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Encyclopedia > Kipchaks
Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E.
Kipchaks in Eurasia circa 1200 C.E.

Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Ukrainian: Половці (polovtsy), Crimean Tatar: Qıpçaq, Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Uzbek: Qipchoq, Қипчоқ, Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Kyrgyz: Кыпчак, Nogai: Кыпчак, Turkish: Kıpçak) were an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC. The western Kipchaks were known as Cumans (Kuman, Kuns) in Western Europe and Polovtsy (Polovtsians) in Ukraine and Russia, or by other names, most of which have the meaning "pale", or "sallow". Their language was also known as Kipchak. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Crimean Tatar language (Qırımtatar tili, Qırımtatarca), also known as Crimean (Qırım tili, Qırımca) and Crimean Turkish (Qırım Türkçesi) is the language of the Crimean Tatars. ... The Karachay-Balkar language (Къарачай-Малкъар /Qarachay-Malqar/) is a Turkic language of the Karachays and Balkars. ... Kazakh (also Qazaq and variants[2], natively , , ‎; pronounced ) is a Turkic language closely related to Nogai and Karakalpak. ... Kumyk (also Qumuq, Kumuk, Kumuklar, and Kumyki) is a Turkic language, spoken by about 200 thousands speakers (the Kumyks) in the Dagestan republic of Russian Federation. ... Kyrgyz or Kirghiz (Kyrgyz tili, Кыргыз тили, قىرعىز ٴتىلى) is a Turkic language, and, together with Russian, an official language of Kyrgyzstan. ... Nogai (also Nogay or Nogai Tatar), is a Turkic language spoken in southwestern Russia. ... The Turkic people are any of various peoples whose members speak languages in the Turkic family of languages. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ... The 1st millennium BC encompasses the Iron Age and sees the rise of successive empires. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ...

Contents

History

Kipchaks were a confederation of pastoralists and warriors of Turkic origin, known in Ukrainian and Russian as Polovtsy, who lived in yurts (movable tents) and came from the region of the River Irtysh. Some tribes of the Kipchak confederation probably originated near the Chinese borders and, after having moved into western Siberia by the 9th century, migrated further west into the trans-Volga region (now western Kazakstan). Irtysh (Russian:  ; Kazakh: Ertis / Эртiс ; Tatar: Ä°rteÅŸ / Иртеш ; Chinese: Erqisi / 额尔齐斯河) a river in Siberia, the chief tributary of the river Ob. ... This article is about Siberia as a whole. ... For other meanings of the word Volga see Volga (disambiguation) Волга Length 3,690 km Elevation of the source 225 m Average discharge  ? m³/s Area watershed 1. ...


They occupied a vast, sprawling territory in the Eurasian steppe, stretching from north of the Aral Sea westward to the region north of the Black Sea (now in Ukraine and southwestern Russia) and founded a nomadic state (Desht-i Qipchaq). They invaded the territory of Moldavia, Wallachia and part of Transylvania in the 11th century, and from there they continued their plundering of the Byzantine Empire and the Kingdom of Hungary. Eurasian, also Euroasian or Euro-Asian can mean: Eurasian may be used as a slang term to refer to people of Asian decent, living in European countries who have no other traits of being Asian other then the fact that they look it. ... The Aral Sea (Kazakh: Арал Теңізі, Aral Tengizi, Uzbek: , Russian: Аральскοе мοре) is a landlocked endorheic sea in Central Asia; it lies between Kazakhstan in the north and Karakalpakstan, an autonomous region of Uzbekistan, in the south. ... For other uses, see Black Sea (disambiguation). ... For the 2006 historical epic set in Kazakhstan, see Nomad (2006 film). ... For other uses of Moldavia or Moldova, see Moldova (disambiguation). ... Map of Romania with Wallachia in yellow. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


In the late 11th and early 12th centuries they became involved in various conflicts with the Byzantines, Kievan Rus, the Hungarians, and the Pechenegs, allying themselves with one or the other side at different times. In 1089, they were defeated by Ladislaus I of Hungary, again by Knyaz of Kyiv Rus Vladimir Monomakh in the 12th century, and finally crushed by the Mongols in 1241. After the breakup of the Mongol empire, the Kipchaks became the part of the khanate comprising present-day Russia, Ukraine, and Kazakhstan, called the Golden Horde, the westernmost division of the Mongol empire. Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... Kievan Rus′ (Ки́евская Ру́сь, Kievskaya Rus in Russian; Київська Русь, Kyivs’ka Rus’ in Ukrainian) was the early, mostly East Slavic¹ state dominated by the... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... Events Northumbria divided by the Normans into the counties of Northumberland, County Durham, Yorkshire, Westmorland and Lancashire August 11, powerful Britain Coronation of Rama Varma Kulasekhara in Kerala Synod of Melfi under Pope Urban II imposes slavery on the wives of priests Palmyra destroyed by earthquake Byzantine conquest of Crete... For other monarchs with similar names, please see Ladislaus I (disambiguation). ... Kniaz’ or knyaz is a word found in some Slavic languages, denoting a nobility rank. ... Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] state dominated by the city of Kiev from about 880 to the middle of the 12th century. ... Volodymyr Monomakh (Ukrainian: Володимир Мономах; Russian: Владимир Мономах; Christian name Vasiliy, or Basil) (1053 -- May 19, 1125) was the ruler of Kievan Rus. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... Events April 5 - Mongols of Golden Horde under the command of Subotai defeat feudal Polish nobility, including Knights Templar, in the battle of Liegnitz April 27 - Mongols defeat Bela IV of Hungary in the battle of Sajo. ... Expansion of the Mongol Empire Historical map of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire, also known as the Mongolian Empire (Mongolian: , Mongolyn Ezent Güren; 1206–1405) was the largest contiguous empire in history and for sometime was the most feared in Eurasia. ... For the Star Trek character see Khan Noonien Singh. ... The Golden Horde (Mongolian: Altan Ordyn Uls; Turkish: ; Tatar: ; Russian: ) is a Russian designation for the Mongol[1][2][3][4] — later Turkicized[3] — khanate established in the western part of the Mongol Empire upon its breakup in the 1240s: present-day Russia, Ukraine, Kazakhstan, and the Caucasus. ...


The Kuman, or western Kipchak tribes, fled to Hungary, and some of their warriors became mercenaries for the Latin crusaders and the Byzantines. Members of the Bahri dynasty, the first dynasty of Mamelukes in Egypt, were Kipchaks, one of the most prominent examples being Sultan Baybars, born in Solhat, Crimea. The Cumans, also known as Polovtsy (Slavic for yellowish) were a nomadic West Turkic tribe living on the north of the Black Sea along the Volga. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... The Crusaders (formerly the Canterbury Crusaders) are a New Zealand Rugby Union team based in Christchurch, New Zealand that competes in the Super 14 (formerly the Super 12). ... Byzantine Empire is the term conventionally used to describe the Roman Empire during the Middle Ages, centered around its capital in Constantinople. ... The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Sultanate المماليك البحرية was a Mamluk dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1382 when they were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyub Death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular... al-Malik al-Zahir Ruk al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (b. ... Konstantin Bogaevsky Stary Krym, 1903 Stary Krym, (Ukrainian: , Russian: ) is a small historical town in the Eastern Crimea, approximately 25 km (15 mi. ... Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ...


Language & Culture

Kipchak steppe art as exhibited in Dnepropetrovsk.

The Kipchak spoke a Turkic language whose most important surviving record is the Codex Cumanicus, a late 13th-century dictionary of words in Kipchak and Latin. The presence in Egypt of Turkic-speaking Mamluks also stimulated the compilation of Kipchak-Arabic dictionaries and grammars that are important in the study of several old Turkic languages. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Museum of Kipchak steppe art in Dnepropetrovsk. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 450 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (480 × 640 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Museum of Kipchak steppe art in Dnepropetrovsk. ... REDIRECT Dnipropetrovsk ... The Turkic languages are a group of closely related languages that are spoken by a variety of people distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ... The Codex Cumanicus was a linguistic manual of the Middle Ages, presumably designed to help Catholic missionaries to the Kipchaks. ... The Kipchak language was an extinct Turkic language of Kipchak-Bolghar group. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for...


Modern Times

The modern Northwestern Turkic languages are named after the Kipchaks. Some of the descendants of the Kipchaks are now known as Siberian Tatars, Nogays, Bashkirs, Kazakhs, Tatars (partly), Crimean Tatars (partly), Karachays (partly), Krymchaks, Karaims (partly), Kumyks (partly). The Turkic languages are a group of closely related languages that are spoken by a variety of people distributed across a vast area from Eastern Europe to Siberia and Western China. ... The Native Western Siberian Tatars (200,000) are an ethnic group or a sub-group of the Tatars. ... It has been suggested that Nogai Horde be merged into this article or section. ... The Bashkirs, a Turkic people, live in Russia, mostly in the republic of Bashkortostan. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... This article is about the people. ... The Crimean Tatars (sg. ... The Karachays (Къарачайлыла, Qaraçaylıla) are a Turkic people of the Ciscaucasus, mostly situated in the Russian Karachay-Cherkess Republic. ... The Krymchaks (sg. ... Karaite Judaism is a Jewish denomination characterized by reliance on the Tanakh as the sole scripture, and rejection of the Oral Law (the Mishnah and the Talmuds) as halakha (Legally Binding, i. ... Flag of the Kumyks Kumyks are a Turkic people occupying the Kumyk plateau in north Dagestan and south Terek, and the lands bordering the Caspian Sea. ...


Kipchaks have descended into modern Uzbek and Kyrgyz populations. Kipchak is the name of a Kazakh tribe within modern-day Kazakhstan, as well as the name of a Kyrgyz tribe within modern-day Kyrgyzstan. For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... Languages Kazakh (and/or languages in country of residence) Religions Sunni Islam The Kazakhs (also spelled Kazaks, Qazaqs; Kazakh: Қазақтар []; Russian: Казахи; the English name is transliterated from Russian) are a Turkic people of the northern parts of Central Asia (largely Kazakhstan, but also found in parts of Uzbekistan, China, Russia, and... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... For the language spoken by this ethnic group, see Kyrgyz language. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


There is also a village named 'Kipchak' existent in Crimea. Motto Процветание в единстве(Russian) Protsvetanie v edinstve(transliteration) Prosperity in unity Anthem Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина(Russian) Nivy i gory tvoi volshebny, Rodina(transliteration) Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) with respect to Ukraine (light blue). ...


The word "kypchak" is found in traditional Oghuz Turkish Khan Epics [citation needed]. A Seljuk Prince. ...


See also

The Bahri dynasty or Bahriyya Sultanate المماليك البحرية was a Mamluk dynasty of Kipchak Turk origin that ruled Egypt from 1250 to 1382 when they were succeeded by the Burji dynasty, another group of Mamluks. ... The Battle of the Stugna River (26 May 1093) was a battle between the princes of Kievan Rus (Sviatopolk II of Kiev, Vladimir Monomakh of Chernigiv) and the nomadic Polovtsy tribe (a Turkic peoples). ... // Combatants Mongols Kievan Rus, Cumans Commanders Subutai Mstislav the Bold Strength 40,000 Over 80,000 Casualties MInimal Heavy Battle of the Kalka River (May 31, 1223) was the first military engagement between the Mongol armies of Genghis Khan and the Rus warriors. ... The Codex Cumanicus was a linguistic manual of the Middle Ages, presumably designed to help Catholic missionaries to the Kipchaks. ... Cuman, also called Polovtsy, Polovtsian, or the Anglicized Polovzian (Russian: , Ukrainian: , Turkish: , Bulgarian: , Romanian: , Hungarian: ), is a Western European exonym for the western Kipchaks. ... The Khazars (Hebrew Kuzari כוזרי Kuzarim כוזרים; Turkish Hazar Hazarlar; Russian Хазарин Хазары; Tatar sing Xäzär Xäzärlär; Crimean Tatar: ; Greek Χαζάροι/Χάζαροι; Persianخزر khazar; Latin Gazari or Cosri) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people from Central Asia, many of whom converted to Judaism. ... Kipchaks are an ancient nomadic Turkic people who occupied large territories from Central Asia to Eastern Europe. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for... Pechenegs or Patzinaks (Armenian: Badzinag, Bulgarian/Russian: Pechenegi (Печенеги), Greek: Patzinaki/Petsenegi (Πατζινάκοι/Πετσενέγοι) or less commonly Πατζινακίται, Hungarian: BesenyÅ‘, Latin: Расinасае, Old Turkish (assumed): *Beçenek, Turkish: Peçenekler) were a semi-nomadic Turkic people of the Central Asian steppes speaking the Pecheneg language which belonged to the Turkic language family. ... The Tale of Igors Campaign (Old East Slavic: Слово о плъку Игоревѣ, Slovo o pălku Igorevě; Modern Russian: Слово о полку Иг&#1086...

Sources and notes

  • "Kipchak". Encyclopædia Britannica, Academic Edition. 2006.
  • "Polovtsi". The Columbia Encyclopedia, Sixth Edition. 2001-05.

Further reading

  • Csáki, E. (2006). Middle Mongolian loan words in Volga Kipchak languages. Turcologica, Bd. 67. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN 344705381X

External links

  • Codex Cumanicus
  • Kipchak dateline

  Results from FactBites:
 
Who Were The Kipchaks? (652 words)
Kipchaks may have been the first people to develop weapons of mass destruction, this feat having taken place in in the 14th century.
The early Turkic tribes warred incessantly with each other and with the Mongols, with the result that the Kipchaks were gradually driven westward from China and Mongolia, through today's Kazakhstan, and into the region between the Volga and Don Rivers, in today's Russia and Ukraine, a migratory process that lasted for perhaps 500 years.
I suppose the Kipchaks couldn't have foreseen how devastating this tactic would turn out to be, just as Hitler probably did not understand beforehand the magnitude of the monster he let loose.
Kipchaks information - Search.com (342 words)
Kipchaks (also spelled as Kypchaks, Qipchaqs, Qypchaqs) (Crimean Tatar: Qıpçaq, Karachay-Balkar: Къыпчакъ, Kazakh: Қыпшақ, Kumyk: Къыпчакъ, Nogai: Кыпчак) are an ancient Turkic people, first mentioned in the historical chronicles of Central Asia in the 1st millennium BC.
The western Kipchaks are also known as Cumans (Kumans, Kuns) in western Europe, and Polovtsi (Polovtsians) in Russia and Ukraine.
Kipchak is also the name of a Kazakh tribe within modern-day Kazakhstan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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