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Encyclopedia > Kingdom of Sardinia
Regno di Sardegna
Kingdom of Sardinia

 

 

 

1324 – 1861
Flag
Flag Coat of arms
Kingdom of Sardinia, in 1839: Mainland Piedmont with Savoy, Nice, and Sardinia in the inset.
Capital officially Cagliari, later Turin as political and economical capital
Language(s) Italian, French
Spoken languages: Piedmontese in Piedmont, Sardinian in Sardinia, Occitan in Nice and southwestern Piedmontese Alps, Francoprovençal in Savoy and Aosta Valley)
Religion Roman Catholic Church, Waldensians in some piedmontese alpine valley, nombrous jude community (Turin, Nice, Alessandria, Vercelli, Ivrea, Casale Monferrato)
Government Constitutional monarchy
King
 - 12971327 James II of Aragon
 - 184961 Victor Emmanuel II
Legislature Parliament
 - Upper house Senate
 - Lower house Chamber of Deputies
History
 - Aragon control June 19, 1324
 - Savoy control 1718
 - Napoleonic invasion 1796
 - Congress of Vienna June 9, 1815
 - Constitution March 4, 1848
 - Italian unification March 17, 1861

The Kingdom of Sardinia was a state centred on the island of Sardinia for more than five centuries. It was often combined with extensive territories elsewhere, such as Corsica or Savoy, but Sardinia was always its namesake. Prior to the firm establishment of a Sardinian monarchy, the island was divided between four giudicati ruled by iudices (judges who sometimes styled themselves reges (kings). For the earlier history of Savoy, see County of Savoy. ... Image File history File links Savoie_flag. ... Cagliari, the chief town. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sardinia. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Piemonte. ... The Grand Duchy of Tuscany was a state in central Italy which came into existence in 1569, replacing the Duchy of Florence, which had been created out of the old Republic of Florence in 1532, and which annexed the Republic of Siena in 1557. ... 1848 Grand Duchy of Tuscany flag. ... Events Publication of Defensor pacis by Marsilius of Padua Mansa Kankan Musa I, ruler of the Mali Empire arrives in Cairo on his hajj or pilgrimage to Mecca. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Italy_(1861-1946)_crowned. ... Image File history File links Sardegna1730(TZ). ... Image File history File links Map of the Kingdom of Sardinia, B. Tanner, Philadelphia, 1839 Printed map, 1839 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Cagliari, the chief town. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Cagliari City Hall Cagliari (Greek: ; Latin: Carales and Caralis[1]; Catalan: Càller; Sardinian: Casteddu) is the capital of the island of Sardinia, a region of Italy. ... “Torino” redirects here. ... Piedmont is a region of northwestern Italy. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Occitan, or langue doc is a Romance language characterized by its richness, variability, and by the intelligibility of its dialects. ... Franco-Provençal (Francoprovençal), Arpitan, or Romand (Vernacular: ; Italian: ; French: ) is a Romance language with several distinctive dialects that form a linguistic sub-group separate from Langue dOïl and Langue dOc. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Roman Catholic Church or Catholic... The Waldensians, Waldenses or Vaudois are a Christian denomination believing in poverty and austerity, promoting true poverty, public preaching and the literal interpretation of the scriptures. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... The House of Savoy was a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region between Piedmont, Italy, France and French-speaking Switzerland. ... Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... Events January 25 - Edward III becomes King of England. ... James II of Aragon James II, King of Aragon (10 August 1267 – 2 November 1327), in Spanish Jaime II, in Aragonese Chaime II, in Catalan Jaume II, also James II of Barcelona, called The Just (Aragonese: Lo Chusto, Catalan: El Just) was the second son of Peter III of Aragon... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... The so-called Statuto Albertino (Albertine Statute) is the constitution that King Charles Albert of Savoy conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia (including also most parts of north-western Italy, such as Piedmont) on March 4, 1848. ... Palazzo Madama house of the Senate of the Republic. ... Back side of Palazzo Montecitorio designed by architect Ernesto Basile. ... Coat of arms of the King of Aragon, 15th century. ... is the 170th day of the year (171st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... // The Funj warrior aristocracy deposes the reigning mek and places one of their own ranks on the throne of Sennar. ... The French Revolutionary Wars continued from 1795, with the French in an increasingly strong position as members of the First Coalition made separate peaces. ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from late September, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... April 5-12: Mount Tambora explodes, changing climate. ... is the 63rd day of the year (64th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Cagliari, the chief town. ... “Corsican” redirects here. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... Giudicati were Sardinian medieval autochtonous regions which existed from about 900 AD. Originally they were Byzantine districts that became independent during the Arab war against Byzantium. ...


The first kingdom was created by Frederick Barbarossa in 1164. It was part of the Holy Roman Empire, though imperial suzerainty over Sardinia was disputed by the Papacy. In 1297, Pope Boniface VIII created a new kingdom, long after the old one, which had never been very real, had ceased to be claimed, for the Crown of Aragon. Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... Events Count Henry I of Champagne marries Marie de Champagne. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire around 1630, superimposed over modern European state borders Capital None Language(s) Latin, German, many others Religion Roman Catholicism Government Monarchy Emperor  - 962–967 Otto I  - 973–983 Otto II  - 996–1002 Otto III  - 1014– 1024 Henry II  - 1027–1039 Conrad II  - 1046... Suzerainty refers to a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy but controls its foreign affairs. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... Pope Boniface VIII (c. ... Coat of arms of the King of Aragon, 15th century. ...


In 1720 the kingdom was acquired by the House of Savoy and from this point (with the exception of the Napoleonic ‘parenthesis’) the capital was located on the mainland at Turin. The state at this period is sometimes referred to as Piedmont-Sardinia. Its geographical bounds included Savoy, Piedmont, the County of Nice and, later, Liguria. // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... “Torino” redirects here. ... Flag of Savoy This article is about the historical region of Savoy. ... For other uses, see Piedmont (disambiguation). ... Foncet Garden, Nice County of Nice flag County of Nice coat of arms The County of Nice or Niçard Country (Niçard Occitan: Comtat de Niça / País Niçard, French: Comté de Nice / Pays Niçois, Italian: Contea di Nizza / Paese Nizzardo) is a historical region of... Liguria is a coastal region of north-western Italy, the third smallest of the Italian regions. ...


In 1860 Nice and Savoy were ceded to France as a price paid for French support in the campaign to unify Italy. In 1861, it became a founding state of the new Kingdom of Italy. It ceased to exist after that date. 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Italian unification, also known as Risorgimento (resurrection), was a historical process by which the Kingdom of Sardinia (ruled by the Savoy dynasty with Turin as its capital) gradually conquered the Italian peninsula, including the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies, the Duchy of Modena, the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, the Duchy... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ...

Contents

First Kings of Sardinia

Coat of arms of Sardinia.
Coat of arms of Sardinia.

The title "King" first appears as an informal praise of Constantine I of Logudoro, though his successor Gonario II employed it in official documents. The first crowned "King of Sardinia" or rex Sardiniae was the judge Barisone II of Arborea. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The History of Sardinia covers several millennia of civilization of this Mediterranean isle. ... Constantine I[1] (circa 1064 – 1128) was the giudice of Logudoro. ... The Giudicati of Sardinia. ... The four Giudicati. ...


Frederick Barbarossa, who invested him as such in 1164, was forced to reverse this decision and regrant Sardinia to the Archdiocese of Pisa the next year. Barisone's successors, Hugh I and Peter I, continued to claim the title, but it never had any meaning. Briefly after succeeding to the Giudicato of Gallura, Enzo, son of the Emperor Frederick II, was installed as king, but was captured and never succeeded in making the kingship hereditary. Frederick in a 13th century Chronicle Frederick I (German: Friedrich I. von Hohenstaufen)(1122 – June 10, 1190), also known as Friedrich Barbarossa (Frederick Redbeard) was elected king of Germany on March 4, 1152 and crowned Holy Roman Emperor on June 18, 1155. ... The Duomo at Sunset The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Pisa is an ecclesiastical territory or diocese of the Roman Catholic Church in Italy. ... The Giudicati of Sardinia. ... The Giudicati of Sardinia. ... The giudicati of Sardinia. ... Enzio (Enzo) of Sardinia (ca. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) Frederick II (December 26, 1194 - (December 13, 1250), Holy Roman Emperor of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212, unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215, and Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 until his death...


Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica

In 1324 the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica was part of the Crown of Aragon. Aragon made war on Arborea, but did not reduce the last of the autochthonous giudicati until 1410.
In 1324 the Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica was part of the Crown of Aragon. Aragon made war on Arborea, but did not reduce the last of the autochthonous giudicati until 1410.
See also: Medieval Corsica

The Kingdom came into being on 4 April 1297, when Pope Boniface VIII, intervening between the Houses of Anjou and Aragon, established on paper a regnum Sardiniae et Corsicae that would be a fief of the Papacy. Then the Pope offered his newly-invented fief to the Valencian James II the Just, king of the Crown of Aragon (a confederation made up of the kingdoms of Aragon and Valencia, and the Counties of Barcelona, Pallars Sobirà and Urgell), promising him papal support should he wish to conquer Pisan Sardinia in exchange for Sicily. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Giudicati of Sardinia. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... is the 94th day of the year (95th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events 8 January - Monaco gains independence. ... Pope Boniface VIII (c. ... Angevin (IPA: ) is the name applied to the residents of Anjou, a former province of the Kingdom of France, as well as to the residents of Angers. ... The House of Aragón was a medieval dynasty which ruled over various territories in the Western Mediterranean. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... James II of Aragon James II, King of Aragon (10 August 1267 – 2 November 1327), in Spanish Jaime II, in Aragonese Chaime II, in Catalan Jaume II, also James II of Barcelona, called The Just (Aragonese: Lo Chusto, Catalan: El Just) was the second son of Peter III of Aragon... Coat of arms of the King of Aragon, 15th century. ... History of Spain Series Prehistoric Spain Roman Spain Medieval Spain Age of Reconquest Age of Expansion Age of Enlightenment Reaction and Revolution First Spanish Republic The Restoration Second Spanish Republic Spanish Civil War The Dictatorship Modern Spain Topics Economic History Military History Social History The Aragonese Empire was the regime... Location Coordinates : Time Zone : CET (GMT +1) - summer: CEST (GMT +2) General information Native name Barcelona (Catalan) Spanish name Barcelona Nickname Ciutat Comtal (City of Counts) Postal code 08001–08080 Area code 34 (Spain) + 93 (Barcelona) Website http://www. ...


In 1323 James II formed an alliance with Hugh II of Arborea and, following a military campaign which lasted a year or so, occupied the Pisan territories of Cagliari and Gallura along with the city of Sassari, claiming the territory as the "Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica". In 1353 Aragon made war on Arborea, then fought with its leader Marianus IV of Arborea, but did not reduce the last of the autochthonous giudicati until 1410. Hugh II (died 1336) was the illegitimate son of Marianus III of Arborea and Paulesa de Serra. ... Cagliari City Hall Cagliari (Greek: ; Latin: Carales and Caralis[1]; Catalan: Càller; Sardinian: Casteddu) is the capital of the island of Sardinia, a region of Italy. ... Gallura (locally Gaddura) is a geographical and cultural region in northern Sardinia, Italy. ... Sassari (in Italian and Sassarese, a Corsican dialect; either Sassari or Tathari in southern Sardinian), is a town and a province in Sardinia, Italy. ... “Corsican” redirects here. ... The Giudicati of Sardinia. ... Marianus IV (1329[1] – 1376), called the Great, was the Judge of Arborea from 1347 to his death. ... Indigenous peoples are: Peoples living in an area prior to colonization by a state Peoples living in an area within a nation-state, prior to the formation of a nation-state, but who do not identify with the dominant nation. ...


The Kingdom of Sardinia and Corsica retained its separate character as part of the Crown of Aragon and was not merely incorporated into the Kingdom of Aragon. At the time of his struggles with Arborea, Peter IV of Aragon granted an autonomous legislature to the Kingdom, which had one of Europe's most advanced legal traditions. The Kingdom was governed in the king's name by a viceroy. Peter IV of Aragon (1319-1387), king of Aragon (1336-1387), the Ceremonious or el del punyalet (the one of the little dagger). ...


When in 1409, Martí the younger, king of Sicily and heir to Aragon, defeated the last Sardinian giudicato but then died in Cagliari of malaria, without issue, Sardinia passed with the Crown of Aragon to a united Spain. Corsica, which had never been conquered, was dropped from the formal title.


Spanish government

The loss of the autochthonous' independence, the firm Aragonese (later Spanish) rule, with the introduction of a sterile feudalism, as well as the discovery of the Americas, provoked an unstoppable decline of Kingdom of Sardinia. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ...


A short period of resurgence occurred under the local noble Leonardo de Alagon, marquess of Oristano, who managed to defeat the viceroyal army in the 1470s but was later crushed at the Battle of Macomer (1478), ending any further hope of independence for the island. Oristano is a city and a province in Sardinia, Italy. ... Events February 18 - George, Duke of Clarence, convicted of treason against his older brother Edward IV of England, is privately executed in the Tower of London. ...


The unceasing attacks from North African pirates and a series of plagues (from 1582, 1652 and 1655) further worsened the situation. The Berbers (also called Imazighen, free men, singular Amazigh) are a predominantly Muslim ethnic group indigenous to the Maghreb, speaking the Berber languages of the Afroasiatic family. ... Gregorian Calendar switch: Year 1582 involved conversion to the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events April 6 - Dutch sailor Jan van Riebeeck establishes a resupply camp for the Dutch East India Company at the Cape of Good Hope, and founded Cape Town. ... Events March 25 - Saturns largest moon, Titan, is discovered by Christian Huygens. ...


In 1637 a French fleet sacked Oristano. Events February 3 - Tulipmania collapses in Netherlands by government order February 15 - Ferdinand III becomes Holy Roman Emperor December 17 - Shimabara Rebellion erupts in Japan Pierre de Fermat makes a marginal claim to have proof of what would become known as Fermats last theorem. ...


War of the Spanish succession and Treaty of Utrecht

After the war of the Spanish succession and under the Peace of Utrecht, Philip was recognized as King Philip V of Spain. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 752 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1576 × 1257 pixel, file size: 388 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beschreibung: Landkarte Europa 1713 nach dem Frieden von Utrecht Quelle: http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 752 × 600 pixels Full resolution (1576 × 1257 pixel, file size: 388 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Beschreibung: Landkarte Europa 1713 nach dem Frieden von Utrecht Quelle: http://www. ... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... The Treaty of Rastatt, in March 7, 1714, was essentially part of the Treaty of Utrecht. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... A map depicting the major changes in Western Europes borders as a result of the Treaties of Utrecht and Rastatt. ... Combatants Habsburg Empire, England (1701-1706) Great Britain (1707-1714),[1] Dutch Republic, Kingdom of Portugal, Crown of Aragon, Others[2] Kingdom of France, Kingdom of Spain, Electorate of Bavaria, Hungarian Rebels Others[3] Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Marquis de Ruvigny, Count... King Philip V of Spain (December 19, 1683 – July 9, 1746) or Philippe of Anjou was king of Spain from 1700 to 1746, the first of the Bourbon dynasty in Spain. ...


He retained the Spanish overseas empire, but ceded the Spanish Netherlands, Naples, Milan, and Kingdom of Sardinia to Austria; Sicily and parts of the Milanese to House of Savoy; and Gibraltar and Minorca to Great Britain. This article or section should be merged with Seventeen Provinces The Spanish Netherlands was a portion of the Low Countries controlled by Spain from the sixteenth to the eighteenth century. ... For other uses see, Naples (disambiguation) and Napoli (disambiguation) Location of the city of Naples (red dot) within Italy. ... For other uses, see Milan (disambiguation). ... Sicily (Sicilia in Italian and Sicilian) is an autonomous region of Italy and the largest island in the Mediterranean Sea, with an area of 25,708 km² (9,926 sq. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Capital Maó Official languages Catalan & Spanish Area  -  Total 694. ...


In 1720 the Kingdom of Sicily was exchanged for that of Sardinia, and the House of Savoy was enabled to call itself royal, as Kings of Sardinia. // Events January 6 - The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings February 11 - Sweden and Prussia sign the (2nd Treaty of Stockholm) declaring peace. ... Flag The Kingdom of Sicily as it existed at the death of its founder, Roger II of Sicily, in 1154. ...


Officially, the nation's name became "Kingdom of Sardinia, Cyprus, and Jerusalem, Duchy of Savoy and Montferrat, Principality of Piedmont." During most of the 18th- and 19th-century under the House of Savoy, the political and economical capital was Turin. The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... “Torino” redirects here. ...


After Congress of Vienna

The Kingdom of Sardinia

When Napoleon occupied the kingdom in 1796 along with the rest of Northern Italy, the king, Charles Emmanuel IV fled to Sardinia. In 1814 the kingdom was restored and enlarged with the addition of the former Republic of Genoa, now a duchy, and it served as a buffer state against France. This was confirmed by the Congress of Vienna. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Year 1796 (MDCCXCVI) was a leap year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Charles Emmanuel IV. Charles Emmanuel IV (May 24, 1751 – October 6, 1819) was King of Sardinia from 1796 to 1802. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Republic of Genoa, in full the Most Serene Republic of Genoa (known as the Ligurian Republic from 1798 to 1805) was an independent state in Liguria on the northwestern Italian coast from ca. ... A buffer state is a country lying between two rival or potentially hostile greater powers, which by its sheer existence is thought to prevent conflict between them. ... The Congress of Vienna was a conference between ambassadors from the major powers in Europe that was chaired by the Austrian statesman Klemens Wenzel von Metternich and held in Vienna, Austria, from late September, 1814, to June 9, 1815. ...


In the reaction after Napoleon, the country was ruled by conservative monarchs: Victor Emmanuel I and Charles Albert, who fought at the head of a contingent of his own troops at the Battle of Trocadero, which set the reactionary Ferdinand VII on the Spanish throne. Victor Emmanuel I. Victor Emmanuel I (July 24, 1759 – January 10, 1824) was the Duke of Savoy, Piedmont, and Aosta, and King of Sardinia from 1802 to 1821. ... Charles Albert of Sardinia Charles Albert (October 2, 1798 – July 28, 1849) was the Duke of Savoy, Piedmont, Aosta and King of Sardinia from 1831 to 1849. ... The Battle of Trocadero August 31, 1823, established the victory of the Ultra-Catholic reaction to the right in the post-Napoleonic period. ... Ferdinand VII (October 14, 1784 - September 29, 1833) was King of Spain from 1813 to 1833. ...


The Kingdom of Sardinia industrialized from 1830 onward. A constitution, the Statuto Albertino was enacted in the year of revolutions, 1848, under liberal pressure, and under the same pressure war was declared on Austria. After initial success the war took a turn for the worse and the Kingdom of Sardinia lost. Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The so-called Statuto Albertino (Albertine Statute) is the constitution that King Charles Albert of Savoy conceded to the Kingdom of Sardinia (including also most parts of north-western Italy, such as Piedmont) on March 4, 1848. ... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as...


Risorgimento

Main article: Italian unification

Like all of Italy, the Kingdom of Sardinia was troubled with political instability, under alternating governments. After a very short and disastrous second war with Austria, Charles Albert abdicated on March 23, 1849, in favour of his son Victor Emmanuel II. Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... King Victor Emmanuel II of Italy. ...


In 1850 a liberal ministry under Count Camillo Benso di Cavour was installed, and the Kingdom of Sardinia became the engine driving the Italian Unification. The Kingdom of Sardinia (Piedmont) took part in the Crimean War, allied with Ottoman Empire, Britain and France, and fighting against Russia. For the game, see: 1850 (board game) 1850 (MDCCCL) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday [1] of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Count Camillo Benso di Cavour (Turin, August 10, 1810 - Santena, near Turin, June 6, 1861) was a statesman who was a leading figure in the movement toward Italian unification and the first Prime Minister of the new Kingdom of Italy. ... Italian unification (called in Italian the Risorgimento, or Resurgence) was the political and social process that unified disparate states of the Italian peninsula into the single nation of Italy. ... Combatants Allies: Second French Empire British Empire Ottoman Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Russian Empire Bulgarian volunteers Casualties 90,000 French 35,000 Turkish 17,500 British 2,194 Sardinian killed, wounded and died of disease ~134,000 killed, wounded and died of disease The Crimean War (1853–1856) was fought... For other uses, see Ottoman (disambiguation). ...


In 1859 France sided with the Kingdom of Sardinia in a war against Austria, the Austro-Sardinian War. Napoleon III didn't keep his promises to Cavour to fight until all of the Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia had been conquered. Following the bloody battles of Magenta and Solferino, both Sardinian/French victories, Napoleon thought the war too costly to continue and made a separate peace behind Cavour's back in which only Lombardy would be ceded. Due to the Austrian government's refusal to cede any lands to the Kingdom of Sardinia, they agreed to cede Lombardy to Napoleon who in turn then ceded the territory to the Kingdom of Sardinia to avoid 'embarrassing' the defeated Austrians. Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Major places of the Austro-Sardinian war 1859 Austro-Sardinian War was fought by Napoleon III of France and Kingdom of Sardinia against Austria in 1859. ... Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (April 20, 1808 - January 9, 1873) was the son of King Louis Bonaparte and Queen Hortense de Beauharnais; both monarchs of the French puppet state, the Kingdom of Holland. ... The Kingdom of Lombardy-Venetia (Italian: ; German: ) (1815 - 1866) was established after the defeat of Napoleon, according to the decisions of the Congress of Vienna (9 June 1815). ... Combatants French Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon III Ferencz Gyulaj Strength 59,100 91 guns 125,000 [2] Casualties 657 dead 3,858 wounded 1,368 dead 4,538 wounded 4,500 captured Map of the Second Italian War of Independence The Battle of Magenta was fought... Combatants French Empire Kingdom of Sardinia Austrian Empire Commanders Napoleon III Victor Emmanuel II Franz Joseph Strength 118,600 about 100,000 Casualties 2,492 dead 12,512 wounded 2,922 captured or missing 3,000 dead 10,807 wounded 8,638 captured or missing The Battle of Solferino, also... For the village of the same name in Ontario, Canada, see Lombardy, Ontario. ...


Garibaldi and the Mille

On March 5, 1860 Parma, Tuscany, Modena and Romagna voted in referendums to join the Kingdom of Sardinia. This alarmed Napoleon who feared a strong Savoyard state on his southeastern border and he insisted that if the Kingdom of Sardinia were to keep the new acquisitions they would have to cede Savoy and Nice to France. This was done after dubious referendums showed around 90% majorities in both areas in favour of joining France. This article is about the day. ... 1860 is the leap year starting on Sunday. ... Parma is a city in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, famous for its architecture and the fine countryside around it. ... Tuscany (Italian: ) is one of the 20 Regions of Italy. ... Modena (Mòdna in Modenese dialect) is a city and a province on the south side of the Po valley, in Emilia-Romagna, Italy. ... Emilia-Romagna is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


In 1860 Giuseppe Garibaldi started his campaign to conquer southern Italy in the name of the Kingdom of Sardinia. He quickly toppled the Kingdom of the Two Sicilies and marched to Gaeta. Cavour was actually the most satisfied with the unification while Garibaldi wanted to conquer Rome. Garibaldi was too revolutionary for the king and his prime minister. Garibaldi in 1866. ... The Two Sicilies The Kingdom of the Two Sicilies (Italian: il Regno delle Due Sicilie) was the new name that the Bourbon King Ferdinand IV of Naples bestowed upon his domain (including Southern Italy and the island of Sicily) after the end of the Napoleonic Era and the full restoration... Gaeta (ancient Latin name Caieta) is a city in Province of Latina, in Lazio, Italy. ...


Towards Kingdom of Italy

On March 17, 1861 the Kingdom of Italy was proclaimed thus ending the Kingdom of Sardinia as a separate kingdom. Piedmont would become the most dominant and wealthiest region in Italy and the capital of Piedmont, Turin, would remain the Italian capital until 1865 when the capital was moved to Florence. The House of Savoy would rule Italy until 1946 when a republic was proclaimed. is the 76th day of the year (77th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link with display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the Julian calendar) // January 1 - Benito Juárez captures Mexico City January 2 - Friedrich Wilhelm IV of Prussia dies and is succeeded by... Anthem Marcia Reale dOrdinanza (Royal March of Ordinance)¹ The Kingdom of Italy at the height of its power in 1940. ... 1865 (MDCCCLXV) is a common year starting on Sunday. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... The House of Savoy or in Italian, La Casa di Savoia, or simply Casa Savoia, (or Savoie, French) is a dynasty of nobles who traditionally had their domain in Savoy, a region that includes present-day Piemonte, other parts of Northern Italy, and a smaller region in France. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... “Italian Republic” redirects here. ...


Sources

External links

  • Map of the Kingdom of Sardinia

  Results from FactBites:
 
Sardinia - WOI Encyclopedia Italia (1954 words)
Sardinia (IPA: sɑː(ɹ)ˈdɪnɪə) (Sardegna in Italian, Sardigna or Sardinna in the Sardinian language, is the second largest island in the Mediterranean Sea (Sicily is the largest), between Italy, Spain and Tunisia, south of Corsica.
From 456 - 534, Sardinia was a part of the short-lived kingdom of the Vandals in North Africa, until reconquered by the Byzantine emperor Justinian I.
In 1323, the Kingdom of Aragon began a campaign to conquer Sardinia; the giudicato of Arborea successfully resisted this and for a time came to control nearly the entire island, but its last ruler Eleanor of Arborea, was eventually defeated by the Aragonese in the decisive Battle of Sanluri, June 30 1409.
Italian Unification - MSN Encarta (1438 words)
On the French border was the Kingdom of Sardinia, also called Piedmont-Sardinia, which had slowly expanded since the Middle Ages and was the most advanced state in Italy.
The Kingdom of Sardinia consisted of the region called Piedmont in northwestern Italy and the island of Sardinia.
The Kingdom of Sardinia was sympathetic toward Garibaldi but maintained a policy of neutrality until it appeared that Garibaldi was about to send his army into Rome, which was protected by French troops.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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