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Encyclopedia > Kingdoms of ancient India

This article tries to compile and classify all the kingdoms of ancient India mentioned in the Sanskrit/Vedic literature. This literature includes the two Indian epics viz. the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, the Puranas and the Vedas with their supplement texts. The exact dates on which these kingdoms existed, is controversial. The focus of this article is not on the dating of these kingdoms, but on the classification of these kingdoms based on their geographical location in the Indian subcontinent, as well as based on the ancient Indian tribes that ruled these kingdoms. The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture, also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. ... The Sanskrit language ( , for short ) is an old Indo-Aryan language from the Indian Subcontinent, the classical literary language of the Hindus of India[1], a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Veda redirects here. ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ... Veda redirects here. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...


Ancient or epic India as described in the itihasas is divided into a large number of independent kingdoms, spanning the whole of the Indian subcontinent. Itihasa (Sanskrit: इतिहास - itihāsa in IAST notation, literally meaning that which happened) is the word for History. ... Satellite image of the Indian subcontinent Map of South Asia (see note) This article deals with the geophysical region in Asia. ...

"Map of ancient Indian kingdoms during epic periods"
"Map of ancient Indian kingdoms during epic periods"
History of South Asia

History of India
Stone Age 70,000–3300 BC
· Mehrgarh Culture · 7000–3300 BC
Indus Valley Civilization 3300–1700 BC
Late Harappan Culture 1700–1300 BC
Vedic Period 1500–500 BC
· Iron Age Kingdoms · 1200–700 BC
Maha Janapadas 700–300 BC
Magadha Kingdom 1700 BC–AD 550
· Maurya Empire · 321–184 BC
Middle Kingdoms 230 BC–AD 1279
· Satavahana Empire · 230 BC–AD 199
· Kushan Empire · 60–240
· Gupta Empire · 240–550
· Pala Empire · 750–1174
· Chola Empire · 848–1279
Islamic Sultanates 1206–1596
· Delhi Sultanate · 1206–1526
· Deccan Sultanates · 1490–1596
Hoysala Empire 1040–1346
Kakatiya Empire 1083–1323
Vijayanagara Empire 1336–1565
Mughal Empire 1526–1707
Maratha Empire 1674–1818
Colonial Era 1757–1947
Modern States 1947 onwards
Nation histories
Bangladesh · Bhutan · Republic of India
Maldives · Nepal · Pakistan · Sri Lanka
Regional histories
Assam · Bengal · Pakistani Regions
Punjab · Sindh · South India · Tibet
Specialised histories
Dynasties · Economy · Indology · Language · Literature
Maritime · Military · Science and Technology · Timeline
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Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1002x1176, 273 KB) Summary Author: JIJITH NR This image shows the locations of Kingdoms mentioned in the Indian epics. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1002x1176, 273 KB) Summary Author: JIJITH NR This image shows the locations of Kingdoms mentioned in the Indian epics. ... This article is about the History of South Asia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bangladesh. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bhutan. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_India. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Maldives. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nepal. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sri_Lanka. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The archaeological record in India (encompassing the territory of the modern nations of the Republic of India, Pakistan and Bangladesh) shows first traces of Homo sapiens from ca. ... The Palaeolithic and Mesolithic in South Asia. ... Mehrgarh was an ancient settlement in South Asia and is one of the most important sites in archaeology for the study of the earliest neolithic settlements in that region. ... Excavated ruins of Mohenjo-daro. ... The Cemetery H culture developed out of the northern part of the Indus Valley Civilization around 1900 BC, in and around the Punjab region. ... The time period in the history of India known as the Vedic period or Vedic age is the period of the composition of the sacred texts called Vedas and other such texts in Vedic Sanskrit. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Magadha was an ancient kingdom of India, mentioned in both the Ramayana and the Mahabharata. ... The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and... The Sātavāhanas (Marathi:सातवाहन Telugu:సాతవాహనులు), also known as the Andhras, were a dynasty which ruled from Junnar, Pune over Southern and Central India starting from around 230 BCE. Although there is some controversy about when the dynasty came to an end, the most liberal estimates suggest that it lasted... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ... The Gupta Empire under Chandragupta II (ruled 375-415) The Gupta Empire was one of the largest political and military empires in ancient India. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire. ... The Chola Dynasty (Tamil: , IPA: ) was a Tamil dynasty that ruled primarily in southern India until the 13th century. ... During the middle ages, several Islamic regimes established empires in South Asia. ... The Delhi Sultanate (دلی سلطنت), or Sulthanath-e-Hind (سلطنتِ ہند) / Sulthanath-e-Dilli (سلطنتِ دلی) refers to the various Muslim dynasties that ruled in India from 1210 to 1526. ... The Deccan sultanates were five Muslim-ruled kingdoms–-Bijapur, Golconda, Ahmednagar, Bidar, and Berar of south-central India. ... The Hoysala Empire ruled part of southern India from 1000 to 1346. ... The Kakatiya Dynasty was a South Indian dynasty that ruled parts of what is now Andhra Pradesh, India from 1083 to 1323. ... The Vijayanagara empire was based in the Deccan, in peninsular and southern India, from 1336 onwards. ... The Mughal Empire (Persian: ‎ , Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت), self-designation Gurkānī, گوركانى (which was also the self-designation of the Timurids in Central Asia and Khorasan) was an empire that at its greatest territorial extent ruled eastern parts of Khorasan (i. ... Extent of the Maratha Confederacy ca. ... In 1498, the Portuguese set foot in Goa. ... Britains holdings on the Indian subcontinent were granted independence in 1947 and 1948, becoming four new independent states: India, Burma (now Myanmar), Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), and Pakistan (including East Pakistan, modern-day Bangladesh). ... The history of Assam is the history of a confluence of peoples from the east, west and the north; the confluence of the Indo-Aryan, Austro-Asiatic and the Tibeto-Burman cultures. ... Buddha and Bodhisattvas, 11th century, Pala Empire Further information: History of Bangladesh The history of Bengal (including Bangladesh and West Bengal) dates back four millennia. ... The historical regions of Pakistan are former states, provinces and territories which mainly existed between 1947 and 1975 when the current provinces and territories were finally established. ... The first known use of the word Punjab is in the book Tarikh-e-Sher Shah (1580), which mentions the construction of a fort by Sher Khan of Punjab. The name is mentioned again in Ain-e-Akbari (part 1), written by Abul Fazal, who also mentions that the territory... Sindh (Sind) (Sindhi: سنڌ ,Urdu: سندھ, Hindi: सिन्ध) is one of the provinces of Pakistan. ... The history of South India covers a span of over two thousand years during which the region saw the rise and fall of a number of dynasties and empires. ... Tibet is situated between the two ancient civilizations of China and India, but the tangled mountain ranges the Tibetan Plateau and the towering Himalayas serve to distance it from both. ... The following list of Indian monarchs is one of several lists of incumbents. ... Indology is a name given by indologists to the academic study of the history, languages, and cultures of South Asia. ... Indian literature is generally acknowledged, but not wholly established, as the oldest in the world. ... India has had a maritime history dating back around 5,000 years. ... Science and technology in ancient India covered all the major branches of human knowledge and activities, including mathematics, astronomy, physics, chemistry, medical science and surgery, fine arts, mechanical and production technology, civil engineering and architecture, shipbuilding and navigation, sports and games. ... This is a timeline of Indian history. ...

Introduction

Much of the political and geographical mosaic of ancient India can be derived from the epic Mahabharata. The other great Indian epic Ramayana is yet another source. From the Vedas, notably Rig Veda, we get geo-political information about ancient India that predates the Mahabharata period. The Puranas forms a window to the geo-political situation of ancient India during the post-Mahabharata period. Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Veda redirects here. ... The Rig Veda ऋग्वेद (Sanskrit ṛc praise + veda knowledge) is the earliest of the four Hindu religious scriptures known as the Vedas. ... Purana (Sanskrit: , meaning tales of ancient times) is the name of an ancient Indian genre (or a group of related genres) of Hindu or Jain literature (as distinct from oral tradition). ...


The time coordinates in which these kingdoms existed is not exactly known. The classical "Golden Age" of ancient India spans the 1st millennia BCE and CE, historical kingdoms arising from ca. 700 BCE with the Mahajanapadas. Glimpses of prehistoric political entities may be glimpsed from the early Vedic texts, in particular the Rigveda (dated to from around 1500 BC). The earliest parts of the epic Ramayana date to around 500 BC and Mahabharata around 400 BC. These early kingdoms lasted until the rise of the Maurya Empire in 321 BC, from which period the term middle kingdoms of India may be used. All these dates however are fixed according to the highly debatable and now increasingly untenable Aryan Invasion Theory. If one considers the astronomical and internal evidences available within the Vedic texts, then one can safely say that the Vedic and the Harappan civilizations were one and the same. The timescale given by the western scholars also assume that the Sandrakottos mentioned in writings of the Greek historian Megasthanese is the same as Chandragupta Maurya. However this is highly doubtful since the Greek makes no mention of Chanakya in his writings. It is more likely that he visited India during the reign of Chandragupta Gupta. This does not cite its references or sources. ... The Rigveda (Sanskrit: , a tatpurusha compound of praise, verse and knowledge) is a collection of Vedic Sanskrit hymns dedicated to the gods. ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... The Maurya Empire, ruled by the Mauryan dynasty, was the largest and most powerful political and military empire of ancient India. ... The rebellious Macedonian general Craterus is defeated and killed in battle in Asia Minor by Eumenes of Cardia, lieutenant to the Macedonian regent Perdiccas. ... Middle kingdoms of India refers to the political entities in India from the 6th century BCE through to the Islamic invasions and the related Decline of Buddhism from the 7th century CE. // Kingdoms and Empires The Aryans had invaded India from the Northwest, according to the Aryan Invasion Theory, and...


The kingdoms

The boundaries of the kingdoms

The kingdoms mentioned below existed when territorial boundaries were less important, due to the limited human population and sparse human settlements. Often rivers formed the boundaries of two neighbouring kingdoms, as was the case between northern and southern Panchala and the western (Pandava's Kingdom) and eastern (Kaurava's Kingdom) Kuru. Sometimes, large forests, which were larger than the kingdoms themselves, formed their boundaries as was the case of the Naimisha Forest between Panchala and Kosala kingdoms. Mountain ranges like Himalaya, Vindhya and Sahya also formed their boundaries. Panchala Kingdom extended from Himalayas in the north to river Charmanuati in the south. ... In the Mahabharata, the Pandava are the five acknowledged sons of Pandu, by his two wives Kunti and Madri. ... The term Kaurava (Sanskrit:कौरव) is a Sanskrit term, that means a descendant of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ... Naimisha Forest was an ancient forest mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. ... Panchala Kingdom extended from Himalayas in the north to river Charmanuati in the south. ... Capital: Ayodhya (Ayodhya, Faisabad, Uttar Pradesh) Kosala Proper or Uttara Kosala is the kigdom of the celebrated personality of Treta Yuga, Raghava Rama. ...


The cities and villages

Some kingdoms possessed a main city that served as its capital. For example, the capital of Pandava's Kingdom was Indraprastha and the Kaurava's Kingdom was Hastinapura. Ahichatra was the capital of Northern Panchala where as Kampilya was the capital of Southern Panchala. Kosala Kingdom had its capital as Ayodhya. Apart from the main city or capital, where the palace of the ruling king was situated, there were small towns and villages spread in a kingdom. Tax was collected by the officers appointed by the king from these villages and towns. What the king offered in return to these villages and towns was protection from the attack of other kings and robber tribes, as well as from invading foreign nomadic tribes. The king also enforced code and order in his kingdom by punishing the guilty. The first city of Delhi is believed to be founded by the legendary Pandavas of the Mahabharata around 1400 BC. It was called Indraprastha. ... In the Hindu epic Mahabharata, Hastinapura is the capital and the kingdom of the Kauravas, the descendants of Kuru, which include the Pandavas. ... Ahichatra (alias Ahi-Kshetra) was the capital of Northern Panchala, a kingdom mentioned in Mahabharata. ... Kampilya (Sanskrit: कम्पिल्‍य) was the Capital of the Panchala Kingdom ruled by Drupada during Mahabharata period. ... Capital: Ayodhya (Ayodhya, Faisabad, Uttar Pradesh) Kosala Proper or Uttara Kosala is the kigdom of the celebrated personality of Treta Yuga, Raghava Rama. ... Ayodhya   (Hindi: अयोध्या, Urdu: ایودھیا IAST Ayodhyā) is an ancient city of India, the old capital of Awadh, in the Faizabad district of Uttar Pradesh. ...


Interactions between kingdoms

There were no border security for a kingdom and border disputes were very rare. One king may conduct a military-campaign (often designated as Digvijaya meaning victory over all the directions) and defeat another king in a battle, lasting for a day. The defeated king would acknowledge the supremacy of the victorious king. The defeated king might some times be asked to give a tribute to the victorious king. Tribute will be collected only once, not in a periodic basis. The defeated king, in most cases, is free to rule his own kingdom, without maintaining any contact with the victorious king. There was no annexation of one kingdom by another kingdom. Often a military general makes these campaigns on behalf of his king. A military-campaign and tribute collection is often associated with a great sacrifice (like Rajasuya or Aswamedha) conducted in the kingdom of the campaigner king. The defeated king also was invited to attend these sacrifice ceremonies, as a friend and ally.


New kingdoms

New kingdoms were formed when a major clan produces more than one kings in a generation. The Kuru clan of kings and Ikshwaku clan of kings were very successful in spreading all over north India with their numerous kingdoms, formed after each successive generations. Similarly the Yadava clan of kings spread numerous kingdoms in the central India.


Cultural differences in the kingdoms

Main article Bahlika Culture Bahlika Culture was a form of culture prevailed in ancient India. ...


Western parts of India were dominated by tribes who had a slightly different culture that was considered as non-vedic by the mainstream Vedic culture prevailed in the Kuru and Panchala kingdoms. Probably these were due to the influence of Iranian cultures. Similarly tribes ruling south India were also considered as non-Vedic by the Kuru, Panchalas, though the differences were not so significant. This may be due to the Dravidian nature of these tribes. Similarly there were some tribes in the eastern regions of India, considered to be in this category. Tribes with a different culture was collectively termed by the Vedic tribes by the name Mlechha. Very little was mentioned in the ancient Indian literature, about the kingdoms to the north, beyond Himalayas. China was mentioned as a kingdom known as Chin, some times grouped with Mlechcha kingdoms. An astonishing fact is that, some other kingdoms in the north were mentioned with high respect and a sense of mystery. Prominent among them was the kingdom with the name Northern Kuru or Uttara Kuru. Some text mentions it as the dominion of Devas, the gods of ancient Indian people. Sometimes it was mentioned as just another kingdom, sometimes as a kingless country, sometimes as a republic. The similarity in the name, with the Kuru Kingdom in India, make them related to the Kurus (Kauravas and Pandavas) of India. Some historians argues that they were the forefathers of the Kuru's of India, that the Kuru clan originated in Northern Kuru (identified as Kyrgistan and Tajikistan) and spread to India, establishing their kingdoms in Haryana and Uttar Pradesh states of India. The Vedic Civilization is the Indo-Aryan culture associated with the Vedas. ... The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ... Panchala Kingdom extended from Himalayas in the north to river Charmanuati in the south. ... This page may meet Wikipedias criteria for speedy deletion. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Other than the Kurus of India ruled by the Pandavas and the Kauravas, there was this another kingdom called Uttara Kurus to the north of Himalayas. ... It has been suggested that Deva (tribe) be merged into this article or section. ... The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ... The term Kaurava is a Sanskrit term, that means the descendants of Kuru, a legendary king who is the ancestor of many of the characters of the Mahabharata. ... The Pandavas were the five sons of the king Pandu. ... Motto: none Anthem: National Anthem of the Kyrgyz Republic Capital Bishkek Largest city Bishkek Official language(s) Kyrgyz, Russian Government President Prime Minister Republic Kurmanbek Bakiyev Feliks Kulov Independence  - Declared  - Recognized  - Formerly From the Soviet Union 31 August 1991 December 1991 Kyrgyz SSR Area  - Total    - Water (%)   198,500 km² (86th... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Uttar Pradesh (Hindi: , Urdu: ‎, translation: Northern Province, IPA: ,  ), also popularly known by its abbreviation U.P., is the most populous and fifth largest state in the Republic of India. ...


Main kingdoms of the Puru clan

The Puru clan was the main clan of ancient Indian kings belonging to the Lunar Dynasty or the Chandra Vamsa. It was founded by Puru the son of Yayati who himself was the grand grandson of Pururavas Aila the first king of the Lunar Dynasty. In Hindu society, the Kshatriya caste is divided into two principal houses, one claiming descent from the Sun (Surya) and the other from the Moon (Indu). ... The Purus are a people of Ancient India. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Ailas were a dynasty of kings of anceint India. ...

Kuru Kingdom Panchala Kingdom Vatsa Kingdom

The Kuru kingdom was ruled by the Kuru clan of kings. ... Panchala Kingdom extended from Himalayas in the north to river Charmanuati in the south. ... Capital: Kausambi (Kosam Ruins, Kosam, Uttar Pradesh) Vatsa was a kingdom situated in the Gangatic Plain with Kausambi as its capital, now known as Kosam a small town in Uttar Pradesh. ...

Main kingdoms of the Ikshwaku clan

The Ikswaku clan was the main clan of ancient Indian kings belonging to the Solar Dynasty or the Surya Vamsa. Solar Dynasty can refer to: The Sun Dynasty Surya This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...

Kosala Kingdom Kasi Kingdom Videha Kingdom Dakshina Kosala Kingdom Malla Kingdom

Capital: Ayodhya (Ayodhya, Faisabad, Uttar Pradesh) Kosala Proper or Uttara Kosala is the kigdom of the celebrated personality of Treta Yuga, Raghava Rama. ... Capital: Varanasi (Varanasi, Banaras, Uttar Pradesh) Kasi was an ancient kingdom with Varanasi as its capital on the banks of river Ganga. ... Capital: Mithila (Janakpur, , Bihar) Videha was the kingdom of the royal sage Seeradhwaja Janaka. ... Dakshina Kosala or Southern Kosala was a colony of Kosala kings identified to be in the Chattisgad state. ... Malla Kingdom was situated in the Gangatic Plain between the Kosala and Videha. ...

Yadava kingdoms

The Yadava kingdoms were ruled by the Yadava clan of kings founded by Yadu the elder brother of Puru. The Yadava Dynasty ruled a kingdom in what is now Maharashtra, India from the 12th century to the 14th century. ... Yadu is the name of one of the five Aryan clans mentioned in the Rig Veda. ... The Purus are a people of Ancient India. ...

Surasena Kingdom Dwaraka Kingdom Anarta Kingdom Saurashtra Kingdom Heheya Kingdom
Nishadha Kingdom Gurjara Kingdom Karusha Kingdom Chedi Kingdom Dasarna Kingdom
Kunti Kingdom Avanti Kingdom Malava Kingdom

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Dwaraka Capital : Dwaravati (near Dwarka, , Gujarat) Dwaraka was a new country founded by the Yadava clan of chiefs who fled from the Surasena Kingdom due to fear from the king Jarasandha of Magadha. ... Anarta Kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by the Yadava kings in the central and western India. ... Saurashtra kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by Yadava kings in the central and western India. ... Capital: Mahishmati (Maheswar, , Madhya Pradesh) Heheya kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by Yadava kings in the central and western India. ... Nishadha was the kingdom of the celebrated king Nala, who loved and married Damayanti the princess of Vidharbha kingdom. ... Gurjara Kingdom ( also known as Gujjars, Go Rashtra, Gopas, Gopa Rashtra, Go Jana Rashtra etc) was one among the many kingdoms ruled by Yadava kings in the central and western India. ... Karusha kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by Yadava kings in the central and western India. ... Chedi kingdom (चेदि) was one among the many kingdoms ruled during early periods by Paurava kings and later by Yadav kings in the central and western India. ... Dasarna kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by Yadava kings in the central and western India. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... Capital: Ujjayani (Ujjain, Ujjain, Madhya Pradesh) Avanti kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by the Yadava kings in the central and western India. ... Malava kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by the Yadava kings in the central and western India. ...

Matsya kingdoms

Matsya Kingdom

Matsya Kingdom was probably founded by fishermen community who later attained kingship. ...

Western kingdoms

Trigarta Kingdom Salwa Kingdom Madra Kingdom Sindhu Kingdom Sauvira Kingdom
Sivi Kingdom Kekeya Kingdom Gandhara Kingdom Youdheya Kingdom Pahlava Kingdom

Capital: Unknown (probably Jullundher, Jullundher, Punjab) Trigarta was a kingdom near the Kuru kingdom. ... Salwa is a kingdom grouped among the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. ... Madra was a kingdom grouped among the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. ... It is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata that Jayadratha was the king of Sindhu, Sauvira and Sivi Kingdoms. ... It is mentioned in the epic Mahabharata that Jayadratha was the king of Sindhu, Sauvira and Sivi kingdoms. ... Sivi is mentioned as a kingdom and as the name of a king in the epic Mahabharata. ... Kekeya is a kingdom grouped among the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. ... Gandhara is a kingdom grouped among the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. ... Capital: Unknown Yodheya was a kingdom ruled by Satyaki, a Yadava chief who also belonged to the Dwaraka Fedaration. ... Pahlava Kingdom is identfied to be an Iranian kingdom. ...

Northwestern kingdoms

Bahlika Kingdom Parama Kamboja Kingdom Uttara Madra Kingdom Uttara Kuru Kingdom
Yavana Kingdom Khasa Kingdom Saka Kingdom

All the western kingdoms were known by the general name Bahlika (Vahika, Vahlika and Bahika as variations of the name) meaning outsider. ... Parama Kamboja Kingdom was mentioned in the epic Mahabharata to be on the far north west along with the Bahlika, Uttara Madra and Uttara Kuru countries. ... Uttara Madra is a kingdom grouped among the western kingdoms in the epic Mahabharata. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Other than the Kurus of India ruled by the Pandavas and the Kauravas, there was this another kingdom called Uttara Kurus to the north of Himalayas. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Yavana or Yona is grouped under western countries along with Sindhu, Madra, Kekeya, Gandhara and Kamboja as per the descriptions in the epic Mahabharata. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Khasas were a north western tribe mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Sakas were a Mlechcha tribe grouped along with the Yavanas, Tusharas and Barbaras. ...

Northern kingdoms

Kasmira Kingdom Kamboja Kingdom Darada Kingdom Parada Kingdom Parasika Kingdom
Tushara Kingdom Huna Kingdom Hara Huna Kingdom Rishika Kingdom China Kingdom
Parama China Kingdom

Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Kasmira was a kingdom grouped under the northern kingdoms as per the epic. ... This article is about the kingdom of Kamboja in Indian epic literature. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Daradas were a Mongoloid people who lived north to the Kashmir valley. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Paradas were a Chineese tribe close to Himalayas so that they had limited interaction with ancient India . ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Parasikas were an Iranian tribe close to westernHimalaya ranges so that they had limited interaction with ancient India. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Tusharas are a Mlechcha tribe, with their kingdom located in the north west of India. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Hunas. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Hara Hunas were a Chineese tribe close to Himalayas so that they had limited interaction with Indian kingdoms. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Rishikas were a tribe north to Himalayas so that they had limited interaction with Indian kingdoms. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Parama Chinas which got mentioned in Mahabharata were the Chinese Civilization that existed beyond Himalayas. ...

Eastern kingdoms

Magadha Kingdom Kikata Kingdom Anga Kingdom Pragjyotisha Kingdom Sonita Kingdom
Lauhitya Kingdom Pundra Kingdom Suhma Kingdom Vanga Kingdom Odra Kingdom
Utkala Kingdom

Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Magadha was a kingdom ruled by Non-Vedic kings. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Kikata was an ancient kingdom mentioned in the Vedas as ruled by non-Vedic rulers. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Anga was a kingdom ruled by non Vedic rulers. ... Pragjyotisha was an ancient kingdom ruled by King Bhagadatta during the time of Kurukshetra War. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Sonita was the country of Asura king Bana or Vana. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Lauhitya was the easternmost country known to the people of the epic age (Treta Yuga or Dwapara Yuga). ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Pundra was an eastern kingdom located in West Bengal. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Suhma was an eastern kingdom located in regions now occupied by West Bengal and Bangladesh. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Odra was a country located in the northern Orissa. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Utkala kingdom is located in the north western Orissa. ...

Kingdoms south of the Vindhya Range

Vidarbha Kingdom Anupa Kingdom Surparaka Kingdom Nasikya Kingdom
Konkana Kingdom Asmaka Kingdom Danda Kingdom Kalinga Kingdom

Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Vidarbha kingdom was one among the many kingdoms ruled by Yadava kings in the central and western India. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Anupa was a kingdom mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. ... The country of Surparaka was founded by Bhargava Rama (also known as Parasu Rama) near the western sea, close to the mouth of river Narmada. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Context: Kingdoms of Ancient India Konkana was a southern kingdom ruled by Brahmin rulers. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Asmaka was a kingdom among the 16 janapadas mentioned in the Buddhist texts. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Danda was a colonial state of Lanka under the reign of Ravana. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Kalinga forms the southern part of Orissa state. ...

Kingdoms in the extreme south

Telinga Kingdom Andhra Kingdom Kishkindha Kingdom Gomanta Kingdom Karnata Kingdom
Dravida Kingdom Kanchi Kingdom Chola Kingdom Pandya Kingdom Mahisha Kingdom
Tulu Kingdom Mushika Kingdom Satyaputra Kingdom Kerala Kingdom Sinhala Kingdom
Lanka Kingdom

Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Telinga was a kingdom south to Kalinga. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Andhra was a southern kingdom ruled by Brahmin rulers. ... Kishkindha Kingdom (also known as Kishkindhya), was the kingdom ruled by a Vanara King Sugreeva, the younger brother of Vali, during the Ramayana period. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Gomanta was a kingdom mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Karnata was a southern kingdom ruled by Brahmin rulers. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Dravida was a southern kingdom ruled by Brahmin rulers. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Kanchi was a southern kingdom mentioned in the epic Mahabharata This kingdom took part in the Kurukshetra War. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Chola was a powerful southern kingdom. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Pandyas were fierce warriors who took part in the Kurukshetra War. ... Mahisha or Mahishaka was a kingdom in ancient India, ruled by the Asura king Mahisha. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Tulu or Tuluga was a small kingdom during the period of Puranas, now though to be the Tulu (language) speaking areas in the South Western Karnataka. ... Mushikas were found mention in the epic Mahabharata. ... Context : Kingdoms of Ancient India Satyaputra was a small kingdom situated on the eastern valley of Malaya mountains (Anamala, Palani and Nila Giri). ... Keralas or Udra Keralas were mentioned in the epic Mahabharata as a kingdom which took part in the Kurukshetra War on the side of the Pandavas. ... Sinhala was a kingdom in the island Lanka, modern day Srilanka, mentioned in the epic Mahabharata. ... Lanka was the kingdom of the Rakshasa king Ravana. ...

Saraswati Valley kingdoms

Saraswata Kingdom Abhira Kingdom Sudra Kingdom Nishada Kingdom

Saraswata Kingdom was the ancient kingdom situated on the banks of the river Saraswati, during the prehistoric age (Krita Yuga). ... Sudra and Abhira were mentioned as two kingdoms where the river Saraswati existed only as a dried up river bed during the time of Kurukshetra War. ... Sudra and Abhira were mentioned as two kingdoms where river Saraswati exists as a dried up river bed along its course. ... Nishada was the kingdom of Nishada Tribe, a tribe of people whome the Vedic people considered as out-casts. ...

Himalayan kingdoms

The table lands and valleys of the great Himalayan Mountain Ranges, which were almost inaccessible to the people settled in the Ganga, Saraswati and Sindhu river valleys, were inhabited by tribes who had very little interactions with the rest of the world. The Vedic people of the plains considered these tribes to be super-human and in later periods considered them even as natural-spirits. The domains of these exotic tribes are listed below:- Himalayan can refer to: Himalaya, the mountains: Himalayan (cat), the type of cat Himalayan, the breed of rabbit This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... This article is about the river. ... The Hindu Vedas mention a river named SarasvatÄ«. In Sanskrit saras means a pool or water body, and vatÄ« (from vnt-Ä«, the female form of the -vant suffix) means she having lots of pools. Sarasvati was the biggest and most important of the seven holy rivers of the Rig Veda. ... The Indus (सिन्‍धु नदी) (known as Sindhu in ancient times) is the principal river of Pakistan. ...


To know about the mythological aspects of these exotic tribes see Hindu mythology. To know about the historical significance of these tribes see the Exotic tribes of ancient India. Hindu mythology is a term used by modern scholarship for a large body of Indian literature that details the lives and times of legendary personalities, deities and divine incarnations on earth interspersed with often large sections of philosophical and ethical discourse. ... The classic Indian epics such as the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and the Puranas refer to many exotic tribes, describing them as superhuman or subhuman. ...

Kimpurusha Kingdom Pisacha Kingdom Naga Kingdom Kinnara Kingdom Yaksha Kingdom
Gandharva Kingdom Kirata Kingdom Himalaya Kingdom Parvata Kingdom Nepa Kingdom

Kimpurushas were one among the Exotic Tribes of Ancient India. ... Pisachas are a group of mountain dwellers lived in the mountains around the Kasmir Valley. ... Nagas were a group of people spread throughout India during the period of the epic Mahabharata. ... Kinnaras were a group of gods, demons and demi-gods, mentioned along with others like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Rakshasas, Bhutas and Yakshas. ... Yakshas were a group of gods, demons and demi gods, mentioned along with others like like Devas (including Rudras, Maruts, Vasus and Adityas), Asuras (including Daityas, Danavas and Kalakeyas), Pisachas, Gandharvas, Kimpurushas, Vanaras, Suparnas, Kinnaras, Bhutas etc. ... Gandharvas were one among the group of Exotic Tribes Of Ancient India, a class of demi-gods, well versed in music and art. ... Kiratas were a mountain dwelling tribe who inhabited the lower Himalayas. ... Puranas mention about a mountainous country in Himalayas with the name Himalaya. ... The kingdom of Parvatas could be a saparate kingdom or a part of the Himalaya Kingdom. ... Nepa was a mountainous kingdom in Nepal a country located in the mountanous terrain of the Himalayas. ...

Other kingdoms

Jaffna Kingdom

Jaffna Kingdom was a historically important regional power in medieval Sri Lanka. ...

See also

Manuscript illustration of the Battle of Kurukshetra The (Devanagari: ) is one of the two major Sanskrit epics of ancient India, the other being the . ... For the television series by Ramanand Sagar, see Ramayan (TV series). ... The classic Indian epics such as the Mahabharata, the Ramayana and the Puranas refer to many exotic tribes, describing them as superhuman or subhuman. ... This article tries to compile and classify the prominent personalities of ancient India that finds mention in more than one source of Sanskrit/Vedic literature like the two Hindu epics viz the Mahabharata and the Ramayana, the Puranas and the Vedas with their supplement texts. ... The Iron Age in the Indian subcontinent succeeds the Late Harappan (Cemetery H) culture, also known as the last phase of the Indus Valley Tradition. ...

References

  • The Genographic Project, IBM and National Geographic Society http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/2005/11/1114_051114_india.html
  • Oceanographic Studies along the Gujarat coast by Indian Archeological Survey, The Discovery of the sub-merged city, Dwaraka http://www.nio.org/past_events/archaeology/keynote_address.jsp
  • Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), IRS-Satellite Imagery of the ancient cities, Ahichatra, Kapilavasthu, Sravasti, and Kausambi http://geoweb.cslm.hu/vhost/geoinfo/events/sat/cd/pdf/Abstract/Navalgund.pdf

Krishna Dwaipayana Vyasa was the great sage who authored the great Hindu epic Mahabharata. ... Gujarātlanguage|GujarātÄ«]]: , IPA: ,  ) is a state in the Republic of India. ...

External links

  • National Geography, News on Genographic Project: http://news.nationalgeographic.com/news/genographic.html
  • SacradText.Com: Site to get the English translation of the most of the ancient Indian text http://www.sacred-texts.com/hin/index.htm
  • More on Dwaraka and oceanographic studies at http://nio.org/annual_reports/1992-93_150.pdf

 
 

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