecture and about the purposes that architecture may have served before it was buried in the great flood that practically leveled the city and ended its glory days.


Sources

  • Karen Rhea Nemat-Nejat Daily Life in Ancient Mesopotamia (Greenwood, 1998, ISBN 0-313-29497-6; Hendrickson, 2002, ISBN 1565637127)
  • N.K. Sanders (trans) The Epic of Gilgamesh (Penguin Classics, 1974, ISBN 014044100X)
  • Nissen, Hans The early history of the ancient Near East, 9000-2000 B.C. (Chicago/London: University of Chicago Press, 1988. ISBN 0226586561, ISBN 0226586588) Elizabeth Lutzeir, trans.

External links

  • Kish (Ukhaimir) at The History of the Ancient Near East

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sumer (1472 words)
Sumer (or Shumer, Sumeria, Shinar) formed the southern part of Mesopotamia from the time of settlement by the Sumerians until the time of Babylonia.
The term "Sumer" is actually an exonym, first applied by the Akkadians and indicating a perceived relationship to the Subarians to the north-east of Akkad.
Camel caravans brought the goods to Sumer, along with ox-drawn wagons and sledges.
Sumer - MSN Encarta (1363 words)
The history of Sumer has been reconstructed from fragmentary cuneiform inscriptions on clay tablets and from other archaeological evidence found at the site.
The first major excavations leading to the discovery of Sumer were conducted (1842 to 1854) at Assyrian sites such as Nineveh, Dur Sharrukin, and Calah by the French archaeologists Paul Émile Botta and Victor Place; the British archaeologists Sir Austen Henry Layard and Sir Henry Creswicke Rawlinson; and the Iraqi archaeologist Hormuzd Rassam.
The irrigated city of Kish, which was situated 13 km (8 mi) east of Babylon on the Euphrates, was one of the most important cities of Sumer.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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