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Encyclopedia > Kingdom of Sarawak

States and Territories of Malaysia
Sarawak
سراوق

Bumi Kenyalang
Flag of Sarawak Coat of arms of Sarawak
Flag Coat of arms
State motto: Bersatu, Berusaha, Berbakti
State anthem: Ibu Pertiwiku
Capital Kuching
Ruling party Barisan Nasional
 - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Abang Muhammad Salahuddin
 - Ketua Menteri Abdul Taib Mahmud
History  
 - Brunei Sultanate 19th century 
 - Brooke dynasty 1841 
 - Japanese occupation 1941-1945 
 - British control 1946 
 - Accession into Malaysia 1963 
Area
 - Total 124,450 km²
Population
 - 2005 estimate 2,376,800
 - Density 19.1/km²
National calling code 082a
083b
084c
085d
086e
National postal code 93xxx to 98xxx
License plate prefix QA & QK1
QB2
QC3
QL4
QM5
QP6
QR7
QS8
QT9
QSG10
Website: http://www.sarawak.gov.my
a For Kuching
b For Sri Aman
c For Sarikei & Sibu
d For Lawas, Limbang & Miri
e For Bintulu
1 Kuching
2 Sri Aman
3 Kota Samarahan
4 Limbang
5 Miri
6 Kapit
7 Sarikei
8 Sibu
9 Bintulu
10 Sarawak State Government vehicle

Sarawak (Jawi: سراوق) is one of the two Malaysian states on the island of Borneo. Known as Bumi kenyalang (‘Land of the Hornbills’), it is situated on the north-west of the island. It is the largest state in Malaysia; the second largest, Sabah, lies to the northeast. Image File history File links Flag_of_Malaysia. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Sarawak. ... Flag of Sarawak The flag of Sarawak is the state flag of Sarawak, a state of Malaysia. ... This page lists state and national mottos for the worlds independent states and if applicable, their component states. ... An anthem is a choral composition to an English religious text sung in church services. ... Image File history File links Malaysia Sarawak map. ... Location Location in Malaysia Government Country State Malaysia Sarawak Establishment Uncertain, granted city status in 1988 Mayors North: Abdul Hamid Mohd Yusoff South: Chong Ted Tsiung Geographical characteristics Area  - City 4,559. ... General elections were held in Malaysia on March 21, 2004. ... Barisan Nasional (National Front or BN) is a political coalition in Malaysia. ... Yang di-Pertua Negeri, literally the head of state in Malay, is the title of the largely symbolic state Governors of the Malaysian states of Penang, Malacca, Sabah and Sarawak, who are appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong or King of Malaysia. ... Tuan Yang Terutama Tun Datuk Patinggi Abang Haji Muhammad Salahuddin is the fifth and current Yang di-Pertua Negeri Sarawak. ... A Chief Minister is the elected Head of Government of a state of India, a territory of Australia or a British overseas territory that has attained self-government. ... Pehin Sri Dr. Haji Abdul Taib bin Mahmud (born 21 May 1936 in Miri, Sarawak, Malaysia) is the current Chief Minister of Sarawak. ... The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... You may be looking for: Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong Japanese Occupation of Korea Japanese Occupation of the Philippines Japanese Occupation of Taiwan Japanese Occupation of Thailand Manchuria This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... Malaysian telephone codes Country Code: 60 () In 1999 Malaysia introduced eight-digit subscriber numbers in Kuala Lumpur, Putrajaya and Selangor. ... The postal codes used in Malaysia is a 5 digit code. ... Malaysian vehicle number plates are the licence plates displayed on all motorized road vehicles in Malaysia, as required by law. ... Location Location in Malaysia Government Country State Malaysia Sarawak Establishment Uncertain, granted city status in 1988 Mayors North: Abdul Hamid Mohd Yusoff South: Chong Ted Tsiung Geographical characteristics Area  - City 4,559. ... Sri Aman is one of the districts (daerah) in Sarawak. ... Sarikei is a town, and the capital of the Sarikei District (985 square kilometers) in Sarikei Division, Sarawak, east Malaysia. ... Sibu is a town, and the capital of Sibu District (2,229. ... District Councillor Abang Kiprawi bin Abang Rosli Area  - Total (District) 3,811. ... Limbang is a town and the capital of Limbang District in the Limbang Division of northern Sarawak, eastern Malaysia, on the island Borneo. ... Location in Malaysia Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Sarawak Establishment Local Authority (Granted city status in 2005) Mayor Dato Wee Han Wen Area    - City 4,707. ... Bintulu is a coastal town, and the capital of the Bintulu District (7,220. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Yawi. ... Borneo (left) and Sulawesi. ... Genera Aceros Anorrhinus Anthracoceros Buceros Bucorvus Ceratogymna (=Bycanistes) Ocyceros Penelopides Tockus Hornbills (Family Bucerotidae) are a group of birds whose bill is shaped like a cows horn, but without a twist, sometimes with a casque on the upper mandible. ... State motto: Sabah Maju Jaya State anthem: Sabah Tanah Airku Capital Kota Kinabalu Ruling party Barisan Nasional  - Yang di-Pertua Negeri Ahmadshah Abdullah  - Ketua Menteri Musa Aman History    - Brunei Sultanate 19th century   - British North Borneo 1882   - Japanese occupation 1941-1945   - British control 1946   - Accession into Malaysia 1963  Area  - Total 76...


The administrative capital is Kuching (pop. 600,300 in 2005) which literally means ‘cat’ (kucing). Major cities and towns also include Sibu (pop. 228,000), Miri (pop. 282,000) and Bintulu (pop. 152,761). As of last census (May 5, 2005), the state population was 2,376,800. For more details about the population see Demographics of Malaysia, though it is interesting to note that Sarawak is, like Sabah to the north, a multicultural state, with no ethnic majority. Location Location in Malaysia Government Country State Malaysia Sarawak Establishment Uncertain, granted city status in 1988 Mayors North: Abdul Hamid Mohd Yusoff South: Chong Ted Tsiung Geographical characteristics Area  - City 4,559. ... Map of populations by country Taiwanese people waiting for the Taipei Rapid Transit System in Taipei, Republic of China(Taiwan). ... Sibu is a town, and the capital of Sibu District (2,229. ... Location in Malaysia Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Sarawak Establishment Local Authority (Granted city status in 2005) Mayor Dato Wee Han Wen Area    - City 4,707. ... Bintulu is a coastal town, and the capital of the Bintulu District (7,220. ... May 5 is the 125th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (126th in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Demographics of Malaysia is diverse. ...

Contents

History

Main article: White Rajahs

Sarawak had been a loosely governed territory under the control of the Brunei Sultanate in the early 19th century. James Brooke (see figure below) became governor of Sarawak on September 24, 1841 and was appointed Rajah by the Sultan of Brunei on August 18, 1842; originally this territory was just the western end of later Sarawak, around Kuching. He ruled Sarawak until his death in 1868. His nephew Charles Anthoni Johnson Brooke became Rajah after his death; he was succeeded on his death in 1917 by his son, Charles Vyner Brooke, with a provision that Charles should rule in consultation with his brother Bertram Brooke[1]. The territory was greatly expanded under these three, mostly at the expense of areas nominally under the control of Brunei. In practice Brunei had only controlled strategic river and coastal forts in much of the lost territory, and so most of the gain was at the expense of Muslim warlords and of the de facto independence of local tribes. The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... Sir James Brooke Sir James Brooke (the most legendary person ever!!)(29 April 1803 – 11 June 1868) was born in Coombe Grove, near Bath, educated at Norwich School, England and became the first White Rajah of Sarawak. ... September 24 is the 267th day of the year (268th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1841 is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar). ... A Raja (sometimes spelled Rajah) is a king, or princely ruler. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... Location Location in Malaysia Government Country State Malaysia Sarawak Establishment Uncertain, granted city status in 1988 Mayors North: Abdul Hamid Mohd Yusoff South: Chong Ted Tsiung Geographical characteristics Area  - City 4,559. ... Charles Anthoni Johnson (June 3, 1829 – May 17, 1917), later Charles Brooke, ruled Sarawak as the second White Rajah from 3 August 1868 until his death. ... Sir Charles Vyner deWindt Brooke (September 30, 1874–May 9, 1963) was the third and final white Rajah of Sarawak. ...

Sir James Brooke
Sir James Brooke

The Brooke dynasty ruled Sarawak for a hundred years and became famous as the "White Rajahs", accorded a status within the British Empire similar to that of the Indian Princes. In contrast to many other areas of the empire, however, the Brooke family was intent on a policy of paternalism to protect the indigenous population against exploitation. They governed with the aid of the Muslim Brunei Malay and Melanau people and employed the Ibans and other 'Dayak' peoples as their army. They also encouraged the immigration of a Chinese merchant class but forbade the Chinese to settle outside of towns in order to minimise the impact on the Dayak way of life. Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The White Rajahs refer to a dynasty that founded and ruled the Kingdom of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. ... Image of traditional cultural paternalism: Father Junipero Serra in a modern portrayal at Mission San Juan Capistrano, California Paternalism refers usually to an attitude or a policy stemming from the hierarchic pattern of a family based on patriarchy, that is, there is a figurehead (the father, pater in Latin) that... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... The Dayak (or Dyak) are indigenous natives of Borneo. ...


In the early part of 1941 preparations were afoot to introduce a new constitution, designed to limit the power of the Rajah and give the people of Sarawak a greater say in government.


While the intention was clearly admirable, the draft constitution contained defects and improprieties, not least by reason of a secret agreement drawn up between Charles Vyner Brooke and his top government officials, by which he was to be financially compensated for this gesture out of treasury funds.

The Sarawak State Legislative Assembly building
The Sarawak State Legislative Assembly building

Japan invaded Sarawak and occupied the island of Borneo in 1941, occupying Miri on December 16 and Kuching on December 24, and held it for the duration of World War II until the area was secured by Australian forces in 1945. The Rajah formally ceded sovereignty to the British Crown on July 1, 1946, under pressure from his wife among others. In addition the British Government offered a healthy pension to sweeten the negotiations. His nephew Anthony continued to claim sovereignty as Rajah of Sarawak. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2496x1664, 1651 KB)Photo taken by Kenny Sia of kennysia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2496x1664, 1651 KB)Photo taken by Kenny Sia of kennysia. ... Combatants Empire of Japan Netherlands remnant forces British Empire Commanders Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi Lieutenant-General A.E. Percival (UK) Lieutenant-General Hein ter Poorten (KNIL) The Battle of Borneo was a successful campaign in the Japanese war for control of Southeast Asia, culminating in the subjugation of the island... Location in Malaysia Coordinates: Country Malaysia State Sarawak Establishment Local Authority (Granted city status in 2005) Mayor Dato Wee Han Wen Area    - City 4,707. ... December 16 is the 350th day of the year (351st in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... Location Location in Malaysia Government Country State Malaysia Sarawak Establishment Uncertain, granted city status in 1988 Mayors North: Abdul Hamid Mohd Yusoff South: Chong Ted Tsiung Geographical characteristics Area  - City 4,559. ... December 24 is the 358th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (359th in leap years). ... July 1 is the 182nd day of the year (183rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 183 days remaining. ...


After the end of the Second World War, Anthony Brooke then opposed the cession of the Rajah's territory to the British Crown, and was associated with anti-cessionist groups in Sarawak. Anthony was banished from the country. He was allowed to return only seventeen years later, when Sarawak became part of the Federation of Malaysia.


Sarawak became a British colony (it was formerly an independent state under British protection) in July 1946, but Brooke's campaign continued. The Malays in particular resisted the cession to Britain, dramatically assassinating the first British governor. Sarawak was one of the main sites of the Indonesian Confrontation between 1962 and 1966. It became an autonomous state of the federation of Malaysia on September 16, 1963, despite initial opposition from parts of the population. The Indonesia-Malaysia confrontation was an intermittent war over the future of the island of Borneo, between British-backed Malaysia and Indonesia in 1962-1966. ... Malaysia is a federation of 13 states. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (the link is to a full 1963 calendar). ...


Geography

Having land area of 124,450 km² spreading between latitude 0° 50′ and 5°N and longitude 109° 36′ and 115° 40′ E, it makes up 37.5% of the land of Malaysia. Sarawak also contains large (though shrinking steadily) tracts of tropical rain forest home to a plethora of plant and animal species. To help compare orders of magnitude of different geographical regions, we list here surface areas between 100,000 km² and 1,000,000 km². See also areas of other orders of magnitude. ... Latitude, usually denoted symbolically by the Greek letter φ, gives the location of a place on Earth north or south of the Equator. ... Longitude, sometimes denoted by the Greek letter λ (lambda),[1][2] describes the location of a place on Earth east or west of a north-south line called the Prime Meridian. ...


Sarawak is currently divided into eleven Administrative Divisions: Kuching Division, Samarahan Division, Sri Aman Division, Betong Division, Sarikei Division, Sibu Division, Mukah Division, Kapit Division, Bintulu Division, Miri Division and Limbang Division. Kuching Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Samarahan Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Sri Aman Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Betong Division, formed on March 26, 2002, is the 11th and newest of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Sarikei Division is one of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Sibu Division is the one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Mukah Division is the tenth of the eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Kapit Division, formed on April 2, 1973, is the seventh of eleven administrative divisions in Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Bintulu Division is the one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Miri Division is the one of the eleven administrative divisions of Sarawak, east Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ... Limbang Division is an administrative division of Sarawak, Malaysia, on the island of Borneo. ...


Demographics

A Modern Iban Longhouse, built using new materials and preserving essential features of communal living
A Modern Iban Longhouse, built using new materials and preserving essential features of communal living

Sarawak is home to 28 ethnic groups, each with their own distinct language, culture and lifestyle. Image File history File linksMetadata Modern_Iban_Longhouse. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Modern_Iban_Longhouse. ...


The Ibans form the major ethnic group on this land with about 31.2% of the total population per the year 2004 census. The Malaysian Chinese, who generally live in the cities, are the second largest group at 28.6%, followed by the Bidayuh, Melanau and other native tribes of Sarawak. The Malays, from Brunei constitute a large portion (21.4%) of the population as well, mainly concentrated along the coast. A Modern Iban Longhouse in Kapit Division The Ibans were formerly known during the colonial period by the British as Sea Dayaks and are a branch of the Dayak peoples of Borneo. ... A Malaysian Chinese is an overseas Chinese who is a citizen or long-term resident of Malaysia. ... The Bidayuh (formerly known as Land D(a)yak) is one of the main indigenous ethnic groups now settled in areas of southwest Sarawak and the adjacent areas of west Kalimantan. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Three-quarter scale bronze sculptures 19th C. Malay people, Indonesia, Borneo. ...


Sarawakians practise a variety of religions, including Islam, Christianity, Chinese folk religion (a fusion of Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism and ancestor worship) and animism. Many converts to Christianity among the Dayak peoples also continue to practice traditional ceremonies, particularly with dual marriage rites and during the important harvest and ancestral festivals such as Gawai Dayak and Gawai Antu. Islam (Arabic:  ) is a monotheistic religion based upon the Quran, its principal scripture, whose followers, known as Muslims (مسلم), believe God (Arabic: الله ) sent through revelations to Muhammad. ... This article is becoming very long. ... Chinese folk religion comprises the religion practiced in much of China for thousands of years which included ancestor worship and drew heavily upon concepts and beings within Chinese mythology. ... Animism is the belief in personalized, supernatural beings (or souls) that often inhabit ordinary animals and objects, governing their existence. ... Gawai Day or Gawai Dayak is a festive celebrated in Sarawak on 1st June every year is both a religious and social occasion. ...


Economy

Sarawak is blessed with an abundance of natural resources. LNG and petroleum have provided the mainstay of the state's economy for decades. Sarawak is also one of the world's largest exporters of tropical hardwood timber. However, the state government has imposed strict log-production quotas over recent years to ensure sustainable forestry management. Sarawak still, however, produces approximately 9 to 10 million cubic metres of logs annually. Liquefied natural gas or LNG is natural gas that has been cooled until it becomes liquid, and it is stored in tanks. ... Pumpjack pumping an oil well near Sarnia, Ontario Ignacy Łukasiewicz - inventor of the refining of kerosene from crude oil. ... Timber in storage for later processing at a sawmill Timber is a term used to describe wood, either standing or that has been processed for use—from the time trees are felled, to its end product as a material suitable for industrial use—as structural material for construction or wood...


With such vast land expanse, Sarawak has large tracts of land suitable for commercial agricultural development. Approximately 32% or about 40,000 km² of the state's total land area has been identified as suitable agricultural land. Nevertheless, less than 9% of this is planted with productive permanent crops, while the balance is still under shifting cultivation for hill padi (rice) which is estimated at more than 16,000 km². The main commercial crops are oil palm, which has been increasing steadily over the years, sago, and pepper. Species Oryza glaberrima Oryza sativa Rice is two species of grass (Oryza sativa and Oryza glaberrima) native to tropical and subtropical southern & southeastern Asia and in Africa, which together provide more than one fifth of the calories consumed by humans in their global diets[1]. (The term wild rice can... Species Elaeis guineensis Elaeis oleifera The oil palms (Elaeis) coomprise two species of the Arecaceae, or palm family. ... Sago is a starchy, fecula, granular substance used in cooking. ... Binomial name Piper nigrum L. Black pepper (Piper nigrum) is a flowering vine in the family Piperaceae, cultivated for its fruit, which is usually dried and used as a spice and seasoning. ...


Since the 1980s, Sarawak has started to diversify and transform its economy into a more industrialized one. This endeavour has been seeing continuing success, with manufacturing and high-tech industries now playing a significant role in shaping the economic expansion of the state.


The global economic environment is expected to remain robust and dynamic right up to the next decade, with both the industrial and developing countries anticipated to maintain sustainable output growth. Global trade is predicted to expand by about 8%. This continuing favourable external outlook should keep the high growth momentum of the state's economy at a steady and stable level.


As the largest state in the Federation of Malaysia, Sarawak aims to be a fully developed state along with the rest of the country by 2020. Sarawak has identified four sectors as key sources of growth:

The availability of vast competitively-priced land and rich reserves of natural resources has made Sarawak an attractive choice for manufacturing operations among investors. Manufacturing, a branch of industry which accounts for about one-quarter of the worlds economic activity, is the application of tools and a processing medium to the transformation of raw materials into finished goods for sale. ... Cranes are essential in large construction projects, such as this skyscraper In project architecture and civil engineering, construction is the building or assembly of any infrastructure on a site. ...


See also

Sarawak dollar of 1935 The dollar was the currency of Sarawak from 1858 to 1953. ... Sarawak Stadium during a Malaysian Premier League match Sarawak Stadium is a multi-use stadium in Kuching, Malaysia. ... Persatuan Bola Sepak Sarawak is a Malaysian football team based in Kuching, Sarawak. ...

Further reading

  • L. W. W. Gudgeon (1913). British North Borneo. London, Adam and Charles Black.
  • S. Runciman (1960). The White Rajahs: a history of Sarawak from 1841 to 1946. Cambridge University Press
  • Chin, Ung Ho(1997) Chinese Politics in Sarawak: a Study of the Sarawak United People's Party (SUPP) (Kuala Lumpur, New York: Oxford University Press, 1997) (ISBN 983-56-0039-2)
  • Barley, Nigel (2002). "White Rajah." London, Brown Little/Abacus.

External links

  • Sarawak government website
  • WWF Heart of Borneo conservation initiative
  • Sarawak travel guide from Wikitravel
Flag of Sarawak
Sarawak
Coat of Arms of Sarawak
Divisions: Betong Division | Bintulu Division | Kapit Division | Kuching Division | Limbang Division | Miri Division | Mukah Division | Samarahan Division | Sarikei Division | Sibu Division | Sri Aman Division
Cities: Kuching | Miri
Towns: Asajaya | Ba'kelalan | Bau | Belaga | Betong | Bintangor | Bintulu | Dalat | Daro | Debak | Julau | Kanowit | Kapit | Lawas | Limbang | Lingga | Lubok Antu | Lundu | Mato | Meradong | Mukah | Marudi | Pakan | Pusa | Samarahan | Saratok | Sarikei | Serian | Selangau | Sibu | Simunjan | Song | Spaoh | Sri Aman | Tanjung Kidurong | Tatau | Tebedu
States and Federal Territories of Malaysia Flag of Malaysia
States: Johor | Kedah | Kelantan | Malacca | Negeri Sembilan | Pahang | Perak | Perlis | Penang | Sabah | Sarawak | Selangor | Terengganu
Federal Territories: Kuala Lumpur | Labuan | Putrajaya

 
 

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