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Encyclopedia > Kingdom of Scotland
Rìoghachd na h-Alba
Kingdom of Scotland
Flag

843 — 1652
1660 — 1707


Flag
Flag Royal coat of arms
Motto
Latin: Nemo me impune lacessit
(English: No one provokes me with impunity)
(Scots: Wha daur meddle wi me)
Capital Edinburgh¹
Language(s) Gaelic, Scots
Government Monarchy
King/Queen
 - 843-860 Kenneth I
 - 1587–1625 James VI
 - 1702-1714 Anne
Legislature Parliament of Scotland
History
 - United 843
 - Union of the Crowns March 24, 1603
 - Act of Union May 1, 1707
Currency Pound Scots
¹ By the early modern era established at Edinburgh, and before that Scone & various.
This article is about the historical state called the Kingdom of Scotland (843-1707). For information about the modern country, see the main article: Scotland.

The Kingdom of Scotland (Gaelic: Rìoghachd na h-Alba) was a state located in Western Europe, in the northern third of the island of Great Britain - modern day Scotland. It existed from 843 until the Acts of Union 1707 which united it with the Kingdom of England (927-1707) to form the Kingdom of Great Britain (1707-1800). Its population in 1700 was approximately 1.1 million. Alba is the ancient and modern Gaelic name (IPA: ) for the country of Scotland (also Alba in Irish, and in Old Gaelic Albu). ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... Motto PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English; Irish; Scots Gaelic; Welsh Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1653-1658 Oliver Cromwell  - 1658-1659 Richard Cromwell Legislature Parliament (1st, 2nd, 3rd) History  - Instrument of Government December 16, 1653  - Resignation of... Image File history File links Protectorate-Flag-1658. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Motto: PAX QUÆRITUR BELLO (English: Peace is sought through war) Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital London Language(s) English Government Republic Lord Protector  - 1649-1658 Oliver Cromwell Legislature Rump Parliament Barebones Parliament History  - Declaration of Commonwealth May 19, 1649  - Declaration of Breda April 4, 1660 Area 130,395... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Image File history File links Kingdom_of_scotland_royal_arms. ... The Saltire, the flag of Scotland, a white saltire with an official Pantone 300 coloured field. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland was the official coat of arms of the monarchs of Scotland, and were used as the official coat of arms of the Kingdom of Scotland until the Union of the Crowns in... A motto (from Italian) is a phrase or a short list of words meant formally to describe the general motivation or intention of an entity, social group, or organization. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... Nemo me impune lacessit (English: No one wounds me with impunity, literally meaning (lacessere = to appeal to, to provoke, to attack): No one provokes me with impunity) is the royal Scottish motto, used historically for the Kingdom of Scotland where it appeared on the Royal Arms of Scotland. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Scots may refer to: people from Scotland (i. ... Image File history File links Location_of_the_Kingdom_of_Scotland. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... , Edinburgh (() pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second largest city. ... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Scots refers to the Anglic varieties spoken in parts of Scotland. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The monarch of Scotland was the head of state of the Kingdom of Scotland. ... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858) (Anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) followed Englands only joint monarchy to become Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 after the passing of both William and Mary. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... United can refer to: // In the main, United refers to one of two professional football teams in England: Manchester United and Sheffield United. ... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Acts of Union were twin Acts of Parliament passed in 1707 (taking effect on 26 March) by the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pound Scots was the national unit of currency in the Kingdom of Scotland before the country entered into a political and currency union with England in 1707. ... For the foodstuff see Scone (bread). ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... A state is a political association with effective dominion over a geographic area. ... The borders of Western Europe were largely defined by the Cold War. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ...

Contents

Government

The political structure of Scotland was historically complex. However, during most of the existence of the Kingdom of the Scots, a single Monarch, or High King was recognized. Under the suzerainty of a High King, were chieftains and petty kings and offices filled through selection by an assembly under a system known as tanistry which combined a hereditary element with the consent of those ruled. Usually the candidate was nominated by the current office holder on the approach of death, and his heir-elect was known as the tanist, from the Scottish Gaelic tànaiste. After Macbeth was overthrown by Máel Coluim III in 1057 and during the reign of King David I the influence of Norman settlers in Scotland saw primogeniture adopted as the means of succession in Scotland as in much of Western Europe and saw the development of a 'hybrid kingdom', one part of which was governed by a mixture of a feudal government and Celtic custom. These early assemblies cannot be considered 'parliaments' in the later sense of the word. The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... The Kingdom of Scotland (Alba) was first unified as a state by Kenneth I of Scotland (Kenneth MacAlpin) in 843. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... A high king is a king who holds a position of seniority over a group of other kings. ... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which... ... A deliberative assembly is an organization, comprised of members, that uses a parliamentary procedure for making decisions. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and... // Scottish Gaelic (Gàidhlig) is a member of the Goidelic branch of Celtic languages. ... Macbeth (Gaelic for Son of Life) c. ... Máel Coluim mac Donnchada (anglicised Malcolm III) (1030x1038–13 November 1093) was King of Scots. ... Events King Macbeth I of Scotland is killed in battle against Malcolm Canmore. ... King David I (or Dabíd mac Maíl Choluim; also known as Saint David I or David I the Saint) (1084 – May 24, 1153), was King of Scotland from 1124 until his death, and the youngest son of Malcolm Canmore and of Saint Margaret (sister of Edgar Ætheling). ... Norman conquests in red. ... This does not cite its references or sources. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ... This article is about the European people. ...


Originally, Scots owed their allegiance primarily to their Clan chieftain or the laird, thus the High King consistently had to keep them in favorable dispositions, or else risk armed conflict.

The Parliament of Scotland, was the legislature. The members were collectively referred to as the "Three Estates" for nearly all of parliament's history: composed of the first estate of prelates (bishops and abbots), the second estate of lords (dukes, earls, parliamentary peers and lay tenants-in-chief) and the third estate of burgh commissioners. From the sixteenth century the second estate was reorganised by the selection of shire commissioners. This has been argued to have created a 'fourth estate', while a 'fifth estate' of royal office holders has also been identified. These identifications remain highly controversial among parliamentary historians. Regardless, the term used for the assembled members continued to be 'the Three Estates'. The Parliament was a unicameral assembly. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 711 KB) Parliament House in Edinburgh Image taken by Maccoinnich April 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Kingdom of Scotland User:Maccoinnich Parliament House, Edinburgh Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2288x1712, 711 KB) Parliament House in Edinburgh Image taken by Maccoinnich April 2005 File links The following pages link to this file: Kingdom of Scotland User:Maccoinnich Parliament House, Edinburgh Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital... The Robert Reid designed facade to Parliament Square Parliament House in Edinburgh, Scotland was home to the Scottish Parliament, and is now used by the High Court of Justiciary and the Court of Session. ... , Edinburgh (() pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second largest city. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... In several different regions of medieval Europe, and continuing in some countries[] down to the present day, the estates of the realm were broad divisions of society, usually distinguishing nobility, clergy, and commoners; this last group was, in some regions, further divided into burghers (also known as bourgeoisie) and peasants. ...


The Scottish parliament is first found on record during the early thirteenth century, and the first meeting for which reliable evidence survives (referred to, like the English parliament, as a colloquium in the surviving Latin records) was at Kirkliston in 1235 during the reign of Alexander II. The two most powerful periods of the Scottish Parliament's existence can be defined as 1639-51 and 1689-1707. During the era of Covenanting control, the Scottish Parliament emerged as a mature political and institutional forum and was one of the most powerful assemblies in Europe. Drawing on the Scottish Constitutional Settlement of 1640-41, a programme of constitutional reform was renewed from 1689, when it passed the Claim of Right, onwards. The last session sat on 25th May, 1707. (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... A colloquium is a type of expository lecture. ... Kirkliston is a small village in the unitary authority area of Edinburgh, Scotland. ... Events Anglo-Norman invasion of Connacht St. ... Alexander II (August 24, 1198 – July 6, 1249), king of Scotland, son of William I, the Lion, and of Ermengarde of Beaumont, was born at Haddington, East Lothian, in 1198, and succeeded to the kingdom on the death of his father on 4 December 1214. ... Events January 14 - Connecticuts first constitution, the Fundamental Orders, is adopted. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... James VI of Scotland (James I of England) was opposed by the Covenanters in his attempt to bring the Anglican Church into Scotland The Covenanters formed an important movement in the religion and politics of Scotland in the 17th century. ... Events December 1 - Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king. ... Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... The Claim of Right is an Acts of Parliament passed by the old Scottish Parliament in April 1689. ... (Redirected from 25th May) May 25 is the 145th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (146th in leap years). ...


History

Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone, the ancient capital and coronation site of the Scottish kings. He is being greeted by the ollamh rígh, the royal poet, who is addressing him with the proclamation "Benach De Re Albanne" (= Beannachd Dé Rígh Alban, "God Bless the King of Scotland"); the poet goes on to recite Alexander's genealogy.
Coronation of King Alexander on Moot Hill, Scone, the ancient capital and coronation site of the Scottish kings. He is being greeted by the ollamh rígh, the royal poet, who is addressing him with the proclamation "Benach De Re Albanne" (= Beannachd Dé Rígh Alban, "God Bless the King of Scotland"); the poet goes on to recite Alexander's genealogy.
Main article: History of Scotland

The Kingdom of Scotland was united in 843, by King Cináed I of Scotland. Over the next 850 years it developed its own legal and educational systems- which still exist today- as well as a separate monetary and measures systems. At first the kingdom was confined to the area north of the Rivers Forth and Clyde. Southwest Scotland remained under the control of the Strathclyde Britons. Southeast Scotland was under the control from around 638 of the proto-English kingdom of Bernicia, then of the Kingdom of Northumbria. This part of Scotland was contested from the time of Constantine II and finally fell into Scottish hands in 1018, when Máel Coluim II pushed the border as far south as the River Tweed. This remains the south-eastern border to this day (except around Berwick-upon-Tweed). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (887x779, 222 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander III of Scotland Scotland Coronation Kingdom of Scotland Scone, Perth and Kinross List of monarchs of Scotland... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (887x779, 222 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Alexander III of Scotland Scotland Coronation Kingdom of Scotland Scone, Perth and Kinross List of monarchs of Scotland... Scone (Modern Gaelic: Sgàin; Medieval: Scoine) (pronounced Scoon) is a town in Perth and Kinross, Scotland. ... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ... Stirling Castle has stood for centuries atop a volcanic crag defending the lowest ford of the River Forth. ... Events Treaty of Verdun divides the Carolingian empire between the 3 sons of Louis the Pious. ... Cináed mac Ailpín (after 800–13 February 858), (anglicised Kenneth MacAlpin) was king of the Picts and, according to national myth, first king of Scots. ... Pound Scots was the national unit of currency in the Kingdom of Scotland before the country entered into a political and currency union with England in 1707. ... Several native system of weights and measures were used in Scotland. ... The River Forth meanders over fertile farmlands near Stirling The River Forth, 47 km (29 miles) long, is the major river draining the eastern part of the central belt of Scotland. ... The River Clyde, looking eastwards upstream, as it passes beneath the Kingston Bridge in Central Glasgow. ... Strathclyde (Welsh: Ystrad Clud) was one of the kingdoms of ancient Scotland in the post-Roman period. ... Brython and Brythonic are terms which refer to indigenous, pre-Roman, Celtic speaking inhabitants of most of the island of Great Britain, and their cultures and languages, the Brythonic languages. ... Events Islamic calendar introduced The Muslims capture Antioch, Caesarea Palaestina and Akko Births Deaths October 12 - Pope Honorius I Categories: 638 ... Bernicia (Brythonic, Brynaich or Bryneich) was a kingdom of the Angles in northern England during the 6th and 7th centuries AD. It later merged with the kingdom of Deira to form the kingdom of Northumbria. ... Northumbria is primarily the name of an Anglian or Anglo-Saxon kingdom which was formed in Great Britain at the beginning of the 7th century, and of the earldom which succeeded the kingdom. ... Causantín mac Áeda (anglicised Constantine II) (before 879–952) was king of Alba from 900 to 943. ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... Máel Coluim mac Cináeda (anglicised Malcolm II) (c. ... There are other rivers with this name: see Tweed River The River Tweed at Abbotsford, near Melrose The River Tweed at Coldstream The River Tweed (156 kilometres or 97 miles long) flows primarily through the Borders region of Scotland. ... Map sources for Berwick-upon-Tweed at grid reference NT9952 Berwick-upon-Tweed from across the river Berwick-upon-Tweed, (pronounced Berrick) situated in the county of Northumberland, is the northernmost town in England, situated on the east coast on the mouth of the river Tweed. ...


In 1263 Scotland and Norway fought the Battle of Largs for control over the Western Isles. The battle was indecisive, but the campaign proved once and for all that the Norse were unable to retain effective control over the distant Isles. In 1266 the Norwegian king Magnus VI of Norway signed the Treaty of Perth, which acknowledged Scottish suzerainty over the islands. Despite the treaty the practical independence of the Lord of the Isles continued. Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... The Battle of Largs took place in Largs, North Ayrshire in 1263 between Scotland and the forces of King Magnus III of Man and the Isles as well as the manxmens ally, King Haakon IV of Norway. ... For broader historical context, see 1260s and 13th century. ... Magnus Lagabøte (lit. ... The Treaty of Perth ended military conflict between Norway under Magnus the Law-mender and Scotland under Alexander III over the sovereignty of the Western Isles, the Isle of Mann and Caithness. ... MacDonald, Lord of the Isles The designation Lord of the Isles (Scottish Gaelic: ), now a Scottish title of nobility, emerged from a series of hybrid Viking/Gaelic rulers of the west coast and islands of Scotland in the Middle Ages, who wielded sea-power with fleets of galleys. ...


The Auld Alliance was an important alliance between Scotland and France. It dates from the treaty signed by John Balliol and Philip IV of France, in 1295 It played a varying but sometimes large role in Franco-Scottish (and English affairs), until 1560. In 1512 under a treaty extending the Auld Alliance, all nationals of Scotland and France also became nationals of each other's countries, a status not repealed in France until 1903 and which may never have been repealed in Scotland. The Auld Alliance refers to a series of treaties, offensive and defensive in nature, between Scotland and France aimed specifically against an aggressive and expansionist England. ... John Balliol and his wife. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Events Mongol leader Ghazan Khan is converted to Islam, ending a line of Tantric Buddhist leaders. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Year 1512 (MDXII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. ... 1900 (MCMIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Friday of the 13-day slower Julian calendar. ...

Scotland's kings placed great importance on the strategic stronghold of Stirling, leading to the battles of Stirling Bridge and Bannockburn during the Wars of Scottish Independence, when the historic figures of William Wallace and Robert the Bruce emerged. In 1320 a remonstrance to the Pope from the nobles of Scotland (the Declaration of Arbroath) finally convinced Pope John XXII to overturn the earlier excommunication and nullify the various acts of submission by Scottish kings to English ones so that Scotland's sovereignty could be recognised by the major European dynasties. Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 507 KB)Lufe God abufe al and yi nychtbour as yi self, an example of Scots language at John Knox House, Edinburgh, 2004-11. ... Download high resolution version (1760x1168, 507 KB)Lufe God abufe al and yi nychtbour as yi self, an example of Scots language at John Knox House, Edinburgh, 2004-11. ... Lufe God abufe al and yi nychtbour as yi self: an example older Scots on John Knox House, Edinburgh The John Knox House is a historic house in Edinburgh, Scotland, UK, reputed to have been owned and lived in by Protestant Reformer John Knox during the 16th century. ... , Edinburgh (() pronounced ; Scottish Gaelic: ) is the capital of Scotland and its second largest city. ... Events Tirant Lo Blanc by Joanot Martorell, Martí Joan De Galba is published. ... Broad Street at the heart of Stirlings Old Town area (called Top of the Town by locals) Stirling Castle (Southwest aspect) The main courtyard inside Stirling Castle. ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Andrew Moray William Wallace Surrey Cressingham† Strength 16000 infantry and 800 cavalry 50000 infantry and 3000 cavalry Casualties  ? 6,000 killed The Battle of Stirling Bridge was a battle of the First War of Scottish Independence. ... Combatants Kingdom of Scotland Kingdom of England Commanders Robert Bruce Edward II Strength about 6,500 20,000 Casualties unknown but light about 9000 The Battle of Bannockburn (Blàr Allt a Bhonnaich in Gaelic) (June 24, 1314) was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... The Wars of Scottish Independence were a series of military campaigns fought between Scotland and England in the late 13th and early 14th centuries. ... For other persons named William Wallace, see William Wallace (disambiguation). ... Robert I, King of Scots (Mediaeval Gaelic:Roibert a Briuis; modern Scottish Gaelic: Raibeart Bruis; Norman French: Robert de Brus or Robert de Bruys; 11 July 1274 – 7 June 1329), usually known in modern English as Robert the Bruce, was King of Scotland from 1306 until his death in 1329. ... Events January 20 - Dante - Quaestio de Aqua et Terra January 20 - Duke Wladyslaw Lokietek becomes king of Poland April 6 - The Scots reaffirm their independence by signing the Declaration of Arbroath. ... The Declaration of Arbroath was a declaration of Scottish independence, and set out to confirm Scotlands status as an independent, sovereign state and its use of military action when unjustly attacked. ... Pope John XXII, born Jacques Duèze or dEuse (1249 – December 4, 1334), was the son of a shoemaker in Cahors. ...


In 1468 the last great acquisition of Scottish territory occurred when James III married Margaret of Denmark, receiving the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands in payment of her dowry and in 1493 his son, James IV, successfully ended the quasi-independent rule of the Lord of the Isles, bringing the Western Isles under effective Royal control for the first time. August 26 - Baeda Maryam succeeds his father Zara Yaqob as Emperor of Ethiopia. ... James III of Scotland (1451/ 1452 – June 11, 1488), son of James II and Mary of Gueldres, created Duke of Rothesay at birth, king of Scotland from 1460 to 1488. ... Margaret of Denmark (June 23, 1456 - before July 14, 1486) was the daughter of King Christian I of Denmark (1448-81), Norway (1450-81), and Sweden (1457-64), and his wife Dorothea of Brandenburg. ... The Orkney Islands, usually called simply Orkney, are one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. ... The Shetland Islands, also called Shetland (archaically spelled Zetland) formerly called Hjaltland, comprise one of 32 council areas of Scotland. ... A dowry (also known as trousseau) is a gift of money or valuables given to the family of the bridegroom by the family of the bride at the time of their marriage. ... James IV (March 17, 1473-September 9, 1513) was King of Scots from 1488 to his death. ... MacDonald, Lord of the Isles The designation Lord of the Isles (Scottish Gaelic: ), now a Scottish title of nobility, emerged from a series of hybrid Viking/Gaelic rulers of the west coast and islands of Scotland in the Middle Ages, who wielded sea-power with fleets of galleys. ...


James IV's reign is often considered to be a period of cultural flourishing, and it was around this period that the European Renaissance began to infiltrate Scotland. Scotland advanced markedly in educational terms during the fifteenth century with the founding of the University of St Andrews in 1413, the University of Glasgow in 1450 and the University of Aberdeen in 1494, and with the passing of the Education Act 1496. The Renaissance (French for rebirth, or Rinascimento in Italian), was a cultural movement in Italy (and in Europe in general) that began in the late Middle Ages, and spanned roughly the 14th through the 17th century. ... (14th century - 15th century - 16th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 15th century was that century which lasted from 1401 to 1500. ... St Marys College Bute Medical School St Leonards College[5][6] Affiliations 1994 Group Website http://www. ... // March 21 - Henry V becomes King of England. ... Master of Theology (MTh) Dentistry Nursing Affiliations Russell Group, Universitas 21 Website http://www. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... The University of Aberdeen was founded in 1495, in Aberdeen, Scotland. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Education Act of 1496 was passed by the Scottish Parliament in that year at the behest of James IV. It made schooling compulsory for the first time in Scotland since it forced all nobles and freeholders to educate their eldest sons in Latin, followed by the Arts, and Scots...

John Knox
John Knox

During the 16th century, Scotland underwent a Protestant Reformation. In the earlier part of the century, the teachings of first Martin Luther and then John Calvin began to influence Scotland. The execution of a number of Protestant preachers, most notably the Lutheran influenced Patrick Hamilton in 1527 and later the Calvinist George Wishart in 1546 who were burnt at the stake in St. Andrews by Cardinal Beaton for heresy, did nothing to stem the growth of these ideas. Beaton was assassinated shortly after the execution of George Wishart. In the public domain by age This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... In the public domain by age This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      For other uses, see... Martin Luther (November 10, 1483 – February 18, 1546) was a German monk,[1] priest, professor, theologian, and church reformer. ... John Calvin (July 10, 1509 – May 27, 1564) was a French Protestant theologian during the Protestant Reformation and was a central developer of the system of Christian theology called Calvinism or Reformed theology. ... Patrick Hamilton (1504 - February 29, 1528) was a Scottish churchman and Reformer. ... January 5 - Felix Manz, co-founder of the Swiss Anabaptists, was drowned in the Limmat in Zürich by the Zürich Reformed state church. ... George Wishart George Wishart (c. ... // Events Spanish conquest of Yucatan Peace between England and France Foundation of Trinity College, Cambridge by Henry VIII of England Katharina von Bora flees to Magdeburg Science Architecture Michelangelo Buonarroti is made chief architect of St. ... Cardinal David Beaton David Beaton (c. ...


The eventual Reformation of the Scottish Church, was carried out by Parliament from 1560 (during the minority of Mary Queen of Scots) when most Scots adopted Calvinism. The most influential figure was that of John Knox, who had been a disciple of both John Calvin and George Wishart. Roman Catholicism was not totally eliminated, and remained strong particularly in parts of the highlands. Events February 27 - The Treaty of Berwick, which would expel the French from Scotland, is signed by England and the Congregation of Scotland The first tulip bulb was brought from Turkey to the Netherlands. ... Mary I of Scotland; known as Mary, Queen of Scots Mary I of Scotland (Mary Stuart or Stewart) (December 8, 1542 – February 8, 1587), better known as Mary, Queen of Scots, was the ruler of Scotland from December 14, 1542 – July 24, 1567. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Calvinism is a theological... For other persons named John Knox, see John Knox (disambiguation). ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... The Scottish Highlands are the mountainous regions of Scotland north and west of the Highland Boundary Fault. ...

In 1603 James VI King of Scots, became King James I of England thus Scotland entered into a personal union with England and Ireland. The seventeenth century saw a period of unrest in Scotland, religious Confrontation in Scotland with Charles I, who attempted to impose English-style prayer books on the Scottish church, led to the setting up of the National Covenant, and later to the Bishops' Wars, the Scottish Civil War and Wars of the Three Kingdoms. From 1651-1660 Scotland was occupied by a Cromwellian army under George Monck. Image File history File links JamesIEngland. ... Image File history File links JamesIEngland. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... The designation King of Ireland has been used during three periods of Irish history. ... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem No official anthem - the United Kingdom anthem God Save the Queen is commonly used England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Unified  -  by Athelstan 927 AD  Area  -  Total 130... (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The Covenanters, named after the Solemn League and Covenant, were a party that, originating in the Reformation movement, played an important part in the history of Scotland, and to a lesser extent in that of England, during the 17th century. ... The Bishops’ Wars—Bellum Episcopale—refers to two armed encounters between Charles I and the Scottish Covenanters in 1639 and 1640, which helped to set the stage for the English Civil War and the subsequent Wars of the Three Kingdoms // The Scottish Reformation in 1560 was intended to settle the... Map of Scotland The Scottish Civil War The Scottish Civil War of 1644-47 was part of wider conflict known as the Wars of the Three Kingdoms, which included the Bishops Wars, the English Civil War and Irish Confederate Wars. ... The Wars of the Three Kingdoms were an intertwined series of conflicts that took place in Scotland, Ireland, and England between 1639 and 1651 at a time when these countries had come under the Personal Rule of the same monarch. ... // Events January 1 - Charles II crowned King of Scotland in Scone. ... // Events January 1 - Colonel George Monck with his regiment crosses from Scotland to England at the village of Coldstream and begins advance towards London in support of English Restoration. ... Oliver Cromwell (25 April 1599 – 3 September 1658) was an English military and political leader best known for his involvement in making England into a republican Commonwealth and for his later role as Lord Protector of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... George Monck, 1st Duke of Albemarle by Sir Peter Lely, painted 1665–1666. ...


In 1689 the Dutch Prince William of Orange became William II, King of Scots. Whilst the "Glorious Revolution" was primarily an English event, it had a great impact on Scottish history. The Scottish Parliament offered the Crown of Scotland which William accepted under the conditions of the Claim of Right (an important document in the evolution of the rule of law and the rights of subjects similar to the English Bill of Rights). Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... William III King of England, Scotland and Ireland William III and II (14 November 1650–8 March 1702; also known as William Henry and William of Orange) was Prince of Orange from his birth, King of England and Ireland from 13 February 1689, and King of Scotland from 11... The Revolution of 1688, commonly known as the Glorious Revolution, was the overthrow of James II of England in 1688 by a union of Parliamentarians and the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... The Crowns modern usage: The Crown of Scotland at the opening of the Scottish Parliament Building at Holyrood in 2004. ... The Claim of Right is an Acts of Parliament passed by the old Scottish Parliament in April 1689. ... A bill of rights is a list or summary of which is considered important and essential by a group of people. ...


Many Scots supported William, but many (particularly in the Highlands) remained sympathetic to James VII. His cause, which became known as Jacobitism from the Latin 'Jacobus', meaning 'James', spawned a series of uprisings. An initial Jacobite rising under John Graham, 1st Viscount Dundee (Bonnie Dundee) defeated William's forces at the Battle of Killiecrankie in 1689, but Dundee was slain in the fighting, and the Jacobite army was soon defeated at the Battle of Dunkeld. The complete defeat of James VII in Ireland by William at the Battle of the Boyne in 1690, followed by the Massacre of Glencoe in 1692, succeeded in finally persuading those remaining Highland Clan Chieftains reluctant to pledge allegiance to William to reconsider their positions. Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Latin is an ancient Indo-European language originally spoken in Latium, the region immediately surrounding Rome. ... The Viscount of Dundee John Graham, 1st Viscount of Dundee (c. ... Bonnie Dundee, better known as John Graham, Viscount Dundee, who died fighting for the Jacobite cause at the Battle of Killiecrankie is immortalised in this song by Sir Walter Scott. ... Combatants Jacobite Royalists (Highlanders & Irish) Orange Royalists (Covenanters, Lowlanders) Commanders Viscount Dundee† Hugh Mackay Strength 2400 foot 3500 foot Casualties 800, inc. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... The Battle of Dunkeld was fought between Highland clans supporting James II and a government regiment of covenanters supporting William of Orange, in the streets around Dunkeld Cathedral, Dunkeld, Scotland, on August 21, 1689, and formed part of the first Jacobite rising. ... Combatants Jacobite Forces -6000 French troops, 19,000 Irish Catholic troops Williamite Forces -English, Scottish, Dutch, Danish, Huguenot and Ulster Protestant troops Commanders James VII and II William III of England Strength 25,000 36,000 Casualties ~1,500 ~750 William III (William of Orange) King of England, Scotland and... Events Giovanni Domenico Cassini observes differential rotation within Jupiters atmosphere. ... Glencoe The Massacre of Glencoe occurred in Glen Coe, Scotland, early in the morning of 13 February 1692, during the era of the Glorious Revolution and Jacobitism. ... Events February 13 - Massacre of Glencoe March 1 - The Salem witch trials begin in Salem Village, Massachusetts Bay Colony with the charging of three women with witchcraft. ... Clan map of Scotland Scottish clans (from Old Gaelic clann, children), give a sense of identity and shared descent to people in Scotland and to their relations throughout the world, with a formal structure of Clan Chiefs officially registered with the court of the Lord Lyon, King of Arms which...


The late 17th century was economically difficult for Scotland. The bad harvests of the seven ill years or lean years in the 1690s led to severe famine and depopulation. English protectionism kept Scots traders out of the new colonies, and English foreign policy disrupted trade with France. As a result many Scots emigrated to Ulster (the Ulster-Scots). The Parliament of Scotland of 1695 enacted a number of remedies for the desperate economic situation, including setting up the Bank of Scotland. The Act for the Settling of Schools established a parish-based system of public education throughout Scotland. The Company of Scotland received a charter to raise capital through public subscription to trade with Africa and the Indies. By the early eighteenth century, Scotland was a kingdom in crisis. Her economy had been severely weakened by a series of major harvest failures beginning. The lean years of the 1690s were compounded by the catastrophic failure of the Darien Scheme, deliberately sabotaged by the combined efforts of the English East India Company, the international financial markets at Amsterdam and King William, it is estimated that almost 25% of Scotland's total liquid capital was lost in the Darien venture. (16th century - 17th century - 18th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 17th century was that century which lasted from 1601-1700. ... Events and Trends Thomas Neale designed Seven Dials The Salem Witchcraft Trials are held in Massachusetts Bay Colony (1692). ... Statistics Area: 24,481 km² Population (2006 estimate) 1,993,918 Ulster (Irish: Cúige Uladh, IPA: ) forms one of the four traditional provinces of Ireland. ... Ulster-Scots is a term mainly used in Ireland and Britain (Scotch-Irish or Scots-Irishis commonly used in North America) primarily to refer to Presbyterian Scots, or their descendents, who migrated from the Scottish Lowlands to Ulster (the northern province of Ireland), largely across the 17th century. ... Jan. ... The Governor and Company of the Bank of Scotland (Scottish Gaelic: ) is a Scottish commercial and clearing bank, operating throughout the world. ... The Company of Scotland Trading to Africa and the Indies was an overseas trading company created by an act of the Scots Parliament in 1695. ... The Darien scheme was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to establish a colony on the Isthmus of Panama. ... The British East India Company, sometimes referred to as John Company, was the first joint-stock company (the Dutch East India Company was the first to issue public stock). ... Nickname: Motto: Heldhaftig, Vastberaden, Barmhartig (Valiant, Determined, Compassionate) Location of Amsterdam Coordinates: , Country Netherlands Province North Holland Government  - Mayor Job Cohen (PvdA)  - Aldermen Lodewijk Asscher Hennah Buyne Carolien Gehrels Tjeerd Herrema Maarten van Poelgeest Marijke Vos  - Secretary Erik Gerritsen Area [1][2]  - City 219 km²  (84. ...


Union with England

Scotland's monarch, James VI, King of Scots, succeeded to the throne of the Kingdom of England in 1603, becoming King James I of England, after the death of Queen Elizabeth I of England. This was merely a personal union: the two nations shared a head of state but retained their own separate parliaments and administration. James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Year 1603 (MDCIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... James Stuart (19 June 1566 – 27 March 1625) was King of Scots as James VI, and King of England and King of Ireland as James I. He ruled in Scotland as James VI from 24 July 1567, when he was only one year old. ... Elizabeth I redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Dynastic union be merged into this article or section. ... Queen Elizabeth II, is the Head of State of 16 countries including: the United Kingdom, Canada, Australia, Jamaica, New Zealand and the Bahamas, as well as crown colonies and overseas territories of the United Kingdom. ...


While there had been three earlier attempts (in 1606, 1667 and 1689) to politically unite the two countries by Acts of Parliament, these were the first Acts which had the will of both political establishments behind them, albeit for rather different reasons. In the English case, the purpose was to establish the Royal succession along Protestant lines in the same manner as provided for by the English Act of Settlement 1701 rather than that of the Scottish Act of Security. In the Scottish case, the purpose was partly to use English subsidies to recover from the financial problems caused by the failure of the Darién scheme and partly to remove English trade sanctions put in place through the Alien Act to force the Scots Parliament into compliance with the Act of Settlement. Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... // Events January 20 - Poland cedes Kyiv, Smolensk, and eastern Ukraine to Russia in the Treaty of Andrusovo that put a final end to the Deluge, and Poland lost its status as a Central European power. ... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The Electress Sophia The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Scottish Act of Security was a response by the Scottish Parliament to the English Act of Settlement. ... The Darién scheme was an unsuccessful attempt by the Kingdom of Scotland to establish a colony on the Isthmus of Panama. ... For the US Alien Act of 1798, see Alien and Sedition Acts. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ...

Map of the Kingdom of Scotland in the 16th century; note, until the later Middle Ages, the traditional capital of Scotland was at Scone.
Map of the Kingdom of Scotland in the 16th century; note, until the later Middle Ages, the traditional capital of Scotland was at Scone.

A major feature of English politics from 1702 to 1707 was the necessity of securing the Hanoverian Succession. The death of King William in 1702 resulted in the succession of Queen Anne to the crowns of England and Scotland. Anne's last surviving child had died in 1700 and the English Act of Settlement had passed the English Succession over to the Protestant House of Hanover. Since it was unthinkable that Scotland and England should again have separate monarchs, the securing of the Hanoverian Succession in Scotland became the primary objective in English strategic thinking towards Scotland. By 1703 the Anglo-Scottish dynastic union, the Union of the Crowns, was in crisis. The Scottish Parliament was pursuing both an independent dynastic and foreign policy and the Scottish Act of Security allowed for the Scottish Parliament to choose a different monarch to succeed to the Scottish crown from that of England, if it so wished. Many in Scotland saw this as a desirable position given that the English Parliament had executed King Charles I during the English Civil War without any reference to the Scottish Parliament, despite Charles also being King of Scots. This meant that the Act allowed for the Scottish Parliament to initiate an independent foreign policy during an era of major European warfare like the War of the Spanish Succession and the Great Northern War. From the English political perspective, this opened up the possibilities of the restoration of a Jacobite on the Scottish throne or a Scottish trading and/or military alliance with another power in Europe like France or the Dutch Republic. Such an alignment could result in attacks from Scotland, Ireland and the continent and compromise English interests abroad. Hence the Scottish `problem' had to be neutralised and the Hanoverian Succession secured. Image File history File links Kingdom_of_Scotland_Map. ... Image File history File links Kingdom_of_Scotland_Map. ... (15th century - 16th century - 17th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 16th century was that century which lasted from 1501 to 1600. ... Scone is a large village, a mile north of Perth, Scotland. ... Events March 8 - William III died; Princess Anne Stuart becomes Queen Anne of England, Scotland and Ireland. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) followed Englands only joint monarchy to become Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland on 8 March 1702 after the passing of both William and Mary. ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Protestantism is a general grouping of denominations within Christianity. ... The House of Hanover (the Hanoverians) is a German royal dynasty which has ruled the Duchy of Braunschweig-Lüneburg, the Kingdom of Hanover and the Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... Events February 2 - Earthquake in Aquila, Italy February 4 - In Japan, the 47 samurai commit seppuku (ritual suicide) February 14 - Earthquake in Norcia, Italy April 21 - Company of Quenching of Fire (ie. ... The Union of the Crowns refers to the accession of James VI, King of Scots, to the thrones of England and Ireland, in March 1603. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... The English parliament in front of the King, c. ... Charles I (19 November 1600 – 30 January 1649) was King of England, King of Scotland and King of Ireland from 27 March 1625 until his execution in 1649. ... The English Civil War consisted of a series of armed conflicts and political machinations that took place between Parliamentarians (known as Roundheads) and Royalists (known as Cavaliers) between 1642 and 1651. ... The parliament of Scotland, officially the Estates of Parliament, was the legislature of the independent Kingdom of Scotland. ... This is a list of British monarchs, that is, the monarchs on the thrones of some of the various kingdoms that have existed on, or incorporated, the island of Great Britain, namely: England (united with Wales from 1536) up to 1707; Scotland up to 1707; The Kingdom of Great Britain... Combatants Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain,[1] Dutch Republic, Portugal, Others France, Spain, Bavaria, Others Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Galway, Count Overkirk, Marquês das Minas Duc de Villars, Duc de Vendôme, Duc de Boufflers, Duc de Villeroi, Duke... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... Charles Edward Stuart, Bonnie Prince Charlie, wearing the Jacobite blue bonnet Jacobitism was (and, to a very limited extent, remains) the political movement dedicated to the restoration of the Stuart kings to the thrones of England and Scotland. ... Map of Dutch Republic by Joannes Janssonius United Netherlands redirects here. ...


The Kingdom of Scotland ceased to exist on 1 May 1707, following passage of the Acts of Union, which merged Scotland with England thereby creating the Kingdom of Great Britain. The Acts incorporated provisions for Scotland to send representative peers from the Peerage of Scotland to sit in the House of Lords. It guaranteed that the Church of Scotland would remain the established church in Scotland, that the Court of Session would "remain in all time coming within Scotland" and that Scots law would "remain in the same force as before". Other provisions included the restatement of the Act of Settlement 1701 and the ban on Roman Catholics from taking the throne. It also created a customs union and monetary union. The Act provided that any "laws and statutes" that were "contrary to or inconsistent with the terms" of the Act would "cease and become void." is the 121st day of the year (122nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... The Acts of Union were a pair of Acts of Parliament passed in 1706 and 1707 (taking effect on 1 May 1707) by, respectively, the Parliament of England and the Parliament of Scotland. ... For an explanation of terms such as Scotland, Wales, England, (Great) Britain and United Kingdom, see British Isles (terminology). ... In the United Kingdom, representative peers were individuals elected by the members of the Peerage of Scotland and the Peerage of Ireland to represent them in the British House of Lords. ... The Peerage of Scotland is the division of the British Peerage for those peers created in the Kingdom of Scotland before 1707. ... The House of Lords is the upper house of the Parliament of the United Kingdom and is also commonly referred to as the Lords. The Sovereign, the House of Commons (which is the lower house of Parliament and referred to as the Commons), and the Lords together comprise the Parliament. ... The Church of Scotland (CofS; Scottish Gaelic: ), known informally by its pre-Union Scots name, The Kirk, is the national church of Scotland. ... The Court of Session is the supreme civil court in Scotland. ... Scots law is a unique legal system with an ancient basis in Roman law. ... The Electress Sophia The Act of Settlement (12 & 13 Wm 3 c. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... A customs union is a free trade area with a Common External Tariff. ... In economics, a monetary union is a situation where several countries have agreed to share a single currency (also known as a unitary or common currency) among them, for example, the East Caribbean dollar. ...


Flag

The national flag of Scotland (the Saltire) forms part of the Union Flag, which has been used in a variety of forms since 1606. (The darker shade of blue adopted initially for maritime jacks and ensigns eventually becoming the standard shade for Union Flags both on land and at sea). The Saltire, the flag of Scotland, a white saltire with an official Pantone 300 coloured field. ... The arms of St Albans: Azure, a saltire Or (a gold saltire on a blue field) For The Saltire (proper noun) see Flag of Scotland. ... Flag Ratio: 1:2 The Union Flag (also known as the Union Jack; see discussion below) is the national flag of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... A maritime flag is a flag designated for use on boats and other watercraft. ... A maritime flag is a flag designated for use on boats and other watercraft. ...

The Saltire, the flag of Scotland since 832AD: A white saltire with the recommended "Pantone 300" blue field.

The Saltire, the flag of Scotland since 832AD: A white saltire with the recommended "Pantone 300" blue field.
The 'Scotch' Union Flag, which may have seen limited use in Scotland from 1606 to 1707

The 'Scotch' Union Flag, which may have seen limited use in Scotland from 1606 to 1707
The 'English' Union Flag 1606 (King's Colours), used from 1707 in Scotland following the Act of Union with England

The 'English' Union Flag 1606 (King's Colours), used from 1707 in Scotland following the Act of Union with England
Union Flag used since 1801, incorporating the Cross of Saint Patrick into the Union Flag following the Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland

Union Flag used since 1801, incorporating the Cross of Saint Patrick into the Union Flag following the Act of Union between Great Britain and Ireland


An inverse representation of the Saltire, combined with the shield from the Royal Arms of the Kingdom of Scotland, forms the modern flag of the Canadian Province of Nova Scotia, the first colonial venture of the Kingdom of Scotland into the Americas. Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ... Motto (Latin) No one provokes me with impunity Cha togar mfhearg gun dioladh (Scottish Gaelic) Wha daur meddle wi me?(Scots)1 Anthem (Multiple unofficial anthems) Scotlands location in Europe Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official languages English, Gaelic and Scots1 Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Monarch Queen Elizabeth II... Image File history File links Union_Jack_1606_Scotland. ... Image File history File links Union_Jack_1606_Scotland. ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... Image File history File links Union_flag_1606_(Kings_Colors). ... Events January 27 - The trial of Guy Fawkes and other conspirators begins ending in their execution on January 31 May 17 - Supporters of Vasili Shusky invade the Kremlin and kill Premier Dmitri December 26 - Shakespeares King Lear performed in court Storm buries a village of St Ismails near... Events January 1 - John V is crowned King of Portugal March 26 - The Acts of Union becomes law, making the separate Kingdoms of England and Scotland into one country, the Kingdom of Great Britain. ... Motto Dieu et mon droit(French) God and my right Territory of the Kingdom of England Capital Winchester; London from 11th century Language(s) Old English (de facto, until 1066) Anglo-Norman language (de jure, 1066 - 15th century) English (de facto, gradually replaced French from late 13th century) Government Monarchy... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... The Union Jack, flag of the newly formed United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland. ... For information about the holiday, see: Saint Patricks Day Saint Patrick (Latin: [2], Irish: Naomh Pádraig) was a Christian missionary and is the patron saint of Ireland along with Brigid of Kildare and Columba. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland was the official coat of arms of the monarchs of Scotland, and were used as the official coat of arms of the Kingdom of Scotland until the Union of the Crowns in... Regions Political culture Foreign relations Other countriesAtlas  Politics Portal      Canada is a federation which consists of ten provinces that, with three territories, make up the worlds second largest country in total area. ... Motto: Munit Haec et Altera Vincit(Latin) One defends and the other conquers Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English Government - Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis - Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament - House seats 11 - Senate seats 10 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1], Central America and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...

Flag of Scotland Image File history File links Flag_of_Scotland. ...

Flag of Nova Scotia

The Royal Standard of Scotland, also known as the Lion Rampant is a flag used historically by the Kings of Scots as a banner of the Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland. Unofficially, the flag is used as a second national flag for Scotland, particularly at sporting occasions. Technically this usage is illegal, although no one has ever been prosecuted for flying the Standard unofficially. Image File history File links Royal_Arms_of_Scotland. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Nova_Scotia. ... The Royal Standard of Scotland The Royal Standard of Scotland, also known as the Royal Standard of the King of Scots or more commonly The Lion Rampant is the flag used historically by the King of Scots. ... Heraldry is the science and art of designing, displaying, describing and recording coats of arms. ... The British monarch or Sovereign is the monarch and head of state of the United Kingdom and its overseas territories, and is the source of all executive, judicial and (as the Queen-in-Parliament) legislative power. ... The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland, as used before 1603 The Royal Coat of Arms of Scotland was the official coat of arms of the monarchs of Scotland, and were used as the official coat of arms of the Kingdom of Scotland until the Union of the Crowns in...

The Royal Standard of Scotland Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ...

References

See also

Kingdom of Scotland
c843-1707
Succeeded by:
Kingdom of Great Britain
1707-1801
Succeeded by:
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland
1801-1921
Succeeded by:
United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland
since 1921

  Results from FactBites:
 
Encyclopedia: Kingdom of Scotland (796 words)
Scotland (Scottish Gaelic : Alba) is a country or nation and former independent kingdom of northwest Europe, and one of the four constituent parts of the United Kingdom.
Also sometimes associated with the United Kingdom, though not constitutionally part of the United Kingdom itself, are the Crown dependencies (the Bailiwicks of Jersey and Guernsey, and the Isle of Man) as self-governing possessions of the Crown, and a number of overseas territories under the sovereignty of the United Kingdom.
Scotland's geography is varied, with lowlands in the south and east and highlands in the north and west, including Ben Nevis, the UK's highest mountain (1343 m).
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