FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Kirtan" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Kirtan
Kirtan Jatha - Late Giani Harjit Singh in Kenya around 1960's
Part of a series on
Sikh practices

A bhajan or kirtan is a Hindu devotional song, often of ancient origin. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2500x1708, 773 KB) Summary I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2500x1708, 773 KB) Summary I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... The practice of the Sikh way of life has been laid out by the Gurus in simple, precise and practical manner. ... Image File history File links Khanda. ...

Sikhism
History of Sikhism
Sikh beliefs
Sikh
Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... The history of Sikhism is closely associated with the history of Punjab, the socio-political situation in medieval India, and the social structures and philosophies of Hinduism and Islam. ... // Ek Onkar There is only one God who has infinite qualities and names. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ...

Sanskar

Amrit Sanskar
Anand Karaj
Antam Sanskar
Naam Karan
Please wikify (format) this article as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... The Amrit Sanskar Ceremony Amrit Sanskar or Amrit Sanchar or the Amrit ceremony is the Sikh ceremony of initiation or baptism. ... Sikh Woman in traditional bridal costume Anand Karaj (Punjabi: , ) is the name of the Sikh Marriage ceremony, meaning Blissful Union or Joyful Union, which was introduced by Guru Amar Das. ... Antam or Antim mean Final or Last Sanskar means ritual, rite, ceremony, service In Sikhism death is considered a natural process and Gods will or Hukam. ... Child Naming Ceremony: (Naam Karan) This is a Sikh ceremony of naming a child and it usually takes place in a Gurdwara (Sikh place of worship) after the baby and mother are medically and physically fit to attended the Gurdwara. ...

Sikh rites

Ardas . Dasvand
Langar . Paath
Kirtan . Kara Parshad
Sikh rites: The Sikhs engage in various regular activites to concentrate the mind on God and undertake selfless service. ... The Ardās (Punjabi: ) are the Sikh daily prayers. ... Dasvand means to donate 10% percent of ones harvest to the Gurdwara. ... For the Sufi practice of Langar, see Langar (Sufism). ... PAATH or PATH, from the Sanskrit patha which means reading or recitation, is, in the religious context, reading or recitation of the holy texts. ... Kara Parshad is a sweet flour based oily vegetarian food which is offered to all visitors to the Darbar Sahib in a Gurdwara. ...

Personal

5 Banis . Five Ks
Five Evils
Five Virtues
Simran . Sewa
Three pillars
A Sikh is required by the Sikh Gurus to live a disciplined life by doing pure and righteous deeds and actions. ... The initiated Sikh is asked by the Panj Piare during the Amrit Sanchar ceremony to recite the following 5 banis every morning as a comittment to the Sikh Gurus and Waheguru. ... The Five Ks, or kakaars, are five items that baptised Orthodox Sikhs wear at all times either out of respect for the tenth teacher, Guru Gobind Singh, or out of a sense of religious devotion. ... FIVE EVILS or five thieves or pancadokh or panj vikar as they are referred to in Sikh Scripture, the Guru Granth Sahib, are, according to Sikhism, the five major weaknesses of the human personality at variance with its spiritual essence. ... For Sikhs, the final goal of life is to reunite or merge with God (Mukti). ... The term Simran refers to the vocal repetition or recital of the God Names - Naam or of the Holy Text from the Two Granths of the Sikhs - the Sri Guru Granth Sahib and the Dasam Granth. ... SEWA is the Self-Employed Womens Association of India, a trade union founded in 1972 after a split in the Textile Labour Association. ... The Three Pillars of Sikhism Guru Nanak formalised the three important pillars of Sikhism: 1. ...

Articles on Sikhism
Portal: Sikhism
This list is of topics related to Sikhs and Sikhism. ...

This box: view  talk  edit


Kirtan is one of the pillars of Sikhism and in that context refers to the singing of the sacred hymns from the Guru Granth Sahib to set music normally in classical Raags format. The Sikhs place huge value on this type of singing and a Sikh is duty bound to listen and/or sing Guru-Kirtan as frequently as possible. Sikhism (IPA: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is a religion that began in fifteenth century Northern India with the teachings of Nanak and nine successive human gurus. ... The Guru Granth Sahib (Punjabi: , ) is the holy book of Sikhism, as well as being holy to the Ravidasi faith and the Balmiki faith. ... Raga (राग) (rāg /राग (Hindi), raga (Anglicised from rāgaḥ/रागः (Sanskrit)) or rāgam /ராகம் (Tamil)) are the very detailed melodic modes used in Indian classical music. ...


The Music traditionally has been Indian Classical Music, which is based on Ragas and taal (rhythmic beat patterns). Traditionally the Indian musical instruments the Harmonium and Tabla were used for this type of music. The Sikh Scripture contain 31 Ragas and 17 talas which form the basis for Kirtan music compositions. The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. ... Raga (singular rag or raga, plural raga or ragas) is a complex structure of musical melody used in India and should not be confused with scales. ... In Indian classical music, Tala (tāl (Hindi), tāla (anglicised from talam; in Sanskrit), literally a clap, is a rhythmical pattern that determines the rhythmical structure of a composition. ... A Harmonium is a free-standing musical keyboard instrument similar to a Reed Organ or Pipe Organ. ... A typical set of Tabla. ... Raga (singular rag or raga, plural raga or ragas) is a complex structure of musical melody used in India and should not be confused with scales. ... Tala may refer to: Samoan tala, the monetary unit of Samoa. ...


While most Hindus and Sikhs devoutly sing Kirtan in its more traditional form, there are smaller groups that experiment with incorporation of non-Indian instruments like the guitar and interspersing Western themes like jazz into the fold. This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Religions Sikhism Scriptures Guru Granth Sahib Languages English, Punjabi] A Sikh (English: or ; Punjabi: , , IPA: ) is an adherent to Sikhism. ... For other uses, see Guitar (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Background

The Holy Sikh Scripture, Sri Guru Granth Sahib (“SGGS”) is the main spiritual authority for the Sikhs. The Sikhs hold unique high regards for their Granth (Literally “scripture”), which is treated as a living Guru (“religious master”). When Kirtan is sung, the lyrics are normally lines from the SGGS. The Shabads (“Hymns”) of the Sikh Scriptures are primarily arranged in Chapters, which are names of musical Ragas (“ musical theme”). So the main Sikh Holy Scripture is arranged in chapters that bear names of musical ragas. Each of these Ragas is unique and all the Shabads in that Chapter have to be sung in that particular Raga. The title of the Shabad also has a numeric notation, which many believe gives the singers a clear idea of the Tala or musical rhythm or beat that needs to be used for that hymn. Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ... Guru Granth Sahib (Granth is Punjabi for book, Sahib is Hindi meaning master, from Arabic, meaning companion, friend, owner, or master) or Sri Guru Granth Sahib Ji or SGGS for short, is more than a holy book of the Sikhs. ... Shabad: Word Shabad is the term used by Sikhs to refer to a hymn or paragraph or sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books. ... Raga (rāg /राग (Hindi), raga (anglicised from rāgaḥ/रागः (Sanskrit)) or rāgam /ராகம் (Tamil)) are the melodic modes used in Indian classical music. ... In Indian classical music, Tala (tāl (Hindi), tāla (anglicised from talam; in Sanskrit), literally a clap, is a rhythmical pattern that determines the rhythmical structure of a composition. ...


Also See Sikh Kirtan, Raga, taal. For the Hindu expression of kirtan please see Krishnology. Kirtan Tradition The Sikh tradition of Kirtan or Gurmat Sangeet was started by Guru Nanak at Kartarpur in in the early 1500s and was strengthened by his successors and particularly by Guru Arjan at Amritsar. ... Raga (rāg /राग (Hindi), raga (anglicised from rāgaḥ/रागः (Sanskrit)) or rāgam /ராகம் (Tamil)) are the melodic modes used in Indian classical music. ... In Indian classical music, Tala (tāl (Hindi), tāla (anglicised from talam; in Sanskrit), literally a clap, is a rhythmical pattern that determines the rhythmical structure of a composition. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ... Krishnology (also spelled Krishnaology) is an academic neo-logism for Krishna Theology. ...


Below is the English Translation from page 14 of SGGS:

  • raag sireeraag mehlaa pahilaa 1 ghar 1. (Raag Siree Raag, First Section, First House:)
    • If I had a palace made of pearls, inlaid with jewels,
    • Scented with musk, saffron and sandalwood, a sheer delight to behold
    • Seeing this, I might go astray and forget You, and Your Name would not enter into my mind. ||1||

The Shabad begins with “Raag Sireeraag”; Siree Raga is an important raga in Indian Classical Music. Also, the first line ends with “ghar 1”, which tells musicians the Tala or rhythm to use for that Shabad. Raga (rāg /राग (Hindi), raga (anglicised from rāgaḥ/रागः (Sanskrit)) or rāgam /ராகம் (Tamil)) are the melodic modes used in Indian classical music. ... The origins of Indian classical music can be found from the oldest of scriptures, part of the Hindu tradition, the Vedas. ... In Indian classical music, Tala (tāl (Hindi), tāla (anglicised from talam; in Sanskrit), literally a clap, is a rhythmical pattern that determines the rhythmical structure of a composition. ...


Kirtan Tradition

Real Kirtan is performed through words, mind and actions.


The Sikh tradition of Kirtan-Gurmat Sangeet-started by Guru Nanak at Kartarpur in 1521 was strengthened by his successors and particularly by Guru Arjan at Amritsar. In spite of several interruptions, kirtan continued to be performed at the Golden Temple and other historical Gurdwaras with due attention to raga, taal and dhuni. Guru Nanak (Gurmukhi: ਗੁਰੂ ਨਾਨਕ, Devanagari: गुरु नानक) (20 October 1469 - 7 May 1539), the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Gurus of the Sikhs, was born in the village of Talwandi, now called Nankana... Kartarpur is a small town located about 16 km from Jalandhar. ... Guru Arjan Dev Ji (15 April 1563 - 30 May 1606) was the fifth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 1 September 1581 following in the footsteps of Guru Ram Das ji. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the Golden Pavilion Temple in Kyoto, Japan, see here. ... Raga (rāg /राग (Hindi), raga (anglicised from rāgaḥ/रागः (Sanskrit)) or rāgam /ராகம் (Tamil)) are the melodic modes used in Indian classical music. ... The term Taal can refer to: Taal (film), a 1999 Bollywood film by Subhash Ghai The Dutch and Afrikaans word for language, used as an early name for Afrikaans. ... Dhuni ritual, Photo by Win Coates Dhuni is originally a Zoroastrian fire ritual that is widely practiced in India. ...


Sikh Musicians

The three types of Sikh musicians - rababis, ragis, and dhadhis continued to flourish during the period of the Gurus. Guru Nanak started the rababi tradition by engaging Bhai Mardana as his accompanist-musician. Formerly the Muslim singers were called mirasis, but Guru Nanak gave them a new name - rababis, because they played on the rabab (rebec) and adopted the Sikh way of life in food, dress and manners. Some of the notable rababis after Mardana were his son Shahjada. Balwand and Satta, Babak - son of Satta, Chatra - the son of Babak, and Saddu and Baddu - the rababis used to perform kirtan regularly at Amritsar before the Partition in 1947. The last of the line of rababis was Bhai Chand whose kirtan the author had the privilege of listening to, before 1947. After the Partition of India, the rababis migrated to Pakistan, the line of rababis is almost dying out without Sikh patronage. Bhai Mardana (1459-1534) was of the Muslim faith and a long term companion of the Sikh founder guru, Nanak throughout his extensive journeys across India and abroad. ... The rebab is a musical string instrument which was heavily used in old Arabic music its considered as part of the Lute familiy (Oud in Arabic). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The second type of musicians-ragis were the amateur singers whom Guru Arjan encouraged to perform kirtan in order to avoid dependence on professional rababis. Some of the bards (bhatts) at the Court of Guru Arjan, whose compositions are included in the Scripture, became ragis and did kirtan before the congregations at different centres. Early in the eighteenth century, Bhai Jassa Singh Ahluwalia - the great warrior-performed kirtan at Mata Sundri’s residence at Delhi, after the passing away of Guru Gobind Singh. Kirtan at the Golden Temple, Amritsar, was discontinued (on account of the persecution and atrocities of Muslim rulers) for many years in the eighteenth century. When the Sikh missals (confederacies) obtained control of Amritsar, kirtan was restarted at the Golden Temple. Bhai Mansa Singh ragi performed kirtan at the Golden Temple during the regime of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Bhai Sham Singh Adanshabi did kirtan at the Golden Temple for more than seventy years. Outside Amritsar, Sant Attar Singh, Bhai Sujan Singh, Bhai Randhir Singh and his groups proved to be devoted kirtaniyas who did commendable missionary work. Guru Arjan Dev Ji (15 April 1563 - 30 May 1606) was the fifth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 1 September 1581 following in the footsteps of Guru Ram Das ji. ... For other uses, see Delhi (disambiguation). ... Sobha Singh (painter)s impression of Guru Gobind Singh Guru Gobind Singh (Gurmukhi:ਗੁਰੂ ਗੋਿਬੰਦ ਿਸੰਘ), (Born in Patna, Bihar, India, on 22 December 1666 as Gobind Rai – 7 October 1708, Nanded, Maharashtra, India) was the tenth and last of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on November 11, 1675 following... Maharaja Ranjit Singh may refer to Maharaja Ranjit Singh , the Sikh ruler of Punjab region Maharaja Ranjit Singh, the Jat ruler of Bharatpur princely state in Rajasthan, India Maharaja Ranjitsinhji, Jam Sahib of Nawanagar, India and cricketer Category: ...


The ragi group generally consists of three persons: one plays the tabla or jori (pair of drums) and he seldom participates in the singing; the other plays the harmonium, and the third plays a stringed instrument or harmonium or cymbals. The leader of the group sits in the centre and the group is known by his name. Even today, ragi-groups are employed by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee to perform kirtan in relays at the Golden Temple and at some historic Gurdwaras in the Punjab. Some of the traveling ragi-parties continue to perform kirtan in different parts of the world where there is a concentration of Sikh residents. Some groups of American Sikhs are particularly devoted to kirtan and sing hymns every morning in their Ashrams or in the local Gurdwara on holidays. A typical set of Tabla. ... A Harmonium is a free-standing musical keyboard instrument similar to a Reed Organ or Pipe Organ. ... The Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (Punjabi: , ) is a Sikh religious organisation responsible for the upkeep of gurdwaras. ...


Guru Hargobind first employed the third types of musicians called dhadhis early in the seventeenth century. He instructed them to sing heroic ballads (vaars) in his court to inspire the Sikhs at acts of valour and heroism. Bhai Abdulla - expert in playing the Sarangi, and Bhai Natha - player of dhadh (a small hand-drum) were quite popular. The clash with the tyrannical Muslim rulers appeared imminent. The dhadhi-groups performed before the sangat and groups of Sikh soldiers. These groups subsequently became very popular all over the Punjab on account of the use of folk tunes and their zealous and emotional style of singing. These folk singers had hardly any knowledge of Hindustani classical music, but their appeal to the masses was irresistible. A dhadhi group consists of two or three singers, one playing on the sarangi, another playing on the dhadh, and the third may be their leader, discoursing on the contents of their songs. Though they are expected to sing vars of the Scripture, they usually sing their own poetic compositions on the daring exploits of Sikh warriors and martyrs. One of the famous dhadhi-jathass was that of Bhai Kishen Singh Kartor. Sohan Singh Seetal is also a well-known dhadhi. Guru Har Gobind Ji (19 June 1595 - 03 March 1644) was the sixth of the Ten Gurus of Sikhism and became Guru on 25 May 1606 following in the footsteps of his father Guru Arjan Dev Ji. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ...


Kirtan Tradition

The tradition of kirtan developed over the period of the ten Gurus is as follows:

  • Hymns from the following compositions only are permitted in kirtan: Adi Granth, Dasam Granth, vaars and kabits of Bhai Gurdas, Bhai Nandlal’s poems.
  • The kirtan-group is generally seated on the right side of the palki of Guru Granth Sahib. No special seats or cushions are provided for the singers. However, in big diwans (Assemblies), the use of platform or dais is allowed, provided it is lower than the palki (seat) of Guru Granth Sahib. This is done to enable the ragis and the congregation to have full view of one another.
  • In the morning, kirtan of entire Asa-di-var (24 chhants, salokas and pauris) is completed. The singing of Asa-di-var is not to be interrupted by katha (exposition of a random hymn read from the Scripture) or lecture.
  • Appropriate compositions of Gurbani are sung at certain functions. For example at the time of Anand Karaj (Sikh Wedding) Lavan, Anand and suitable shabads ar sung. At the funeral of a Sikh, appropriate shabads relating to death are sung. Kirtan Sohila is recited before cremating the dead body.
  • Every hymn should be sung in the indicated raga and tala. The singer should use the appropriate laya, tan and palta. However, he must not forget the rasa and the appropriate ethos, mood and spirit of the hymn.
  • Vars should be sung as indicated in the Scripture. For example Gauri var should be sung in Gauri raga, Ramkali var in Ramkali raga, with appropriate dhuni if indicated.
  • Display of musical skill and excess of alaap and tan are not permitted, as they tend to make the minds of singers and listeners mercurial and unstable.
  • Correct pronunciation and intonation of Gurbani is essential so that the audience may understand the wording and the meaning of the hymn. The singer is not supposed to introduce any words of his own or make interpolations in Gurbani [1]. The use of extra words like ha, ji, wahwah, piyara, etc., is against the spirit of Gurmat.
  • The raga-technique and the sounds of instruments are subordinated to the singing of the hymn. What is brought out prominently by the musician is the Gurbani and its rasa, and not the musical expertise. Parallel quotations (parmans) to illustrate the theme are permitted during the kirtan.
  • Any hymn that has been commenced should be completed. Lack of time is no reason for stopping the singing of a hymn in between.
  • No kirtan is permitted during Akhand Path (continuous reading of the Scripture).
  • The listeners should not make offerings (donations) to the musicians while the kirtan is in progress. Offerings can be made at the end of the kirtan. The best way is one followed by Sufi Congregations, where the listeners make the offerings to the president of the function or the organiser who respectfully hands over the collections to the leader of the music-group at the conclusion of the function. No ragi should interrupt his kirtan to acknowledge a donation or offering, nor should he mention the name of the donor. He should make a collective acknowledgement of the offerings at the end of the kirtan. This procedure is in accordance with Resolution No. 5 dated 2nd January 1976 of the Kirtan Sub-Committee of the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee, Amritsar. In any case, interruption of kirtan to praise a donor or office-bearer of the Gurdwara or a distinguished visitor by name is absolutely forbidden, as it is against Gurmat (Guru’s instructions).

Bhai Gurdas (1551-1636) was a Punjabi Sikh writer, historian, missionairy, and religious figure. ... This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Sikh Holy Texts Bani is the term used by Sikhs to refer to various sections of the Holy Text that appears in their several Holy Books The important Banis are listed below: Japji Sahib 1. ... Sikh Woman in traditional bridal costume Anand Karaj (Punjabi: , ) is the name of the Sikh Marriage ceremony, meaning Blissful Union or Joyful Union, which was introduced by Guru Amar Das. ... Lavan may refer to: Lavan, an Iranian island in the Persian Gulf. ... This article or section is not written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia article. ... Raga (rāg /राग (Hindi), raga (anglicised from rāgaḥ/रागः (Sanskrit)) or rāgam /ராகம் (Tamil)) are the melodic modes used in Indian classical music. ... Tala may refer to: Samoan tala, the monetary unit of Samoa. ... The Shiromani Gurdwara Prabandhak Committee (Punjabi: , ) is a Sikh religious organisation responsible for the upkeep of gurdwaras. ... GURMAT (gur-mat, mat, Sanskrit mati, i. ...

Ragas in Kirtan

Ragas have a direct relationship to human moods and the following are the connections between Ragas and feeling: Raga (rāg /राग (Hindi), raga (anglicised from rāgaḥ/रागः (Sanskrit)) or rāgam /ராகம் (Tamil)) are the melodic modes used in Indian classical music. ...

  1. Soohi - joy and separation
  2. Bilaaval - happiness
  3. Gaund - strangeness, surprise, beauty
  4. Sri - satisfaction and balance
  5. Maajh - loss, beautification
  6. Gauri - seriousness
  7. Aasa - making effort
  8. Gujri - satisfaction, softness of heart, sadness
  9. Devgandhari - no specific feeling but the Raag has a softness
  10. Bihaagra - beautification
  11. Sorath - motivation
  12. Dhanasari - inspiration, motivation
  13. Jaitsree - softness, satisfaction, sadness
  14. Todi - this being a flexible Raag it is apt for communicating many feelings
  15. Bhairaagi - sadness, (Gurus have, however, used it for the message of *Bhakti)
  16. Tilang - this is a favourite Raag of Muslims. It denotes feeling of beautification and yearning.
  17. Raamkali - calmness
  18. Nat Narayan - happiness
  19. Maali Gaura - happiness
  20. Maaru - giving up of cowardice
  21. Tukhari - beautification
  22. Kedara - love and beautification
  23. Bhairav - seriousness, brings stability of mind
  24. Basant - happiness
  25. Sarang - sadness
  26. Malaar - separation
  27. Jaijawanti - viraag
  28. Kalyaan - Bhakti Ras
  29. Vadhans - vairaag, loss (that is why Alahniya is sung in this Raag when someone passes away)
  30. Parbhati - Bhakti and seriousness
  31. Kaanra - Bhakti and seriousness

Taals in Kirtan

In connection with Tala or musical beats/rhythms and the ‘Ghar’ in the SGGS, the following can be concluded. The term Taal can refer to: A 1999 Bollywood film by Subhash Ghai. ...

  • GHAR 1 - DADRA TAAL (There are 1 Taalis and the Beat has 6 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 2 - RUPAK TAAL (There are 2 Taalis and the Beat has 7 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 3 - TEEN TAAL (There 3 Taalis and the Beat has 16 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 4 - CHAAR TAAL (There are 4 Taalis and the Beat has 12 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 5 - PUNJ TAAL (There are 5 Taalis and the Beat has 15 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 6 - KHUT TAAL (There are 6 Taalis and the Beat has 18 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 7 - MUT TAAL (There are 7 Taalis and the Beat has 21 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 8 - ASHT MANGAL TAAL (There are 8 Taalis and the Beat has 22 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 9 - MOHINI TAAL (There are 9 Taalis and the Beat has 23 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 10 - BRAHAM TAAL (There are 10 Taalis and the Beat has 28 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 11 - RUDRA TAAL (There are 11 Taalis and the Beat has 32 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 12 - VISHNU TAAL (There are 12 Taalis and the Beat has 36 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 13 - MUCHKUND TAAL (There are 13 Taalis and the Beat has 34 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 14 - MAHASHANI TAAL (There are 14 Taalis and the Beat has 42 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 15 - MISHR BARAN TAAL (There are 15 Taalis and the Beat has 47 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 16 - KUL TAAL (There are 16 Taalis and the Beat has 42 Maatraas)
  • GHAR 17 - CHRCHARI TAAL (There are 17 Taalis and the Beat has 40 Maatraas)

Quotes from Gurbani

The Sikh Guru gave huge importance to Kirtan and this can be concluded from the following Shabads.


On 107-8 Guruji says that illnesses of countless lives are eroded by singing Kirtan, thus:

  • Your humble servant, who obtains the Medicine of the Naam, is rid of the illnesses of countless lifetimes and incarnations.
  • So sing the Kirtan of the Lord’s Praises, day and night. This is the most fruitful occupation. ||3||

On page 178, Guruji says that mind becomes peaceful when Kirtan is sang -

  • Singing the Kirtan of His Praises, my mind has become peaceful;
  • the sins of countless incarnations have been washed away.
  • I have seen all the treasures within my own mind;
  • why should I now go out searching for them? ||2||

On Page 196, Guruji says, Kirtan can only be sung by good fortune, thus:

  • By great good fortune, the Kirtan of the Lord's Praises are sung.
  • O Supreme Lord God, as You give, so do I receive. ||1||Pause||

On Page 199, the SGGS advices that Kirtan keeps the mind awake and alert:

  • Do only that, by which no filth or pollution shall stick to you.
  • Let your mind remain awake and aware, singing the Kirtan of the Lord's Praises. ||1||Pause||

On page 208, Guruji tells us those whose hearts are alight with God, sing Kirtan:

  • Between the Lord and His Saint, there is no difference at all. Among hundreds of thousands and millions, there is scarcely one humble being.
  • Those whose hearts are illuminated by God, sing the Kirtan of His Praises night and day with their tongues. ||3||

Also on the same page, Guruji says that ‘Kirtan is my treasure’:

  • To sing the Kirtan of the Lord's Praises is my treasure. ||1||Pause||
  • You are my delight, You are my praise. You are my beauty, You are my love.
  • O God, You are my hope and support. ||1||

On page 214 Guruji tell us that by singing Kirtan we will be saved, thus:

  • As the Guru has taught me, so have I spoken.
  • Says Nanak, listen, people: sing the Kirtan of the Lord's Praises, and you shall be saved. ||4||1||158||

On page 297, Guruji tells us that even death is overcome by singing Kirtan:

  • One is saved from hell, suffering is destroyed, countless pains depart, death is overcome, and one escapes the Messenger of Death, by absorption in the Kirtan of the Lord's Praises.
  • Fear departs, and one savors the Ambrosial Nectar, imbued with the Love of the Formless Lord.

'On page 322, Guruji says ‘lives of those who sing Kirtan are approved’, thus:

  • Those who are attached to the hem of the Lord's robe, do not suffer birth and death.
  • Those who remain awake to the Kirtan of the Lord's Praises - their lives are approved.

Guruji on page 363 tell us by singing Kirtan, Naam (God’s remembrance) is instilled in the mind thus:

  • Without the Shabad, no one is approved.
  • Singing the Kirtan of the Lord's Praises, the Naam abides within the mind.
  • He Himself gives His gifts, without hesitation. ||2||

Guruji on page 454 tell us that all sins and sorrows depart when Kirtan is sang:

  • Sing the Kirtan, the Praises of the Lord of the Universe, and all sins and sorrows shall depart.
  • Says Nanak, chant the Hymns of the Lord, the Lord of the Universe, O mind, and enshrine love for the Lord; love the Lord this way in your mind. ||1||

On Page 642, Guruji tells us that singing Kirtan is the ‘highest of all actions’ that we can perform:

  • Singing the Kirtan of the Lord's Praises in the Saadh Sangat, the Company of the Holy, is the highest of all actions.
  • Says Nanak, he alone obtains it, who is pre-destined to receive it. ||8||

Guruji on Page 683 tell us clearly that ‘All desires, power, pleasure, joy and lasting bliss’ are found by singing Kirtan:

  • All desires, power, pleasure, joy and lasting bliss, are found by chanting the Naam, the Name of the Lord, and singing the Kirtan of His Praises.
  • That humble servant of the Lord, who has such karma pre-ordained by the Creator Lord, O Nanak - his efforts are brought to perfect fruition. ||2||20||51||

On page 1300, Guruji say by singing Kirtan, all Evil-mindedness is removed:

  • Whoever speaks and listens to the Kirtan of the Lord's Praises is rid of evil-mindedness.
  • All hopes and desires, O Nanak, are fulfilled. ||2||1||12||

On Page 1337, Guruji advises us that singing Kirtan is equal to bathing at 68 sacred holy places, thus:

  • Listen, O mind: the Kirtan of the Lord's Praises is equal to bathing at the sixty-eight sacred shrines of pilgrimage.
  • Listen, O mind: as Gurmukh, you shall be blessed with honor. ||1||

On page 1356, Guruji tell us how by singing Kirtan, the entire world and Pride, Attachment, Greed, Anger and Lust (PAGAL, the five thieves) are conquered, thus:

  • They walk fearlessly through the armies of their enemies; they attack them with the Kirtan of God's Praises.
  • They conquer the entire world, O Nanak, and overpower the five thieves. ||29||

And finally, on page 1075-6 Guruji tell us that in this era of the ‘Kal Juug’ Kirtan is supreme, thus:

  • In this Dark Age of Kali Yuga, the singing of Kirtan (Lord’s Praises) is the most dominating force.
  • Become Gurmukh, chant and focus your meditation.
  • You shall save yourself, and save all your generations as well. You shall go to the Court of the Lord with honor. ||6||

Kirtan in Bengal

Kirtan in Bengal -- by Vaiyasaki Das, excerpts taken from the Sri Chaitanya Charitamrita, written by 16th Century biographer Sri Krishnadas Kaviraja Goswami.


Kirtan, or Sankirtan, was popularized circa 1506 by the Bengali saint, Sri Krishna Chaitanya Mahaprabhu. The Sanskrit word, Kirtan, means to glorify, and sanga kirtan, shortened to sankirtan, means glorification in the association of others, or the congregational singing of divine mantras using a call and response style.


The Sanskrit word, mantra, can be broken etymologically into two root words, mana which means the mind, and tra which means to deliver. Thus, a mantra has the power to deliver the mind from material consciousness or perception, to spiritual consciousness or enlightenment.


The reason the mantras have this potency is because these sound vibrations are not spoken by man - apauruseya - in Sanskrit. They are not of this world, or even the material universe. Rather, they have descended directly from the spiritual plane and thus have spiritual potencies.


If one sings a mundane sound vibration - for example, popular romantic ballads - that material sound will not produce a spiritual result. What is of the spirit is spiritual and what is of matter is material. Therefore, we cannot invent or compose our own mantras, because the authentic mantras are the original sound vibrations of the Divine Names of God. Just as God is eternal so the mantras are eternal.


The Vedic scriptures of ancient India describe the nature of both the material and the spiritual planes of existence in great detail. When people tend to absorb themselves in material energies, their perceptions and consciousness become material, or adulterated. Thus the need for purification that comes from singing Kirtan.


The scriptures of every major world religion recommend the glorification of the divine names of God through music and song in order to establish a loving relationship with the Supreme. This can be experienced personally by engaging in the kirtan process.


Previous to the time of Sri Chaitanya Mahaprabhu, the mantras were chanted, but not sung with melodies and instruments. Sri Chaitanya introduced the singing in order to keep the restless mind peaceful. He taught that the mantra has to be heard with a calm and peaceful mind. Only then can it enter through the ear and into the heart where a purification process takes place.


When the thought process becomes tranquil, the mantra is properly heard and the sound vibration enters one's consciousness to purify the heart. The Sanskrit word sravanam refers to focusing the hearing, and then the kirtanam will produce its powerful purificatory effect. God is within the heart of every living being, and the heart is thus the abode of divine love. So kirtan opens up the heart chakra to revive the divine love that is already present - but now covered by material desires.


If one's mind is restless, with scattered thoughts always coming and going, then the hearing process is disrupted. The mantra cannot enter into the mind and heart, and thereby the purification process becomes restricted. It was for this reason that Mahaprabhu introduced the singing, and later the dancing, because when people sing and/or dance they are not thinking, but get caught up in the expression and feeling of the song.


The term "purifying the heart" refers to clearing out the unwanted things in our heart, like bigotry, resentment, anger, prejudice, jealousy, lust, greed, etc. So the goal of kirtan is to revive the divine love that lies dormant in the core of the heart. by cleaning the impurities that cover our consciousness.


Chaitanya Mahaprabhu devoted his life to spreading Kirtan, and thus travelled throughout India bringing it to every community. Wherever he went he attracted thousands of followers and he was received with great affection by people of every caste and creed. Due to his efforts everyone in India chants kirtan in one form or another.


Forms of Kirtan -- by Vaiyasaki Das


Kirtan has reached its highest form of expression in Bengal, located in northeast India. There are two classifications of kirtan: 1. Nama Kirtan 2. Lila kirtan


1. Nama Kirtan refers to singing the glories of one's personal worshipful Deity. In Bengal, specifically, the names of Sita-Rama, Radha-Krishna, or Gaura-Nitai, are the most popular. Akhanda nama kirtan refers to the continuous non-stop singing of kirtan by various groups of singers. This event, or festival, may last for 24 hours, 48 hours, 72 hours, or even for a whole week, without ever stopping.


2. Lila kirtan refers to singing about the transcendental pastimes of the Supreme, either in this realm, or in the eternal spiritual plane. Again, there are mainly three types of pastimes that are sung, those of Sita-Rama, Radha-Krishna, or Gaura-Nitai.


There are different types of lila kirtans of which the most popular are: a) Pala Kirtan - the singing and acting out of a particular pastime of one chosen Deity. A singer will stand and sing, recite, and act out the various pastimes, while a group of musicians sit and accompany him.


b) Padyavali Kirtan - the singing of specific pastimes of divine love of between Sri Radha and Sri Krishna, usually performed by one main singer and accompanied by several musicians and backup singers.


c) Astakaliya Kirtan - is the 24 hour non-stop recitation in song, by one singer and his musicians, of the entire daily pastimes of Radha & Krishna from 6am through the morning, afternoon, evening, night and thus ending at 6am the next morning. In order to perform astakaliya kirtan one has to know the entire day of Krishna's pastimes by heart and be able to sing those depictions for one entire 24 hour session. The audience will usually stay with him throughout the night to hear the songs and pastimes that they know and love.


External links

  • Amritsar Portal - Live Kirtan from Sri Harmandir Sahib and daily Hukamnama
  • Keertan.org
  • Sikh Sangeet

  Results from FactBites:
 
What's Gurbani Kirtan (1404 words)
Kirtan is an intricate combination of sound, mantras, 'shabads', music, rhythm and breath used to create a state of inner meditative awareness.
Kirtan has taken many turns in its expressive form over the centuries and today the style and format continues to evolve with the "trends" of the time.
Kirtan is a birthright and privilege for all humanity.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m