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Encyclopedia > Kingdom of Prussia
Königreich Preußen
Kingdom of Prussia
Coat of arms of Brandenburg
1701 – 1918
Flag
Flag Coat of arms
Anthem
Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial)
Location of Prussia
The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871
Capital Berlin
52°31′N, 13°24′E
Government Monarchy
King
 - 17011713 Frederick I (first)
 - 18881918 William II (last)
Prime minister
 - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg (first)
 - 1918 Maximilian of Baden (last)
Legislature Landtag
 - Upper house Herrenhaus
 - Lower house Abgeordnetenhaus
History
 - Established January 18, 1701
 - French domination 14 October, 1806
 - Restoration 9 June, 1815
 - Constitutional Monarchy 5 December1848
 - German Empire 18 January, 1871
 - Abolition November 9, 1918
Area
 - 1910 [2] 348,779.87 km2
134,665 sq mi
Population
 - 1816 [1] est. 10,349,031 
 - 1871 [1] est. 24,689,000 
 - 1910 [2] est. 34,472,509 
     Density 98.8 /km²  (256 /sq mi)
Currency Reichsthaler (until 1750)
Prussian thaler (1750-1857)
Vereinsthaler (1857-1871)
Goldmark (1871-1914) Papiermark (from 1914)

The Kingdom of Prussia (German: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom from 1701 to 1918 and, from 1871, was the leading state of the German Empire, comprising almost two-thirds of the area of the empire. It took its name from the territory of Prussia, although its power base was Brandenburg. The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 500 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (640 × 768 pixel, file size: 186 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Duchy of Prussia... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in Brandenburg, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Preussen_1701-1918. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (560x745, 79 KB) großes Wappen des Königs von Preußen (Deutscher Kaiser) nach 1873. ... This article is about the flag of the former German state of Prussia. ... This article is about the coat of arms of the former German state of Prussia. ... A national anthem is a generally patriotic musical composition that is evoking and eulogizing the history, traditions and struggles of its people, recognized either by a nations government as the official national song, or by convention through use by the people. ... The Preußenlied (literally Song of Prussia in German) was the national anthem of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1830-1840. ... Heil dir im Siegerkranz (Hail to the Crown) was from 1871 to 1918 the national anthem of the German Empire. ... Image File history File links Map-DR-Prussia. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... “Kingdom” redirects here. ... The following is a list of Kings of Prussia (Könige von Preußen) from the Hohenzollern family. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Year 1713 (MDCCXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ... Friedrich I of Prussia, Kurfürst of Brandenburg, King in Russia (Fredrick I, July 11, 1857 -- February 25, 1913), Hohenzollern, was the first King in Prussia, reigning from January 18, 2001, until his death. ... Year 1888 (MDCCCLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Sunday (click on link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor von Preußen; English: Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Adolf Heinrich Graf[1] Arnim-Boitzenburg (10 April 1803 –8 January 1868) was a German statesman, and the first Prime Minister of Prussia. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Prince Maximilian of Baden (Max von Baden) (10 July 1867 – 6 November 1929) was the cousin and heir of Grand Duke Frederick II of Baden, and succeeded Frederick as head of the Grand Ducal House in 1928. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... A Landtag (Diet) is a representative assembly or parliament in German speaking countries with some legislative authority. ... The German term Herrenhaus is equivalent to the English House of Lords and describes roughly similar institutions as the English House of Lords in German-speaking countries. ... The Abgeordnetenhaus von Berlin is the state parliament for the State of Berlin according to the constitution of Berlin. ... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Combatants First French Empire Kingdom of Prussia, Electorate of Saxony Commanders Napoleon I, Louis Nicolas Davout Duke of Brunswick â€ , Prince Hohenlohe Strength 90,000 (Jena); 27,000 (Auerstedt) 38,000 (Jena); 63,000 (Auerstedt) Casualties 5,000 dead and wounded (Jena); 7,000 killed, wounded, or missing (Auerstedt) 25,000... October 14 is the 287th day of the year (288th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... June 9 is the 160th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (161st in leap years), with 205 days remaining. ... Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a collection of 38 states including parts of Austria and Prussia loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... December 5 is the 339th day (340th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1848 (MDCCCXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... November Revolution redirects here. ... November 9 is the 313th day of the year (314th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This is a list of the countries of the world sorted by area. ... Population density by country, 2006 Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. ... The Reichsthaler began as a subsidiary denomination to the Conventionsthaler, introduced in the Holy Roman Empire in 1754. ... The Thaler (sometimes Reichsthaler) was the currency of Prussia until 1857. ... The Vereinsthaler (union thaler) was a standard silver coin used in most German states and the Austro-Hungarian Empire in the years prior to German unification. ... German 20 Mark banknote from 1914 (www. ... The name Papiermark (German: Paper mark) can be applied to the German currency from the point in 1914 when the link between the mark and gold was abandoned, due to the outbreak of the First World War. ... In politics, a country (or in some cases, a group of countries) over which a king or queen reigns, is a kingdom, see: monarchy. ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the...

Contents

History

Main article: History of Prussia

The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 The word Prussia (German: Preußen (Preussen), Polish: Prusy, Lithuanian: Prusai, Latin: Borussia) has had various (often contradictory) meanings: The land of the Baltic Prussians (in what is now parts of southern Lithuania, the Kaliningrad exclave of Russia and...

1701: The growth of Brandenburg

Frederick William, the "Great Elector" of Brandenburg-Prussia, died in 1688. His possessions passed to his son Frederick III (1688-1701) who became King Frederick I of Prussia (1701-1713). With the exception of the Duchy of Prussia, all of Brandenburg's lands were a part of the Holy Roman Empire, by this time under the all but hereditary nominal rule of the House of Habsburg. Since there was only one King of the Germans within the Empire, Frederick gained the assent of Emperor Leopold I (in return for alliance against France in the War of the Spanish Succession) to his adoption (January 1701) of the title of "King in Prussia" based on his non-Imperial territories. The title came into general acceptance with the Treaty of Utrecht (1713). Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg. ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... Friedrich I of Prussia, Kurfürst of Brandenburg, King in Russia (Fredrick I, July 11, 1857 -- February 25, 1913), Hohenzollern, was the first King in Prussia, reigning from January 18, 2001, until his death. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... The following list of German monarchs is one of several Wikipedia lists of incumbents. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Silver coin of Leopold I, 3 Kreuzers, dated 1670. ... Combatants Holy Roman Empire, Great Britain,[1] Dutch Republic, Portugal, Others France, Spain, Bavaria, Others Commanders Eugene of Savoy, Margrave of Baden, Count Starhemberg, Duke of Marlborough, Earl of Galway, Count Overkirk, Marquês das Minas Duc de Villars, Duc de Vendôme, Duc de Boufflers, Duc de Villeroi, Duke... It is the little word in that makes the title King in Prussia (German König in Preussen) an extraordinary one. ... The Treaties of Utrecht (April 11, 1713) were signed in Utrecht, a city of the United Provinces. ...


1701-1740: The young Kingdom

The new Kingdom of Prussia was very poor – still having not fully recovered from the devastation of the Thirty Years’ War – and its territory was scattered across over 1200km: from the lands of the Duchy of Prussia on the south-east coast of the Baltic Sea, to the Hohenzollern heartland of Brandenburg, to the exclaves of Cleves, Mark and Ravensberg in the Rhineland. In 1708, approximately one third of the population of the Duchy of Prussia fell victim of the bubonic plague. The plague reached Prenzlau in August 1710, but eventually receded before it could reach the capital Berlin, which was only 80km away. The victory of Gustavus Adolphus at the Battle of Breitenfeld (1631) The Thirty Years War was a conflict fought between the years 1618 and 1648, principally in the Central European territory of the Holy Roman Empire, but also involving most of the major continental powers. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... Hohenzollern redirects here. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... The Duchy of Cleves (Herzogtum Kleve) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire in present Germany (part of North Rhine-Westphalia) and the Netherlands (parts of Limburg, Noord-Brabant and Gelderland). ... County of Mark in 1477. ... Ravensberg, historical county in eastern Westphalia, Germany. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... The bubonic plague or bubonic fever is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Prenzlau is a city in the Uckermark District of Brandenburg, Germany. ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ...


Sweden's defeat by Russia, Saxony, Poland, Denmark-Norway, Hanover, and Prussia in the Great Northern War (1700-1721) marked the end of significant Swedish power on the southern shores of the Baltic Sea. In the Prusso-Swedish Treaty of Stockholm (January 1720), Prussia regained Stettin (Szczecin) and other parts of Sweden's holding in Pomerania. The Hohenzollerns of Brandenburg had held the reversion to the Duchy of Pomerania since 1472. (Further Pomerania had already been annexed to Brandenburg-Prussia in 1648 at the Peace of Westphalia). The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Poland-Lithuania Saxony later also Prussia, Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Augustus II the Strong Frederick IV of Denmark Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... The Baltic Sea is located in Northern Europe, from 53°N to 66°N latitude and from 20°E to 26°E longitude. ... The Treaty of Stockholm refers to two treaties signed in 1719 and 1720 that ended the Great Northern War between Sweden on one side and Hannover and Prussia. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Duchy of Pomerania, ruled by the slavic dynasty of the Griffins (Polish: Gryfici, German: Greifen), was a semi-independent principality in the 17th century. ... Ratification of the Treaty of Münster The Peace of Westphalia refers to the pair of treaties (the Treaty of Münster and the Treaty of Osnabrück) signed in October and May 1648 which ended both the Thirty Years War and the Eighty Years War. ...


During this time, the trends set in motion by the Great Elector reached their culmination, as the Junkers, the landed aristocracy, were welded to the Prussian Army. Junkers (English pronunciation: ; German pronunciation: ) were the landed aristocracy of Prussia and Eastern Germany - often also called Eastelbia (Ostelbien in German - the land east of river Elbe). ... A standard of the Prussian Army. ...


1740-1760: The Silesian Wars

Main article: Silesian Wars

In 1740, King Frederick II (Frederick the Great) came to the throne. Using the pretext of a 1537 treaty (vetoed by Emperor Ferdinand I) by which parts of Silesia were to pass to Brandenburg after the extinction of its ruling Piast dynasty, Frederick invaded Silesia, thereby beginning the War of the Austrian Succession. After rapidly occupying Silesia, Frederick offered to protect Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria if the province were turned over to him. The offer was rejected, but Austria faced several other opponents, and Frederick was eventually able to gain formal cession with the Treaty of Berlin in 1742. The Silesian Wars were a series of wars between Prussia and Austria (and their changing allies) for control of Silesia. ... Frederick II (German: ; January 24, 1712 – August 17, 1786) was a King of Prussia (1740–1786) from the Hohenzollern dynasty. ... Ferdinand in 1531, the year of his election as King of the Romans Ferdinand I (10 March 1503 – 25 July 1564) was an Austrian monarch from the House of Habsburg. ... Silesia (Czech: ; German: ; Latin: ; Polish: ; Silesian: Åšlónsk) is a historical region in central Europe. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... This article is about a Polish dynasty. ... Combatants Prussia Spain France Electorate of Bavaria Kingdom of Naples Austria Great Britain Dutch Republic Electorate of Saxony Sardinia Russian Empire Commanders Frederick II Leopold I Leopold II Maurice de Saxe François-Marie de Broglie Charles VII Ludwig Khevenhüller Charles Alexander George II Charles Emmanuel III Empress Maria... The worlds most famous coin, a silver thaler of Maria Theresa, dated 1780. ...


To the surprise of many, Austria managed to renew the war successfully. In 1744 Frederick invaded again to forestall reprisals and to claim, this time, the province of Bohemia. He failed, but French pressure on Austria's ally Great Britain led to a series of treaties and compromises, culminating in the 1748 Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that restored peace and left Prussia in possession of most of Silesia. Flag of Bohemia Bohemia (Czech: ; German: ) is a historical region in central Europe, occupying the western and middle thirds of the Czech Republic. ... There were two Treaties of Aix-la-Chapelle. ...


Humiliated by the cession of Silesia, Austria worked to secure an alliance with France and Russia (the "Diplomatic Revolution"), while Prussia drifted into Great Britain's camp. When Frederick preemptively invaded Saxony and Bohemia over the course of a few months in 1756-1757, he initiated the Seven Years' War. The Diplomatic Revolution refers to the alliances formed in 1756 as a result of the outbreak of the Seven Years War. ... Combatants Prussia Great Britain Hanover Portugal Brunswick Hesse-Kassel Austria France Russia Sweden Spain Saxony Naples and Sicily Sardinia The Seven Years War(i) (1754 and 1756–1763), incorporating the Pomeranian War and the French and Indian War enveloped both European and colonial theatres. ...


This war was a desperate struggle for the Prussian Army, and the fact that it managed to fight much of Europe to a draw bears witness to Frederick's military skills. Facing Austria, Russia, France, and Sweden simultaneously, and with only Hanover (and the non-continental British) as notable allies, Frederick managed to prevent serious invasion until October 1760, when the Russian army briefly occupied Berlin and Königsberg. The situation became progressively grimmer, however, until the death of Empress Elizabeth of Russia (the miracle of the House of Brandenburg). The accession of the Prussophile Peter III relieved the pressure on the eastern front. Sweden also exited the war at about the same time. A standard of the Prussian Army. ... Location of Berlin within Germany / EU Coordinates Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE3 City subdivisions 12 boroughs Governing Mayor Klaus Wowereit (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Left. ... Kaliningrad (Russian: ; Lithuanian: Karaliaučius; German  , Polish: Królewiec; briefly Russified as Kyonigsberg), is a seaport and the administrative center of Kaliningrad Oblast, the Russian exclave between Poland and Lithuania on the Baltic Sea. ... Charles van Loo. ... The miracle of the House of Brandenburg refers to the death of Russias Empress Elizabeth at the beginning of 1762. ... Grand Duke Peter, 1753, by Alexei Antropov Peter III (February 21, 1728 - July 17, 1762) (Russian: Пётр III Федорович or Pyotr III Fyodorovitch) was Emperor of Russia for six months in 1762. ...


Defeating the Austrian army at the Battle of Burkersdorf and relying on continuing British success against France in the war's colonial theatres, Prussia was finally able to force a status quo ante bellum on the continent. This result confirmed Prussia's major role within the German states and established the country as a European great power. Frederick, appalled by the near-defeat of Prussia, lived out his days as a much more peaceable ruler. The Battle of Burkersdorf was a battle fought on July 21, 1762 during the Seven Years War. ... The term status quo ante bellum comes from Latin meaning literally, as things were before the war. ... One of the hallmarks of contemporary great power status is permanent membership on the United Nations Security Council. ...


1772, 1793, 1795: Partitions of Poland


History of Brandenburg and Prussia
Northern March
pre-12th century
Old Prussians
pre-13th century
Margraviate of Brandenburg
11571618 (1806)
Ordenstaat
12241525
Duchy of Prussia
15251618
Royal Prussia
14661772
Brandenburg-Prussia
16181701
Kingdom of Prussia
17011918
Free State of Prussia
19181947
Brandenburg
19471952 / 1990
Main article: Partitions of Poland

To the east and south of Prussia, the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth had gradually weakened during the 18th century. Alarmed by increasing Russian influences in Polish affairs and by a possible expansion of the Russian Empire, Frederick took part in the first of the Partitions of Poland between Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772 to maintain a balance of power. The Kingdom of Prussia annexed most of the Polish province of Royal Prussia, including Warmia; the annexed land was organized the following year into the Province of West Prussia. The new territory connected East Prussia (the territory previously known as the Duchy of Prussia) with Pomerania, uniting the kingdom's eastern territories. Image File history File links Brandenburg_Wappen. ... The Prussian flag (small) 1701-1918 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Motto: Suum cuique Latin: To each his own Prussia at its peak, as leading state of the German Empire Capital Königsberg, later Berlin Political structure Duchy, Kingdom, Republic Duke1  - 1525–68 Albert I  - 1688–1701 Frederick III King1  - 1701–13 Frederick I  - 1888–1918 William II Prime Minister1,2... Northern March (in German, Nordmark), was the Holy Roman Empires territorial organisation on the conquered areas of the Wends. ... (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... Prussian tribes settlements. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Events Births September 8 - King Richard I of England (died 1199) Leopold V of Austria (died 1194) Hojo Masako, wife of Minamoto no Yoritomo (died 1225) Deaths August 21 - King Alfonso VII of Castile (born 1105) Agnes of Babenberg, daughter of Leopold III of Austria Sweyn III of Denmark Yury... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... 1806 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... This article needs to be wikified. ... // Foundation of the University of Naples Livonian Brothers of the Sword conquers Latgallians and the stronghold of Tartu from Ugaunian and Russian troops. ... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Events January 21 - The Swiss Anabaptist Movement was born when Conrad Grebel, Felix Manz, George Blaurock, and about a dozen others baptized each other in the home of Manzs mother on Neustadt-Gasse, Zürich, breaking a thousand-year tradition of church-state union. ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... Events Chimú Empire conquered by troops of the Inca End of term for Regent of Sweden Jöns Bengtsson Oxenstierna. ... Year 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... Events March 8 - Johannes Kepler discovers the third law of planetary motion (he soon rejects the idea after some initial calculations were made but on May 15 confirms the discovery). ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... Events January 18 - Frederick I becomes King of Prussia. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: PrÅ«sa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in Brandenburg, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... 1947 (MCMXLVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (the link is to a full 1947 calendar). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS, October... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Balance of power in international relations is a central concept in realist theory. ... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... Pomerania and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ...


After Frederick died in 1786, his nephew Fredrick William II continued the partitions, gaining a large part of western Poland in 1793. Frederick William II (German: ; September 25, 1744 – November 16, 1797) was the fourth king of Prussia, reigning from 1786 until his death. ...


In 1795, the Kingdom of Poland ceased to exist and a large area (including Warsaw) to the south of East Prussia became part of Prussia. These new territories were organized into the Provinces of New Silesia, South Prussia, and New East Prussia. Motto: Contemnit procellas (It defies the storms) Semper invicta (Always invincible) Coordinates: Country Poland Voivodeship Masovia Powiat city county Gmina Warszawa Districts 18 boroughs City Rights turn of the 13th century Government  - Mayor Hanna Gronkiewicz-Waltz (PO) Area  - City 516. ... New Silesia (German: Neuschlesien, also Neu-Schlesien) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1795 to 1806, created northwest of Kraków from the third partition of Poland. ... South Prussia (1793-1806) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia, created in Greater Poland after the second partition of Poland (1793). ... New East Prussia (German Neu-Ostpreußen) was the easternmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia between 1795 and 1807, created from areas acquired during the third Partition of Poland, with Warsaw as a capital. ...


1806-1815: Napoleonic Wars

Main article: Napoleonic Wars

In 1806 the Holy Roman Empire was abolished as a result of Napoleon's victories over Austria. The title of Kurfürst (Prince-elector) of Brandenburg became meaningless, and was dropped. Before this time, the Hohenzollern sovereign had held many titles and hats, from Head of the Evangelical Church to King, Elector, Grand Duke, Duke for the various regions and realms under his rule. After 1806, he simply was King of Prussia. Combatants Austria[1] Portugal Prussia[1] Russia[2] Spain[3] Sweden United Kingdom[4] Ottoman Empire[5] Holy Roman Empire[6] French Empire Holland Kingdom of Italy Kingdom of Naples Duchy of Warsaw Bavaria[7] Saxony[8] Denmark [9] Commanders Archduke Charles Prince Schwarzenberg Karl Mack von Leiberich Gebhard von... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ... Napoléon I, Emperor of the French (born Napoleone di Buonaparte, changed his name to Napoléon Bonaparte)[1] (15 August 1769; Ajaccio, Corsica – 5 May 1821; Saint Helena) was a general during the French Revolution, the ruler of France as First Consul (Premier Consul) of the French Republic from... The prince-electors or electoral princes of the Holy Roman Empire — German: Kurfürst (singular) Kurfürsten (plural) — were the members of the electoral college of the Holy Roman Empire, having the function of electing the Emperors of Germany. ...


As a result of Prussia's defeat in the Battle of Jena-Auerstedt in 1806, King Frederick William III was forced to temporarily flee to Memel. After the Treaties of Tilsit in 1807, Prussia lost about half of its territory, including the land gained from the Second and Third Partitions of Poland (which now fell to the Duchy of Warsaw) and all land west of the Elbe River. The remainder of the kingdom was occupied by French troops (at Prussia’s expense) and the king was obliged to make an alliance with France and join the Continental System. Combatants First French Empire Prussia Commanders Napoleon I Louis Nicolas Davout Duke of Brunswick Prince Hohenlohe Strength 90,000 (Jena); 27,000 (Auerstedt) 38,000 (Jena); 63,000 (Auerstedt) Casualties 5,000 dead and wounded (Jena); 7,000 killed, wounded, or missing (Auerstedt) 25,000 dead, wounded, or captured (Jena... Frederick William III (German: , August 3, 1770 – June 7, 1840) was king of Prussia from 1797 to 1840. ... Location Ethnographic region Lithuania minor County KlaipÄ—da County Municipality KlaipÄ—da city municipality Coordinates Number of elderates 1 General Information Capital of KlaipÄ—da County KlaipÄ—da city municipality Population 187,316 in 2006 (3rd) First mentioned 1252 Granted city rights 1254 or 1258 (Lübeck); 1475 (CheÅ‚mno... The Treaties of Tilsit were two agreements signed by Napoleon I of France in the town of Tilsit in July, 1807. ... Year 1807 (MDCCCVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar). ... The Partitions of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth (Polish: Rozbiór Polski or Rozbiory Polski; Lithuanian: Lietuvos-Lenkijos padalijimai, Belarusian: Падзелы Рэчы Паспалітай) took place in the 18th century and ended the existence of the sovereign Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth. ... Coat of arms Map of the Duchy of Warsaw after 1809. ... The Elbe River (Czech Labe, Sorbian/Lusatian Łobjo, Polish Łaba, German Elbe) is one of the major waterways of central Europe. ... The Continental System was a foreign-policy cornerstone of Napoleon I of France in his struggle against the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland during the Napoleonic Wars. ...


After the defeat of Napoleon in Russia, Prussia quit the alliance and took part in the Sixth Coalition during the "Wars of Liberation" (Befreiungskriege) against the French occupation. Prussian troops under Marshal Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher contributed crucially in the Battle of Waterloo of 1815 to the final victory over Napoleon. Kazan Cathedral in St Petersburg and the Cathedral of Christ the Saviour in Moscow were built to commemorate the Russian victory against Napoleon. ... The Sixth Coalition (1812-1814) was a coalition of Austria, Prussia, Russia, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and a number of German States against Napoleonic France. ... Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. ... Combatants First French Empire Seventh Coalition: United Kingdom Kingdom of Prussia Kingdom of the United Netherlands Kingdom of Hanover Nassau Brunswick Commanders Napoleon Bonaparte, Michel Ney Duke of Wellington, Gebhard von Blücher Strength 73,000 67,000 Coalition 60,000 Prussian (48,000 engaged by about 18:00) Casualties...


1815: Prussia after Napoleon

Expansion of Prussia 1807-1871
Expansion of Prussia 1807-1871

Prussia’s reward for its part in Napoleon's defeat came at the Congress of Vienna, where Prussia was granted most of its lost territories and considerably more, including 40% of the Kingdom of Saxony and much of the Rhineland. Much of the territory annexed in the Third Partition of Poland was granted to Congress Poland under Russian rule. Expansion of Prussia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Expansion of Prussia File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... The Kingdom of Saxony, lasting between 1806 and 1918, was an independent member of a number of historical confederacies in Germany, finally being absorbed into the Weimar Republic in 1918. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Map of Congress Poland. ...


With these Prussian gains in territory, the kingdom was reorganised into ten provinces. Most of the kingdom, aside from the Provinces of East Prussia, West Prussia, and Posen, became part of the new German Confederation, which replaced the defunct Holy Roman Empire. East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... The extent of the Holy Roman Empire in c. ...


As a consequence of the Revolutions of 1848, the Principalities of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohenzollern-Hechingen (ruled by a cadet branch of the House of Hohenzollern) were annexed by Prussia in 1850. The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ... Hohenzollern-Hechingen is a branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ...


1848-1871: The German wars of unification

For the following half-century after the Congress of Vienna, there was a conflict of ideals within the German Confederation between the formation of a single German nation and the conservation of the current collection of smaller German states and kingdoms. The creation of the German Customs Union (Zollverein) in 1834, which excluded the Austrian Empire, increased Prussian influence over the member states. As a consequence of the Revolutions of 1848, King Frederick William IV was offered the crown of a united Germany by the Frankfurt Parliament. Frederick William refused the offer on the grounds that revolutionary assemblies could not grant royal titles. But there were two other reasons why he refused: to do so would have done little to end the internal power struggle between Austria and Prussia, and all Prussian kings (up to and including William I) feared that the formation of a German Empire would mean the end of Prussia’s independence within the German states. The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Zollverein (German for customs union) or German Customs Union was formed between the 39 states of the German Confederation in 1834 during the Industrial Revolution to remove internal custom barriers, although upholding a protectionist tariff system with foreign trade partners. ... Anthem: Volkshymne (Peoples Anthem) Capital Vienna Language(s) German Religion Roman Catholic Government Monarchy History  - Established 1804  - Disestablished 1867 Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy The Crown of the Austrian Emperor The Austrian Empire (German: ) was an empire centred on what is modern day Austria that officially lasted from 1804... The European Revolutions of 1848, known in some countries as the Spring of Nations or the Year of Revolution, were a revolutionary wave which erupted in Sicily and then, further triggered by the revolutions of 1848 in France, soon spread to the rest of Europe and as far afield as... Photograph of Frederick King Frederick William IV of Prussia (October 15, 1795 - January 2, 1861), the eldest son and successor of Frederick William III of Prussia, reigned as King of Prussia from 1840 to 1861. ... The Frankfurt Parliament is the name of the German National Assembly founded during the Revolutions of 1848 that tried to unite Germany in a democratic way. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick...


In 1848, actions taken by Denmark towards the Duchies of Schleswig and Holstein led to the First War of Schleswig (1848-1851) between Denmark and the German Confederation. Denmark was defeated, but Prussia was embarrassingly forced to allow Denmark to keep both duchies. The region of Schleswig (former English name: Sleswick, Danish: Sønderjylland or Slesvig, Low German: Sleswig, North Frisian: Slaswik or Sleesweg) covers the area about 60 km north and 70 km south of the border between Germany and Denmark. ... Holstein (Hol-shtayn) (Low German: Holsteen, Danish: Holsten, Latin and historical English: Holsatia) is the southern part of Schleswig-Holstein in Germany, between the rivers Elbe and Eider. ... The First war of Schleswig (1848 – 1850), known in Denmark as the Three Years War (Treårskrigen), was a military conflict in southern Denmark, contesting the issue of who should control the duchies of Schleswig and Holstein. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ...


In 1862, Otto von Bismarck was appointed by King William I as Prime Minister of Prussia. He was determined to unite the German states under Prussian domination, and guided Prussia through three wars which ultimately achieved this goal. “Bismarck” redirects here. ... William I (William Frederick Louis, German: ) (March 22, 1797 – March 9, 1888) of the House of Hohenzollern was a King of Prussia (January 2, 1861 – 9 March 1888) and the first German Emperor (18 January 1871 – 9 March 1888). ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ...


The first of these wars was the Second War of Schleswig (1864), which Prussia initiated and succeeded in gaining the assistance of Austria. Denmark was soundly defeated and surrendered both Schleswig and Holstein, to Prussia and Austria respectively. Combatants Prussia Austria German Confederation Denmark Commanders Friedrich Graf von Wrangel Christian Julius De Meza replaced by George Daniel Gerlach on February 29 Strength At the outbreak of war: 61,000 158 guns Later reinforcements: 20,000 64 guns[1] 38,000 100+ guns[2] Casualties 1,700+ killed, wounded...

Aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War (1866). Prussia (dark blue) and its allies (blue) against Austria (red) and its allies (pink). Neutral members of the German Confederation are in green, Prussia’s territorial gains after the war are in light blue
Aftermath of the Austro-Prussian War (1866). Prussia (dark blue) and its allies (blue) against Austria (red) and its allies (pink). Neutral members of the German Confederation are in green, Prussia’s territorial gains after the war are in light blue

The divided administration of Schleswig and Holstein then became the trigger for the Austro-Prussian War (1866 – also known as the Seven Weeks’ War), where Prussia, allied with the Kingdom of Italy and various northern German states, declared war on the Austrian Empire. The Austrian-led coalition was crushed and some German states (the Kingdom of Hanover, the Grand Duchy of Hesse, the Duchy of Nassau and the Free City of Frankfurt) were annexed by Prussia. The disputed territories of Schleswig and Holstein were now under total Prussian rule. With these gains in territory it became possible to connect the Prussian possessions in the Rhineland and Westphalia with the remainder of the Kingdom. It was at this point that Prussia reached its fullest extent (in terms of area), and it remained at this size until the Kingdom's end in 1918. Image File history File links Map-AustroPrussianWar-annexed. ... Image File history File links Map-AustroPrussianWar-annexed. ... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... There have been several entities known as the Kingdom of Italy. ... Hanover (German Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... The Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt came into existence in 1568, as the portion of George, youngest of the four sons of Landgrave Philip I of Hesse. ... ... Main Station Frankfurt Frankfurt International Airport For other articles with similar names, see Frankfurt (disambiguation). ...


The German Confederation was replaced by the Prussian-dominated North German Confederation in 1867, with military alliances with the southern German states (except Austria) put in place. Bismarck’s planned Kleindeutschland unification of Germany had come considerably closer to realisation. While King William was determined to make territorial gains from Austria itself, Bismarck persuaded him to abandon the idea. While Bismarck wanted Austria to play no future role in German affairs, he still saw that Austria could be a valuable future ally. Map of the North German Confederation Capital Berlin Political structure Federation Presidency Prussia (William I) Chancellor Otto von Bismarck History  - Constitution tabelled April 16, 1867  - Confederation formed July 1, 1867  - Elevation to empire January 18, 1871 The North German Federation (in German, Norddeutscher Bund) came into existence in 1867, following... For the German Neighbourhood Kleindeutschland in New York see Little Germany, New York Kleindeutschland (literally Small Germany) was a 19th century political idea postulating the idea of a unified Germany led by Hohenzollern Prussia, with Berlin as capital, and excluding the Austrian Empire. ... The German Empire of 1871. ...


The final act was the Franco-Prussian War (1870), where Bismarck maneuvered Emperor Napoleon III of France into declaring war on Prussia. Activating the German alliances put in place after the Austro-Prussian War, the German states came together and swiftly defeated France. This Prussian led victory made possible the creation of the German Empire with William declared to be Kaiser William I on 18 January 1871 (the 170th anniversary of the coronation of the first Prussian King, Frederick I) in the Hall of Mirrors at Versailles outside of Paris, while the French capital was still under siege. Combatants Second French Empire North German Confederation allied with south German states (later German Empire) Commanders Napoleon III Otto Von Bismarck, Helmuth von Moltke the Elder Strength 400,000 at the beginning of the war 1,200,000 Casualties 150,000 dead or wounded 284,000 captured 350,000 civilian... Napoléon III, born Charles Louis Napoléon Bonaparte (20 April 1808 – 9 January 1873) was the first President of the French Republic from 1848 to 1851, then from 2 December 1851 to 2 December 1852 the ruler of a dictatorial government, then Emperor of the French under the name... Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... January 18 is the 18th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1871 (MDCCCLXXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Friedrich I of Prussia, Kurfürst of Brandenburg, King in Russia (Fredrick I, July 11, 1857 -- February 25, 1913), Hohenzollern, was the first King in Prussia, reigning from January 18, 2001, until his death. ... The Château de Versailles, or simply Versailles, is a royal château in Versailles, France. ... Versailles (pronounced in French), formerly de facto capital of the kingdom of France, is now a wealthy suburb of Paris and is still an important administrative and judicial center. ... This article is about the capital of France. ... Combatants Prussia, Baden Bavaria, Württemberg (later German Empire) France Commanders Wilhelm I of Germany Helmuth von Moltke Louis Jules Trochu Joseph Vinoy Strength 240,000 regulars 200,000 regulars 200,000 militia and sailors Casualties 12,000 dead or wounded 24,000 dead or wounded 146,000 captured 47...


1871-1918: Prussia’s peak and fall

Main article: German Empire
Prussia in the German Empire 1871–1918

With the Prussian-led German Empire now the most powerful entity in continental Europe, Bismarck wished to preserve peace in Europe, with such acts as the Congress of Berlin. The new German Empire improved the already-strong relations with Britain, (Kaiser Frederick III was married to the eldest daughter of Queen Victoria of the United Kingdom). But all of this changed with the death of Frederick III in 1888 (after only 99 days on the throne) and the ascension of his 29-year old son, William II. The new Kaiser rapidly soured relations with the British and Russian royal families (despite being closely related to them), becoming their rival and ultimately their enemy. Motto Gott mit Uns (German: God with us”) Anthem Heil dir im Siegerkranz (unofficial) Territory of the German Empire in 1914, prior to World War I Capital Berlin Language(s) Official: German Unofficial minority languages: Danish, French, Frisian, Polish, Sorbian Government Constitutional monarchy Emperor  - 1871–1888 William I  - 1888 Frederick... Adams Prussia map with proper spelling of Königsberg and Württemberg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Adams Prussia map with proper spelling of Königsberg and Württemberg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Congress of Berlin was a meeting of the European Great Powers and the Ottoman Empires leading statesmen in Berlin in 1878. ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... Victoria (Alexandrina Victoria; 24 May 1819 – 22 January 1901) was the Queen of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland from 20 June 1837, and the first Empress of India from 1 May 1876, until her death on 22 January 1901. ... Frederick III (Frederick William Nicholas Charles; October 18, 1831 – June 15, 1888), (German: Friedrich III., Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen) was German Emperor and King of Prussia, ruling for 99 days until his death in 1888. ... William II or Wilhelm II (born Friedrich Wilhelm Albert Viktor von Preußen; English: Frederick William Albert Victor of Prussia) (27 January 1859–4 June 1941) was the last German Emperor and King of Prussia (German: Deutscher Kaiser und König von Preußen), ruling both the German Empire and...


William II ousted Bismarck from office in 1890 and began a campaign of militarisation and adventurism in foreign policy that eventually led Germany into isolation. A misjudgement of the Austro-Hungarian conflict with Serbia by the Kaiser, who left for holidays, and hasty mobilisation plans of several nations led to the disaster of World War I (1914–1918). As the price of their withdrawal from the war, the Bolsheviks conceded large regions of the western Russian Empire, some of which bordered Prussia, to German control in the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (1918). German control of these territories only lasted for a few months, however, because of the defeat of German military forces and the German Revolution – which led to the Kaiser’s abdication and exile. Austria-Hungary, also known as the Dual monarchy (or: the k. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian language 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 8th century   -  First unified state c. ... “The Great War ” redirects here. ... Bolshevik Party Meeting. ... Anthem God Save the Tsar! The Russian Empire in 1914 Capital Moscow Language(s) Russian Religion Russian Orthodoxy Government Monarchy Emperor  - 1721–1725 Peter the Great  - 1894–1917 Nicholas II History  - Accession of Peter I May 7, 1682 NS, April 27, 1682 OS²  - Empire proclaimed October 22, 1721 NS, October... The first two pages of the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, in (left to right) German, Hungarian, Bulgarian, Ottoman Turkish and Russian The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk was a peace treaty signed on March 3, 1918, at Brest-Litovsk (now Brest, Belarus) between the Russian SFSR and the Central Powers, marking... November Revolution redirects here. ...


The post-war Treaty of Versailles, which held Germany solely responsible for the war, was signed in Versailles' Hall of Mirrors, where the German Empire had been created. With the abdication of Wilhelm II in 1918, the Kingdom of Prussia was dissolved and replaced with the Free State of Prussia. The Treaty of Versailles (1919) was the peace treaty which officially ended World War I between the Allied and Associated Powers and Germany. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in Brandenburg, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ...


Politics

Image:prussiaflag_small.jpg
This article is part of the series
Politics of Prussia
Kingdom of Prussia
Prime Minister of Prussia
German General Staff
Prussian Minister of War
Foreign Minister of Prussia
Interior Minister of Prussia

The Kingdom of Prussia was an autocratic monarchy until the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, after which Prussia became a constitutional monarchy and Adolf Heinrich von Arnim-Boitzenburg was elected as Prussia's first prime minister. Following Prussia's first constitution, a two-house parliament was formed. The lower house, or Landtag was elected by all taxpayers, who were divided into three classes according to the amount of taxes paid. This allowed just over one-third of the voters to choose 85% of the legislature, all but assuring dominance by the more well-to-do elements of the population. The upper house, which was later renamed the Prussian House of Lords, was appointed by the king. He retained full executive authority and ministers were responsible only to him. As a result, the grip of the landowning classes, the Junkers, remained unbroken, especially in the eastern provinces. Prussian Secret Police, formed in response to the Revolutions of 1848 in the German states, aided the conservative government. The Prussian flag (small) 1701-1918 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... The German General Staff, (Großer Generalstab, literally, Great General Staff) was an institution whose rise and development gave the German military a decided advantage over its adversaries. ... The Prussian War Ministry was gradually established between 1808 and 1809 as part of a series of reforms initiated by the Military Reorganization Commission created after the disastrous Treaty of Paris. ... This page lists Foreign Ministers of Prussia. ... This page lists Prussian Ministers of the Interior. ... Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a collection of 38 states including parts of Austria and Prussia loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Adolf Heinrich Graf[1] Arnim-Boitzenburg (10 April 1803 –8 January 1868) was a German statesman, and the first Prime Minister of Prussia. ... The Prime Minister (Ministerpräsident) of Prussia existed in one form or another from 1792 until the dissolution of Prussia in 1947. ... The Prussian constitution adopted in 1850, amended in the following years was far less liberal than the federal constitution of the German Empire. ... A Landtag (Diet) is a representative assembly or parliament in German speaking countries with some legislative authority. ... After the 1848 revolutions in the German states, the Prussian three-class franchise system (Dreiklassenwahlrecht) was introduced in 1849 by the Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm IV for the election of the Lower House of the Prussian state parliament. ... The Prussian House of Lords (now seat of the Federal Council) The Prussian House of Lords (German: ) was the first chamber of the Parliament of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1850-1918. ... Junkers (English pronunciation: ; German pronunciation: ) were the landed aristocracy of Prussia and Eastern Germany - often also called Eastelbia (Ostelbien in German - the land east of river Elbe). ... The Prussian Secret Police (German: Preußische Geheimpolizei) was the state police agency of the German state of Prussia in the 19th century and early 20th century. ... Germany at the time of the Revolutions of 1848 was a collection of 38 states including parts of Austria and Prussia loosely bound together in the German Confederation after the Congress of Vienna in 1815. ...


Subdivisions of Prussia

Main article: Provinces of Prussia

The original core regions of the Kingdom of Prussia were the Margraviate of Brandenburg and the Duchy of Prussia which together formed Brandenburg-Prussia. Further Pomerania had been held by Prussia since 1648. Combined with nearby gains from Sweden in 1720, this region would later become the Province of Pomerania. Prussian gains in the Silesian Wars led to the formation of the Province of Silesia in 1740. The Provinces of Prussia constituted the main administrative divisions Prussia. ... Coat of arms Capital Brandenburg Berlin (from 1417) Religion Roman Catholic Lutheran Calvinist Government Monarchy Margrave  - 1157–70 Albert I  - 1797–1806 Frederick William III History  - Margraviate established 3 October, 1157  - Electorate established 25 December 1356  - Brandenburg-Prussia 27 August 1618  - Kingdom of Prussia 1 January 1701  - Dissolution of the... Coat of arms Duchy of Prussia (striped) in the second half of the 16th century Capital Königsberg Religion Protestant (Lutheran) Government Monarchy Duke of Prussia  - 1525 — 1568 Albert I  - 1568 — 1618 Albert Frederick History  - Secularisation April, 1525  - Personal Union (with Brandenburg) August 27, 1618  - Independence September 19, 1657 The... The Brandenburg-Prussian state was formed in 1618 when the Duchy of Prussia came under the control of the Elector of Brandenburg (part of the Holy Roman Empire of German Nation). ... Farther Pomerania (Hinterpommern) in yellow. ... Pomerania and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... The Silesian Wars were a series of wars between Prussia and Austria (and their changing allies) for control of Silesia. ... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ...


After the First Partition of Poland in 1772, the newly-annexed Royal Prussia and Warmia became the Province of West Prussia, while the Duchy of Prussia (along with part of Warmia) became the Province of East Prussia. Other annexations along the Noteć (Netze) River became the Netze District. Following the second and third partitions (1793-1795), the new Prussian annexations became the Provinces of New Silesia, South Prussia, and New East Prussia, with the Netze District redivided between West and South Prussia. These three provinces were ultimately lost to Congress Poland after the Congress of Vienna in 1815, except for the western part of South Prussia, which would form part of the Province of Posen. The Partitions of Poland (Polish Rozbiór or Rozbiory Polski) happened in the 18th century and ended the existence of a sovereign state of Poland (or more correctly the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth). ... Map of Royal Prussia (light pink) History  - Established October 19, 1466  - Loss of autonomy 1 July 1569  - Annexed August 5, 1772 Royal Prussia (German: ; Polish: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Poland and then the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth from 1569 to 1772. ... Warmia in 1547 Warmia (Polish: , German: , Latin: Varmia, also historically known as Ermeland) is a region between Pomerania and Masuria in northeastern Poland. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The Noteć (German: Netze, Latin: Natissis) is a river in central Poland with a length of 388 km (7th longest) and a basin area of 17,330 km². It is a tributary of the Warta river and lies completely within Poland. ... The Netze District or District of the Netze (German: ; Polish: ) was a territory in the Kingdom of Prussia from 1772 to 1793. ... New Silesia (German: Neuschlesien, also Neu-Schlesien) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia from 1795 to 1806, created northwest of Kraków from the third partition of Poland. ... South Prussia (1793-1806) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia, created in Greater Poland after the second partition of Poland (1793). ... New East Prussia (German Neu-Ostpreußen) was the easternmost province of the Kingdom of Prussia between 1795 and 1807, created from areas acquired during the third Partition of Poland, with Warsaw as a capital. ... Map of Congress Poland. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ...

The ten provinces of the Kingdom of Prussia, after the Congress of Vienna (1815). The other member states of the German Confederation are shown in pink. The Canton of Neuchâtel in the south-west was under Prussian administration until 1848
The ten provinces of the Kingdom of Prussia, after the Congress of Vienna (1815). The other member states of the German Confederation are shown in pink. The Canton of Neuchâtel in the south-west was under Prussian administration until 1848

Following the major western gains made by Prussia after the Vienna Congress, a total of ten provinces were established, each one subdivided further into smaller administrative regions known as Regierungsbezirke. The provinces were: Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... The Congress of Vienna by Jean-Baptiste Isabey, 1819. ... The German Confederation (German: Deutscher Bund) was the association of Central European states created by the Congress of Vienna in 1815 to organize the surviving states of the Holy Roman Empire, which had been abolished in 1806. ... Neuchâtel is a canton of Switzerland. ... A Regierungsbezirk is an government region of Germany, a subdivision of certain federal states (Bundesländer). ...

In 1822, the provinces of Jülich-Cleves-Berg and the Lower Rhine were merged to form the Rhine Province. In 1829, the Provinces of East and West Prussia merged to form the Province of Prussia, but the separate provinces were reformed in 1878. The principalities of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen and Hohenzollern-Hechingen were annexed in 1850 to form the Province of Hohenzollern. The Province of Brandenburg (German: ) was a province of the Kingdom of Prussia and the Free State of Prussia from 1815 to 1946. ... East Prussia (German: Ostpreu en; Polish: Prusy Wschodnie; Russian: Восточная Пруссия — Vostochnaya Prussiya) was a province of Kingdom of Prussia, situated on the territory of former Ducal Prussia. ... The province of the Jülich-Cleves-Berg (red}, within the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), within the German Confederation (member states in black). ... The Lower Rhine Province (red}, within the Kingdom of Prussia (blue), within the German Confederation (member states in black)   Capital Koblenz Population  - 1816 est. ... Pomerania and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... The Province of Posen (German: , Polish: ) was a province of Prussia from 1846-1918. ... The Province of Saxony (German Provinz Sachsen) was a Prussian province between the Napoleonic Wars of 1815 and 1947. ... Please be advised that the factual accuracy of Wikipedia articles dealing with topics related to the Oder-Neisse Line is often disputed. ... One of four districts of East Prussia in 1920 - 1938. ... Westphalia and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ... The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... The Province of Prussia was a province of Poland from the 15th century until 1660, consisting of Royal Prussia and Ducal Prussia. ... Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen is the cadet branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ... Hohenzollern-Hechingen is a branch of the senior Swabian branch of the Hohenzollern dynasty, less known however than the Franconian branch which became Burgraves of Nuremberg and later ruled Brandenburg, Prussia and ultimately Germany in the centuries to 1918. ... Hohenzollern and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ...


After Prussia's victory in the 1866 Austro-Prussian War, territories annexed by Prussia were reorganised into three new provinces: Hanover, Hesse-Nassau and Schleswig-Holstein. Combatants Austria, Saxony, Bavaria, Baden, Württemberg, Hanover and some minor German States (formerly as the German Confederation) Prussia, Italy, and some minor German States Strength 600,000 Austrians and German allies 500,000 Prussians and German allies 300,000 Italians Casualties 20,000 dead or wounded 37,000 dead... Capital Hanover Head of State King of Hanover Hanover (German: Hannover) is a historical territory in todays Germany. ... This article or section is missing references or citation of sources. ... Schleswig-Holstein and the other Provinces of Prussia in the German Empire. ...


See also

The following is a list of the Kings of Prussia (German: König von Preußen); they were members of the Hohenzollern family. ... A standard of the Prussian Army. ... Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Prussia, 1701-1918 Prussia (German: ; Latin: Borussia, Prutenia; Lithuanian: ; Polish: ; Old Prussian: Prūsa) was, most recently, a historic state originating in Brandenburg, an area which for centuries had substantial influence on German and European history. ... The Prussian Crown Jewels is a set of crowns, sceptres and orbs used to crown Kings of Prussia. ... This article gives an overview of the History of Germany. ... A kreis (pl. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Königreich Preußen (1701-1918) (German). Retrieved on 2007-05-02.
  2. ^ German Empire: administrative subdivision and municipalities, 1900 to 1910 (German). Retrieved on 2007-05-02.


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kingdom of Prussia - definition of Kingdom of Prussia in Encyclopedia (1059 words)
The Kingdom of Prussia existed from 1701 until 1918, and from 1871 was the leading kingdom of the German Empire, comprising in its last form almost two-thirds of the area of the Empire.
The Kingdom of Prussia at this time was not part of the Holy Roman Empire, from which it had resigned in 1795.
As a result of Prussia's defeat at Jena and Auerstädt, King Friedrich Wilhelm III lost all his lands west of the Elbe, and what was left of the Kingdom was occupied by French troops.
Prussia - Simple English Wikipedia (1615 words)
Ducal Prussia was part of the Kingdom of Poland until 1660, and Royal Prussia was part of Poland until 1772.
In 1618 the new Duke of Prussia was the Elector John Sigismund of Brandenburg.
The Duchy of Prussia was important to the Hohenzollern family because it was not in the Holy Roman Empire.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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