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Encyclopedia > Kingdom of Navarre
History of the Basque people
Prehistory and Antiquity
Basque Prehistory
Basque people in Antiquity
Middle Ages
Duchy of Cantabria
Duchy of Vasconia
County of Vasconia
Battle of Roncevaux Pass
Kingdom of Navarre
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Kings of Pamplona and Navarre
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The Kingdom of Navarre (Basque: Nafarroako Erresuma) was a European state which occupied lands on either side of the Pyrenees alongside the Atlantic Ocean. Navarre, through some points of its history, very roughly corresponded with the territories occupied by the Basque people. Image File history File links Blason_Navarre. ... The Basque people are an indigenous people inhabiting both Spain and France. ... The Duchy of Cantabria was a march created by the Visigoths in Northern Spain to watch their border with the Basques. ... Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... The County of Vasconia was a small medieval realm segregated c. ... Combatants Franks Basques Commanders Charlemagne Roland, Eginhard, Anselmus Unknown (speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia) Strength Major army Unknown (guerrilla party) Casualties Massacre of the Frankish rearguard Unknown The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of a famous battle in 778 in... The Banu Qasi were a Muslim dynastic family that ruled the region of the Ebro Valley in Spain. ... Sorginak (singular sorgin) are the assistants of the goddess Mari in Basque mythology They are likened to witches or pagan priestesses. ... The Carlist Wars in Spain were the last major European civil wars in which pretenders fought to establish their claim to a throne. ... The Gernika oak is a symbol of Basque freedoms. ... ETA symbol or ETA (Basque for Basque Homeland and Freedom; IPA pronunciation: [) is a paramilitary Basque nationalist organization. ... Gascony (French: Gascogne, pronounced  ; Gascon: Gasconha, pronounced ) is an area of southwest France that constituted a royal province prior to the French Revolution. ... Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... Lord of Biscay (Basque: Bizkaiko Jauna, Spanish: Señor de Vizcaya) is a historical title of the head of state of the autonomous territory of Biscay, Basque Country. ... Álava province Álava (Basque: Araba) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... The fuero is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, the foral. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: Euskaldunak) are an indigenous people[] who inhabit parts of both Spain and France. ... The Ikurriña, Basque flag Location of Territory of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees The Pyrenees (Spanish: Pirineos; French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés; Basque: Pirinioak) are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: Euskaldunak) are an indigenous people[] who inhabit parts of both Spain and France. ...


Though the details are largely legendary, the Kingdom of Pamplona, later renamed as Navarre, evolved from the county of Pamplona, its traditional capital, when the Basque leader Enneco Aresta (Basque: Eneko Haritza, Spanish: Iñigo Arista or Aiza) was chosen King in Pamplona (traditionally in 824) and led a local revolt against the Franks. Pamplona (Basque: Iruñea or Iruña) is the capital city of Navarre, Spain. ... Languages Basque - few monoglots Spanish - 1,525,000 monoglots French - 150,000 monoglots Basque-Spanish - 600,000 speakers Basque-French - 76,000 speakers [4] other native languages Religions Traditionally Roman Catholic The Basques (Basque: Euskaldunak) are an indigenous people[] who inhabit parts of both Spain and France. ... Statue in Madrid (J. Oñate, 1750-53). ... Basque (native name: Euskara) is the language spoken by the Basque people who inhabit the Pyrenees in North-Central Spain and the adjoining region of South-Western France. ... Events Iñigo Arista revolts against the Franks and establishes the kingdom of Navarre (approximate date). ... For other uses, see Franks (disambiguation). ...


The southern part of the kingdom was absorbed by the Kingdom of Castile in 1513, and thus became part of the unified Kingdom of Spain. The northern part of the kingdom remained independent, but it was joined with France in a personal union in 1589 when King Henry III of Navarre inherited the French throne as Henry IV of France, and in 1620 it was merged into the Kingdom of France. Limits of the Kingdom of Castile in 1210 The Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. ... A personal union is a relationship of two or more entities that are considered separate, sovereign states, which, through established law, share the same person as their respective head of state. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... The borders of modern France closely align with those of the ancient territory of Gaul, inhabited by Celts known as Gauls. ...

Contents

Etymology

There are similar earlier toponyms but the first documentation[1] of Latin navarros appears in Eginhard's chronicle of the feats of Charles the Great. Other Royal Frankish Annals give nabarros. There are two proposed etymologies[1] for the name of Navarra/Nafarroa/Naparroa: Einhard as scribe Einhard (born about 775 in the valley of the River Main, died March 14, 840, at Seligenstadt, Germany) was a Frankish historian and a dedicated servant of Charlemagne. ... Statue of Charlemagne in Frankfurt, a Romantic interpretation of his appearance from the 19th century Charlemagne (c. ... The Royal Frankish Annals (Latin: Annales Regni Francorum) are annals written for the early Frankish kings, covering the years 741 to 829. ...

  • Basque nabar (declined nom. sing. intr. nabarra): "brownish", "multicolor" (which would be a contrast with the green mountain lands north of the original County of Navarre).
  • Basque naba/Castilian nava ("valley", "plain", present across Spain as in Las Navas de Tolosa) + Basque herri ("people", "land").

Note that Joan Corominas does not consider naba as clearly Basque in origin, but as part of a wider pre-Roman substrate. The July 16, 1212 battle of Las Navas de Tolosa is considered a major turning point in the history of Medieval Iberia. ... Joan Coromines i Vigneaux, in Spanish Joan Corominas (Barcelona, 1905 - Pineda de Mar, Catalonia, 1997), was a linguist who made important contributions to the study of Catalan, Spanish and other Romance languages. ...


Early history

for a deeper understanding of this Kingdom's origins, see also: Duchy of Vasconia

The kingdom of Pamplona and then Navarre formed part of the traditional territory of the Vascones, a pre-Roman tribe; who occupied the southern slope of the western Pyrenees and part of the shore of the Bay of Biscay.The area was completely conquered by the Romans by 74 BC. First part of the Roman province of Citerior, then of the Tarraconensis province and after that of the conventus Caesaraugustanus. Rome left a clear mark in the area in the urbanization, the language, the infrastructure, commerce and industry. Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... Location of the tribe of the Vascones. ... Pic de Bugatetin the Néouvielle Natural Reserve Central Pyrenees The Pyrenees (Spanish: Pirineos; French: Pyrénées; Catalan: Pirineus; Occitan: Pirenèus; Aragonese: Perinés; Basque: Pirinioak) are a range of mountains in southwest Europe that form a natural border between France and Spain. ... Map of the Bay of Biscay. ...


After the decline of the Western Roman Empire neither the Visigoths nor the Arabs ever succeeded in permanently occupying the Western Pyrenees. The western Pyrenees passages were the only ones allowing good transit through the mountains, other than those on the Southern Pyrenees. That made the region strategically important early in its history.


The Franks under Charlemagne extended their influence and control towards the south, occupying several regions of the north and east of the Iberian Peninsula. It's not clear how solid was the Frankish control over Pamplona. In August 15, 778, after the retreating Charlemagne had demolished the walls of Pamplona, the Basque tribes annihilated his rearguard, led by Roland, in a confrontation at a mountain passage known to history as the Battle of Roncevaux Pass. August 15 is the 227th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (228th in leap years), with 138 days remaining. ... Events Charlemagne fights the Moors in Spain. ... It has been suggested that Orlando (character) be merged into this article or section. ... Combatants Franks Basques Commanders Charlemagne Roland, Eginhard, Anselmus Unknown (speculated: Duke Lop of Vasconia) Strength Major army Unknown (guerrilla party) Casualties Massacre of the Frankish rearguard Unknown The Roncevaux Pass (French and English spelling, Roncesvalles in Spanish, Orreaga in Basque) is the site of a famous battle in 778 in...


In 806 and 812 Pamplona felt again on the Franks hands. When, however, the Frankish emperors, on account of difficulties at home, were no longer able to give their attention to the outlying borderlands of their empire, the country, little by little, entirely withdrew from their allegiance, and about this time began the formation of a Vasconic dynasty which soon became very powerful. In 824 the Basque chieftain Iñigo Arista was chosen king of Pamplona, which was expanded under his successors and became known as the kingdom of Navarre. Events April 12 - Nicephorus elected patriarch of Constantinople, succeeding Tarasius. ... Events Births April 12 - Muhammad at-Taqi, Shia Imam (d. ... Events Iñigo Arista revolts against the Franks and establishes the kingdom of Navarre (approximate date). ... This is a list of the kings of Navarre. ...

The Kingdom of Pamplona in the early 10th century

The choice of the Pamplonese now fell kinsman Sancho I Garcés (90525), who fought against the Moors with repeated success and joined Ultra-Puertos, or Basse-Navarre, to his own dominions, also extending its territory as far as Nájera. As a thanksgiving for his victories, he founded, in 924, the convent of Albelda. Before his death, all Moors had been driven from the country. His successor, Garcia Sanchez (925–70), who had the support of his energetic and diplomatic mother Toda (Teuda) Aznárez of the royal branch of Larraun, likewise engaged in a number of conflicts with the Moors. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Alternate meaning: Area code 905 Events Births Deaths Categories: 905 ... Events Alfonso IV the Monk becomes king of Leon Ha-Mim proclaims himself a prophet among the Ghomara of Morocco Tomislav, duke of the Croatian duchies of Pannonia and Dalmatia, is crowned King of Croatia at Duvno field. ... Najera (Nájera in Spanish, Naiara in Basque) is a city located in the Rioja Alta district of La Rioja, Spain upon the river Najerilla. ... Events King Athelstan of England succeeds to the throne. ... García III Sánchez (c. ... Events Major volcano eruption in Mashu Japan Devastating decade long famine begins in France Byzantine Emperor John I successfully defends the Eastern Roman Empire from massive barbarian invasion Construction completed on Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, worlds oldest Islamic university Births Leif Ericson, Norse explorer Seyyed Razi, important Muslim...


In the year 905 a Leonese chronicle mentions the extension of the Kingdom of Pamplona for the first time, being clear that it extended then to Nájera and Arba (arguably Araba), what for some implies that it included the Western Basque Country as well: Álava province Álava (Basque: Araba) is a province of northern Spain, in the southern part of the autonomous community of the Basque Country. ... For the traditional overall Basque domain, see Basque Country (historical territory). ...

In era DCCCCXLIIII surrexit in Panpilona rex nomine Sancio Garseanis. Fidei Xpi inseparabiliterque uenerantissimus fuit, pius in omnibus fidefibus misericorsque oppressis catholicis. Quid multa? In omnibus operibus obtimus perstitit. Belligerator aduersus gentes Ysmaelitarum multipficiter strages gessit super Sarrazenos. Idem cepit per Cantabriam a Nagerense urbe usque ad Tutelam omnia castra. Terram quidem Degensem cum opidis cunctam possideuit. Arbam namque Panpilonensem suo iuri subdidit, necnon cum castris omne territorium Aragonense capit. Dehinc expulsis omnibus biotenatis XX' regni sue anno migrauit a seculo. Sepultus sancti Stefani portico regnat cum Xpo in polo (Obiit Sancio Garseanis era DCCCCLXIIII (A marg.)).[2]

In the year 944 [905] arose in Pamplona a king named Sancio Garseanis. He was a man of unbreakable devotion to the faith of Christ, pious with all the faithful and merciful with oppressed Catholics. What more? In all his actions he performed as a great warrior against the people of the Ismailites; he inflicted multiple disasters on the Saracens. This same captured all the fortified places in the Cantabria, from the city of Nájera to Tudela. Indeed he possessed all the land of Degium [Monjardín, near Lizarra] with its towns. The "Arba" of Pamplona he submitted to his law, and conquered as well all the country of Aragon [then Jaca and nearby lands] with its fortresses. Later, after suppressing all infidels, the twentieth year of his reign he left this world. Buried in the portal of Saint Stephen [Monjardín], he reigns with Christ in Heaven (King Sancho Garcés died in the era 964 [925] (marginal note)). Sancho Garces was King of Pamplona in 905-925. ... A Muslim is a believer in or follower of Islam. ... The Duchy of Cantabria was a march created by the Visigoths in Northern Spain to watch their border with the Basques. ... Najera (Nájera in Spanish, Naiara in Basque) is a city located in the Rioja Alta district of La Rioja, Spain upon the river Najerilla. ... Tudela is a town and municipality in Spain, in the northern province of Navarra. ... Estella can refer to: Estella, a character in Charles Dickens Great Expectations Estella, Spain Estella, Wisconsin This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Jaca as is viewed from the Rapitan fort. ...

Kingdom

Earliest historic period

Garcia Sanchez's son, Sancho II Garces, nicknamed Abarca, ruled as king of Pamplona and count of Aragon from 970 to 994. The valley of Aragon he had inherited from his mother. The Historia General de Navarra by Jaime del Burgo says that on the occasion of the donation of the villa of Alastue by the king of Pamplona to the monastery of San Juan de la Peña in 987, he styled himself "King of Navarre," the first time that title had been used. In many places he appears as the first King of Navarre and in others the third; however, he was at least the sixth king of Pamplona, and possibly the ninth. Sancho II Garcés Abarca of Navarre was king of Navarre and count of Aragon from 970 to 994. ... Events Major volcano eruption in Mashu Japan Devastating decade long famine begins in France Byzantine Emperor John I successfully defends the Eastern Roman Empire from massive barbarian invasion Construction completed on Al-Azhar mosque in Cairo, worlds oldest Islamic university Births Leif Ericson, Norse explorer Seyyed Razi, important Muslim... Events Otto III reaches his majority and begins to rule Germany in his own right. ... Jaime Ignacio del Burgo (born in Pamplona 1942) is a Navarrese lawyer and Deputy, a historian and advocate for the inclusion of Navarra in the autonomous Basque Country. ... A villa was originally an upper-class country house, though since its origins in Roman times the idea and function of a villa has evolved considerably. ... Aerial view of the monastery. ... Events Hugh Capet, Count of Paris, crowned King of France Kukulcan conquers Chichen Itza Births Deaths May 21 King Louis V of France Categories: 987 ... This is a list of the kings of Navarre. ...


Under Sancho and his immediate successors, Pamplona reached the height of its power and extent. Sancho III the Great (reigned 100035) married the heiress of the county of Castile. The realm reached its zenith under him: he ruled over Pamplona, Castile and Aragon, exerting protectorate also over Leon and Gascony. Under the sway of Sancho el Mayor, the country attained the greatest prosperity in its history. He seized the country of the Pisuerga and the Cea, which belonged to the Kingdom of Leon, conquered Castile, and ruled the north of Iberia from the boundaries of Galicia to those of the count of Barcelona. Sancho III (c. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... Limits of the Kingdom of Castile in 1210 The Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. ... Leon or Léon or León may refer to: // Léon, Landes, a commune of the Landes département, France Léon (viscounty), Brittany, France Léon (diocese), Brittany, France León, Guanajuato León, Nicaragua León Department Leon, Iloilo León, Spain, city and capital of the... Map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ... The city of León was founded by the Roman Seventh Legion (for unknown reasons always written as Legio Septima Gemina, or twin seventh legion). It was the headquarters of that legion in the late empire and was a center for trade in gold which was mined at Las M... Galicia (Spain) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...

Domains of Sancho III the Great
·Red: Kingdom of Pamplona
·Orange: other posessions
·Pink: direct influence

Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

Division of Navarre

At its greatest extent the Kingdom of Navarre included all the modern Spanish province; the northern slope of the western Pyrenees called by the Spaniards the ultra puertos ("country beyond the mountain passes") or French Navarre; the Basque provinces of Spain and France; the Bureba, the valley between the Basque mountains and the Montes de Oca to the north of Burgos; the Rioja and Tarazona in the upper valley of the Ebro. On his death, Sancho divided his possessions among his four sons. Sancho the Great's realm was never again united (until Ferdinand the Catholic): Castile was permanently joined to Leon, whereas Aragon enlarged its territory, joining Catalonia through a marriage. The cathedral Our Lady of Burgos. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon (Fernando de Aragón in Spanish and Ferran dAragó in Catalan), nicknamed the Catholic (March 10, 1452 – June 23, 1516) was king of Aragon, Castile, Sicily, Naples and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ...


Of Sancho's sons, Garcia of Najera inherited the Kingdom of Pamplona, from the proximity of Burgos and Santander to the border with Aragon; Castile and the lands between the Pisuerga and the Cea went to the eldest, Fernando; to Gonzalo were given Sobrarbe and Ribagorza; the County of Aragon was allotted to the bastard son Ramiro. The realm was divided thus once more, into Navarre, Aragón, and Castile. García IV Sánchez (died 1000), called the Trembling, the Tremulous, or the Trembler (in Spanish, el Temblón), was the king of Pamplona and count of Aragón from 994 until his death. ... Coat of arms of the Kingdom of Aragon Aragón was a Frankish feudal county (Jaca), which was united to the kingdom of Pamplona (later Navarre) in 925. ...


The eldest legitimate son, Ferdinand I was the first Castilian monarch to use the title of King and he enlarged his realm by various means (see Kingdom of Castile). Ferdinand I of Castile, known as El Magno or the Great, (d. ... A monarch (see sovereignty) is a type of ruler or head of state. ... Limits of the Kingdom of Castile in 1210 The Kingdom of Castile was one of the medieval kingdoms of the Iberian Peninsula. ...


The bastard son of Sancho III, Ramiro de Aragon, founded the Navarrese line of Aragon. Sancho III (c. ... This genealogy of Aragonese kings from a 16th century Spanish manuscript gives Ramiro I a prominent place. ... Here is a list of the rulers of Aragon, now a region of north-eastern Spain. ...


Garcia of Najera, the younger legitimate son of Sancho III, was therefore the legitimate King of Pamplona. But he was soon challenged by his brothers, leading to the first partition of the kingdom after his death in the Battle of Atapuerca, in 1054. García V of Nájera (in Spanish, García V El de Nájera), was king of Navarre from 1035 to 1054. ... The Battle of Atapuerca was fought in 1054 in the valley of Atapuerca between brothers King García V, El de Nájera, of Navarre and King Ferdinand I, the Great, of Casile and León. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ...


Ecclesiastical affairs

In this period of independence, the ecclesiastical affairs of the country reached a high state of development. Sancho the Great was brought up at Leyra, which was also for a short time the capital of the Diocese of Pamplona. Beside this see, there existed the Bishopric of Oca, which was united in 1079 to that of Burgos. In 1035 Sancho the Great re-established the See of Palencia, which had been laid waste at the time of the Moorish invasion. When, in 1045, the city of Calahorra was wrested from the Moors, under whose dominion it had been for more than three hundred years, a see was also founded here, which in the same year absorbed that of Najera and, in 1088, that of Alava, the jurisdiction of which covered about the same ground as that of the present diocese of Vitoria. To Sancho the Great, also, the See of Pamplona owed its re-establishment, the king having, for this purpose, convoked a synod at Leyra in 1022 and one at Pamplona in 1023. These synods likewise instituted a reform of ecclesiastical life with the above-named convent, as a centre. Events Persian astronomer, Omar Khayyám, computed the length of the year as 365. ... Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... Events Emperor Go-Reizei ascends the throne of Japan. ... Events Succession of Pope Urban II (1088-1099) Work begins on the third and largest church at Cluny Rebellion of 1088 against William II of England lead by Odo of Bayeux. ... Events Several Catharist heretics are killed in Toulouse. ... Events The Judge-Governor of Sevilla takes advantage of the disintegration of the caliphate of Córdoba and seizes power as Abbad I, thus founded the Abbadid dynasty. ...


Navarre's dismemberment

First partition

Garcia V (103554) soon found himself struggling against his brothers, specially ambitious Ferdinand of Castile. He died fighting against him in Atapuerca, near Burgos, then the border of Pamplona. Events Harthacanute becomes king of Denmark. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ...


He was succeeded by Sancho IV (105476) of Peñalén, who was murdered by his brothers. This crime caused a dynastic crisis that the Castilian and Aragonese monarchs used to their benefit. Sancho IV (in Spanish Sancho IV El de Peñalén), (c. ... Events Cardinal Humbertus, a representative of Pope Leo IX, and Michael Cerularius, Patriarch of Constantinople, decree each others excommunication. ... Events February 14 - Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ...


The royal title was transferred to the Aragonese line but Castile swiftly annexed two thirds of the realm from the historical border of the Atapuerca-Santander line to a vague partition-line at the Ega valley, near Estella. Atapuerca, also known as Sierra de Atapuerca or Sierra Atapuerca, is an ancient karst topography region of Spain, containing several caves such as the Gran Dolina site, where fossils and stone tools of the one of the earliest known hominids in Europe have been found, dating to between 780,000... Cantabria Population (2004) 183,799 inhabitants Area 34 km² Altitude 15 metres, at its peak Population density (2004) 5406 people/km² The port city of Santander is the capital of the autonomous community of Cantabria situated on the north coast of Spain between Asturias (to the west) and the Basque... Estella can refer to: Estella, a character in Charles Dickens Great Expectations Estella, Spain Estella, Wisconsin This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


It is in this period of Aragonese domination that the name of Navarre first appears historically, referring initially to a county that comprised only the central part of modern Navarre.


The three Aragonese rulers, Sancho Ramirez (107694) and his son Pedro Sanchez (1094104) conquered Huesca; Alfonso "the Fighter", 1104–34, brother of Pedro Sanchez, secured for the country its greatest territorial expansion. He wrested Tudela from the Moors (1114), re-conquered the entire country of Bureba, which Navarre had lost in 1042, and advanced into the current Province of Burgos; in addition, Roja, Najera, Logroño, Calahorra, and Alfaro were subject to him. He also annexed Labourd, with its strategic port of Bayonne, but lost its coastal half to the English soon after. The remainder was since then part of Navarre and eventually came to be known as Lower Navarre. Events February 14 - Pope Gregory VII excommunicates Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor. ... // May - El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. ... // May - El Cid completes his conquest of Valencia, Spain, and begins his rule of Valencia. ... Events September 3 - St. ... Alfonso I of Aragon the Battler (circa 1073-1134, king of Aragon and Navarre 1104-1134). ... Events September 3 - St. ... Tudela is a town and municipality in Spain, in the northern province of Navarra. ... Events January 7 - Matilda, daughter of Henry I of England, marries Henry IV, Holy Roman Emperor Births Deaths Categories: 1114 ... Events April 18/April 19 - Emperor Michael V of the Byzantine Empire attempts to remain sole Emperor by sending his adoptive mother and co-ruler Zoe of Byzantium to a monastery. ... Burgos province Burgos is a province of northern Spain, in the northeastern part of the autonomous community of Castile and León. ... Roja (1992) is a Tamil film directed by Mani Ratnam. ... Location within Rioja Media (La Rioja). ... Calahorra, La Rioja, Spain is located in the comarca of La Rioja Baja, in that regions southwest, near the border with Navarre on the right bank of the Ebro. ... Coat of Arms of Labourd Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; from Latin Lapurdum, Labord in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Bayonne (French: Bayonne, pronounced ; Gascon Occitan and Basque: Baiona) is a city and commune of southwest France at the confluence of the Nive and Adour rivers, in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques département, of which it is a sous-préfecture. ... Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ...


Restoration

This status quo stood for two decades until Alfonso the Battler, dying without heirs, decided to give his realm away to the military orders, particularly the Templars. This decision was rejected by the courts (parliaments) of both Aragon and Navarre, who then chose separate kings. Alfonso I of Aragon the Battler (circa 1073-1134, king of Aragon and Navarre 1104-1134). ... The Seal of the Knights — the two riders have been interpreted as a sign of poverty or the duality of monk/soldier. ...


García VI Ramírez, known as the Restorer, is the first King of Navarre to use such a title. He was Lord of Monzon, a grandson of Rodrigo Diaz de Vivar, El Cid, and a descendant by illegitimate line of Garcia V of Navarre, a son of Sancho the Great. He and his son Sancho the Wise fought bitterly against Castile (and sometimes also against Aragon) for the recovery of the historic Pamplonese territory. García VI Ramírez (died 21 November 1150, Lorca), called the Restorer (Spanish: el Restaurador), was lord of Monzón, and in 1134 became King of Navarre. ... Mansong Diarra - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Statue of El Cid in Burgos. ... Sancho VI Garces, (c. ...


In 1177, the dispute was submitted to arbitration by the English King Henry II. The Navarrese based their claims on the proven will of the locals and history, the Castilians on their merits as crusaders. The English decision was Solomonic, giving to each side what they actually controlled militarily at the time: to Navarre: Alava, Biscay and Guipuscoa. To Castile: La Rioja and the other western lands. Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, and as King of England (1154–1189) and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland, eastern Ireland, and western France. ...


Although the arbitration decision was ignored for two years, in 1179 the contending kings finally agreed to a peace on the same terms.


Sancho Garcia, known as Sancho VI "the Wise" (115094), a patron of learning, as well as an accomplished statesman, fortified Navarre within and without, granted charters (fueros) to a number of towns, and was never defeated in battle. Sancho VI Garces, (c. ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... Events November 20 - Palermo falls to Henry VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire December 25 - Henry VI is crowned king of Sicily. ...


The rich dowry of Berengaria, the daughter of Sancho VI the Wise, and Blanche of Castile, made her a desirable catch for Richard I of England. His aged mother, Eleanor of Aquitaine, crossed the Pyrenean passes to escort Berengaria to Sicily, eventually to wed Richard in Cyprus, May 12, 1191. She is the only Queen of England who never set foot in England. Berengaria of Navarre Berengaria (Spanish: Berenguela, French: Bérengère) (c. ... Sancho VI Garces, (c. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 to 6 April 1199. ... Eleanor of Aquitaine Eleanor of Aquitaine, Duchess of Aquitaine and Gascony and Countess of Poitou (1122[1] –April 1, 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in Europe during the High Middle Ages. ... May 12 is the 132nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (133rd in leap years). ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ...


The reign of Sancho the Wise's successor, the last king of the male line of Sancho the Great and of kings of Pamplona, king Sancho VII the Strong (Sancho el Fuerte) (1194234), was more troubled. He appropriated the revenues of churches and convents, granting them instead important privileges; in 1198 he presented to the See of Pamplona his palaces and possessions in that city, this gift being confirmed by Pope Innocent III on 29 January 1199. Events November 20 - Palermo falls to Henry VI, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire December 25 - Henry VI is crowned king of Sicily. ... Events Canonization of Saint Dominic Collapse of the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234) Deaths Emperor Chukyo of Japan Emperor Go-Horikawa of Japan Monarchs/Presidents Aragon - James I King of Aragon and count of Barcelona (reigned from 1213 to 1276) Castile - Ferdinand III, the Saint King of Castile and Leon (reigned... Events End of the reign of Emperor Go-Toba of Japan Emperor Tsuchimikado ascends to the throne of Japan January 8 - Pope Innocent III ascends Papal Throne Frederick II, infant son of German King Henry VI, crowned King of Sicily Births August 24 - Alexander II of Scotland (d. ... January 29 is the 29th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events John Lackland, becomes King of England Births Isobel of Huntingdon (d. ...


Second partition

However, in 1199 Alfonso VIII of Castile, determined to own coastal Navarre, a strategic region that would allow Castile much easier access to European wool markets and would isolate Navarre as well, launched a massive expedition, while Sancho the Strong was on an international diplomatic voyage to Tlemcen (modern Algeria). Alfonso VIII (November 11, 1155 – October 5, 1214); called the Noble or, in Spanish, el Noble; also known as He of Las Navas (El de las Navas); was the king of Castile and grandson of Alfonso VII.After having suffered a great defeat with his own army in 1195 at... Sancho in stained glass in the church at Roncesvalles. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


The cities of Vitoria and Treviño resisted the Castilian assault but the Bishop of Pamplona was sent to inform them that no reinforcements would arrive. Vitoria then surrendered but Treviño did not, having to be conquered by force of arms. Vitoria (population: 224,965 (2004 est), is the capital city of the province of Álava and of the Comunidad Vasca Spanish autonomous region, though it is the second city of the region by population. ...


By 1200 the conquest of Western Navarre was complete. Castile granted to the fragments of this territory (exceptions: Treviño, Oñati, directly ruled from Castile) the right of self-rule, based on their traditional customs (Navarrese right), that came to be known as fueros. Alava was made a county, Biscay lordship and Guipuscoa just provinces. Oñati is a town located in the province of Gipuzkoa, in the autonomous community of Basque Country, in the North of Spain. ... Self rule is used to described a people or group being able to exercise all of the necessary functions of power without intervention from any authority which they cannot themselves alter. ... Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ... Lord of Biscay (Basque: Bizkaiko Jauna, Spanish: Señor de Vizcaya) is a historical title of the head of state of the autonomous territory of Biscay, Basque Country. ...


The late reign of Sancho the Strong

The greatest glory of Sancho el Fuerte was the part he took in the battle of Las Navas de Tolosa (1212), where, through his valour, the victory of the allied Christians over the Calif En-Nasir was made decisive. He retired and died in el Encerrado. His elder sister Berengaria, Queen of England, had died some years earlier childless. His deceased younger sister Blanca, countess of Champagne, had left a son, Theobald IV of Champagne. The July 16, 1212 battle of Las Navas de Tolosa is considered a major turning point in the history of Medieval Iberia. ... Events The first Great Fire of London burns most of the city to the ground Battle of Navas de Tolosa Childrens crusade Crusaders push the Muslims out of northern Spain In Japan, Kamo no Chōmei writes the Hōjōki, one of the great works of classical Japanese... Theobald IV of Champagne (1201–1253), known as the Troubadour, the Chansonnier, and the Posthumous, was Count of Champagne and the King of Navarre from 1235. ...


Thus the Kingdom of Navarre, though the crown yet was claimed by the kings of Aragon, passed by marriage to the House of Champagne, firstly to the heirs of Blanca, who simultaneously were counts of Champagne and Brie, with the support of the Navarrese Parliament (Cortes). The Counts of Champagne ruled the region of Champagne, France from 1022 to 1314. ...


Navarre in the High Middle Ages

Standard of the Kings of Navarra since 1212, also used as flag of Basse Navarre.

Thibault, as Teobaldo I, from 1234 to 1253, made of his Court a centre where the poetry of the Troubadours that had developed at the court of the counts of Champagne was welcomed and fostered; his reign was peaceful. His son, Theobald II of Navarre (1253–70), married Isabel, the second daughter of Louis IX of France and accompanied his saintly father-in-law upon his crusade to Tunis. On the homeward journey, he died at Trapani in Sicily, and was succeeded by his brother, Henry I of Navarre, who had already assumed the reins of government during his absence, but reigned only three years (127174). His daughter Joanna I of Navarre not yet being of age, the country was once more invaded from all sides, and the queen mother, Blanca, with her daughter sought refuge at the court of Philip the Bold of France, whose son, Philip the Fair, had become engaged to the daughter and married Joanna in 1284. In 1276, at the time of the negotiations for this marriage, Navarre effectively passed into French control. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Theobald V of Champagne (c. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... Henry I the Fat (French: Henri le Gros, Spanish: Enrique el Gordo) (c. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Jeanne de Navarre, also known as Johanna or Joan of Navarre (c. ... Philip III the Bold (French: Philippe III le Hardi) (30 April 1245 – 5 October 1285) reigned as King of France from 1270 to 1285. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... // Events War and politics King Charles II of Naples is captured in a naval battle off Naples by Roger of Lauria, admiral to King Peter III of Aragon. ... For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ...


In 1305, Navarre passed to the guardianship of King Philip IV of France. It stayed with the French crown until the death of Charles IV of France at 1328. As Charles died without male issue, when Philip of Valois became king of France, the Navarrese declared themselves independent and called to the throne Joanna II, daughter of Louis Hutin and senior niece of Charles, and her husband Philip of Evreux (reigned 1328–43), called Philip the Wise. Joanna waived all claim to the throne of France and accepted as compensation for the counties of Champagne and Brie those of Angoulême, Longueville, and Mortain. Events August 5 - English troops capture William Wallace Wenceslas III becomes king of Bohemia Archbishop of Bordeaux, Bertrand de Got, was elected as Pope Clement V. Philip IV of France accused the Knights Templar of heresy. ... Philip IV the Fair (French: Philippe IV le Bel) (1268 – November 29, 1314) was King of France from 1285 until his death. ... Charles IV the Fair (French: Charles IV le Bel) (1294 – February 1, 1328), a member of the Capetian Dynasty, reigned as King of France from 1322 to 1328. ... Events Augustiner brew Munich May 1 - Treaty of Edinburgh-Northampton - England recognises Scotland as an independent nation after the Wars of Scottish Independence May 12 - Nicholas V is consecrated at St Peters Basilica in Rome by the bishop of Venice. ... Events Magnus II of Sweden abdicates from the throne of Norway in favor of his son Haakon VI of Norway. ...


King-consort Philip III devoted himself to the improvement of the laws of the country, and joined King Alfonso XI of Castile in battle against the Moors of 1343. After the death of his mother (1349), Charles II of Navarre assumed the reins of government (1349–87). He played an important part in the Hundred Years' War and in the French civil unrest of the time, and on account of his deceit and cruelty he received the surname of the Wicked. He gained and lost possessions in Normandy and, later in his reign, the Navarrese Company acquired island possessions in Greece. // Events January 9 - The Jewish population of Basel, Switzerland is rounded up and incinerated, believed by the residents to be the cause of the ongoing bubonic plague. ... Charles II (1332–1387), called Charles the Bad, was King of Navarre 1349–1387 and Count of Évreux 1343–1387. ... Events June 2 - John Holland, a maternal half-brother of Richard II of England, is created Earl of Huntingdon. ... Combatants France Castile Scotland Genoa Majorca Bohemia Crown of Aragon Brittany England Burgundy Brittany Portugal Navarre Flanders Hainaut Aquitaine Luxembourg Holy Roman Empire The Hundred Years War was a conflict between France and England, lasting 116 years from 1337 to 1453. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... The Navarrese Company was a company of mercenaries, mostly from Navarre and Gascony, which fought in Greece during the late fourteenth and early fifteenth centuries, in the twilight of Frankish power in the dwindling remnant of the Latin Empire. ...


His eldest son, on the other hand, Charles III of Navarre, surnamed the Noble, gave the land once more a peaceful and happy government (1387-1425), exerted his strength to the utmost to lift the country from its degenerate condition, reformed the government, built canals, and made navigable the tributaries of the Ebro flowing through Navarre. As he outlived his legitimate sons, he was succeeded by his daughter Blanca (1425–42) and her husband John of Penafiel (13971479), son of king Ferdinand I of Aragon. Charles III of Navarre (1361, Mantes – September 8, 1425, Olite), surnamed the Noble, was King of Navarre 1387–1425, Count of Évreux 1387–1404, and Duke of Nemours 1404–1425. ... Events Foundation of the Katholieke Universiteit Leuven, Belgium Births John II, Duke of Lorraine (died 1470) Edmund Sutton, English nobleman (died 1483) Deaths January 18 - Edmund Mortimer, 5th Earl of March, English politician (born 1391) March 17 - Ashikaga Yoshikazu, Japanese shogun (born 1407) May 24 - Murdoch Stewart, 2nd Duke of... Events The community of Rauma, Finland was granted its town rights. ... John II (June 29, 1397 – January 20, 1479) was a King of Aragon (1458 - 1479) and a King of Navarre (1425 - 1479). ... Events February 10 - John Beaufort becomes Earl of Somerset. ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... Ferdinand I (of Aragón and Sicily), called The Just (c. ...


As king-consort John II ruled Aragon in the name of his brother, Alfonso V of Aragon. He left his son, Don Carlos (Charles) of Viana, in Navarre, only with the rank of governor, whereas Blanca had designed that Charles of Viana should be king. In 1450, John II himself regained to Navarre, and, urged on by his ambitious second wife, Juana Enriquez of the illegitimate Castilian line, endeavoured to obtain the succession for their son Fernando (the future Ferdinand the Catholic). As a result a violent civil war broke out, in which the powerful party of the Agramontes supported the king and queen, and the party of the Beaumonts -- called after their leader, the chancellor, John of Beaumont -- espoused the cause of Charles; the highlands were on the side of the prince, the plains on that of the king. The unhappy prince was defeated by his father at Aybar, in 1451, and held a prisoner for two years, during which he wrote his famous Chronicle of Navarre, the source of our present knowledge of this subject. After his release, he sought in vain the assistance of King Charles VII of France and of his uncle Alfonso V (who resided in Naples). In 1460 he was again imprisoned at the instigation of his step-mother, but the Catalonians rose in revolt at this injustice, and he was again liberated and named governor of Catalonia. He died in 1461, without having been able to reconquer his kingdom of Navarre; he named as his heir his next sister Blanca, who was, however, immediately imprisoned by John II, and died in 1464. Alfonso V of Aragon (also Alfonso I of Naples) (1396 – June 27, 1458), surnamed the Magnanimous, was the King of Aragon and Naples and count of Barcelona from 1416 to 1458. ... Charles, Prince of Viana, ( 1421 - 1461), sometimes called Charles IV, king of Navarre, was the son of John, afterwards king of Aragon, by his marriage with Blanche, daughter and heiress of Charles, king of Navarre. ... // March - French troops under Guy de Richemont besiege the English commander in France, Edmund Beaufort, Duke of Somerset, in Caen. ... Ferdinand II of Aragon (Fernando de Aragón in Spanish and Ferran dAragó in Catalan), nicknamed the Catholic (March 10, 1452 – June 23, 1516) was king of Aragon, Castile, Sicily, Naples and Navarre and Count of Barcelona. ... // Events February 3 - Murad II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Mehmed II. April 11 - Celje acquires market-town status and town rights by orders from the Celje count Frederic II. June 30 - French troops under the Comte de Dunois invade Guyenne and capture... Charles VII the Victorious, a. ... Events The first Portuguese navigators reach the coast of modern Sierra Leone. ... Events February 2 - Battle of Mortimers Cross - Yorkist troops led by Edward, Duke of York defeat Lancastrians under Owen Tudor and his son Jasper Tudor, Earl of Pembroke in Wales. ... Events February - Christian I of Denmark and Norway who was also serving as King of Sweden is declared deposed from the later throne. ...


Her right was inherited by her sister Eleanor I of Navarre (Leonor), Countess of Foix and Béarn, who had been an ally of her father. After her death, which occurred very soon after that of John II, the claim to the throne of Navarre passed to her grandson, Francis Phoebus of Foix (who reigned over Navarre 147983). His sister Catherine I of Navarre, who, as a minor, remained under the guardianship of her mother, Madeleine of France, was sought by Ferdinand the Catholic as a bride for his eldest son; but she gave her hand in 1494 to the Jean d'Albret, count of Perigord, a man of vast possessions in the south of France, brother-in-law of Cesare Borgia. Eleanor de Foix (1425-Tudela, 1479), regent (1455-1479) and queen (1479) of Navarre. ... Château des Comtes de Foix Foix river Foix is a small town and commune, the préfecture (capital) of the Ariège département in France. ... Béarn coat of arms Béarn (Gascon: Bearn or Biarn) is a former province of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. ... Francis Phoebus (in French François Fébus and in Spanish Francisco Febo) (c. ... Events January 20 - Ferdinand II ascends the throne of Aragon and rules together with his wife Isabella, queen of Castile over most of the Iberian peninsula. ... Events The São Tomé settlement is founded. ... Catherine (in Spanish, Catalina de Foix) (1468-1518), was queen of Navarre (1483-1513), duchess of Gandía, Montblanc, and Peñafiel, countess of Foix, Bigorre, and Ribagorza, and viscountess of Béarn. ... 1494 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... John III of Navarre, also known as Jean dAlbret (1469 - 1516), became King of Navarre by virtue of his 1484 marriage to Catherine, Countess of Foix (1470 - 1517) who was Queen Catalina of Navarre after the death of her brother Francis Phoebus in 1483. ... Périgord is a former province of France, corresponding to the current Dordogne département, now forming the northern part of the Aquitaine région. ... Cesare Borgia. ...


Castilian conquest

Nevertheless, Ferdinand of Aragon did not relinquish his long-cherished designs on Navarre, and married secondly Germana (Germaine of Foix), the daughter of Catherine's uncle who had attempted to claim Navarre over his deceased elder brother's under-age children. Germaine de Foix Germaine of Foix (1488-18 October 1538) was a French princess of the house of Foix, whom King Ferdinand II of Aragon, Spain, married in 1505 after the death of his first wife, Queen Isabella of Castile. ...


When Navarre refused to join one of many Holy Leagues against France and declared itself neutral, Ferdinand asked the Pope to excommunicate Albrit, which would have legitimised his attack. When the Pope refused, Ferdinand fabricated a false bull and sent his general Don Fabrique de Toledo to invade Navarre in 1512. Throughout history there have been many alliances and organizations known as the Catholic League, including: Catholic League (USA) - Civil rights group in the United States. ... 1512 was a leap year starting on Monday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Unable to face the powerful Castilian-Aragonese army, Jean d'Albret fled to Pau, and Pamplona, Estella, Olite, Sanguesa, and Tudela were captured. Some months later the legitimate King returned with an army recruited north of the Pyrenees and attacked Pamplona without success. Aquitaine Region flag Coat of arms The location of Pau is shown on this map of the historical and cultural area of Gascony. ...


After this failure, the Navarrese Cortes (Parliament) had to accept annexation to Castile, which agreed to keep Navarrese autonomy and identity. In 1513, the first Castilian viceroy took an oath to respect Navarrese law (fueros). 1513 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Fueros is a Spanish legal term and concept; there is a similar Portuguese term, Forals. ...


Nevertheless, the Castilian occupation forces carried out a severe repression that forced many Navarrese into exile or even death. Most unfortunate were the formerly buoyant Jewish community of Navarre and also the Moriscos (Muslims) of Tudela, who became the main victims of the Spanish Inquisition. Morisco (Spanish Moor-like) or mourisco (Portuguese) is a term referring to a kind of New Christian in Spain and Portugal. ... Saint Dominic (1170 – August 6, 1221) Presiding over an Auto-da-fe, by Pedro Berruguete, (1450 - 1504). ...


There were two more attempts at liberation in 1516 and 1521, both supported by popular rebellion, especially the second one. It was in 1521 that the Navarrese came closest to regaining their independence. As the liberation army commanded by General Asparros approached Pamplona, the citizens revolted and besieged the military governor, Iñigo de Loyola, in his newly built castle. Tudela and other cities also declared their loyalty to the House of Labrit. The Navarrese-Bearnese army did manage to liberate all the Kingdom. But Asparros, overconfident, let the infantry get out of control and besieged Logroño, being finally defeated in the Battle of Noain, June 30 of 1521, by a much superior army. // Events March - With the death of Ferdinand II of Aragon, his grandson Charles of Ghent becomes King of Spain as Carlos I. July - Selim I of the Ottoman Empire declares war on the Mameluks and invades Syria. ... Events January 3 - Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem. ... Ignatius of Loyola Saint Ignatius of Loyola (December 24, 1491? – July 31, 1556), baptized Íñigo López de Loyola, was the founder of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order commonly known as the Jesuits that was established to strengthen the Church, initially against Protestantism. ... Location within Rioja Media (La Rioja). ... June 30 is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 184 days remaining. ...


Nevertheless, in 1522, two hundred Navarrese revolted at Amaiur castle, Baztan, where a monolith now commemorates their heroism. That same year, an army of one thousand Navarrese took Hondarribia for some days. Events January 9 - Adrian Dedens becomes Pope Adrian VI. February 26 - Execution by hanging of Cuauhtémoc, Aztec ruler of Tenochtitlan under orders of conquistador Hernán Cortés. ... Baztan is a town and municipality located in the province and autonomous community of Navarre, northern Spain. ... Hondarribias old quarter Spanish armys building in Hondarribia Hondarribia (sand ford in Basque, also known by its Spanish adaptation Fuenterrabía or the French one, Fontarabie) is a town situated on the east shore of Bidasoa rivers mouth, in Gipuzkoa, Basque Country, Spain. ...


Navarre was a thalassocracy in its later existence and was involved in whaling, fishing, and beaver trapping in and around Newfoundland. Basque coastal exploration of the northern Atlantic coast of North America was extensive and outposts were present on the Newfoundland coast around or before the time of the New World arrival of Christopher Columbus in 1492. [1][2] They continued to operate there as agents of the Spanish and French after losing their independence until France's 1762 loss of Newfoundland to the British in the French and Indian War. The term thalassocracy (from the Greek Θαλασσο-κρατία) refers to a state with primarily maritime realms—an empire at sea, such as the Phoenician network of merchant cities. ... For other uses, see Newfoundland (disambiguation). ... World map showing North America A satellite composite image of North America. ... Christopher Columbus (1451 – May 20, 1506) was a navigator and maritime explorer credited as the discoverer of the Americas. ... Combatants France First Nations allies: * Algonquin * Wyandot * Ojibwa * Ottawa * Shawnee Great Britain Iroquois Confederacy Strength 3,900 regulars 7,900 militia 2,200 natives (1759) 50,000 regulars and militia (1759) The French and Indian War was the nine-year North American chapter of the Seven Years War. ...


Independent Navarre north of the Pyrenees

Queen Joan III

A small portion of Navarre north of the Pyrenees, Lower Navarre, along with the neighbouring Principality of Béarn survived as an independent kingdom which passed by inheritance. Navarre, received from Henry II of Navarre, the son of Jean d'Albret, a representative assembly, the clergy being represented by the bishops of Bayonne and Dax, their vicars-general, the parish priest of St-Jean-Pied-de-Port, and the priors of Saint-Palais, d'Utziat and Haramples. The area north of the Pyrenees (Lower Navarre) remained an independent kingdom with large additional French estates until 1620. public domain photo This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... public domain photo This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Basse-Navarre (Nafarroa Beherea in Basque) is a former French province, part of the present day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... Béarn coat of arms Béarn (Gascon: Bearn or Biarn) is a former province of France, located in the Pyrenees mountains and in the plain at their feet, in southwest France. ... Henry II (1503 - May 25, 1555), titular King of Navarre, was the eldest son of Jean dAlbret (d. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Queen Jeanne III converted to Calvinism in 1556 and, consequently, promoted a translation of the Bible into Basque language, which is one of the first books published in this language. She and specially her son, Henry III of Navarre, led the Huguenot party in the French Wars of Religion. In 1589, Henry was granted the crown of France (though he had to convert to Catholicism). In spite of the fact that French law required that all possessions of any monarch should be united with France, Henry and his son Louis XIII respected the independence of Navarre. Jeanne dAlbret Jeanne dAlbret (January 7, 1528 – June 9, 1572) was Queen of Navarre from 1555 to 1572, wife of Antoine de Bourbon, duke of Vendome and mother of Henry IV of France. ... Calvinism is a theological system and an approach to the Christian life that emphasizes Gods sovereignty in all things. ... Events January 16 - Abdication of Emperor Charles V. His son, Philip II becomes King of Spain, while his brother Ferdinand becomes Holy Roman Emperor January 23 - The Shaanxi earthquake, the deadliest earthquake in history, occurs with its epicenter in Shaanxi province, China. ... This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library of Congress. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... In the 16th and 17th centuries, the name Huguenot was applied to a member of the Protestant Reformed Church of France, historically known as the French Calvinists. ... The French Wars of Religion were a series of conflicts fought between Catholics and Huguenots (Protestants) from the middle of the sixteenth century to the Edict of Nantes in 1598, including civil infighting as well as military operations. ... Events Rebellion of the Catholic League against King Henry III of France, in revenge for his murder of Duke Henry of Guise. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic - from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1] - is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ...


When Labourd and High Navarre were shaken by large witch-hunts in 1609 and 1610, many sought refuge in Lower Navarre. Only in 1620 was Navarre fully incorporated to France. Coat of Arms of Labourd Labourd (Lapurdi in Basque; from Latin Lapurdum, Labord in Gascon) is a former French province and part of the present-day Pyrénées Atlantiques département. ... A witch-hunt is a search for suspected witches; it is a type of moral panic. ... // Events April 4 – King of Spain signs an edit of expulsion of all moriscos from Spain April 9 – Spain recognizes Dutch independence May 23 - Official ratification of the Second Charter of Virginia. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Later history

The last independent king of Navarre, Henry III (reigned 15721610), succeeded to the throne of France as Henry IV in 1589, founding the Bourbon dynasty. In 1620, French Navarre and Béarn were incorporated into France proper by Henry's son, Louis XIII of France. The title of King of Navarre continued to be used by the Kings of France until the French Revolution in 1791, and was revived again during the Restoration, 181430. January 16 - Thomas Howard, 4th Duke of Norfolk is tried for treason for his part in the Ridolfi plot to restore Catholicism in England. ... // Events January 7 - Galileo Galilei discovers the Galilean moons of Jupiter. ... Henry IV of France, also Henry III of Navarre (13 December 1553 – 14 May 1610), ruled as King of France from 1589 to 1610 and King of Navarre from 1572 to 1610. ... This article or section should include material from France: Wars of Religion - Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon dates from at least the beginning of the 13th century, when the estate of Bourbon was ruled by a Lord, vassal of France. ... Year 1620 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Saturday of the 10-day slower Julian calendar). ... Louis XIII (September 27, 1601 – May 14, 1643), called the Just (French: le Juste), was King of France from 1610 to 1643. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... 1791 (MDCCXCI) was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 11-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Following the ouster of Napoleon Bonaparte in 1814, the Allies restored the Bourbon Dynasty to the French throne. ... Year 1814 (MDCCCXIV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


As the Kingdom of Navarre was originally organized, it was divided into merindades, districts governed by a merino ("mayorino"), the representative of the king. They were the "Ultrapuertos" (French Navarre), Pamplona, Estella, Tudela and Sangüesa. In 1407 the merindad of Olite was added. The Cortes of Navarre began as the king's council of churchmen and nobles, but in the course of the 14th century the burgesses were added. Their presence was due to the fact that the king had need of their co-operation to raise money by grants and aids, a development that was being paralleled in England. The Cortes henceforth consisted of the churchmen, the nobles and the representatives of twenty-seven (later thirty-eight) "good towns" — towns which were free of a feudal lord, and, therefore, held directly of the king. The independence of the burgesses was better secured in Navarre than in other parliaments of Spain by the constitutional rule which required the consent of a majority of each order to every act of the Cortes. Thus the burgesses could not be outvoted by the nobles and the Church, as they could be elsewhere. Even in the 18th century the Navarrese successfully resisted Bourbon attempts to establish custom houses on the French frontier, dividing French from Spanish Navarre. Yet the Navarrese were loyal to their Spanish sovereigns, and no part of the country offered a more determined or more skilful resistance to Napoleon. Merindad is a Castilian or Spanish Medieval administrative term that refers to a territorial division smaller than a province but larger than a municipality. ... Tudela is a town and municipality in Spain, in the northern province of Navarra. ... Events November 20 - A solemn truce between John, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspicies of John, Duke of Berry. ... Hernán Cortés, 16th century Spanish conquistador Pablo Cortés, 18th century Spanish slave trader Corte (disambiguation), for the judicial bodies of the Spanish-speaking Americas, and the communes in France and Italy Cortes Generales (General Courts), usually just las Cortes, national legislative assembly of Spain The term Cortes... This 14th-century statue from south India depicts the gods Shiva (on the left) and Uma (on the right). ... (17th century - 18th century - 19th century - more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 18th century refers to the century that lasted from 1701 through 1800. ...


Navarre was staunchly Catholic and much under clerical influence. This, and the resentment felt at the loss of their autonomy when they were incorporated into Spain in 1833, account for the strong support given by many Navarrese to the Carlist cause. Until the French Revolution the kings of France carried the additional title king of Navarre. Since the rest of Navarre was in Spanish hands, the kings of Spain also carried (until 1833) the title king of Navarre. During that period Navarre enjoyed a special status within the Spanish monarchy; it had its own cortes, taxation system, and separate customs laws. In 1833, Navarre became the chief stronghold of the Carlists but recognized Isabella II as queen in 1839. As a reward for their loyalty in the Spanish Civil War, Franco allowed the Navarrese to maintain their ancient fueros, which were charters handed down by the crown outlining a system of self-government. 1833 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... Carlism was a conservative political movement in Spain, purporting to establish an alternative branch of the Bourbons in the Spanish throne. ... Hernán Cortés, 16th century Spanish conquistador Pablo Cortés, 18th century Spanish slave trader Corte (disambiguation), for the judicial bodies of the Spanish-speaking Americas, and the communes in France and Italy Cortes Generales (General Courts), usually just las Cortes, national legislative assembly of Spain The term Cortes... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Fueros of Navarre, or Fuero general de Navarra, were the medieval laws of the kingdom of Navarre. ...


Territory today

The territory formerly known as Navarre now belongs to two nations, Spain and France, depending on whether it lies south or north of the Western Pyrenees. The Basque language is still spoken in most of the provinces. Today, Navarre is an autonomous community of Spain and Basse-Navarre is part of France's Pyrénées Atlantiques département. Other former Navarrese territories belong now to several autonomous communities of Spain: the Autonomous Community of the Basque Country, La Rioja, Aragon and Castile-Leon. Capital Pamplona (Basque: Iruña) Official language(s) Spanish; Basque co-official in the north of community. ... Autonomous communities of Spain. ... Pyrénées-Atlantiques (Gascon: Pirenèus-Atlantics; Basque: Pirinio-Atlantiarrak or Pirinio-Atlantikoak) is a département in the southwest of France which takes its name from the Pyrenees mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. ... The départements (or departments) are administrative units of France, roughly analogous to British counties. ... For the traditional overall Basque domain, see Basque Country (historical territory). ... Capital Logroño Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 16th  5 045 km²  1,0% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 17th   301 084  0,7%  59,68/km² Demonym  â€“ English  â€“ Spanish  â€”  riojano/a Statute of Autonomy June 9, 1982 Parliament  â€“ Congress seats  â€“ Senate seats  4  1 President Pedro Sanz... Capital Zaragoza Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 4th  47,719 km²  9. ... Capital Valladolid Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 1st  94,223 km²  18,6% Population  â€“ Total (2005)  â€“ % of Spain  â€“ Density Ranked 6th  2,510,849  5. ...


See also

Coat of Arms of the Kings of Navarre since 1212. ... This is a Family tree of the Kings of Navarre from Sancho I of Navarre until the acession of Henry III of Navarre to the throne of France. ... Duchy of Vasconia (red) in time of Eudes the Great (early 8th century) The Duchy of Vasconia (also Wasconia, later Gascony) was a Duchy formed in the 7th century that included the former Roman province of Novempopulania and, at least in some periods, also the Basque lands south of the... The Ikurriña, Basque flag Location of Territory of the Basque Country The Basque Country divided in seven provinces. ... Capital Pamplona (Basque: Iruña) Official language(s) Spanish; Basque co-official in the north of community. ... For the traditional overall Basque domain, see Basque Country (historical territory). ... Charles, Prince of Viana, (1421 - 1461), sometimes called Charles IV, king of Navarre, was the son of John, afterwards king of Aragon, by his marriage with Blanche, daughter and heiress of Charles, king of Navarre. ...

Notes

  1. ^ a b Bernardo Estornés Lasa's Spanish article on Navarra in the Auñamendi Entziklopedia (click on "NAVARRA - NAFARROA (NOMBRE Y EMBLEMAS)")
  2. ^ Crónica Albeldense (CSIC)

References

  • Ariqita y Lasa, Colección de documentos para la historia de Navarra (Pamplona, 1900)
  • Bascle de Lagreze, La Navarre française (Paris, 1881)
  • Blade, Les Vascons espagnols (Agen, 1891)
  • Pierre Boissonade, Histoire de la reunion de la Navarre à la Castille (Paris, 1893)
  • Chappuys, Histoire du royaume de Navarre (Paris, 1590; 1616)
  • Favyn, Histoire de Navarre (Paris, 1612)
  • Ferreras, La Historia de España (Madrid, 1700-27)
  • Galland, Memoires sur la Navarre (Paris, 1648)
  • Idem, Annales del reino de Navarra (5 vols., Pamplona, 1684-95; 12 vols., Tolosa, 1890-92)
  • Idem, Diccionario de las antigüedades de Nayanna (Pamplona, 1840-43)
  • Idem, Historia compendiada del reino de Navarra (S. Sebastián, 1832)
  • Jaurgain, La Vasconie (Pau, 1898)
  • de Marca, Histoire de Bearn (Paris, 1640)
  • Moret, Investigationes históricas del reino de Navarra (Pamplona, 1655)
  • Oihenart, Notitia utriusque Vasconiae (Paris, 1656)
  • Sorauren, Mikel. Historia de Navarra, el estado vasco. Pamiela, 1999. ISBN 84-7681-299-X
  • Risco, La Vasconia en España Sagrada, XXXII (Madrid, 1779)
  • Ruano Prieto, Anexión del Reino de Navarra en tiempo del Rey Católico (Madrid, 1899)
  • Urzaniqui, Tomás, and de Olaizola, Juan María. La Navarra marítima. Pamiela, 1998. ISBN 84-7681-293-0
  • Yanguas y Miranda, Crónica de los reyes de Navarra (Pamplona, 1843)

Arnauld de Oihenart (1592–1668), Basque historian and poet, was born at Maulon, and studied law at Bordeaux, where he took his degree in 1612. ...

External links

  • Encyclopaedia Britannica, 1911: Navarre
  • The Basque People in the Middle Ages: historical article largely focused in Navarre
  • Web sites about the history of Navarra

  Results from FactBites:
 
Navarre - Columbia Encyclopedia article about Navarre (651 words)
The population of northern and western Navarre is largely of Basque stock, and the early history of the region is that of the Basques Basques (băsks), people of N Spain and SW France.
The kingdom of Navarre then comprised the present province of Navarre, the Basque Provinces (which were later lost to Castile), and, north of the Pyrenees, the district called Lower Navarre, now a part of France.
Navarre stayed with the French crown until the death (1328) of Charles IV, when it passed to Charles's niece, whose son, Charles II (Charles the Bad), played an important part in the Hundred Years War and in the French civil unrest of the time.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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