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Encyclopedia > Kingdom of Khotan
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The Kingdom of Khotan is an ancient Buddhist kingdom that was located on the branch of the Silk road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim basin. (The area lies in present day Xinjiang, China). Jump to: navigation, search A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE... Jump to: navigation, search The Silk Road (Traditional Chinese: 絲綢之路; Simplified Chinese: 丝绸之路; pinyin: sī chóu zhī lù, Persian راه ابریشم Râh-e Abrisham) was an interconnected series of routes through Southern Asia traversed by caravan and ocean vessel, and connecting Changan (todays Xian), China, with Antioch, Syria, as... Dust storm in Taklamakan from space, June 25, 2005 The Taklamakan (also Taklimakan) is a desert of Central Asia, in the Xinjiang Uighur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... The Tarim River (Mandarin Dayan) is the principal river of the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region in the Peoples Republic of China. ... Xinjiang (Chinese: 新疆; pinyin: ; Wade-Giles: Hsin1-chiang1; Postal Pinyin: Sinkiang; literal meaning: New Frontier; Uyghur: ), full name Xinjiang Uyghur Autonomous Region, is an autonomous region of the Peoples Republic of China (PRC). ...

Contents


Capital

The ancient city of Khotan was the capital, now known by its modern Chinese name Hetian (pinyin; 和田. Also romanized Hoton, Khoton). Built on an oasis, its mulberry groves allowed the production and export of silk and silk rugs, in addition to the city's other products such as jade and pottery. Khotan or Hotan (Uyghur: خوتەن/Hotǝn; Chinese: 和田; pinyin: , formerly: Simplified Chinese: 和阗; Traditional Chinese: 和闐; pinyin: ) is an oasis town and a prefecture in the Taklamakan desert that was part of the southern silk road. ... Jump to: navigation, search Pinyin (Chinese: 拼音, pÄ«nyÄ«n) literally means join (together) sounds (a less literal translation being phoneticize, spell or transcription) in Chinese and usually refers to HànyÇ” PÄ«nyÄ«n (汉语拼音, literal meaning: Han language pinyin), which is a system of romanization (phonemic notation and transcription to... Oasis in the Libyan part of the Sahara In geography, an oasis is an isolated area of vegetation in a desert, typically surrounding a spring or similar water source. ... Species See text Mulberry (Morus) is a genus of 10–16 species of deciduous trees native to warm temperate and subtropical regions of Asia, Africa and North America, with the majority of the species native to Asia. ... Silk weaver Silk is a natural protein fiber that can be woven into textiles. ... Carpet is a general term given to any loom-woven or felted textile and to grass floor coverings. ... A selection of antique, hand-crafted Chinese jadeite jade buttons Jade An ornamental stone, jade is a name applied to two different silicate minerals. ... A man shapes pottery as it turns on a wheel. ...


Culture

According to legend, the foundation of Khotan occurred when the eldest son of the Indian Buddhist emperor Ashoka settled there in the early 3rd century BCE. Please see Ashoka (disambiguation) for other uses of the word Ashoka Ashoka the Great (also Asoka, अशोक Aśoka; pronounced Ashok, even though there is an a at the end) was the ruler of the Mauryan empire from 273 BC to 232 BC. After a number of military conquests, Ashoka reigned...


However, it is likely to have existed earlier than this as the Yuezhi (known later as the Kushans) had been trading the famous nephrite jade from the region to China for some centuries prior to this. The migrations of the Yuezhi through Central Asia, from around 176 to 30 BCE. Yuezhi (Chinese:月氏, also 月支, Wade-Giles: Yüeh-Chih) or Da Yuezhi (Chinese:大月氏, also 大月支, Great Yuezhi) is the Chinese name for an ancient Central Asian people. ... Boundary of the Kushan empire, c. ...


The kingdom became one of the major centers of Buddhism, and is primarily associated with the Mahayana branch. It differed in this respect to Kucha, a Shravakayana-dominated kingdom on the opposite side of the desert. Many foreign languages, including Chinese, Sanskrit, Prakrit and Tibetan, were used in cultural exchange. Jump to: navigation, search A replica of an ancient statue found among the ruins of a temple at Sarnath Buddhism is a religion and philosophy based on the teachings of the Buddha, Siddhārtha Gautama, a prince of the Shakyas, whose lifetime is traditionally given as 566 to 486 BCE... Relief image of the bodhisattva Guan Yin (Avalokitesvara) from Mt. ... Kucha (Modern Chinese Simplified: 库车, Traditional: 庫車, pinyin ku che, also romanized Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu. ... Śravakayāna is a term used by some Mahayana Buddhists to describe one hypothetical path to enlightenment: the vehicle of hearers [i. ... Jump to: navigation, search Sanskrit ( संस्कृता) is an Indo-Aryan language, and a classical language of India. ... Prakrit (Sanskrit prakrta: natural, usual) refers to the broad family of the Indic languages and dialects spoken in ancient India. ... The Tibetan language is typically classified as member of the Tibeto-Burman which in turn is thought by some to be a branch of the Sino-Tibetan language family. ...


Khotan was the first place outside of China to begin cultivating silk. The story, repeated in many sources, and illustrated in murals discovered by archaeologists, is that a Chinese princess brought silkworm eggs in her hairdo when she was sent to marry the Khotanese king. This probably took place in the first half of the 1st century CE.


It came under Muslim control in the first decade of the 11th century. Marco Polo visited Khotan between 1271 and 1275 and remarked that the people were "all worshippers of Mahommet." Jump to: navigation, search Marco Polo, after a late painting Marco Polo (15 September 1254, Venice, Italy; or Curzola, Venetian Dalmatia - now Korčula, Croatia — 8 January 1324, Venice) was a Venetian trader and explorer who, together with his father Niccolò and his uncle Maffeo, was one of the first... Jump to: navigation, search For broader historical context, see 1270s and 13th century. ... Events Eleanor de Montfort is captured by pirates in the employ of Edward I of England to prevent her marriage to Llywelyn the Last, prince of Jews over the age of 7 to wear the yellow badge and makes usury illegal Jean de Meun writes the second portion of the...


History

Han Dynasty


Chapter 96A of the Hanshu or 'History of the Former Han' (which covers the period from 125 BCE to 23 CE) says that Yutian, or Khotan, had 3,300 households, 19,300 individuals and 2,400 people able to bear arms. The Book of Han (Ch: 漢書, Hanshu) is a classic Chinese historical writing covering the history of the Western Han Dynasty (206 BCE-9 CE). ...


The town obviously grew very quickly after China opened the Silk Routes to the West, for the population had more than quadrupled by the time of the Later Han. Here is the entry on Khotan from the Hou Hanshu as translated by John Hill (see "References" below): The Han Dynasty (Traditional Chinese characters: 漢朝, Simplified Chinese characters: 汉朝, pinyin Hàncháo 202 BC - AD 220) followed the Qin Dynasty and preceded the Three Kingdoms in China. ... The Book of Later Han (Chinese: 後漢書; pinyin: ) is a history of the Chinese Empire which was compiled by Fan Yeh (范晔; 398-445), using a number of earlier histories as sources. ...


"The main centre of the kingdom of Yutian (Khotan) is the town of Xicheng (‘Western Town’ = Yotkan). It is 5,300 li (2,204 km) from the residence of the Senior Clerk [in Lukchun], and 11,700 li (4,865 km) from Luoyang. It controls 32,000 households, 83,000 individuals, and more than 30,000 men able to bear arms.


At the end of the Jianwu period (25-56 CE), Xian, the powerful and prosperous king of Suoju (Yarkand), attacked and annexed Yutian (Khotan). He transferred Yulin, its king, to become the king of Ligui.


During the Yongping period (58-76 CE), in the reign of Emperor Ming, Xiumo Ba, a Khotanese general, rebelled against Suoju (Yarkand), and made himself king of Yutian (in 60 CE). On the death of Xiumo Ba, Guangde, son of his elder brother, assumed power and then (in 61 CE) defeated Suoju (Yarkand). His kingdom became very prosperous after this. From Jingjue (Niya) northwest, as far as Shule (Kashgar), thirteen kingdoms submitted to him. Meanwhile, the king of Shanshan (the Lop Nor region, capital Charklik) had also begun to prosper. From then on, these two kingdoms were the only major ones on the Southern Route in the whole region to the east of the Congling (Pamirs). Yarkand (modern Chinese name 叶城, pinyin ye cheng, also Chokkuka, anciently Suoju 莎車 (also written Shache and Suoche), was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located between Pishan and Kashgar on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Niya is a site on the southern edge of the Tarim Basin, in modern-day Xinjiang, China at which numerous Buddhist scriptures were recovered. ... Location of Kashgar Kashgar, (Uyghur: قەشقەر/K̢ǝxk̢ǝr; Chinese: 喀什; pinyin: , 39°28′ N 76°03′ E), is an oasis city in the Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region of the Peoples Republic of China. ... Shanshan (鄯善; pinyin: Shànshàn ) is the Chinese name for Loulan, a kingdom that existed roughly from 200BC-1000AD at the north-east of the Taklamakan desert. ... Located in Central Asia, the Pamir Mountains are formed by the junction of the worlds greatest mountain ranges, a geologic structural knot from which the great Tian Shan, Karakoram, Kunlun, and Hindu Kush mountain systems radiate. ...


In the sixth Yongjian year (131 CE), during the reign of Emperor Shun, Fangqian, the king of Yutian (Khotan), sent one of his sons to serve and offer tribute at the Imperial Palace.


In the first Yuanjia year (151 CE), the Chief Clerk Zhao Ping was in Yutian (Khotan) and died there from a carbuncle. (Zhao) Ping's son left to mourn for him. On his way, he passed through Jumi (Keriya). Now, Chengguo, the king of Jumi (Keriya), had had disagreements for some time with Jian, the king of Yutian (Khotan). He said to (Zhao) Ping’s son: “The king of Yutian (Khotan) ordered a Western (hu) doctor to put a poisonous drug in the wound, which caused [your father’s] death.” (Zhao) Ping's son believed this story. When he returned to the frontier region, he informed Ma Da, the Administrator of Dunhuang. Location of Dunhuang Dunhuang (Chinese: 敦煌, pinyin: DÅ«nhuáng; 40°6′ N 94°39′ E) is a city in Gansu province, China. ...


The following year (152 CE), Wang Jing was named Chief Clerk in place [of the late Zhao Ping]. (Ma) Da ordered (Wang) Jing to make a thorough secret investigation into the affair. (Wang) Jing first passed through Jumi. Chengguo again said: “The people of Yutian (Khotan) want to have me as king. Now, you should kill Jian because of the crime he is guilty of. Yutian (Khotan) will certainly agree.”


(Wang) Jing was eager to acquire merit and glory for himself and, besides, he believed what Chengguo had said to him. Before reaching Yutian (Khotan), he prepared everything to receive Jian, [then] invited him, meanwhile he developed a sinister plan. Someone had warned Jian of Wang Jing’s plot. He didn’t believe it and said: “I am innocent. Why would the Chief Clerk Wang (Jing) want to kill me?” The following morning Jian, with an escort of several tens of officials, came to pay a visit to (Wang) Jing. When they were seated, Jian got up to serve the wine. (Wang) Jing then ordered his retinue in a menacing tone to seize him but, as none of the officers and soldiers wanted to kill Jian, all the officials suddenly fled.


At this point, Qin Mu, Chengguo’s Secretary, following (Wang) Jing, drew his sword and said, “The main issue has already been decided. Why are we still hesitating?” He immediately advanced and beheaded Jian. Then the Khotanese Marquis-General, Shupo, and some others, joined up again with the soldiers and attacked (Wang) Jing who took Jian’s head, climbed a tower, and proclaimed: “The Son of Heaven ordered us to punish Jian.”


The Khotanese Marquis-General, Shupo, then set the camp buildings on fire killing the officials and soldiers. He climbed the tower and beheaded (Wang) Jing and hung his head in the marketplace. Shupo wanted to make himself king, but the people of the country killed him, and put Anguo, the son of Jian, on the throne.


When Ma Da was informed of what had happened, he wanted to put himself in charge of the troops of several commanderies, and head through the frontier regions to attack Yutian (Khotan), but Emperor Huan (147-167 CE) did not allow it. He recalled (Ma) Da and substituted Song Liang to be Administrator of Dunhuang. When (Song) Liang arrived, he appealed to the people of Yutian (Khotan), asking them to behead Shupo. By then, Shupo had already been dead for more than a month, so they sent the head of a dead man to Dunhuang without saying what had really happened. (Song) Liang was informed of this trickery later but, finally, he could not get the troops to go. Encouraged by this, Yutian (Khotan) became arrogant.


Heading on from Yutian (Khotan), you pass through Pishan (modern Pishan or Guma) reaching Xiye (Karghalik), Zihe (Shahidulla), and Dere." Pishan (Chinese: 皮山; pinyin: Píshān; also known as Guma; 37°37′ N 78°18′ E) is an ancient to medieval Tocharian Buddhist kingdom in what is modern day Xinjiang, China. ...


Neighbors

  • Yarkand
  • Hanmo
  • Kara - One of the four garrisons
  • Shahr - One of the four garrisons
  • Kucha - One of the four garrisons
  • China
  • Tibet
  • Hsiung-nu

Yarkand (modern Chinese name 叶城, pinyin ye cheng, also Chokkuka, anciently Suoju 莎車 (also written Shache and Suoche), was an ancient Buddhist kingdom located between Pishan and Kashgar on the branch of the Silk Road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim Basin. ... Kara is a city in northern Togo. ... Kucha (Modern Chinese Simplified: 库车, Traditional: 庫車, pinyin ku che, also romanized Chiu-tzu, Kiu-che, Kuei-tzu. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older spelling Thibet) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Xiongnu (匈奴; meaning Xiongs slaves, Xiong being a Chinese transliteration of a national name but also meaning savage/raucous/ferocious, however some argued that the two words are both transliteration, in this case the sense of slaves does not exist) was the term given by the Chinese to nomadic...

History Timeline

  • c. 56: Xian, the powerful and prosperous king of Yarkand, attacked and annexed Khotan. He transferred Yulin, its king, to become the king of Ligui, and set up his younger brother, Weishi, as king of Khotan.
  • 61: Khotan defeats Yarkand. Khotan becomes very powerful after this and 13 kingdoms submitted to Khotan, which now, with Shanshan, became the major power on the southern branch of the Silk Route.
  • 78: Ban Chao a Chinese General subdues the kingdom.
  • 105: The 'Western Regions' rebelled, and Khotan regained its independence.
  • 127: The Chinese general Ban Yong attacked and subdued Karashahr; and then Kucha, Kashgar, Khotan, Yarkand, and other kingdoms, seventeen altogether, who all came to submit to China.
  • 129: Fangqian, the king of Khotan, killed the king of Keriya, Xing. He installed his son as the king of Keriya. Then he sent an envoy to offer tribute to Han. The Emperor pardoned the crime of the king of Khotan), ordering him to hand back the kingdom of Keriya. Fangqian refused.
  • 131: Fangqian, the king of Khotan sends one of his sons to serve and offer tribute at the Chinese Imperial Palace.
  • 132: The Chinese sent the king of Kashgar, Chenpan, who with 20,000 men, attacked and defeated Khotan. He beheaded several hundred people, and released his soldiers to plunder freely. He replaced the king [of Keriya] by installing Chengguo from the family of [the previous king] Xing, and then he returned.
  • 175: Anguo, the king of Khotan, attacked Keriya, and defeated it soundly. He killed the king and many others.
  • 399 Chinese pilgrim monk, Faxian, visits and reports on the active Buddhist community there.
  • 632: Pays hommage to China, becomes a vassal state.
  • 644: Chinese pilgrim monk, Xuanzang, stays 7-8 months in Khotan and writes a detailed account of the kingdom.
  • 670: Tibet invades and conquers Khotan (now know as one of the "four garrisons").
  • c. 670-673: Khotan governed by Tibetan Mgar minister.
  • 674: King Fudu Xiong (Vijaya Sangrāma IV), his family and followers flee to China after fighting the Tibetans. They are unable to return.
  • c. 680 - c. 692: 'Amacha Khemeg rules as regent of Khotan.
  • 692: Fudu Jing (Vijaya Vikrama), son of Fudu Xiong, is placed on the Khotanese throne by the Chinese.
  • 694: China under Wu Zetian reconquers the Kingdom from Tibet. Khotan is made a protectorate.
  • 725: Yuchi Tiao (Vijaya Dharma III) is beheaded by the Chinese fo conspiring with the Turks. Yuchi Fushizhan (Vijaya Sambhava II) is placed on the throne by the Chinese.
  • 728: Yuchi Fushizhan (Vijaya Sambhava II) officially given the title "King of Khotan" by the Chinese emperor.
  • 736: Fudu Da (Vijaya Vāhana the Great)succeeds Yuchi Fushizhan and the Chinese emperor bestows a title on his wife.
  • c. 740: King Yuchi Gui (Btsan-bzang Btsan-la Brtan)succeeds Fudu Da (Vijaya Vāhana) and begins persecution of Buddhists. Khotanese Buddhist Monks flee to Tibet were they are given refuge by the Chinese wife of King Mes-ag-tshoms. Soon after, the Queen died in a smallpox epidemic and the monks had to flee again to Gandhara.
  • 740: Chinese emperor bestows a title on wife of Yuchi Gui.
  • 746: The Prophecy of the Li Country is completed and later added to the Tibeten Tanjur.
  • 747: Yuchi Sheng, after going to China and marrying an Imperial princess, helps Chinese defeat "Little Bolu" (the Gilgit Valley).
  • 756: Yuchi Sheng hands over the government to his younger brother, Shihu (Jabgu) Yao.
  • 787 or 788: Yuchi Yao still ruling Khotan at the time of the Chinese Buddhist pilgrim Wukong's visit to Khotan.
  • 969: King Nanzongchang sends a tribute mission to China.
  • 971: A Buddhist priest (Jixiang) brings a letter from the king of Khotan to the Chinese emperor.
  • 1006: Khotan held by the Muslim Yūsuf Qadr Khān, a brother or cousin of the Muslim ruler of Kāshgar and Balāsāghūn.

For other uses, see number 61. ... For other uses, see number 78. ... Ban Chao (班超, 32-102 CE) was a Chinese general and cavalry commander in charge of the administration of the Western Regions (Central Asia) during the Eastern Han dynasty. ... Events The Chinese refine papermaking. ... Events Births Deaths Categories: 127 ... Events Change of Patriarch of Constantinople from Patriarch Diogenes to Patriarch Eleutherius. ... Events Emperor Hadrian builds the city Aelia Capitolina on the location of Jerusalem Births Galen, anatomist Deaths Categories: 131 ... Events Simon bar Kokhba and Rabbi Eleazar start a war of liberation against the Romans, which is crushed by emperor Hadrian. ... Events Pope Eleuterus succeeds Pope Soter (approximate date) Roman emperor Marcus Aurelius defeats the Marcomanni. ... Events Yazdegerd I becomes king of Persia November 27 - St. ... Events Abu Bakr becomes first caliph or Successor of the Prophet, leader of Islam Abu Bakr defeats Mosailima in the Battle of Akraba. ... Events Births Deaths Paulinus of York, bishop of Northumbria November: Omar, Second caliph of Islam by assassination. ... Events On the death of his brother Clotaire, Childeric II becomes king of all of the Frankish kingdoms -- Austrasia, Neustria and Burgundy. ... Jump to: navigation, search Tibet (Tibetan: བོད་, Bod, pronounced pö in Lhasa dialect; Chinese: 西藏, pinyin: XÄ«zàng; older spelling Thibet) is a region in Central Asia and the home of the Tibetan people. ... Events Dagobert II and Theuderic I succeed Childeric II as king(s) of the Franks First glass windows placed in English Churches Arabic siege of Constantinople begins Cenfus and then Aescwine succeed to the throne of Wessex Births Deaths Wulfhere, king of Mercia Seaxburh, queen of Japan - Temmu Emperor of... Events The Quinisext Council (also said in Trullo), held in Constantinople, laid the foundation for the Orthodox Canon Law The Arabs conquer Armenia. ... Events Ine of Wessex makes peace with Kent Births Deaths Categories: 694 ... Wu Zetian (武則天) (625 - December 16, 705), personal name Wu Zhao (武曌), was the only female emperor in the history of China, founding her own dynasty, the Zhou (周), and ruling under the name Emperor Shengshen (聖神皇帝) from 690 to 705. ... Events Births Deaths Wihtred, king of Kent Categories: 725 ... Events Births Deaths The Danish king Angantyr on Samsoe Categories: 728 ... Events The Kegon school of Buddhism arrives in Japan via Korea, when Rōben invites the Korean monk Simsang to lecture, and formally founds Japans Kegon tradition in the Tōdaiji temple. ... Events October 26 - An earthquake strikes Constantinople, causing much damage and death. ... Events Swithred succeeds Saelred as king of Essex. ... Events Abu Muslim unites the Abbasid Empire against the Umayyads. ... Events Abd-ar-rahman I conquers Iberia and establishes a new Umayyad dynasty. ... Events December 11 - John I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events Births Deaths Culen of Scotland Categories: 971 ... Events Aelfheah (St. ...

References

  • Beal, Samuel. 1884. Si-Yu-Ki: Buddhist Records of the Western World, by Hiuen Tsiang. 2 vols. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. Reprint: Delhi. Oriental Books Reprint Corporation. 1969.
  • Beal, Samuel. 1911. The Life of Hiuen-Tsiang by the Shaman Hwui Li, with an Introduction containing an account of the Works of I-Tsing. Trans. by Samuel Beal. London. 1911. Reprint: Munshiram Manoharlal, New Delhi. 1973.
  • Emmerick, R. E. 1967. Tibetan Texts Concerning Khotan. Oxford University Press, London.
  • Hill, John E. July, 1988. "Notes on the Dating of Khotanese History." Indo-Iranian Journal, Vol. 31, No. 3, pp. 179-190.
  • Hill, John E. 2003. "Annotated Translation of the Chapter on the Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu." 2nd Edition.[1]
  • Hill, John E. 2004. The Peoples of the West from the Weilue 魏略 by Yu Huan 魚豢: A Third Century Chinese Account Composed between 239 and 265 CE. Draft annotated English translation. [2]
  • Hulsewe, A. F. P. and Loewe, M. A. N. 1979. China in Central Asia: The Early Stage 125 BC – AD 23: an annotated translation of chapters 61 and 96 of the History of the Former Han Dynasty. E. J. Brill, Leiden.
  • Legge, James. Trans. and ed. 1886. A Record of Buddhistic Kingdoms: being an account by the Chinese monk Fâ-hsien of his travels in India and Ceylon (A.D. 399-414) in search of the Buddhist Books of Discipline. Reprint: Dover Publications, New York. 1965.
  • Stein, M. Aurel. 1907. Ancient Khotan: Detailed report of archaeological explorations in Chinese Turkestan, 2 vols. Oxford, Clarendon Press. [3]
  • Watters, Thomas (1904-1905). On Yuan Chwang's Travels in India. London. Royal Asiatic Society. Reprint: 1973.

Further reading

  • Hill, John E. 1993. "The Western Regions according to the Hou Hanshu. 2nd Edition." "Appendix A: The Introduction of Silk Cultivation to Khotan in the 1st Century CE." [4]

See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Kingdom of Khotan - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1981 words)
The Kingdom of Khotan is an ancient Buddhist kingdom that was located on the branch of the Silk road that ran along the southern edge of the Taklamakan desert in the Tarim basin.
The kingdom became one of the major centers of Buddhism, and is primarily associated with the Mahayana branch.
1006: Khotan held by the Muslim Yūsuf Qadr Khān, a brother or cousin of the Muslim ruler of Kāshgar and Balāsāghūn.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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