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Encyclopedia > Kingdom of Nekor

The Kingdom of Nekor was an emirate in the Rif area of modern day Morocco, with its capital initially at Temsaman but later at Nekor. It was founded by an immigrant of southern Arabian origins, Salih I ibn Mansur al-Himyari in 710 AD, by Caliphal grant. He converted the local Berber tribes to Islam; they soon tired of the restrictions of the religion, and threw him out in favor of a person known as az-Zaydi from the Nafza tribe, but then changed their mind and took him back, and his dynasty, the Banu Salih, ruled the region until 1019.

On the east, it included the tribes of Zouagha and Djeraoua of ibn Abi al-`Ais, about five days' journey from Nekor, bordering on the territory of the Matmata, Kebdana, Mernissa, Ghassasa of Mt. Herek, and Qulu` Jarra, belonging to the Beni Ourtendi. On the west, it extended to the Beni Marwan of Ghomara and the Beni Humayd, and bordered the Mestassa and Senhaja. Behind these lay the Awraba, the band of Ferhun, the Beni Oulid, the Zenata, the Beni Irnian, and the Beni Merasen of the band of Qasim lord of Sa. On the north, it was bounded by the sea, some five miles from Nekor. In short, it comprised most of the Moroccan Rif.

The Banu Salih rulers were:

  • Salih I ibn Mansur al-Himyari "al-`Abd as-Salih" (710-749)
  • al-Mu'tasim ibn Salih (749-?), said to have been very pious
  • Idris I ibn Salih (?-760), who founded Nekor
  • Sa'id I ibn Idris (760-803), who moved the capital to Nekor. In his reign, Nekor was sacked by the Normans, who took many prisoners, a few of whom were ransomed by the Umayyad ruler of Spain. Later, part of the Ghomara tribe revolted, led by a person called Segguen; their revolt was defeated.
  • Salih II ibn Sa'id (803-864), whose brother led a revolt against him, but was defeated.
  • Sa'id I ibn Salih (864-916); his older brother and uncle led an unsuccessful revolt against him, but he was ultimately defeated and killed by the Fatimid general Messala ibn Habus, who conquered the area for six months. However, his sons took refuge in Malaga with the Umayyad caliph, and returned once Messala had left the region and successfully expelled his garrison.
  • Salih III ibn Sa'id (917-927); in gratitude, he acknowledged the Umayyads as the rightful caliphs, thus transferring his nominal allegiance.
  • Abd al-Badi' ibn Salih "el-Mu'ayyid" (927-929); he was defeated and killed by another Fatimid general, Musa ibn Abi'l-Afiya, who destroyed Nekor again. However, the line was resumed (and the city rebuilt) by:
  • Abu Ayyub Isma'il ibn 'Abd al Malik ibn Abd ar-Rahman ibn Sa'id I ibn Salih (930?-935), who was defeated and killed by yet another Fatimid general, Sandal the mawla. However, when Sandal departed for Fez, installing a governor called Marmazu of the Kutama tribe, the inhabitants rebelled and installed yet another member of the line:
  • Musa ibn Rumi ibn Abd as-Sami` ibn Salih ibn Idris I ibn Salih (936?-940), who defeated Marmazu and sent his head to the Umayyad Caliph in Cordoba. However, he was soon exiled by his relative:
  • Abd as-Sami' ibn Jurthum ibn Idris ibn Salih I ibn Mansur (940-947). His people rose up and killed him, and then sent for one of his relatives from Malaga:
  • Jurthum ibn Ahmad ibn Ziyadat Allah ibn Sa'id I ibn Idris (947-970), who adopted the Maliki school of jurisprudence.

Thenceforth, the kingdom remained in his line until the Azdāji emir Ya'la ibn Futuh conquered it in 1019 and expelled the family.

All dates are converted from Hijri, and may be up to a year out. This is largely based on Ibn Khaldun, whose account is itself based on al-Bakri.



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