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Encyclopedia > Kirgizstan

Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz: Кыргызстан, variously transliterated), officially the Kyrgyz Republic, and sometimes known as Kirghizia, is a country in Central Asia. Landlocked and mountainous, it borders China, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. Its capital is Bishkek. Once a republic of the Soviet Union, Kyrgyzstan has been independent since 1991. Remaining reasonably stable throughout most of the 1990s, the country's young democracy showed relative promise under the leadership of former President Askar Akayev, but unfortunately moved towards autocracy and authoritarianism. At present Kyrgyzstan is in turmoil following a sudden revolution and President Akayev's resignation on April 4, 2005, and the political situation in the country remains uncertain. Kyrgyz language edition of Wikipedia Kyrgyz, also Kirghiz (Кыргыз тили), is a Northwestern Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Map of Central Asia outlined in orange showing one set of possible borders Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (population in 2005 approx. ... Askar Akayev Askar Akayevich Akayev (Аскар Акаевич Акаев) (born November 10, 1944 in Kyzyl-Bairak, Kirghiz SSR) served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 to March 2005, when he was deposed by a popular uprising dubbed the Tulip Revolution. ... Autocracy is a form of government where unlimited power is held by a single individual. ... The term authoritarian is used to describe an organization or a state which enforces strong and sometimes oppressive measures against the population, generally without attempts at gaining the consent of the population. ... The Tulip Revolution refers to the overthrow of President Askar Akayev and his government in the Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan after the parliamentary elections of February 27 and of March 13, 2005. ... April 4 is the 94th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (95th in leap years). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ...

Кыргыз Республикасы
(Kyrgyz Respublikasy)
Кыргызская республика
(Kyrgyzskaya respublika)
Flag of Kyrgyzstan Coat of Arms of Kyrgyzstan
(Flag) (Coat of Arms)
Motto: none
Anthem: National Anthem of the
Kyrgyz Republic
Location of Kyrgyzstan
Capital Bishkek
42°52′ N 74°36′ E
Largest city Bishkek
Official languages Kyrgyz, Russian
Government Republic
Kurmanbek Bakiyev (acting)
Kurmanbek Bakiyev (acting)
Independence
 - Declared
 - Recognized
From the Soviet Union
31 August 1991
December 1991
Area
 • Total
 • Water (%)
 
198,500 km² (86th)
3.6%
Population
 • 2005 est.
 • 1999 census
 • Density
 
5,146,281 (111th)
4,896,100
25/km² (147)
GDP (PPP)
 • Total
 • Per capita
2005 estimate
$10,626,000,000 (135)
$2,061 (144)
Currency Som (KGS)
Time zone
 • Summer (DST)
KGT (UTC+5)
KGST (UTC+6)
Internet TLD .kg
Calling code +996

Contents

Large flag of Kyrgyzstan. ... kyrgyzstan coa public This image depicts a seal, an emblem, a coat of arms or a crest. ... Flag ratio: 3:5 The flag of Kyrgyzstan was adopted on March 3, 1992. ... Here is a list of state mottos for countries and their subdivisions around the world. ... This is a list of national anthems. ... The National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic (Kyrgyz: Кыргыз Республикасынын Мамлекеттик Гимни, Russian: Государственный гимн Кыргызской Республики) was adopted in 1992, for the new republic in Kyrgyzstan. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... In politics a capital (also called capital city or political capital — although the latter phrase has an alternative meaning based on an alternative meaning of capital) is the principal city or town associated with its government. ... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (population in 2005 approx. ... Population: 5,080,230 (January 2005 est. ... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (population in 2005 approx. ... An official language is something that is given a unique status in the countries, states, and other territories. ... Kyrgyz language edition of Wikipedia Kyrgyz, also Kirghiz (Кыргыз тили), is a Northwestern Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... The President of Kyrgyzstan is the head of state and the highest official of the Kyrgyz Republic. ... List of Prime Ministers of Kyrgyzstan Nasirdin Isanov (1991-08-30 - 1991-11-29) Andrei Iordan (1991-11-29 - 1992-02-10) Tursunbek Chyngyshev (1992-02-10 - 1992-02-26), acting Tursunbek Chyngyshev (1992-02-26 - 1993-12-13) Almanbet Matubraimov (1993-12-13 - 1993-12-14), acting Apas Jumagulov... In a broad definition a republic is a state or country that is led by people who do not base their political power on any principle beyond the control of the people living in that state or country. ... Kurmanbek Bakiyev, left, speaks to Ishenbai Kadyrbekov Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev (Курманбек Салиевич Бакиев) (born August 1, 1949 in Masadan in Kyrgyzstan. ... Kurmanbek Bakiyev, left, speaks to Ishenbai Kadyrbekov Kurmanbek Saliyevich Bakiyev (Курманбек Салиевич Бакиев) (born August 1, 1949 in Masadan in Kyrgyzstan. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining, as the final day of August. ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Here is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Here is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the album by Prince, see 1999 (album) 1999 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of Older Persons by the United Nations. ... Population density can be used as a measurement of any tangible item. ... This is a list of sovereign states and other territories by population. ... List of countries/dependencies by population density in inhabitants/km². The figures in the following table are based on areas including inland water bodies (lakes, reservoirs, rivers). ... In economics, purchasing power parity (PPP) is a method used to calculate an alternative exchange rate between the currencies of two countries. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of countries of the world sorted by their Gross domestic product (GDP), the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year. ... This is a list of countries of the world sorted by their gross domestic product (GDP) at purchasing power parity (PPP) per capita, the value of all final goods and services produced within a nation in a given year, divided by the average population for the same year. ... Five Kyrgyzstani Som Note (1997) The Kyrgyzstani Som (sometimes transliterated Sum or Soum) is the currency of the Republic of Kyrgyzstan in Central Asia. ... ISO 4217 is an international standard describing three letter codes to define the names of currencies established by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). ... Time zones are areas of the Earth that have adopted the same standard time, usually referred to as the local time. ... Daylight saving time (also called DST, or Summer Time) is the portion of the year in which a regions local time is advanced by (usually) one hour from its standard official time. ... Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, is an atomic realization of Universal Time or Greenwich mean time, the astronomical basis for civil time. ... Coordinated Universal Time or UTC, also sometimes referred to as Zulu time, is an atomic realization of Universal Time or Greenwich mean time, the astronomical basis for civil time. ... The following is a list of currently existing Internet Top-level domains (TLDs). ... .kg is the Internet country code top-level domain ( ccTLD) for Kyrgyzstan. ... At a glance In depth Zone 1 – North American Numbering Plan Area (nanpa. ...


History

Main article: History of Kyrgyzstan Historical map of Central Asia Being populated by Iranian tribes such as Sogdians for many centuries and later by Turkic immigrants, the area of Kyrgyzstan was on the fringes of the Persian Empire. ...


According to recent findings of Kyrgyz and Chinese historians, Kyrgyz history dates back to 201 BC. The earliest ancestors of the Kyrgyz people, who are believed to be of Turkic descent, lived in the northeastern part of what is currently Mongolia. Later, some of their tribes migrated to the region that is currently southern Siberia and settled along the Yenisey River, where they lived from the 6th until the 8th centuries. They spread across what is now the Tuva region of the Russian Federation, remaining in that area until the rise of the Mongol Empire in the 13th century, when the Kyrgyz began migrating south. In the 12th century, Islam became the predominant religion in the region. Most Kyrgyz are Sunni Muslims of the Hanafi school. Centuries: 4th century BC - 3rd century BC - 2nd century BC Decades: 250s BC 240s BC 230s BC 220s BC 210s BC - 200s BC - 190s BC 180s BC 170s BC 160s BC 150s BC Years: 206 BC 205 BC 204 BC 203 BC 202 BC - 201 BC - 200 BC 199 BC... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... Siberia Siberia (Russian: Сиби́рь, common English transliterations: Sibir, Sibir; possibly from the Mongolian for the calm land) is a vast region of Russia and northern Kazakhstan constituting almost all of northern Asia. ... Енисей Length 5,550 (4,102) km Elevation of the source m Average discharge 19,600 m³/s Area watershed 2,580,000 km² Origin  ? Mouth Arctic Ocean Basin countries Russia The Yenisei basin, Lake Baikal, and the cities of Dikson, Dudinka, Turukhansk, Krasnoyarsk, Irkutsk Yenisei (Енисе́й) is a river... (5th century — 6th century — 7th century — other centuries) Events The first academy of the east the Academy of Gundeshapur founded in Persia by the Persian Shah Khosrau I. Irish colonists and invaders, the Scots, began migrating to Caledonia (later known as Scotland) Glendalough monastery, Wicklow Ireland founded by St. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... The Tuva Republic (Russian: Респу́блика Тыва́; Tuvan: Тыва Республика) is a federal subject of the Russian Federation (a republic). ... The Mongol Empire (1206–1368) was the largest contiguous land empire in world history (with its only rival in total extent being the British Empire and possibly the Soviet Union). ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Islam  listen? (Arabic: al-islām) the submission to God is a monotheistic faith, one of the Abrahamic religions, and the worlds second largest religion. ... Sunni Islam (Arabic سنّة) is the largest denomination of Islam. ... Hanafi is one of the four schools (madhabs) of Fiqh or religious law within Sunni Islam. ...


During the 15th-16th centuries, the Kyrgyz people settled in the territory currently known as the Kyrgyz Republic. In the early 19th century, the southern territory of the Kyrgyz Republic came under the control of the Khanate of Kokand, but the territory was occupied and formally annexed by the Russian Empire in 1876. The Russian takeover instigated numerous revolts against tsarist authority, and many Kyrgyz opted to move into the Pamir mountains or to Afghanistan. The ruthless suppression of the 1916 rebellion in Central Asia, triggered by the Russian imposition of the military draft on the Kyrgyz and other Central Asian peoples, caused many Kyrgyz to flee to China. (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... Kokand (or Khokand or Kokhand or Quqon or Коканд) is a city in eastern Uzbekistan, at the southwestern edge of the Fergana Valley. ... Imperial Russia is the term used to cover the period of Russian history from the expansion of Russia under Peter the Great, through the expansion of the Russian Empire from the Baltic to the Pacific Ocean, to the deposal of Nicholas II of Russia, the last tsar, at the start... 1876 is a leap year starting on Saturday. ... Tsar (Bulgarian цар, Russian царь,  listen; often spelled Czar or Tzar and sometimes Csar or Zar in English), was the title used for the autocratic rulers of the First and Second Bulgarian Empires since 913, in Serbia in the middle of the 14th century, and in Russia from 1547 to... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ... 1916 is a leap year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar) Events January-February January 1 -The first successful blood transfusion using blood that had been stored and cooled. ...


Soviet power was initially established in the region in 1918, and in 1924, the Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast was created within the Russian SFSR. (The term Kara-Kirghiz was used until the mid-1920s by the Russians to distinguish them from the Kazakhs, who were also referred to as Kirghiz.) In 1926, it became the Kirghiz Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. On December 5, 1936, the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR) was established as a full Union Republic of the U.S.S.R. 1918 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Kara-Kirghiz Autonomous Oblast (Кара-Киргизская АО) was created on October 14, 1924 within RSFSR from a part of Turkestan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic. ... State motto: Пролетарии всех стран, соединяйтесь! (Workers of the world, unite!) Official language None (Russian in practice) Capital Moscow Chairman of the Supreme Council Boris Yeltsin Area  - Total  - % water Ranked 1st in former Soviet Union 17,075,200 km² 0,5% Population  - Total (1989)  - Density Ranked 1st in the former... Sometimes referred to as the Jazz Age or primarily in North America as the Roaring Twenties. Events and trends Technology John T. Thompson invents Thompson submachine gun, also known as Tommy gun John Logie Baird invents the first working television system (1925) Charles Lindbergh becomes the first person to fly... 1926 was a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1936 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... State motto: Бардык өлкөлордүн пролетарлары, бириккиле! Official language None. ... Soviet redirects here. ...


During the 1920s, the Kyrgyz Republic saw considerable cultural, educational, and social change. Economic and social development also was notable. Literacy increased, and a standard literary language was introduced. The Kyrgyz language belongs to the Southern Turkic group of languages. In 1924, an Arabic-based Kyrgyz alphabet was introduced, which was replaced by Latin script in 1928. In 1941 Cyrillic script was adopted. Many aspects of the Kyrgyz national culture were retained despite suppression of nationalist activity under Joseph Stalin, who controlled the Soviet Union from the late 1920's until 1953. Literacy is the ability to read and write. ... Kyrgyz language edition of Wikipedia Kyrgyz, also Kirghiz (Кыргыз тили), is a Northwestern Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... 1924 was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ... The Latin alphabet, also called the Roman alphabet, is the most widely used alphabetic writing system in the world, the standard script of the English language and most of the languages of western and central Europe, and of those areas settled by Europeans. ... 1928 was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... 1941 was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Cyrillic alphabet (or azbuka, from the old name of the first letters) is an alphabet used to write six natural Slavic languages (Belarusian, Bulgarian, Macedonian, Russian, Serbian, and Ukrainian) and many other languages of the former Soviet Union, Asia and Eastern Europe. ... Iosif (usually anglicized as Joseph) Vissarionovich Stalin (Russian: Иосиф Виссарионович Сталин), original name Ioseb Jughashvili (Georgian: იოსებ ჯუღაშვილი; see Other names section) (December 21, 1879[1] – March 5, 1953) was a Bolshevik revolutionary and leader of the Soviet Union. ... 1953 is a common year starting on Thursday. ...


The early years of glasnost in the late 1980s had little effect on the political climate in the Kyrgyz Republic. However, the republic's press was permitted to adopt a more liberal stance and to establish a new publication, Literaturny Kirghizstan, by the Union of Writers. Unofficial political groups were forbidden, but several groups that emerged in 1989 to deal with an acute housing crisis were permitted to function. Glasnost (Russian: гла́сность,  listen?) was one of Mikhail Gorbachevs policies introduced to the Soviet Union in 1985. ... Events and trends The 1980s marked an abrupt shift towards more conservative lifestyles after the momentous cultural revolutions which took place in the 1960s and 1970s and the definition of the AIDS virus in 1981. ... 1989 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In June 1990, ethnic tensions between Uzbeks and Kyrgyz surfaced in an area of the Osh Oblast where Uzbeks form a majority of the population. Violent confrontations ensued, and a state of emergency and curfew were introduced. Order was not restored until August 1990. 1990 is a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Osh Province (Kyrgyz: Ош областы) is a province (oblasty) of Kyrgyzstan. ...


The early 1990s brought measurable change to the Kyrgyz Republic. The Kyrgyzstan Democratic Movement (KDM) had developed into a significant political force with support in parliament. In an upset victory, Askar Akayev, the president of the Kyrgyz Academy of Sciences, was elected to the presidency in October 1990. The following January, Akayev introduced new government structures and appointed a new government comprised mainly of younger, reform-oriented politicians. In December 1990, the Supreme Soviet voted to change the republic's name to the Republic of Kyrgyzstan. (In 1993, it became the Kyrgyz Republic.) In February 1991, the name of the capital, Frunze, was changed back to its pre-revolutionary name—Bishkek. Askar Akayev Askar Akayevich Akayev (Аскар Акаевич Акаев) (born November 10, 1944 in Kyzyl-Bairak, Kirghiz SSR) served as President of Kyrgyzstan from 1990 to March 2005, when he was deposed by a popular uprising dubbed the Tulip Revolution. ... 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ... 1991 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (population in 2005 approx. ...


Despite these moves toward independence, economic realities seemed to work against secession from the U.S.S.R. In a referendum on the preservation of the U.S.S.R. in March 1991, 88.7% of the voters approved a proposal to retain the U.S.S.R. as a "renewed federation." Soviet redirects here. ...


On August 19, 1991, when the State Committee for the State of Emergency (SCSE) assumed power in Moscow, there was an attempt to depose Akayev in Kyrgyzstan. After the coup collapsed the following week, Akayev and Vice President German Kuznetsov announced their resignations from the Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU), and the entire politburo and secretariat resigned. This was followed by the Supreme Soviet vote declaring independence from the U.S.S.R. on August 31, 1991. Kyrgyz was announced as the state language in September 1991. (In December 2001, through a constitutional amendment, the Russian language was given official status.) August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow (Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Moskvá) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097. ... A coup détat (pronounced kÅ« dā ta), or simply a coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government, usually done by a small group that just replaces the top power figures. ... For other usage of the initials CPSU see CPSU (disambiguation). ... The Supreme Soviet (Верховный Совет, Verhovniy Sovet, literally the Supreme Council) comprised the highest legislative body in the Soviet Union in the interim of the sessions of the Congress of Soviets, and the only one with the power to pass constitutional amendments. ... August 31 is the 243rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (244th in leap years), with 122 days remaining, as the final day of August. ...


In October 1991, Akayev ran unopposed and was elected President of the new independent republic by direct ballot, receiving 95% of the votes cast. Together with the representatives of seven other republics, he signed the Treaty of the New Economic Community that same month. On December 21, 1991, the Kyrgyz Republic formally entered the new Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). December 21 is the 355th day of the year (356th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (in Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств (СНГ) - Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv) is a confederation or alliance consisting of 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics, the exceptions being the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). ...


In 1993, allegations of corruption against Akayev's closest political associates blossomed into a major scandal. One of those accused of improprieties was Prime Minister Chyngyshev, who was dismissed for ethical reasons in December. Following Chyngyshev's dismissal, Akayev dismissed the government and called upon the last communist premier, Apas Djumagulov, to form a new one. In January 1994, Akayev initiated a referendum asking for a renewed mandate to complete his term of office. He received 96.2% of the vote. 1994 was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International year of the Family. ... A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


A new constitution was passed by the parliament in May 1993. In 1994, however, the parliament failed to produce a quorum for its last scheduled session prior to the expiration of its term in February 1995. President Akayev was widely accused of having manipulated a boycott by a majority of the parliamentarians. Akayev, in turn, asserted that the communists had caused a political crisis by preventing the legislature from fulfilling its role. Akayev scheduled an October 1994 referendum, overwhelmingly approved by voters, which proposed two amendments to the constitution—one that would allow the constitution to be amended by means of a referendum, and the other creating a new bicameral parliament called the Jogorku Kenesh. 1995 was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Elections for the two legislative chambers—a 35-seat full-time assembly and a 70-seat part-time assembly—were held in February 1995 after campaigns considered remarkably free and open by most international observers, although the election-day proceedings were marred by widespread irregularities. Independent candidates won most of the seats, suggesting that personalities prevailed over ideologies. The new parliament convened its initial session in March 1995. One of its first orders of business was the approval of the precise constitutional language on the role of the legislature.


On December 24, 1995, President Akayev was reelected for another 5-year term with wide support (75% of vote) over two opposing candidates. He used government resources and state-owned media to carry out his campaign. Three (out of six) candidates were de-registered shortly before the election. December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ...


A February 1996 referendum—in violation of the constitution and the law on referendums—amended the constitution to give President Akayev more power. Although the changes gave the president the power to dissolve parliament, it also more clearly defined the parliament's powers. Since that time, the parliament has demonstrated real independence from the executive branch. 1996 is a leap year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year for the Eradication of Poverty. ...


An October 1998 referendum approved constitutional changes, including increasing the number of deputies in the lower house, reducing the number of deputies in the upper house, providing for 25% of lower house deputies to be elected by party lists, rolling back parliamentary immunity, introducing private property, prohibiting adoption of laws restricting freedom of speech and mass media, and reforming the state budget. 1998 is a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar, and was designated the International Year of the Ocean. ...


Two rounds of parliamentary elections were held on February 20, 2000 and March 12, 2000. The Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) reported that the elections failed to comply with commitments to free and fair elections and hence were invalid. Questionable judicial proceedings against opposition candidates and parties limited the choice of candidates available to Kyrgyz voters, while state-controlled media only reported favorably on official candidates. Government officials put pressure on independent media outlets that favored the opposition. The presidential election that followed later in 2000 also was marred by irregularities and was not declared free and fair by international observers. February 20 is the 51st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2000 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in Leap years). ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


The most recent elections were parliamentary, held February 27 and March 13, 2005. The OSCE found that while the elections failed to comply with commitments to free and fair elections, there were improvements over the 2000 elections, notably the use of indelible ink, transparent ballot boxes, and generally good access by election observers. February 27 is the 58th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... March 13 is the 72nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (73rd in leap years). ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar and is the current year. ... The Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe (OSCE) is an international organization for security. ...


Sporadic protests against perceived manipulation and fraud during the elections erupted into widespread calls for the government to resign, which started in the southern provinces. By March 24, 15,000 pro-opposition demonstrators called for the resignation of the President and his regime in Bishkek. Injuries from police clashes were reported along with widespread looting. Protestors seized the presidential administration building, after which Akayev hurriedly fled the country, first for neighboring Kazakhstan and then for Moscow. Initially refusing to resign and denouncing the events as a coup, he subsequently resigned his office on April 4. A first attempt by parliament to ratify his resignation failed for lack of a quorum. March 24 is the 83rd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (84th in Leap years). ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow (Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronunciation: Moskvá) is the capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 1097. ...


Opposition leaders promised to move quickly to establish legitimacy, forming a broadly inclusive "Committee of National Unity" and appointing nominal heads of government.


Politics

Main article: Politics of Kyrgyzstan Political history since independence In the first years of Kyrgyzstans full independence, President Askar Akayev appeared wholeheartedly committed to the reform process. ...


The 1993 constitution defines the form of government as a democratic republic. The executive branch includes a president and prime minister. The parliament currently is bicameral. The judicial branch comprises a Supreme Court, a Constitutional Court, local courts, and a Procurator-General. 1993 is a common year starting on Friday of the Gregorian calendar and marked the Beginning of the International Decade to Combat Racism and Racial Discrimination (1993-2003). ...


March 2002 events in the southern district of Aksy, where five people protesting the arbitrary arrest of an opposition politician were shot dead by police, sparked nationwide protests. President Akayev initiated a constitutional reform process which initially included the participation of a broad range of government, civil, and social representatives in an open dialogue, leading to a February 2003 referendum marred by voting irregularities. The amendments to the constitution approved by the referendum resulted in stronger control by the president and weakened the parliament and the Constitutional Court. Under the new constitution, the previously bicameral parliament became a 75-seat unicameral legislature following the 2005 parliamentary elections. 2002 is a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aksy is a small town in southern Kyrgyzstan which gained notoriety in 2002 when police and militia fired into a crowd of unarmed demonstrators, killing five. ... 2003 is a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Interim government leaders are developing a new governing structure for the country and working to resolve outstanding constitutional issues. Presidential elections have been scheduled for July 10, 2005. Kyrgyzstan will hold a presidential election on 10 July 2005. ...


Provinces

Kyrgyzstan is divided into seven provinces (singular: oblast, plural: oblastlar); adminstered by appointed governors. The capital, Bishkek, is administratively an independent city (shaar). Osh also has shaar status. This article is about political regions. ... An oblast (Russian, Ukrainian: о́бласть) is a subnational entity of Bulgaria, the Russian Federation, Ukraine, and the now-defunct Soviet Union, approximately equivalent to a province. ... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (population in 2005 approx. ... A city is an urban area, differentiated from a town, village, or hamlet by size, population density, importance, or legal status. ...

The provinces, with their administrative capitals, are as follows: Provinces of Kyrgyzstan Map by Hardscarf from the Dutch Wikipedia. ...

  1. Bishkek (shaar)
  2. Batken Province (Batken)
  3. Chui Province (Tokmok)
  4. Issyk-Kul Province (Karakol)
  5. Jalal-Abad Province (Jalal-Abad)
  6. Naryn Province (Naryn)
  7. Osh Province (Osh)
  8. Talas Province (Talas)

Each province is comprises a number of districts (raion), administered by government-appointed officials.(akims) Rural communities (aiyl okmotus) consisting of up to twenty small settlements have their own elected mayors and councils. Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (population in 2005 approx. ... Batken Province (Kyrgyz: Баткен областы, Batken oblast) is a province (oblasty) of Kyrgyzstan. ... Batken is a small town of about 12,000 in southwestern Kyrgyzstan, on the southern fringe of the Fergana Valley. ... Chui Province (Kyrgyz: Чүй областы) is a province (oblast) of Kyrgyzstan. ... Tokmok (also often spelt Tokmak) is a city in Kyrgyzstan. ... Karakol (black wrist in Kyrgyz) is a city of about 75,000, located near the eastern tip of lake Issyk-Kul in Kyrgyzstan and about 150 km from the Kyrgyz-Chinese border. ... Jalal-Abad Province (Kyrgyz: Жалал-Абад областы) is a province (oblasty) of Kyrgyzstan. ... Jalal-Abad (since 2003 also spelled Jalalabad) is the administrative centre of the Jalal-Abad Oblasty in southwestern Kyrgyzstan. ... Naryn Province (Kyrgyz: Нарын областы) is a province (oblasty) of Kyrgyzstan. ... Naryn is a provincial administrative center, with a population of about 40,000, in central Kyrgyzstan, situated on both sides of the Naryn River, a major source of the Syr Darya, which cuts a picturesque gorge through the town. ... Osh Province (Kyrgyz: Ош областы) is a province (oblasty) of Kyrgyzstan. ... Talas Province (Kyrgyz: Талас областы) is a province (oblasty) of Kyrgyzstan. ... Talas is a small town, beautifully located in a long valley between two imposing mountain ranges in northwestern Kyrgyzstan and the administrative headquarters of an administrative district (oblast) of the same name. ... Districts are a form of local government in several countries. ... See rayon for the textile made of processed cellulose. ... A mayor (from the Latin maÄ«or, meaning larger,greater) is the politician who serves as chief executive official of some types of municipalities. ... A Council is a group of people who usually possess some powers of governance. ...


Geography

Map of Kyrgyzstan
Map of Kyrgyzstan
Main article: Geography of Kyrgyzstan

Places include: Kara-Su from cia wfb File links The following pages link to this file: Kyrgyzstan Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... from cia wfb File links The following pages link to this file: Kyrgyzstan Categories: CIA World Factbook images ... Location: Central Asia, west of China Geographic coordinates: 41 00 N, 75 00 E Area: total: 198,500 km² land: 191,300 km² water: 7,200 km² Area - comparative: slightly smaller than South Dakota Land boundaries: total: 3,878 km border countries: China 858 km, Kazakhstan 1,051 km, Tajikistan... Kara-Su (meaning Black Water) is a valley in southwestern Kyrgyzstan, contained within the Pamir range. ...


Lake: Issyk Kul Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tien Shan mountains in northwestern Kyrgyzstan. ...


Economy

Main article: Economy of Kyrgyzstan The economy of Kyrgyzstan was severely affected by the collapse of the Soviet trading block. ...


Despite the backing of major Western donors, including the International Monetary Fund (IMF), the World Bank and the Asian Development Bank, the Kyrgyz Republic has had economic difficulties following independence. Initially, these were a result of the breakup of the Soviet trading bloc and resulting loss of markets, which impeded the republic's transition to a free market economy. The government has reduced expenditures, ended most price subsidies, and introduced a value-added tax. Overall, the government appears committed to the transition to a market economy. Through economic stabilization and reform, the government seeks to establish a pattern of long-term consistent growth. Reforms led to the Kyrgyz Republic's accession to the World Trade Organization (WTO) on December 20, 1998. The flag of the International Monetary Fund (IMF) The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is the international organization entrusted with overseeing the global financial system by monitoring foreign exchange rates and balance of payments, as well as offering technical and financial assistance when asked. ... Logo of the World Bank The International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD, in Romance languages: BIRD), better known as the World Bank, is an international organization whose original mission was to finance the reconstruction of nations devastated by WWII. Now, its mission has expanded to fight poverty by means... The Asian Development Bank (ADB) is a multilateral development finance institution dedicated to reducing poverty in Asia and the Pacific. ... Value added tax (VAT) is a sales tax levied on the sale of goods and services. ... A market economy is a term used to describe an economy where economic decisions, such as pricing of goods and services, are made in a decentralized manner by the economys participants and manifested by trade. ... The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an international organization which oversees a large number of agreements defining the rules of trade between its member states (WTO, 2004a). ... December 20 is the 354th day of the year (355th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


The Kyrgyz Republic's economy was severely affected by the collapse of the Soviet Union and the resulting loss of its vast market. In 1990, some 98% of Kyrgyz exports went to other parts of the Soviet Union. Thus, the nation's economic performance in the early 1990s was worse than any other former Soviet republic except war-torn Armenia, Azerbaijan, and Tajikistan, as factories and state farms collapsed with the disappearance of their traditional markets in the former Soviet Union. While economic performance has improved considerably in the last few years, and particularly since 1998, difficulties remain in securing adequate fiscal revenues and providing an adequate social safety net. The social safety net is a term used to describe a collection of services provided by the state (such as welfare, universal healthcare, homeless shelters, and perhaps various subsidized services such as transit), which prevent any individual from falling into poverty beyond a certain level. ...


Agriculture is an important sector of the economy in the Kyrgyz Republic. By the early 1990s, the private agricultural sector provided between one-third and one-half of some harvests. In 2002 agriculture accounted for 35.6% of GDP and about half of employment. The Kyrgyz Republic's terrain is mountainous, which accommodates livestock raising, the largest agricultural activity. Main crops include wheat, sugar beets, potatoes, cotton, tobacco, vegetables, and fruit. Wool, meat, and dairy products also are major commodities. Sheep are commonly bred as livestock. ... Species T. boeoticum T. durum T. monococcum T. spelta References:   ITIS 42236 2002-09-22 Wheat (Triticum spp) is a grass that is cultivated around the world. ... Two sugar beets - the one on the left has been cultivated to be smoother than the traditional beet, so that it traps less soil. ... Cotton is a soft fiber that grows around the seeds of the cotton plant, a shrub native to the tropical and subtropical regions of both the Old World and the New World. ... Species N. glauca N. longiflora N. rustica N. sylvestris N. tabacum Ref: ITIS 30562 as of 2002-08-28 Tobacco () is a broad-leafed plant of the nightshade family, indigenous to North and South America, whose dried and cured leaves are often smoked (see tobacco smoking) in the form of... Vegetables on a market Vegetable is a nutritional and culinary term denoting any part of a plant that is commonly consumed by humans as food, but is not regarded as a culinary fruit, nut, herb, spice, or grain. ... Fruit stall in Barcelona, Spain. ... Long and short hair wool at the South Central Family Farm Research Center in Boonesville, AR Wool is the fiber derived from the hair of domesticated animals, usually sheep. ... Meat is animal tissue (mainly muscle) used as food. ... Dairy products are generally defined as foodstuffs produced from milk. ...


Agricultural processing is a key component of the industrial economy, as well as one of the most attractive sectors for foreign investment. The Kyrgyz Republic is rich in mineral resources but has negligible petroleum and natural gas reserves; it imports petroleum and gas. Among its mineral reserves are substantial deposits of coal, gold, uranium, antimony, and other rare-earth metals. Metallurgy is an important industry, and the government hopes to attract foreign investment in this field. The government has actively encouraged foreign involvement in extracting and processing gold. The Kyrgyz Republic's plentiful water resources and mountainous terrain enable it to produce and export large quantities of hydroelectric energy. Coal is a fossil fuel extracted from the ground either by underground mining, open-pit mining or strip mining. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11 (IB), 6, d Density, Hardness 19300 kg/m3, 2. ... General Name, Symbol, Number Uranium, U, 92 Chemical series Actinides Period, Block 7, f Density, Hardness 19050 kg/m3, 6 Appearance silvery-white metal Atomic properties Atomic weight 238. ... General Name, Symbol, Number antimony, Sb, 51 Series metalloids Group, Period, Block 15 (VA), 5, p Density, Hardness 6697 kg/m3, 3 Appearance silvery lustrous grey Atomic properties Atomic weight 121. ... Metallurgy is a domain of materials science and of materials engineering that studies the physical and chemical behavior of metallic elements and their mixtures, which are called alloys. ... Hydroelectric dam diagram The waters of Llyn Stwlan, the upper reservoir of the Ffestiniog Pumped-Storage Scheme in north Wales, can just be glimpsed on the right. ...


The principal exports are nonferrous metals and minerals, woolen goods and other agricultural products, electric energy, and certain engineering goods. Imports include petroleum and natural gas, ferrous metals, chemicals, most machinery, wood and paper products, some foods, and some construction materials. Its leading trade partners include Germany, Russia, China, and neighboring Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan.


Demographics

Main article: Demographics of Kyrgyzstan Population: 5,080,230 (January 2005 est. ...


The World Almanac 2005 reported that Kyrgyzstan's population is slightly more than 5 million, estimating it at 5,081,429. Of those, 34.4% are under the age of 15 and 6.2% are over the age of 65. The country is rural; only about one-third (33.9%) of Kyrgyzstan's population live in urban areas. The average population density is 29 people per km2 (69 people per square mile). Rural areas are sparsely settled places away from the influence of large cities and towns. ...

Traditional roadside graves
Traditional roadside graves

The nation's largest ethnic group is the Kyrgyz, a Turkic group with Mongolian and Chinese influences. The Kyrgyz comprise 69.5% percent of the population and have historically been semi-nomadic herders, living in yurts and tending sheep, horses and yaks. This nomadic tradition continues to function, and the freedoms that it assumes continue to have an impact on the political atmosphere in the country. Other ethnic groups include ethnic Russians (9.0%) concentrated in the North and Uzbeks (14.5%) living in the South. Small, but noticeable minorities include Uyghurs (1.1%), Tajiks (1.1%), Kazakhs (0.7%), Dungan (1.2%) and Turks (0.9%), as well as smaller Korean (0.3%), Ukrainian (0.5%) and tiny German communities. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Kirghiz (also Kyrgyz) are a Turkic ethnic group found primarily in Kyrgyzstan. ... The Turkic peoples are (currently some 150 million) Central Asians whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages, and their descendants thoughout the world. ... The video game console is called the Sega Nomad. ... A Yurt is a traditional home of the nomads who live on the cold, dry steppes of Central Asia. ... Binomial name Ovis aries Linnaeus, 1758 A sheep is any of several woolly ruminant quadrupeds, but most commonly the Domestic Sheep (Ovis aries), which probably descends from the wild moufflon of south-central and south-west Asia. ... Binomial name Equus caballus The Horse (Equus caballus) is a sizeable ungulate mammal, one of the seven modern species of the genus Equus. ... Binomial name Bos gruniens Linnaeus, 1766 Yak - n. ... Russians (Русские - Russkie) are an East Slavic ethnic group, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries. ... Uyghurs (also called Uighurs, Uygurs, or Uigurs) (Simplified Chinese: 维吾尔; Traditional Chinese: 維吾爾; pinyin: ) are a Turkic ethnic group of people living in northwestern China (mainly in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region, where they are the dominant ethnic group together with Han people), Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, and Kyrgyzstan, Russia. ... The Tajiks are one of the principal ethnic groups of Central Asia, and are primarily found in Afghanistan, Tajikistan, and Uzbekistan. ... A Kazakh and his camel The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazak, Qazaq, or Quazaq), (in Kazakh: Қазақ; in Russian: Казах; English term is the transliteration from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Russia and China). ... The Dungan are a Chinese Muslim people in Kyrgyzstan. ...


Culture

A road near Bishkek
A road near Bishkek
Yurt at the border of Issyk-Kul
Yurt at the border of Issyk-Kul

Main article: Culture of Kyrgyzstan Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Bishkek cityscape Bishkek (population in 2005 approx. ... Download high resolution version (1167x1673, 256 KB)Issyk Kul, North coast, Kyrgyzstan File links The following pages link to this file: Kyrgyzstan ... Download high resolution version (1167x1673, 256 KB)Issyk Kul, North coast, Kyrgyzstan File links The following pages link to this file: Kyrgyzstan ... A Yurt is a traditional home of the nomads who live on the cold, dry steppes of Central Asia. ... Issyk Kul (also Ysyk Köl) is an endorheic lake in the northern Tien Shan mountains in northwestern Kyrgyzstan. ...

The vast majority of todays Kyrgyz are Muslims of the Sunni branch, but Islam came late and fairly superficially to the area. ... Manas is a traditional epic poem of the Kyrgyz people and the name of the epics eponymous hero. ... In mathematics, see epic morphism. ... Tush kyiz are large, elaborately embroidered wall hangings, traditionally made in Kyrgyzstan by elder women to commemorate the marriage of a son or daughter. ...

Flag

It is considered that there are 40 Kyrgyz tribes. This is symbolized by the 40-rayed yellow sun in the center of the flag of Kyrgyzstan. The lines inside the sun are supposedly a yurt. A Yurt is a traditional home of the nomads who live on the cold, dry steppes of Central Asia. ...


Holidays

Date English Name Local Name Remarks
January 1st New Year Жаңы жыл ~
January 7th Russian Orthodox Christmas ~ ~
March 8th Women's Day ~ ~
March 21st Nooruz Нооруз ~
May 1st Labour (Labor) Day ~ ~
May 5th Constitution Day ~ ~
May 9th World War II Victory Day ~ ~
August 31st Independence Day Эркин күнү ~

Miscellaneous topics

Telephones - main lines in use: 351,000 (1997) Telephones - mobile cellular: NA Telephone system: poorly developed; about 100,000 unsatisfied applications for household telephones domestic: principally microwave radio relay; one cellular provider, probably limited to Bishkek region international: connections with other CIS countries by landline or microwave radio relay and... Railways: total: 370 km in common carrier service; does not include industrial lines broad gauge: 370 km 1. ... Military branches: Army, Air and Air Defense, Security Forces, and Border Troops Military manpower - military age: 18 years of age Military manpower - availability: males age 15-49: 1,234,457 (2002 est. ... Kyrgyzstan favours close relations with other CIS members, in particular with Kazakhstan and Russia. ... This is a list of cities in Kyrgyzstan. ... Flag of Kyrgystan Kyrgyzstan at the 2004 Summer Olympics Results by medals Results by event Athletics Womens 100 metres: Elena Bobrovskaya - Round 1, 11. ... The Tulip Revolution refers to the overthrow of President Askar Akayev and his government in the Central Asian republic of Kyrgyzstan after the parliamentary elections of February 27 and of March 13, 2005. ... The 2005 Kyrgyz parliamentary elections were held in February and March 2005. ... Kyrgyzstan will hold a presidential election on 10 July 2005. ...

External links

  • Photos of traditional life in Kyrgyzstan
  • Kyrgyz State Television and Radio
  • Photo gallery of Kyrgyzstan, Central Asia
  • CountryGuide: Kyrgyzstan - editor-maintained directory focused on travel planning and research
  • Photo gallery and information about Kyrgyzstan - in German
  • The "Manas" epic


Countries in Central Asia

China (PRC) | Kazakhstan | Kyrgyzstan | Mongolia | Russia | Tajikistan | Turkmenistan | Uzbekistan This is an alphabetical list of the sovereign states of the world, including both de jure and de facto independent states. ... Map of Central Asia outlined in orange showing one set of possible borders Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... In the technical terminology of political science the PRC was a communist state for much of the 20th century, and is still considered a communist state by many, though not all, political scientists. ...



The Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS) (in Russian: Содружество Независимых Государств (СНГ) - Sodruzhestvo Nezavisimykh Gosudarstv) is a confederation or alliance consisting of 12 of the 15 former Soviet Republics, the exceptions being the three Baltic states (Estonia, Latvia, and Lithuania). ... File links The following pages link to this file: Armenia Azerbaijan Belarus Kazakhstan Russia Tajikistan Ukraine Uzbekistan Commonwealth of Independent States Georgia (country) Kyrgyzstan Turkmenistan Template:Commonwealth of Independent States Wikipedia:WikiProject Countries/Footers 2004 Summer Olympics medals count by International Organization List of FIFA country codes Economy of Asia...


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