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Encyclopedia > Kingdom of Jerusalem
Regnum Hierosolimitanum
Roiaume de Jherusalem
Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem
Flag
1099 – 1291
Coat of arms
Flag Coat of arms
The kingdom of Jerusalem and the other Crusader states (in shades of green) in the context of the Near East in 1135.
Capital Jerusalem (1099-1187)
Acre (1191-1291)
Language(s) Latin, Old French, Italian (also Arabic and Greek)
Religion Roman Catholicism
Government Monarchy
King
 - 1100-1118 Baldwin I
 - 1285-1291 Henry II
Legislature Haute Cour
Historical era High Middle Ages
 - First Crusade 1099
 - Second Crusade 1145
 - Siege of Jerusalem 1187
 - Third Crusade 1189
 - Treaty of Ramla 1191
 - Capture of Acre 1291
This article is about the entire crusader kingdom. For the history of just the city, see History of Jerusalem (Middle Ages)

The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a Christian kingdom established in the Levant in 1099 after the First Crusade. It lasted less than two hundred years, until 1291 when the last remaining outpost, Acre, was destroyed by the Mamluks. The Fatimid Empire or Fatimid Caliphate ruled North Africa from A.D. 909 to 1171. ... Image File history File links blank picture File links The following pages link to this file: Antioquia Boyacá Cundinamarca Bolívar Department Santander Department Atlántico Magdalena Department Amazonas Department, Colombia Arauca Caquetá Casanare Cauca Cesar Chocó Córdoba Department Guainía Guaviare Huila Department Guajira Department Meta Department Nari... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... Image File history File links Mameluke_Flag. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyub Death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular... Image File history File links Flag_of_Kingdom_of_Jerusalem. ... Image File history File links Arms_Jerusalem. ... The municipal flag of Jerusalem The Flag of Jerusalem is based on the flag of Israel. ... Coat of arms of the Medieval Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, featuring the Jerusalem cross The coat of arms of Jerusalem is an emblem of the city as well as of its municipality. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Throughout the world there are many cities that were once national capitals but no longer have that status because the country ceased to exist, the capital was moved, or the capital city was renamed. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... “Akko” redirects here. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Old French was the Romance dialect continuum spoken in territories corresponding roughly to the northern half of modern France and parts of modern Belgium and Switzerland from around 1000 to 1300. ... Arabic redirects here. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... For the documentary series, see Monarchy (TV series). ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ... Henry II of Jerusalem (died 1324) was the last king of Jerusalem and at the same time ruled as King of Cyprus. ... A legislatureis a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to ratify laws. ... The Haute Cour (High Court) was the feudal council of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... The cathedral Notre Dame de Paris, a significant architectural contribution of the High Middle Ages. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ... Events Pope Lucius II is succeeded by Pope Eugene III Nur ad-Din ascends to power in Syria Construction begins on Notre-Dame dChartres in Chartres, France Korean historian Kim Pusik compiled the historical text Samguk Sagi. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Balian of Ibelin The Siege of Jerusalem took place from September 20 to October 2, 1187. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Events January 21 - Philip II of France and Richard I of England begin to assemble troops to wage the Third Crusade September 3- Richard I of England is crowned as king of England. ... The Treaty of Ramla was signed by Saladin and Richard the Lionheart in June 1192 after the Battle of Arsuf. ... // Events May 12 - Richard I of England marries Berengaria of Navarre. ... The Siege of Acre took place in 1291 and resulted in the fall of Acre, the last territory of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... An acre is the name of a unit of area in a number of different systems, including Imperial units and United States customary units. ... The history of the city of Jerusalem in the Middle Ages takes it from the 900s when it was under the rule of the Fatimid caliphate, to the Crusades and shifts in control brought by the Europeans, until the city was re-taken by the Khawarazmi Turks in 1244. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations · Other religions Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Catholic Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is... The Levant The Levant (IPA: ) is an imprecise geographical term historically referring to a large area in the Middle East south of the Taurus Mountains, bounded by the Mediterranean Sea on the west, and by the northern Arabian Desert and Upper Mesopotamia to the east. ... 1099 also refers to a United States tax form used for, among other purposes, reporting payments made to independent Contractors. ... Combatants Christendom, Catholicism West European Christians, Armenian Kingdom of Cilicia Seljuks, Arabs and other Muslims The First Crusade was launched in 1095 by Pope Urban II with the dual goals of liberating the sacred city of Jerusalem and the Holy Land from Muslims and freeing the Eastern Christians from Muslim... For broader historical context, see 1290s and 13th century. ... “Akko” redirects here. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for...


At first the kingdom was little more than a loose collection of towns and cities captured during the crusade. Its first king, Godfrey of Bouillon, seems not to have called himself "king" at all; it was a subject of dispute whether Jerusalem would be a secular kingdom or theocratic state under papal authority. The secular faction was victorious, however, and the kingdom developed along the same lines as the monarchies of Western Europe, with which it had close connections, both politically and through the familial relationships of its rulers. It was, however, a relatively minor kingdom in comparison and often lacked financial and military support from Europe. The kingdom had closer ties to the neighbouring Kingdom of Armenia and the Byzantine Empire, which had an "orientalizing" influence on the western crusaders. This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Godfrey of Bouillon, from a tapestry painted in 1420 Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... The Pope is the Catholic Bishop and patriarch of Rome, and head of the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Catholic Churches. ... The Kingdom of Cilician Armenia, 1199-1375. ... Byzantine redirects here. ...


At its height, the Kingdom roughly encompassed the territory of modern Israel, the West Bank, and the Gaza Strip; it extended from modern Lebanon in the north to the Sinai Desert in the south, and into modern Jordan and Syria in the east. There were also attempts to expand the kingdom into Fatimid Egypt. Its kings also held a certain amount of authority over the other crusader states, Tripoli, Antioch, and Edessa. Sinai Peninsula, Gulf of Suez (west), Gulf of Aqaba (east) from Space Shuttle STS-40 The Sinai Peninsula (in Arabic, Shibh Jazirat Sina) is a triangle-shaped peninsula lying between the Mediterranean Sea (to the north) and Red Sea (to the south). ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-Fātimiyyūn (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... The Crusader states, c. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ...


At first the Muslim world had little concern for the fledgling kingdom, but as the 12th century progressed, the notion of jihad was resurrected, and the kingdom's increasingly-united Muslim neighbours vigorously began to recapture lost territory. Jerusalem itself was lost to Saladin in 1187, and by the 13th century the Kingdom was reduced to a small strip of land along the Mediterranean coast, dominated by a few cities. In this period, sometimes referred to as the "Kingdom of Acre", the kingdom was dominated by the Lusignan dynasty of the crusader Kingdom of Cyprus, and ties were also strengthened with Tripoli, Antioch, and Armenia. The kingdom was also increasingly dominated by the Italian city-states of Venice and Genoa, as well as the imperial ambitions of the Holy Roman Emperors. Meanwhile the surrounding Muslim territories were united under the Ayyubid and later the Mamluk dynasties in Egypt, and the kingdom became little more than a pawn in the politics and warfare in the region, which saw invasions by the Khwarezmians and Mongols in the mid-13th century. The Mamluk sultans Khalil and Baibars eventually reconquered all the remaining crusader strongholds, culminating in the destruction of Acre in 1291. (11th century - 12th century - 13th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 12th century was that century which lasted from 1101 to 1200. ... For other uses, see Jihad (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... (12th century - 13th century - 14th century - other centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 13th century was that century which lasted from 1201 to 1300. ... The Mediterranean Sea is an intercontinental sea positioned between Europe to the north, Africa to the south and Asia to the east, covering an approximate area of 2. ... The Lusignan family originated in Poitou in western France, and in the late 12th century came to rule the Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Kingdom of Cyprus. ... The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Roman Catholic Crusader kingdom on the island of Cyprus in the late Middle Ages. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... The Holy Roman Emperor was, with some variation, the ruler of the Holy Roman Empire, the predecessor of modern Germany, during its existence from the 10th century until its collapse in 1806. ... The Ayyubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Egypt, Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyub Death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular... Khwarezmia (also spelled Chorasmia) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... Al-Malik Al-Ashraf Khalil (Arabic: المالك الأشرف خليل ) (died 1293) was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1290 until his assassination in December, 1293. ... al-Malik al-Zahir Rukn al-Din Baibars al-Bunduqdari (also spelled Baybars) (Arabic: ) was a Mamluk Sultan of Egypt and Syria. ...

Contents

Foundation and early history

The First Crusade was preached at the Council of Clermont in 1095 by Pope Urban II, with the goal of assisting the Byzantine Empire against the invasions of the Seljuk Turks. Very soon, however, the participants saw the main objective as the capturing or recapturing of the Holy Land. The kingdom came into being with the arrival of the crusaders in June 1099; a few of the neighbouring towns (Ramla, Lydda, Bethlehem, and others) were taken first, and Jerusalem itself was captured on July 15. There was immediately a dispute among the various leaders as to who would rule the newly-conquered territory, the two most worthy candidates being Godfrey of Bouillon, Duke of Lower Lorraine, and Raymond of St. Gilles, Count of Toulouse. Neither wished to be crowned king in the city where Christ had worn his crown of thorns; Raymond was perhaps attempting to show his piety and hoped that the other nobles would insist upon his election anyway, but Godfrey, the more popular of the two, did no damage to his own piety by accepting a position as secular leader with an unknown or ill-defined title.[1] With the election of Godfrey on July 22, Raymond, incensed, took his army to forage away from the city. The foundation of the kingdom, as well as Godfrey's reputation, was secured with the defeat of the Fatimid Egyptian army under al-Afdal Shahanshah at the Battle of Ascalon one month after the conquest, on August 12. However, Raymond and Godfrey's continued antagonism prevented the crusaders from taking control of Ascalon itself. Pope Urban II at the Council of Clermont, given a late Gothic setting in this illumination from the Livre des Passages dOutre-mer, of c 1490 (Bibliothèque National) The Council of Clermont was a mixed synod of ecclesiastics and laymen of the Catholic Church, which was held in... Pope Urban II (1042 – July 29, 1099), born Otho of Lagery (alternatively: Otto or Odo), was a Pope from 1088 to July 29, 1099. ... The Seljuk coat of arms was a double headed eagle The Seljuk Turks (also Seldjuk, Seldjuq, Seljuq; in modern Turkish Selçuklular; in Persian سلجوقيان SaljÅ«qiyān; in Arabic سلجوق SaljÅ«q, or السلاجقة al-Salājiqa) were a major branch of the Oghuz Turks and a dynasty that ruled parts of... For other uses, see Holy Land (disambiguation). ... This article is about the medieval crusades. ... Ramla (Hebrew רמלה Ramlāh; Arabic الرملة ar-Ramlah, colloquial Ramleh), is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Lod (Hebrew לוד; Arabic اللد al-Ludd, Greco-Latin Lydda) is a city in the Center District of Israel in Israel. ... Central Bethlehem This article is about the city in the West Bank. ... Combatants Crusaders Fatimids Commanders Raymond of Toulouse Godfrey of Bouillon Iftikhar ad-Dawla Strength 1,500 knights 12,000 infantry 1,000 garrison Casualties Unknown At least 40,000 military and civilian dead The Siege of Jerusalem took place from June 7 to July 15, 1099 during the First Crusade. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Godfrey of Bouillon, from a tapestry painted in 1420 Godfrey of Bouillon (c. ... The Duchy of Lower Lorraine encompassed part of modern-day Belgium and the Netherlands. ... Raymond IV of Toulouse (c. ... After the Visigothic Kings of Aquitaine (409 - 508), the Merovingian kings were kings and dukes in Aquitaine and dukes of Toulouse. ... This page is about the title, office or what is known in Christian theology as the Divine Person. ... For other uses, see Crown of Thorns (disambiguation). ... is the 203rd day of the year (204th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Fatimids, Fatimid Caliphate or al-FātimiyyÅ«n (Arabic الفاطميون) is the Shia dynasty that ruled over varying areas of the Maghreb, Egypt, and the Levant from 5 January 910 to 1171. ... al-Malik al-Afdal ibn Badr al-Jamali Shahanshah (1066 – December 11, 1121) was a vizier of the Fatimid caliphs of Egypt. ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Fatimids Commanders Godfrey of Bouillon al-Afdal Shahanshah Strength Possibly 10 000 Possibly 50 000 Casualties Unknown Possibly 10-12 000 For the siege and capture of Ascalon in 1153, see Battle of Ascalon (1153) The Battle of Ascalon took place on August 12, 1099, and... is the 224th day of the year (225th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The name Ascalon can refer to a number of possible topics: a middle-eastern city, more usually called Ashkelon the lance (or in some versions of the story, sword) that St George used to slay the dragon, named after the city Ashkelon the British WW2 aeroplane used by Winston Churchill...


There was still some uncertainty as to the nature of the new kingdom. Some crusaders thought it should be ruled as a theocracy by the Pope, an idea the papal legate Daimbert of Pisa tried to impose in 1100. A Catholic church hierarchy was established, replacing local Eastern Orthodox and Syrian Orthodox authorities: a Latin Patriarch was set up in Jerusalem, and had numerous suffragan archbishops and bishops. According to William of Tyre, Godfrey may have supported Daimbert's efforts, and, if the crusader conquest could be extended to Egypt, would have exchanged a theocratic kingdom in Jerusalem for a secular one in Cairo, but during his short reign the rudiments of a secular state were also established. Godfrey increased the boundaries of the kingdom by capturing Jaffa, Haifa, Tiberias, and other cities, and reducing many others to tributary status; he also set the foundations for the system of vassalage in the kingdom, including the Principality of Galilee and the County of Jaffa. Later tradition also ascribed to him the creation of the first written laws of the kingdom. Godfrey died of an illness in July 1100, and in Jerusalem, his brother Baldwin of Boulogne was elected to succeed him, against the ambitions of Daimbert, who had in the meantime become Latin Patriarch. Baldwin supported a secular monarchy in the western European style and had himself crowned King of Jerusalem, though Daimbert refused to crown him in Jerusalem itself, and the ceremony instead took place in Bethlehem. Forms of government Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      For the metal band, refer to Theocracy (band). ... A papal Legate, from the Decretals of Boniface VIII (1294 to 1303). ... Dagobert (also Daimbert), Archbishop of Pisa, was the first Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem after it was captured in the First Crusade. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Archbishop of Canterbury · Pope Coptic Pope · Ecumenical Patriarch Christianity Portal This box:      The... The Syriac Orthodox Church is an autocephalous Oriental Orthodox church based in the Middle East with members spread throughout the world. ... The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem is the title given to the Latin Rite Roman Catholic Archbishop of Jerusalem. ... William of Tyre (c. ... For other uses, see Cairo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Jaffa (disambiguation). ... Hebrew Arabic حَيْفَا Founded in 3rd century CE Government City District Haifa Population 267,000 1,039,000 (metropolitan area) Jurisdiction 63,666 dunams (63. ... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... The Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, created in 1099, was divided into a number of smaller seigneuries. ... The Principality of Galilee was one of the four major seigneuries of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to 13th-century commentator John of Ibelin. ... The double County of Jaffa and Ascalon was one of the four major seigneuries of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, according to 13th-century commentator John of Ibelin. ... As Peter Edbury says, one group of sources from the Latin East that have long excited the attention of scholars are the legal treaties often known collectively, if somewhat misleadingly, as the Assises of Jerusalem. ... Coronation of Baldwin I. (from: Histoire dOutremer, 13. ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ...


Baldwin expanded the kingdom even further, capturing the port cities of Acre (1104), Beirut (1110), and Sidon (1111), while also exerting his suzerainty over the other Crusader states to the north – the County of Edessa (which he had founded), the Principality of Antioch, and, after Tripoli was captured in 1109, the County of Tripoli. He successfully defended against Muslim invasions, from the Fatimids at the numerous battles at Ramla and elsewhere in the southwest of the kingdom, and from Damascus and Mosul in the northeast in 1113. He also saw an increase in the numbers of Latin inhabitants, as the minor crusade of 1101 brought reinforcements to the kingdom. The Italian city-states of Venice, Pisa, and Genoa also began to play a role in the kingdom. Their fleets assisted in the capture of the ports, where they were given their own autonomous trading quarters which in turn helped further increase the Latin populace. He also repopulated Jerusalem with Franks and native Christians, after his expedition across the Jordan in 1115.[2] The kingdom would however never overcome its geographic isolation from Europe, nor push its borders east to create an easily defensible front. For almost its entire history the kingdom was confined to the narrow strip of land between the Mediterranean and the Jordan River; land beyond this was subject to constant raiding and warfare. The kingdom's population centres could also easily be isolated from each other in the event of a major invasion, which eventually led to the kingdom's downfall in the 1180s. Akko (Hebrew עכו; Arabic عكّا ʿAkkā; also, Acre, Accho, Acco, and St. ... This article is about the Lebanese city. ... View of the new city the Sea Castle. ... Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ... The Crusader states, c. ... The County of Edessa was one of the Crusader states in the 12th century, based around a city with an ancient history and an early tradition of Christianity (see Edessa). ... The Principality of Antioch in the context of the other states of the Near East in 1135 AD. The Principality of Antioch, including parts of modern-day Turkey and Syria, was one of the crusader states created during the First Crusade. ... This page refers to Tripoli, the city in Lebanon. ... Armenian Cilicia and Crusader States The County of Tripoli was the last of the four major Crusader states in the Levant to be created. ... Battle of Ramla can refer to a number of battles in the early years of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... Mosul (Arabic: , Kurdish: موصل Mûsil, Syriac: NînÄ›wâ, Turkish: Musul) is a city in northern Iraq and the capital of the Ninawa Governorate. ... // The Crusade of 1101 was a minor crusade of three separate movements, organized in 1100 and 1101 in the successful aftermath of the First Crusade. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Leaning Tower of Pisa. ... For other uses, see Genoa (disambiguation). ... Oultrejordain or Oultrejourdain (French for beyond the Jordan) was the name used during the Crusades for an extensive and partly undefined region to the east of the Jordan river, an area known in ancient times as Edom and Moab. ... The Jordan River runs along the border between the West Bank and the Kingdom of Jordan Northern part of the Great Rift Valley as seen from space (NASA) The Jordan River Road sign In spring The Jordan River (Hebrew: נהר הירדן nehar hayarden, Arabic: نهر الأردن nahr al-urdun) is a river in Southwest...


Baldwin brought with him an Armenian wife, traditionally named Arda (although never named such by contemporaries), but soon set her aside when he found that he had no need of Armenian support in Jerusalem, as he had needed in Edessa. He bigamously married Adelaide del Vasto, regent of Sicily, in 1113, but was convinced to divorce her as well in 1117; Adelaide's son from her first marriage, Roger II of Sicily, never forgave Jerusalem, and for decades withheld much-needed naval support from Sicily. Arda was the wife of King Baldwin I of Jerusalem. ... Adelaide del Vasto (c. ... Roger II, from Liber ad honorem Augusti of Petrus de Ebulo, 1196. ...


Baldwin died without heirs in 1118, during a campaign against Egypt, and the kingdom was offered to his brother Eustace III of Boulogne, who had accompanied Baldwin and Godfrey on the crusade, but he was uninterested. Instead the crown passed to Baldwin's relative, probably a cousin, Baldwin of Le Bourg, who had previously succeeded him as Count of Edessa. Baldwin II was also an able ruler, and he too successfully defended against Fatimid and Seljuk invasions. Although Antioch was severely weakened after the Battle of Ager Sanguinis in 1119, Baldwin led the crusader states to victory at the Battle of Azaz in 1125. His reign also saw the establishment of the first military orders, the Knights Hospitaller and the Knights Templar. The earliest surviving written laws of the kingdom were compiled at the Council of Nablus in 1120, and the first commercial treaty with Venice, the Pactum Warmundi, was written in 1124; the increase of naval and military support from Venice led to capture of Tyre that year. The influence of Jerusalem was also further extended over Edessa and Antioch, where Baldwin II acted as regent when their own leaders were killed in battle, although Baldwin himself was defeated and imprisoned by the Seljuk Turks several times throughout his reign, leading to regency governments in Jerusalem as well. Baldwin's daughters Hodierna and Alice were also married into the families of the Count of Tripoli and Prince of Antioch, while in Jerusalem his eldest daughter Melisende was his heir and succeeded him upon his death in 1131, with her husband Fulk V of Anjou as king-consort. Eustace III, was a count of Boulogne, successor to his father Count Eustace II of Boulogne. ... Baldwin of Bourcq (died August 21, 1131) was the second count of Edessa from 1100 to 1118, and the third king of Jerusalem from 1118 until his death. ... The Battle of Ager Sanguinis, also known as the Battle of the Field of Blood or the Battle of Sarmada, took place between the Crusader Principality of Antioch and the Ortoqid ruler of Aleppo in 1119. ... The Battle of Azaz took place between the Crusader States and the Seljuk Turks on June 11, 1125. ... Christian military orders appeared following the First Crusade. ... Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) was an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... The Council of Nablus was a council of ecclesiasic and secular lords in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, held on January 16, 1120. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... The Pactum Warmundi was a treaty of alliance established in 1123 between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Republic of Venice. ... The Triumphal Arch Tyre (Arabic , Phoenician , Hebrew Tzor, Tiberian Hebrew , Akkadian , Greek Týros) is a city in the South Governorate of Lebanon. ... Hodierna of Tripoli (c. ... Alice of Antioch (also Haalis, Halis, or Adelicia) was Princess of Antioch through her marriage to Bohemund II. She was the third daughter of King Baldwin II of Jerusalem and Morphia of Melitene. ... Melisende (1105 – September 11, 1161) was Queen of Jerusalem from 1131 to 1153. ... Fulk of Anjou (1092 – November 10, 1143), king of Jerusalem from 1131, was the son of Fulk IV, count of Anjou, and his wife Bertrada (who ultimately deserted her husband and became the mistress of Philip I of France). ...


Life in the early kingdom

Crusader Jerusalem.
Crusader Jerusalem.

The Latin population of the kingdom was always small; although a steady stream of settlers and new crusaders continually arrived, most of the original crusaders who fought in the First Crusade simply went home. According to William of Tyre, "barely three hundred knights and two thousand foot soldiers could be found" in the kingdom in 1100 during Godfrey's siege of Arsuf.[3] From the very beginning, the Latins were little more than a colonial frontier exercising rule over the native Muslim, Greek and Syrian population, who were more populous in number. But Jerusalem came to be known as Outremer, the French word for "overseas," and as new generations grew up in the kingdom, they also began to think of themselves as natives, rather than immigrants. Although they never gave up their core identity as Western Europeans or Franks, their clothing, diet, and commercialism integrated much Oriental, particularly Byzantine, influence. As the chronicler Fulcher of Chartres wrote around 1124, Jerusalem during the Crusades, from Muirs Historical Atlas (1911) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... William of Tyre (c. ... Arsuf (also known as Arsur or Apollonia) was a Crusader city and fortress located in what is now Israel, about 15 kilometres north of Tel Aviv. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... Outremer, French for overseas, was the general name given the Crusader states established after the First Crusade; County of Edessa, Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli and especially the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... This article is about the Frankish people and society. ... Fulcher of Chartres (born around 1059 in or near Chartres) was a chronicler of the First Crusade. ...

"For we who were Occidentals now have been made Orientals. He who was a Roman or Frank has in this land been made into a Galilean or a Palestinean. He who was of Rheims or Chartres has now become a citizen of Tyre or Antioch. We have already forgotten the places of our birth; already these are unknown to many of us or not mentioned any more."[4] Reims (English traditionally Rheims) is a city of north-eastern France, 98 miles east-northeast of Paris. ... Chartres is a town and commune of France, préfecture (capital) of the Eure-et-Loir département. ...

The crusaders and their descendants often learned to speak Greek, Arabic, and other eastern languages, and intermarried with the native Christians (whether Greek, Syrian, or Armenian) and sometimes with converted Muslims.[5] Nonetheless, the Frankish principalities remained a distinctive Occidental colony in the heart of Islam. Arabic redirects here. ...


Fulcher, a participant in the First Crusade and chaplain of Baldwin I, continued his chronicle up to 1127. Fulcher's chronicle was very popular and was used as a source by other historians in the west, such as Orderic Vitalis and William of Malmesbury. Almost as soon as Jerusalem had been captured, and continuing throughout the 12th century, many pilgrims arrived and left accounts of the new kingdom; among them are the English Saewulf, the Russian Abbot Daniel, the Frank Fretellus, the Byzantine Johannes Phocas, and the Germans John of Wurzburg and Theoderich.[6] Aside from these, thereafter there is no eyewitness to events in Jerusalem until William of Tyre, archbishop of Tyre and chancellor of Jerusalem, who began writing around 1167 and died around 1184, although he includes much information about the First Crusade and the intervening years from the death of Fulcher to his own time, drawn mainly from the writings of Albert of Aix and Fulcher himself. From the Muslim perspective, a chief source of information is Usamah ibn Munqidh, a soldier and frequent ambassador from Damascus to Jerusalem and Egypt, whose memoirs, Kitab al i'tibar, include lively accounts of crusader society in the east. Further information can be gathered from travellers such as Benjamin of Tudela and Ibn Jubayr. Orderic Vitalis (1075 – c. ... William of Malmesbury (c. ... William of Tyre (c. ... The Archbishop of Tyre was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the Crusades and was established to serve the Catholic members of the diocese. ... There were six major officers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: constable, marshal, seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor. ... Albert of Aix-la-Chapelle (floruit circa AD 1100), historian of the first crusade, was born during the later part of the 11th century, and afterwards became canon and custos of the church of Aix-la-Chapelle. ... Usamah ibn Murshid ibn Munqidh (1095-1188, also Osama, Usama, Ussama, or Usmah; Arabic: ﺃﺳﺎﻣﺔ ﺑﻦ ﻣﻨﻘﺬ), an Arab historian, politician, and diplomat, was one of the most important contemporary Arab chroniclers during the time of the Crusades. ... The autobiography of Usāmah ibn-Munqidh To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Map of the route Benjamin of Tudela (flourished 12th century) was a medieval Spanish Jewish Rabbi, traveler and explorer. ... Ibn Jubayr (1145-1217) (Arabic: ) was an Arab-Spanish geographer, traveler, and poet. ...


Demographics

In the 13th century, John of Ibelin drew up a list of fiefs and the number of knights owed by each; unfortunately this probably reflects the 13th-century kingdom, not the 12th, and gives no indication of the non-noble, non-Latin population. The Kingdom at first was virtually bereft of a loyal subject population and had few knights and peers to implement the laws and orders of the realm. However, as trading firms from Europe and knights from the military orders arrived, the affairs of the Kingdom improved. Further immigration continued over time to increase the Frankish population to an estimated 25-35% of the realm by the 1180s. Many Muslims also returned to the Kingdom, having fled the initial conquest, and others emigrated from further east. John of Ibelin (1215– December, 1266), count of Jaffa and Ascalon, was a noted jurist and the author of the longest legal treatise from the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ...


It is impossible to give an accurate estimate of the population of the kingdom, but it has been estimated that there were at most 120 000 Franks and 100 000 Muslims living in the cities, with another 250 000 Muslim and Eastern Christian peasants in the countryside.[7] William of Tyre recorded that in 1183 a census was taken to determine the number of men available to defend against an invasion, and also to determine the amount of tax that could be obtained from the inhabitants, Muslim or Christian. If, however, the population was actually counted, William did not record the number.[8]


The kingdom was essentially based on the feudal system of contemporary western Europe, but with many important differences. First of all, the kingdom was situated within a relatively small area, with little agricultural land. Since ancient times it had been an urban economy, unlike medieval Europe; in fact, although the nobility technically owned land, they preferred to live in Jerusalem or the other cities, closer to the royal court. As in Europe the nobles had their own vassals and were themselves vassals to the king. However, agricultural production was regulated by the iqta, a Muslim system of land ownership and payments roughly (though far from exactly) equivalent to the feudal system of Europe, and this system was not heavily disrupted by the Crusaders. Roland pledges his fealty to Charlemagne; from a manuscript of a chanson de geste. ... Tax farming was originally a Roman practise whereby the burden of tax collection was removed from the Roman State to private individuals or groups. ...


Although Muslims (as well as Jews and Eastern Christians) had virtually no rights in the countryside, where they were in theory the property of the Crusader lord who owned the land, tolerance for other faiths was in general higher than that found elsewhere in the Middle East. Greeks, Syrians, and Jews continued to live as they had before, subject to their own laws and courts, with their former Muslim overlords simply replaced by the Crusaders; Muslims now joined them at the lowest level of society. The ra'is, the leader of a Muslim or Syrian community, was a kind of vassal to whatever noble owned his land, but as the Crusader nobles were absentee landlords the ra'is and their communities had a high degree of autonomy. In the cities, Muslims and Eastern Christians were free, although no Muslims were permitted to live in Jerusalem itself. However, they were second-class citizens and played no part in politics or law, and owed no military service to the crown; likewise, citizens of the Italian city-states owed nothing despite living in their own quarters in the port cities.


At any given time there were also an unknown number of Muslim slaves living in the Kingdom. No Christian, whether Western or Eastern, was permitted by law to be sold into slavery, but this fate was as common for Muslim prisoners of war as it was for Christian prisoners taken by the Muslims. Escape was probably not difficult and fugitive slaves were always a problem, but the only legal means of manumission was conversion to (Catholic) Christianity. Slave redirects here. ...


There were many attempts to attract settlers from Europe, which would free the Kingdom economically from reliance upon the suspect Arab, Syrian, and Greek populations, but large-scale immigration and colonisation was beyond the ability of medieval Europe. Thus, although there was an incipient and growing free Frank peasant population in the countryside, it was relatively small, and crusader armies also tended to be small, drawn from the French families of the cities. This meant that a minority of Westerners were left to govern a large and very foreign population of Arabs, Greeks and Syrians, who could not be relied upon for manpower or ultimate allegiance to the kingdom.


The problem of lack of manpower was solved to some extent by the creation of the military orders. The Knights Templar and the Knights Hospitaller were both founded in the early years of the kingdom, and they often took the place of the nobles in the countryside. Although their headquarters were in Jerusalem, the knights themselves often lived in vast castles and bought land that the other nobles could no longer afford to keep. Templar and Hospitaller houses were established throughout Europe as well, and new recruits were sent to the Holy Land, further bolstering the manpower of the military orders. However, the military orders were under the direct control of the Pope, not the king; they were essentially autonomous and technically owed no military service, though in reality they participated in all the major battles. For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... Baron Vassiliev, a 19th-century Knight Commander The Knights Hospitaller (also known as the Sovereign Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta, Knights of Malta, Knights of Rhodes, and Chevaliers of Malta) was an organization that began as an Amalfitan hospital founded in Jerusalem in 1080... For other uses, see Castle (disambiguation). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      The Pope (from Latin...


After the loss of Jerusalem in 1187, virtually the entire population of Franks and Italians fled back to Europe. The recovery of the Mediterranean littoral during the Third Crusade allowed for some Frankish repopulation of the coastal cities. The remaining cities had a more homogenous Western, Catholic, population, and for the remainder of the Kingdom, the population remained predominantly Frankish and Italian. The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ...


Economy

The urban composition of the area, combined with the presence of the Italian merchants, led to the development of an economy that was much more commercial than it was agricultural. Palestine had always been a crossroads for trade; now, this trade extended to Europe as well. European goods, such as the woolen textiles of northern Europe, made their way to the Middle East and Asia, while Asian goods were transported back to Europe. Jerusalem was especially involved in the silk, cotton and spice trade; other items that first appeared in Europe through trade with crusader Jerusalem included oranges and sugar, the latter of which chronicler William of Tyre called "very necessary for the use and health of mankind." In the countryside, wheat, barley, legumes, olives, grapes, and dates were also grown. The Italian city-states made enormous profits from this trade, thanks to commercial treaties like the Pactum Warmundi, and it influenced their Renaissance in later centuries. A 2003 satellite image of the region. ... For other uses, see Wool (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Textile (disambiguation). ... The Pactum Warmundi was a treaty of alliance established in 1123 between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and the Republic of Venice. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ...


Jerusalem also collected money through tribute payments, first from the coastal cities which had not yet been captured, and later from other neighbouring states such as Damascus and Egypt, which the crusaders could not conquer directly. After Baldwin I extended his rule over Oultrejordain, Jerusalem also gained revenue from the taxation of Muslim caravans passing from Syria to Egypt or Arabia. The money economy of Jerusalem meant that their manpower problem could be partially solved by paying for mercenaries, an uncommon occurrence in medieval Europe. Mercenaries could be fellow European crusaders, or, perhaps more often, Muslim soldiers, including the famous Turcopoles. A camel train is a series of camels carrying goods or passengers in a group as part of a regular or semi-regular service between two points. ... The Arabian Peninsula The Arabian Peninsula is a mainly desert peninsula in Southwest Asia at the junction of Africa and Asia and an important part of the greater Middle East. ... For other uses, see Mercenary (disambiguation). ... During the Crusades, turcopoles or turcopoliers (Greek: sons of Turks) were mounted archers. ...


Education

Jerusalem was the centre of education in the kingdom. There was a school in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; the relative wealth of the merchant class meant that their children could be educated there along with the children of nobles - it is likely that William of Tyre was a classmate of future king Baldwin III. The basic skills of reading and writing Latin were taught at the school in the Holy Sepulchre, but higher education had to be undertaken at one of the universities in Europe; the development of a university was impossible in the culture of crusader Jerusalem, where warfare was far more important than philosophy or theology. Nonetheless, the nobility and general Frankish population were noted for the high literacy: lawyers and clerks were in abundance, and the study of law, history, and other academic subjects was a beloved pastime of the royal family and the nobility. Jerusalem also had an extensive library not only of ancient and medieval Latin works but also of Arabic literature, much of which was apparently captured from Usamah ibn Munqidh and his entourage during a raid in the 1150s. The Holy Sepulchre also contained the kingdom's scriptorium, where royal charters and other documents were produced. Aside from Latin, the standard written language of medieval Europe, the populace of crusader Jerusalem also communicated in vernacular forms of French and Italian; Greek, Armenian, and even Arabic were also not uncommonly mastered by Frankish settlers. Baldwin III (1130-1162) was king of Jerusalem from 1143-1162. ... The first European medieval institutions generally considered to be universities were established in Italy, France, and England in the late 11th and the 12th centuries for the study of arts, law, medicine, and theology. ... A Scriptorium was a room or building, usually within a Christian monastery where, during medieval times, manuscripts were written. ...


Art and architecture

In Jerusalem itself the greatest architectural endeavour was the expansion of the Church of the Holy Sepulchre in western Gothic style. This expansion consolidated all the separate shrines on the site into one building, and was completed by 1149. Outside of Jerusalem, castles and fortresses were the major focus of construction: Kerak and Montreal in Oultrejordain and Ibelin near Jaffa are among the numerous examples of crusader castles. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2560 × 1920 pixel, file size: 2. ... Krak des Chevaliers, also transliterated Crac des Chevaliers, is a Crusader fortress in Syria and one of the most important preserved medieval military architectures in the world. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ... The western facade of Reims Cathedral, France. ... Kerak (also Karak) (Arabic: كرك) is a region in Jordan that contains a famous Crusader castle. ... Montreal was a Crusader castle located in Idumaea (Edom) on the eastern side of the Jordan river. ... Oultrejordain or Oultrejourdain (French for beyond the Jordan) was the name used during the Crusades for an extensive and partly undefined region to the east of the Jordan river, an area known in ancient times as Edom and Moab. ... The Ibelin coat of arms. ... Jaffa (Hebrew יָפוֹ, Standard Hebrew Yafo, Tiberian Hebrew Yāp̄ô; Arabic يَافَا Yāfā; also Japho, Joppa), is an ancient city located in Israel. ...


Crusader art was a mix of Western, Byzantine, and Islamic styles. The major cities featured baths, interior plumbing, and other advanced hygienic tools which were lacking in most other cities and towns throughout the world. The foremost example of crusader art are perhaps the Melisende Psalter, an illuminated manuscript commissioned between 1135 and 1143 and now located in the British Library, and the sculpted Nazareth Capitals. Paintings and mosaics were popular forms of art in the kingdom, but many of these were destroyed by the Mamluks in the 13th century; only the most durable fortresses survived the reconquest. Byzantine monumental Church mosaics are a crowning glory of Medieval Art. ... The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ Pantocrator on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... The Taj Mahal, Agra. ... The Melisende Psalter (London, British Library, MS Egerton 1139) is an illuminated manuscript commissioned around 1135 in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, probably by King Fulk for his wife Queen Melisende. ... In the strictest definition of illuminated manuscript, only manuscripts decorated with gold or silver, like this miniature of Christ in Majesty from the Aberdeen Bestiary (folio 4v), would be considered illuminated. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... Mamluk Flag Eastern Mediterranean 1450 Capital Cairo Language(s) Arabic, Kipchak Turkic[1] Religion Islam Government Monarchy History  - As-Salih Ayyub Death 1250  - Battle of Ridanieh 1517 Today part of  Egypt  Saudi Arabia  Syria  Palestine  Israel  Lebanon  Jordan  Turkey  Libya A Mamluk cavalryman, drawn in 1810 A mamluk (Arabic: مملوك (singular...


Government and legal system

The Tower of David in Jerusalem as it appears today
The Tower of David in Jerusalem as it appears today

Immediately after the First Crusade, land was distributed to loyal vassals of Godfrey, forming numerous feudal lordships within the kingdom. This was continued by Godfrey's successors. The king was also assisted by a number of officers of state. Because the nobles tended to live in Jerusalem rather than on estates in the countryside, they had a larger influence on the king than they would have had in Europe. The nobles formed the haute cour (high court), one of the earliest forms of parliament that was also developing in western Europe. The court consisted of the bishops and the higher nobles, and was responsible for confirming the election of a new king (or a regent if necessary), collecting taxes, minting coins, allotting money to the king, and raising armies. The haute cour was the only judicial body for the nobles of the kingdom, hearing criminal cases such as murder, rape, and treason, and simpler feudal disputes such as recovery of slaves, sales and purchases of fiefs, and default of service. Punishments included forfeiture of land and exile, or in extreme cases death. The first laws of the kingdom were, according to tradition, established during Godfrey of Bouillon's short reign, but were more probably established by Baldwin II at the Council of Nablus in 1120, although no written laws survive from earlier than the 13th century (the so-called Assizes of Jerusalem). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 702 KB) Tower Of David (Citadel), Jerusalem Taken with Nikon D100, Jerusalem Easter 03/2005 by Wayne McLean ( jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Jerusalem Tower of David Categories: Jerusalem ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3008x2000, 702 KB) Tower Of David (Citadel), Jerusalem Taken with Nikon D100, Jerusalem Easter 03/2005 by Wayne McLean ( jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Jerusalem Tower of David Categories: Jerusalem ... Tower of David Migdal David in Jerusalem as it appears today The Tower of David is Jerusalems citadel, a historical and archaeological site of world importance. ... For other uses, see Jerusalem (disambiguation). ... The Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, created in 1099, was divided into a number of smaller seigneuries. ... There were six major officers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: constable, marshal, seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor. ... The Haute Cour (High Court) was the feudal council of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... The House of Representatives Chamber of the Parliament of Australia in Canberra. ... Under the system of feudalism, a fiefdom, fief, feud or fee, consisted of heritable lands or revenue-producing property granted by a liege lord in return for a vassal knights service (usually fealty, military service, and security). ... The Council of Nablus was a council of ecclesiasic and secular lords in the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem, held on January 16, 1120. ... As Peter Edbury says, one group of sources from the Latin East that have long excited the attention of scholars are the legal treaties often known collectively, if somewhat misleadingly, as the Assises of Jerusalem. ...


There were other, lesser courts for non-nobles and non-Latins; the Cour des Bourgeois provided justice for non-noble Latins, dealing with minor criminal offences such as assault and theft, and provided rules for disputes between non-Latins, whose had fewer legal rights. Special courts such as the Cour de la Fond (for commercial disputes in the markets) and the Cour de la Mer (an admiralty court) existed in the coastal cities. The extent to which native Islamic and Eastern Christian courts continued to function is unknown, but the ra'is probably exercised some legal authority on a local level. For capital crimes, however, non-Latins would be tried in the Cour des Bourgeois (or even the Haute Cour if the crime was sufficiently severe). Flag of the Lord High Admiral The Admiralty was formerly the authority in the United Kingdom responsible for the command of the Royal Navy. ...


The king was recognised as head of the Haute Cour, although he was legally only primus inter pares. The king and the royal court were normally located in Jerusalem, but due to the prohibition on Muslim inhabitants, the capital was small and underpopulated. The king just as often held court at the far more important cities of Acre, Nablus, Tyre, or wherever else he happened to be. In Jerusalem, the royal family lived firstly on the Temple Mount, before the foundation of the Knights Templar, and later in the palace complex surrounding the Tower of David; there was another palace complex in Acre. First among equals redirects here. ... Map of the West Bank, with Nablus in the center north. ... The Temple Mount as it appears today. ... For other uses, see Knights Templar (disambiguation). ... Tower of David Migdal David in Jerusalem as it appears today The Tower of David is Jerusalems citadel, a historical and archaeological site of world importance. ...


Jerusalem in the mid-12th century

Edessa and Damascus

Baldwin II was succeeded in 1131 by his daughter Melisende, who ruled jointly with her husband Fulk, the former Count of Anjou. During their reign Jerusalem exercised its greatest economic and artistic expansion. Fulk, a renowned military commander, was faced with a new and more dangerous enemy - the Atabeg Zengi of Mosul. Although Fulk held off Zengi throughout his reign, William of Tyre criticized Fulk for not securing the borders; the northern crusader states were also beginning to resent Jerusalem's suzerainty and fought back against Fulk. Fulk died in a hunting accident in 1143, and Zengi took advantage of his death by successfully conquering Edessa in 1144. Queen Melisende, now regent for her elder son, Baldwin III, appointed a new constable, Manasses of Hierges, to head the army after Fulk's death, and a Second Crusade arrived by 1147. Melisende (1105 – September 11, 1161) was Queen of Jerusalem from 1131 to 1153. ... Fulk of Anjou (1092 – November 10, 1143), king of Jerusalem from 1131, was the son of Fulk IV, count of Anjou, and his wife Bertrada (who ultimately deserted her husband and became the mistress of Philip I of France). ... Counts of Anjou, c. ... Imad ad-Din Atabeg Zengi (also Zangi, Zengui, Zenki, or Zanki) (1087- September 14, 1146) was the son of Aq Sunqur al-Hajib, governor of Aleppo under Malik Shah I. His father was beheaded for treason in 1094, and Zengi was brought up by Karbuqa, the governor of Mosul. ... Baldwin III (1130-1162) was king of Jerusalem from 1143-1162. ... Manasses of Hierges was an important crusader lord, and constable of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... The fall of Edessa, seen here on the right of this map (c. ...


Meeting in Acre in 1148, the crusading kings Louis VII of France and Conrad III of Germany decided to attack the friendly Emir of Damascus, with whom peace had been established during the reign of Fulk in order for both states to avoid the advances of Zengi and his son and successor Nur ad-Din. The western crusaders saw Damascus as an easy target, and young Baldwin III, perhaps eager to impress the famous European monarchs, agreed with their plan. This was in direct opposition to the advice of Queen Melisende and constable Manasses, as they and the other crusader states saw Aleppo as the main target that would allow for the recapture of Edessa. The crusade ended in defeat by 1148 with the disastrous Siege of Damascus. Louis VII the Younger (French: Louis VII le Jeune) (1120 – September 18, 1180) was King of France from 1137 to 1180. ... King Conrad III (Cunradus rex) in a 13th-century miniature. ... For other uses, see Damascus (disambiguation). ... al-Malik al-Adil Nur ad-Din Abu al-Qasim Mahmud Ibn Imad ad-Din Zangi (1118 – May 15, 1174), also known as Nur ed-Din, Nur al-Din, etc. ... Location of the governorate of Aleppo within Syria Aleppo (Arabic: [ḥalab], ) is a city in northern Syria, capital of the Aleppo Governorate. ... The Siege of Damascus took place over only four days, from July 23 to July 27, 1148, during the Second Crusade. ...

Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus, who became a close ally of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.
Byzantine Emperor Manuel I Comnenus, who became a close ally of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

Painting of Manuel I Comnenus File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Painting of Manuel I Comnenus File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Manuel I Comnenus (Greek: Μανουήλ Α ο Κομνηνός; November 28, 1118 – September 24, 1180), was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. ...

Alliance with the Byzantine Empire

Melisende continued to rule as regent long after Baldwin came of age, until her government was overthrown by Baldwin in 1153: the two agreed to split the kingdom in half, with Baldwin ruling from Acre in the north and Melisende ruling from Jerusalem in the south, but both knew that this situation was untenable. Baldwin soon invaded his mother's possessions, defeated Manasses, and besieged his mother in the Tower of David in Jerusalem. Melisende surrendered and retired as regent, leaving Baldwin the sole monarch, but Baldwin appointed her his regent and chief advisor the next year. Baldwin III then conquered Ascalon from the Fatimids, the last Egyptian outpost on the Palestinian coast. At the same time, however, the overall crusader situation became worse, as Nur ad-Din succeeded in taking Damascus and unifying Muslim Syria under his rule. Tower of David Migdal David in Jerusalem as it appears today The Tower of David is Jerusalems citadel, a historical and archaeological site of world importance. ... The Siege of Ascalon took place in 1153, resulting in the capture of that Egyptian fortress by the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ...


Baldwin now faced formidable difficulties. He was chronically short of men and resources with which to defend his realm, and to make matters worse the supply of help from the west had dried up almost completely. Therefore, he turned to the only other source of aid available: the Byzantine Emperor. In order to bolster the defences of the Kingdom against the growing strength of the Muslims, Baldwin III made the first direct alliance with the Byzantine Empire in the history of the kingdom, marrying Theodora Comnena, a niece of emperor Manuel I Comnenus; Manuel also married Baldwin's cousin Maria. As crusade historian William of Tyre put it, the hope was that Manuel would be able "to relieve from his own abundance the distress under which our realm was suffering and to change our poverty into superabundance". Although Baldwin died childless in 1162, a year after his mother Melisende, the kingdom passed to his brother Amalric I, who renewed the alliance negotiated by Baldwin. The value of the alliance was soon demonstrated in 1164 when, the crusaders suffered a very serious defeat at the Battle of Harim just outside Antioch. The Prince of Antioch, Bohemund III, was captured by Nur ed-Din along with many other important barons. As Amalric was away campaigning far to the south at the time, there seemed every chance that Antioch would fall to Nur ad-Din. The emperor Manuel immediately sent a large Byzantine force to the area, and Nur ad-Din retreated. Manuel also paid the ransom to release the Prince of Antioch. The new alliance had saved the kingdom from disaster. Theodora Comnena (born c. ... Manuel I Comnenus (Greek: Μανουήλ Α ο Κομνηνός; November 28, 1118 – September 24, 1180), was a Byzantine Emperor of the 12th century who reigned over a crucial turning point in the history of Byzantium and the Mediterranean. ... Maria of Antioch (1145-1182) was the daughter of Constance of Antioch and her first husband Raymond of Poitiers. ... William of Tyre (c. ... Amalric I (also Amaury or Aimery) (1136 – July 11, 1174) was King of Jerusalem 1162–1174, and Count of Jaffa and Ascalon before his accession. ... Combatants Aleppo, Mosul Principality of Antioch, County of Tripoli Commanders Nur ad-Din Raymond III of Tripoli, Bohemund III of Antioch, Joscelin III of Edessa, Hugh VIII of Lusignan Strength Unknown Unknown Casualties Unknown 10 000? Raymond, Bohemund, Joscelin, and Hugh taken captive The Battle of Harim was fought on... Bohemund III of Antioch (1144-1201), also know as the Stammerer, was ruler of the principality of Antioch (a crusader state) from 1163 to his death. ...


Amalric was forced to divorce his first wife Agnes of Courtenay in order to succeed to the throne. Amalric's reign was characterized by competition between himself and Manuel on the one hand, and Nur ad-Din and his wily some-time subordinate Saladin on the other, over control of Egypt. Amalric's first expedition to Egypt came in 1163, and a long series of alliances and counter-alliances between Amalric, the viziers of Egypt, and Nur ad-Din led to four more invasions by 1169. The Egyptian campaigns were supported by Emperor Manuel, and Amalric married a great-niece of the emperor, Maria Comnena. In 1169, Manuel sent a large Byzantine fleet of some 300 ships to assist Amalric, and the town of Damietta was placed under siege. However, due to the failure of the Crusaders and the Byzantines to co-operate fully, the chance to capture Egypt was thrown away. The Byzantine fleet sailed only with provisions for three months: by the time the crusaders were ready, supplies were already running out, and eventually the fleet retired. Each side sought to blame the other for failure, but both also knew that they depended on each other: the alliance was maintained, and plans for another campaign in Egypt were made, which ultimately were to come to naught. Amalric ultimately failed in his bid to conquer Egypt. In the end, Nur ad-Din was victorious and Saladin established himself as Sultan of Egypt. The death of both Amalric and Nur ad-Din in 1174 ensured the dominance of Saladin, whose power soon spread over Nur ad-Din's Syrian possessions as well, completely surrounding the crusader kingdom. And with the death of the pro-western Emperor Manuel in 1180, the Kingdom of Jerusalem also lost its most powerful ally. Agnes of Courtenay (c. ... Saladin, properly known as Salah al-DÄ«n Yusuf ibn Ayyub (Arabic: , Kurdish: ) (c. ... Maria Comnena (c. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ...


Disaster and recovery

Saladin, from a 12th-century Arab codex.
Saladin, from a 12th-century Arab codex.

Amalric was succeeded by his young son, Baldwin IV, who was discovered at a very young age to be a leper. Baldwin nevertheless proved an effective and energetic king and military commander. His mother, Agnes of Courtenay, returned to court, but her influence has been greatly exaggerated by earlier historians. Her role in appointing Eraclius, archbishop of Caesarea, as Patriarch of Jerusalem, followed the precedent of Queen Melisende: however, it sparked a grudge in Eraclius's rival, William of Tyre. His writings, and those of his continuators in the Chronicle of Ernoul, damaged her political and sexual reputation until recent years. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... First page of the Codex Argenteus A codex (Latin for block of wood, book; plural codices) is a handwritten book, in general, one produced from Late Antiquity through the Middle Ages. ... William of Tyre discovers Baldwins first symptoms of leprosy (MS of LEstoire dEracles (French translation of William of Tyres Historia), painted in France, 1250s. ... For the malady found in the Hebrew Bible, see the article Tzaraath. ... Agnes of Courtenay (c. ... Heraclius of Caesarea (died 1191) was archbishop of Caesarea and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. ... The Archbishop of Caesarea was one of the major suffragans of the Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem during the crusades. ... The term Patriarch of Jerusalem can refer to the holders of one of three offices: The Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem, who is one of the Roman Catholic patriarchs of the east The Orthodox Patriarch of Jerusalem, who is one of nine highest-ranking Eastern Orthodox bishops, called patriarchs The Armenian... William of Tyre (c. ... Ernoul is the name generally given to the author of a chronicle of the late 12th century dealing with the fall of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ...


Count Raymond III of Tripoli, his father's first cousin, was bailli or regent during Baldwin IV's minority. Baldwin reached his majority in 1176, and despite his illness he no longer had any legal need for a regent. Since Raymond was his nearest relative in the male line, with a strong claim to the throne, there was concern about the extent of his ambitions (although he had no direct heirs of his body). To balance this, the king turned from time to time to his uncle, Joscelin III of Edessa, after he was ransomed in 1176: as his maternal kin, the Courtenay family had no claim to the throne. Raymond III of Tripoli (1140 – 1187) was Count of Tripoli from 1152 to 1187 and Prince of Galilee and Tiberias in right of his wife Eschiva. ... There were six major officers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: constable, marshal, seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor. ... Joscelin III of Edessa (d. ...


As a leper, Baldwin would never produce an heir, so the focus of his succession passed to his sister Sibylla and his younger half-sister Isabella. Baldwin and his advisors recognised that it was essential for Sibylla to be married to a Western nobleman in order to access support from Europe in a military crisis. In 1176, he married her to William of Montferrat, a cousin of Louis VII and of Frederick Barbarossa. Unfortunately, William died only a few months later in 1177, leaving Sibylla pregnant with the future Baldwin V. Meanwhile, Baldwin IV's stepmother Maria, mother of Isabella, married Balian of Ibelin. Hansens disease, commonly known as leprosy, is an infectious disease caused by infection by Mycobacterium leprae. ... Top: Baldwin IV betrothes Sibylla to Guy; Bottom: Sibylla and Guy are married. ... Isabella of Jerusalem (c. ... William of Montferrat (early 1140s-1177), also called William Longsword (modern Italian Guglielmo Lungaspada, originally Occitan Guilhem Longa-Espia), was the Count of Jaffa and Ascalon, the eldest son of William V, Marquess of Montferrat and Judith of Babenberg. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ... Events November 25 - Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard. ... Top: Baldwin IV on his sickbed; Bottom: Baldwin V crowned. ... Drawing of Balian of Ibelins seal, from The Crusades: The Story of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, by T. A. Archer and Charles Lethbridge Kingsford (London & NY, 1894). ...


Baldwin defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard in 1177, giving Jerusalem a brief respite from Saladin's continual attacks. The succession, however, remained a difficult issue. In 1180 Baldwin blocked moves by Raymond of Tripoli to marry Sibylla off to Balian of Ibelin by arranging her marriage to Guy of Lusignan. Guy was the younger brother of Amalric of Lusignan, who had already established himself as a capable figure in the kingdom, supported by the Courtenays. More importantly, internationally, the Lusignans were useful as vassals of Baldwin and Sibylla's cousin Henry II of England. Baldwin also betrothed Isabella (aged 8) to Humphrey IV of Toron, stepson of the powerful Raynald of Chatillon - thereby removing her from the influence of the Ibelin family and her mother. Guy was appointed bailli during the king's bouts of illness. Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Baldwin IV, Raynald of Chatillon, Knights Templar Saladin Strength 375 knights, 80 Templars, Several thousand infantry About 30,000 Casualties 1100 killed 750 wounded About 27,000 The Battle of Montgisard was fought between Saladin and the Kingdom of Jerusalem on November 25, 1177. ... Drawing of Balian of Ibelins seal, from The Crusades: The Story of the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, by T. A. Archer and Charles Lethbridge Kingsford (London & NY, 1894). ... Imaginary portrait of Guy of Lusignan by François-Edouard Picot, c. ... Amalric II of Jerusalem or Amalric I of Cyprus, Amalric or Amaury II & I de Lusignan (1145 – April 1, 1205), King of Jerusalem 1197–1205, was an older brother of Guy of Lusignan. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... Humphrey IV of Toron (c. ... Raynald of Châtillon (also Reynaud, Renaud, Reynald, Reynold, Renald or Reginald of Chastillon) (c. ... The Ibelin coat of arms. ...


In 1183 Isabella married Humphrey at Kerak, during a siege by Saladin. Baldwin, now blind and crippled, went to the castle's relief on a litter, tended by his mother. He became disillusioned with Guy's military performance there (he was less competent than his brother Amalric), and was reconciled with Raymond. To cut Sibylla and Guy out of the succession, he had Sibylla's son Baldwin of Montferrat crowned Baldwin V, as co-king, although the boy was only 5. Kerak (also Karak) (Arabic: كرك) is a region in Jordan that contains a famous Crusader castle. ... Combatants Kingdom of Jerusalem Ayyubids Commanders Raynald of Chatillon, King Baldwin IV of Jerusalem Saladin Strength 8,000 22,000 Casualties Unknown Unknown The Siege of Kerak took place in 1183 between the Crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem and Saladin at Kerak Castle, stronghold of Raynald of Chatillon. ...


The succession crisis had prompted a mission to the west to seek assistance: in 1184, Patriarch Eraclius travelled throughout the courts of Europe, but no help was forthcoming. The chronicler Ralph Niger reports that his enormous retinue and opulent dress offended the sensibilities of many westerners, who felt that if the east was so wealthy, no help was needed from the west. Eraclius offered the kingship to both Philip II of France and Henry II of England; the latter, as a grandson of Fulk, was a first cousin of the royal family of Jerusalem, and had promised to go on crusade after the murder of Thomas Becket, but he preferred to remain at home to defend his own territories. However, William V of Montferrat did come to support his grandson Baldwin V // Events Abbeville receives its commercial charter. ... Heraclius of Caesarea (died 1191) was archbishop of Caesarea and Latin Patriarch of Jerusalem. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... Henry II of England (5 March 1133 – 6 July 1189) ruled as King of England (1154–1189), Count of Anjou, Duke of Normandy, Duke of Aquitaine, Duke of Gascony, Count of Nantes, Lord of Ireland and, at various times, controlled parts of Wales, Scotland and western France. ... St. ... William V of Montferrat (occ. ...


Baldwin IV died in spring 1185, and Baldwin V became king, with Raymond of Tripoli as regent and his great-uncle Joscelin of Edessa as his guardian. However, he was a sickly child and died in the summer of 1186. The kingdom passed to his mother Sibylla, on the condition that her marriage to Guy be annulled; she agreed, if only she could chose her own husband next time. The annulment did not take place: after being crowned, Sibylla immediately crowned Guy with her own hands. Raymond and the Ibelins attempted a coup, in order to place Baldwin IV and Sibylla's half-sister Isabella on the throne, with her husband Humphrey of Toron. Humphrey, however, defected to Guy. Disgusted, Raymond returned to Tripoli, and Baldwin of Ibelin also left the kingdom. Baldwin of Ibelin, also known as Baldwin of Ramla (died c. ...


Loss of Jerusalem and the Third Crusade

Main entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.
Main entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

Guy proved a disastrous ruler. His close ally Raynald of Chatillon, the lord of Oultrejourdain and of Kerak, provoked Saladin into open war by attacking Muslim caravans and threatening to attack Mecca itself. To make matters worse, Raymond had allied with Saladin against Guy and had allowed a Muslim garrison to occupy his fief in Tiberias. Guy was on the verge of attacking Raymond before Balian of Ibelin effected a reconciliation in 1187, and the two joined together to attack Saladin at Tiberias. However, Guy and Raymond could not agree on a proper plan of attack, and on July 4, 1187, the army of the Kingdom was utterly destroyed at the Battle of Hattin. Raynald was executed and Guy was imprisoned in Damascus. Over the next few months Saladin easily overran the entire Kingdom, save for the port of Tyre, which was ably defended by Conrad of Montferrat, the paternal uncle of Baldwin V, lately arrived from Constantinople. Main entrance Church of the Holy Sepulchre Taken with Nikon D100, Jerusalem Easter Sunday 27/03/2005 by Wayne McLean (jgritz) Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre... Main entrance Church of the Holy Sepulchre Taken with Nikon D100, Jerusalem Easter Sunday 27/03/2005 by Wayne McLean (jgritz) Let me know if you want to use it, and credit by Wayne McLean (Jgritz) File links The following pages link to this file: Church of the Holy Sepulchre... Raynald of Châtillon (also Reynaud, Renaud, Reynald, Reynold, Renald or Reginald of Chastillon) (c. ... This article is about the city in Saudi Arabia. ... Hebrew טבריה (Standard) Teverya Arabic طبرية Government City District North Population 39 900 (a) Jurisdiction 10 000 dunams (10 km²) Tiberias (British English: ; American English: ; Hebrew: , Tverya; Arabic: , abariyyah) is a town on the western shore of the Sea of Galilee, Lower Galilee, Israel. ... is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... // Events May 1 - Battle of Cresson - Saladin defeats the crusaders July 4 - Saladin defeats Guy of Lusignan, King of Jerusalem, at the Battle of Hattin. ... Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Guy of Lusignan Raymond III of Tripoli Strength Est. ... Imaginary portrait of Conrad by François-Édouard Picot, c. ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...


The subsequent fall of Jerusalem essentially ended the first Kingdom of Jerusalem. Much of the population, swollen with refugees fleeing Saladin's conquest of the surrounding territory, was allowed to flee to Tyre, Tripoli, or Egypt (whence they were sent back to Europe), but those who could not pay for their freedom were sold into slavery, and those who could were often robbed by Christians and Muslims alike on their way into exile. The capture of the city shocked Europe, resulting in the Third Crusade, which was launched in 1189, led by Richard Lionheart and Philip Augustus (Frederick Barbarossa died along the way). Combatants Ayyubids Kingdom of Jerusalem Commanders Saladin Balian of Ibelin The Siege of Jerusalem took place from September 20 to October 2, 1187. ... The Third Crusade (1189–1192), also known as the Kings Crusade, was an attempt by European leaders to reconquer the Holy Land from Saladin. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 to 6 April 1199. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe Auguste) (21 August 1165 – 14 July 1223) was the King of France from 1180 until his death. ... Frederick Barbarossa in a 13th century chronicle. ...


Guy of Lusignan, who had been refused entry to Tyre by Conrad, began to besiege Acre in 1189. During the lengthy siege, which lasted until 1191, Patriarch Eraclius, Queen Sibylla and her daughters, and many others died of disease. With the death of Sibylla in 1190, Guy now had no legal claim to the kingship, and the succession passed to Isabella. Her mother Maria and the Ibelins (now closely allied to Conrad) argued that Isabella and Humphrey's marriage was illegal, as she had been underage at the time; underlying this was the fact that Humphrey had betrayed his wife's cause in 1186. The marriage was annulled amid some controversy. (The annulment followed the precedents of Amalric I and Agnes, and - though not carried out - Sibylla and Guy - of succession dependent on annulling a politically inconvenient match.) Conrad, who was nearest kinsman to Baldwin V in the male line, and had already proved himself a capable military leader, then married Isabella, but Guy refused to concede the crown. The Old City of Akko in the 19th or early 20th century, looking south-west from atop the Land Wall Promenade, the open space now a parking lot. ... The Siege of Acre was the most important event of the Third Crusade, lasting from August 28, 1189 until July 12, 1191, and the first time in the history of the crusades that the king was compelled to personally see to the defense of the Holy Land. ...


When Richard arrived in 1191, he and Philip took different sides in the succession dispute. Richard backed Guy, his vassal from Poitou, while Philip supported Conrad, a cousin of his late father Louis VII. After much ill-feeling and ill-health, Philip returned home in 1191, soon after the fall of Acre. Richard defeated Saladin at the Battle of Arsuf in 1191 and the Battle of Jaffa in 1192, recovering most of the coast, but could not recover Jerusalem or any of the inland territory of the kingdom. Conrad was unanimously elected king in April 1192, but was murdered by the Hashshashin only days later. Eight days later, the pregnant Isabella was married to Count Henry II of Champagne, nephew of Richard and Philip, but politically allied to Richard. Guy was sold the Kingdom of Cyprus, after Richard had captured the island on the way to Acre, as compensation. The Battle of Arsuf was a battle of the Third Crusade in which Richard I of England defeated Saladin at Arsuf. ... On September 7 the army proceeded from Arsuf to Jaffa, which the Crusaders took and fortified strongly. ... The Hashashin (also Hashishin, Hashashiyyin or Assassins) were a religious sect of Ismaili Shiites from the Nizari sub-sect originating from post-Islamic Persia. ... Henry II of Champagne (July 29, 1166–1197), was count of Champagne from 1181 to 1197, and king of Jerusalem from 1192 to 1197. ... The Kingdom of Cyprus was a Roman Catholic Crusader kingdom on the island of Cyprus in the late Middle Ages. ...


The crusade came to an end peacefully, with the Treaty of Ramla negotiated in 1192; Saladin allowed pilgrimages to be made to Jerusalem, allowing the crusaders to fulfill their vows, after which they all returned home. The native crusader barons set about rebuilding their kingdom from Acre and the other coastal cities. Shortly after Richard left, Saladin died and his realm fell into civil war, leaving the Crusader lords further embittered at what could have been accomplished had the European princes remained to help rebuild. The Treaty of Ramla was signed by Saladin and Richard the Lionheart in June 1192 after the Battle of Arsuf. ...


The Kingdom of Acre

For the next hundred years, the Kingdom of Jerusalem clung to life as a tiny kingdom hugging the Syrian coastline. Its capital was moved to Acre and controlled most of the coastline of present day Israel and southern and central Lebanon, including the strongholds and towns of Jaffa, Arsuf, Caesarea, Tyre, Sidon, and Beirut. At best, it included only a few other significant cities, such as Ascalon and some interior fortresses, as well as suzerainty over Tripoli and Antioch. The new king, Henry of Champagne, died accidentally in 1197, and Isabella married for a fourth time, to Amalric of Lusignan, Guy's brother. A Fourth Crusade was planned after the failure of the Third, but it resulted in the sack of Constantinople in 1204 and the crusaders involved never arrived in the kingdom. Suzerainty (pronounced or ) is a situation in which a region or people is a tributary to a more powerful entity which allows the tributary some limited domestic autonomy to control its foreign affairs. ... Amalric II of Jerusalem or Amalric I of Cyprus, Amalric or Amaury II & I de Lusignan (1145 – April 1, 1205), King of Jerusalem 1197–1205, was an older brother of Guy of Lusignan. ... The Entry of the Crusaders into Constantinople (Eugène Delacroix, 1840). ... This article is about the city before the Fall of Constantinople (1453). ...

Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right).
Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right).

Both Isabella and Amalric died in 1205 and again an underage girl, Isabella and Conrad's daughter Maria of Montferrat, became queen of Jerusalem. In 1210 Maria was married to an experienced sexagenarian knight, John of Brienne, who succeeded in keeping the tiny kingdom safe. She died in childbirth in 1212, and John continued to rule as regent for their daughter Yolande. Schemes were hatched to reconquer Jerusalem through Egypt, resulting in the failed Fifth Crusade against Damietta in 1217; King John took part in this, but the crusade was a failure. John travelled throughout Europe seeking assistance, and found support only from Emperor Frederick II, who then married John and Maria's daughter, Queen Yolande. Frederick II led the Sixth Crusade in 1228, and claimed the kingship of Jerusalem by right of his wife, just as John had done. Indeed, the sheer size of Frederick II's army and his stature before the Islamic world was sufficient to regain Jerusalem, Bethlehem, Nazareth, and a number of surrounding castles without a fight: these were recovered by treaty with the Ayyubid Sultan Al-Kamil. However, the nobles of Outremer, led by the regent John of Ibelin, not only felt more could have been recovered militarily, but also resented his attempts to impose Imperial authority over their kingdom, resulting in a number of military confrontations both on the mainland and on Cyprus. Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (left) meets al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik (right), report by del Villani (Giovanni Villani?) Source: [1] for first small image with multiple persons. ... Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (left) meets al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik (right), report by del Villani (Giovanni Villani?) Source: [1] for first small image with multiple persons. ... The coronation of Maria of Montferrat and John of Brienne, from a late 13C MS of the Histoire dOutremer, painted in Acre. ... The coronation of John of Brienne as King of Jerusalem, with Maria of Montferrat, from a late 13th century MS of the Histoire dOutremer, painted in Acre. ... Yolande of Brienne (1212 - 1228), also known as Yolanda or Isabella II, inherited the Kingdom of Jerusalem as an infant in 1212. ... Frisian crusaders confront the Tower of Damietta, Egypt. ... Damietta is a port in Dumyat, Egypt on the Mediterranean Sea at the Nile delta, about 200 kilometres north of Cairo. ... Frederick II (December 26, 1194 – December 13, 1250), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, was a pretender to the title of King of the Romans from 1212 and unopposed holder of that monarchy from 1215. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Ayyubid or Ayyoubid Dynasty was a Muslim dynasty of Kurdish[1] origins which ruled Egypt, Syria, Yemen (except for the Northern Mountains), Diyar Bakr, Mecca, Hejaz and northern Iraq in the 12th and 13th centuries. ... Frederick II (left) meets al-Kamil (right) al-Kamil Muhammad al-Malik (الكامل محمّد الملك ) (died 1238) was an Ayyubid sultan of Egypt, praised for defeating two crusades but also vilified for returning Jerusalem to the Christians. ... Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from an article revision dated 2005-04-15, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


Fall of Jerusalem (1244)

The recovery was short-lived - not enough territory had been ceded to make the city defensible, and in 1244 the Ayyubids invited the Khwarezmian clans displaced by the Mongols to reconquer the city. In the resulting siege and conquest the Khwarezmians completely razed Jerusalem, leaving it in ruins and useless to both Christians and Muslims. The Seventh Crusade under Louis IX of France was inspired by this massacre, but it accomplished little save to replace the Ayyubids and Khwarezmians with the more powerful Mamluks as the Crusaders' main enemy in 1250. Khwarezmia (also with various alternate spellings, including Chorasmia and Khorezm) was a state located on what was then the coast of the Aral Sea, including modern Karakalpakstan across the Ust-Urt plateau and perhaps extending to as far west as the eastern shores of the North Caspian Sea. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... The Seventh Crusade was a crusade led by Louis IX of France from 1248 to 1254. ... Louis IX (25 April 1215 – 25 August 1270), commonly Saint Louis, was King of France from 1226 to his death. ... An Ottoman Mamluk, from 1810 Mamluks (or Mameluks) (the Arabic word usually translates as owned, singular: مملوك plural: مماليك) comprised slave soldiers used by the Muslim Caliphs and the Ottoman Empire, and who on more than one occasion seized power for...


Because the monarchy was now directly tied to powerful sovereigns in Europe, for the period from 1229 to 1268, the monarch resided in Europe and usually had a larger realm to pursue or take care of, thereby leaving governance to the Haute Cour. Kings of Jerusalem were represented by their baillis and regents. The title of King of Jerusalem was inherited by Conrad IV of Germany, son of Frederick II and Yolande, and later by his own son Conradin. With the death of Conradin the kingdom was inherited by King Hugh III of Cyprus. The territory descended into squabbling between the nobles of Cyprus and the mainland, between the remnant of the (now unified) County of Tripoli and Principality of Antioch, whose rulers also vied for influence in Acre, and especially between the Italian trading communities, whose quarrels erupted in the so-called "War of Saint Sabas" in Acre in 1257. After the Seventh Crusade, no organized effort from Europe ever arrived in the kingdom, although in 1277 Charles of Anjou bought the title of "King of Jerusalem" from a pretender to the throne. He never appeared in Acre but sent a representative, who, like Frederick II's representatives before him, was rejected by the nobles of Outremer. Conrad IV, Conrad of Hohenstaufen (April 25, 1228 Andria, Italy – May 21, 1254, Lavello), was king of Jerusalem (as Conrad II) 1228–1254, of Germany 1237–1254, and of Sicily (as Conrad I) 1250–1254. ... Portrait of Conradin from the Codex Manesse (Folio 7r). ... Hugh III of Cyprus, Hugh I of Jerusalem, Hugh of Antioch or Hugh of Lusignan (died March 24, 1284), King of Cyprus 1267–1284 and King of Jerusalem 1268–1284, was the son of Henry of Antioch and Isabella of Cyprus, the daughter of Hugh I of Cyprus. ... The War of Saint Sabas or San Saba (1256–1270) was a conflict between the Mediterranean maritime republics of Genoa (aided by Philip of Monfort, John of Arsuf, and the Knights Hospitaller) and Venice (aided by the Count of Jaffa and the Knights Templar). ... Statue of Charles I of Anjou by Arnolfo di Cambio, Rome, Palazzo dei Conservatori. ...


Despite their precarious geopolitical situation, the Frankish realm managed to maintain an economically viable and influential power. Frankish diplomats aimed to keep the Muslim powers divided against each other, utilizing the feared Assassins as much as other Islamic rulers. In their later years, faced with the threat of the Egyptian Mamluks, the Crusaders' hopes rested with a Franco-Mongol alliance. The Mongols were thought to be sympathetic to Christianity, and some Frankish princes had already submitted to Mongol overlordship in the mid-1200s, though others had refused any kind of alliance. The Mongols successfully attacked as far south as Damascus on these campaigns, but suffered a historic defeat by the Mamluks at the Battle of Ain Jalut in 1260, and the Mongols were limited to a few raids into Palestine in 1260 and 1300. The Mamluks eventually made good their pledge to cleanse the entire Middle East of the infidel Franks; in 1291, Acre, the last major Crusader stronghold, was taken by Sultan Khalil. This conquest was far less merciful than that of Saladin one hundred years before; much of the Frankish population was massacred or sold into slavery, such that Khalil could proclaim "A pearly white Frankish woman couldn't sell in the bazaar for a penny!" Among the Christian states in the Levant (in yellow) Little Armenia and the northern Frank kingdom of Antioch were the most regular allies of the Mongols. ... For other uses, see Mongols (disambiguation). ... // Combatants Egyptian Mamluks Mongols Commanders Saif ad-Din Qutuz Baibars Kitbuqa † Strength About 120,000 10-30,000 Casualties light all the force died or was captured The Battle of Ain Jalut (or Ayn Jalut, in Arabic: عين جالوت, the Eye of Goliath or the Spring of Goliath) took place on September... The Siege of Acre took place in 1291 and resulted in the fall of Acre, the last territory of the crusader Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... Al-Malik Al-Ashraf Khalil (Arabic: المالك الأشرف خليل ) (died 1293) was the Mamluk sultan of Egypt from 1290 until his assassination in December, 1293. ...


Thereafter, the Kingdom of Jerusalem ceased to exist on the mainland, but the kings of Cyprus for many decades hatched plans to regain the Holy Land. For the next seven centuries, up to today, a veritable multitude of European monarchs have used the title of King of Jerusalem. See Kings of Jerusalem. This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ...


Arms of Kingdom of Jerusalem

Coat of arms of the kingdom of Jerusalem.

The coat of arms of the kingdom of Jerusalem, which has gone through several different varieties of a cross Or (gold) on an argent (silver) field, is a famous violation of or exception to the rule of tincture in heraldry, which prohibits the placement of metal on metal or colour on colour. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 540 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (550 × 610 pixels, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/png) Image of the Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem made by Javier Salinas Fox using Photoshop CS2 for the exclusive purpose of the Wikipedia... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 540 × 599 pixelsFull resolution‎ (550 × 610 pixels, file size: 76 KB, MIME type: image/png) Image of the Coat of Arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem made by Javier Salinas Fox using Photoshop CS2 for the exclusive purpose of the Wikipedia... A modern coat of arms is derived from the medi val practice of painting designs onto the shield and outer clothing of knights to enable them to be identified in battle, and later in tournaments. ... For a list of words with definitions, see the Heraldic tincture category of words in Wiktionary, the free dictionary In heraldry, tinctures are the colours used to blazon a coat of arms. ... Heraldry in its most general sense encompasses all matters relating to the duties and responsibilities of officers of arms. ...


It is one of the earliest known coats of arms. The crosses are Greek crosses, one of the many Byzantine influences on the kingdom. This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


References

  1. ^ A single letter written to Pope Paschal II gives Godfrey's title as Advocatus Sancti Sepulchri ("Defender of the Holy Sepulchre"), but it is not clear whether this was his actual title; similar phrases were also used by the later kings. Godfrey is called rex ("king") by Robert the Monk, and princeps ("prince") by other crusade chroniclers, but he seems to have referred to himself as nothing more than dux ("duke"), his title at home in Lower Lorraine. See Jonathan Riley-Smith, "The Title of Godfrey of Bouillon", Bulletin of the Institute of Historical Research 52 (1979), 83-86, and Alan V. Murray, "The Title of Godfrey of Bouillon as Ruler of Jerusalem", Collegium Medievale 3 (1990), 163-78.
  2. ^ William of Tyre, A History of Deeds Done Beyond the Sea, trans. E.A. Babcock and A.C. Krey, Columbia University Press, 1943, vol. 1, bk. 11, ch. 27, pp. 507-508.
  3. ^ William of Tyre, vol. 1, bk. 9, ch. 19, pg. 408.
  4. ^ Fulcher of Chartres, A History of the Expedition to Jerusalem, trans. Frances Rita Ryan, University of Tennessee Press, 1969, bk. III, ch. XXXVII.3. pg. 271 (available online).
  5. ^ Fulcher, bk. III, ch. XXXVII.4, pg. 271.
  6. ^ Many chronicles of individual pilgrims are collected together in the Palestine Pilgrims' Text Society (London, 1884-); "Recueil de voyages et mémoires", published by the Société de Géographie (Paris, 1824-66); "Recueil de voyages et de documents pour servir à la géographie" (Paris, 1890-).
  7. ^ Benjamin Z. Kedar, "The Subjected Muslims of the Frankish Levant", in The Crusades: The Essential Readings, ed. Thomas F. Madden, Blackwell, 2002, pg. 244. Originally published in Muslims Under Latin Rule, 1100-1300, ed. James M. Powell, Princeton University Press, 1990. Kedar quotes his numbers from Joshua Prawer, Histoire du royaume latin de Jérusalem, tr. G. Nahon, Paris, 1969, vol. 1, pp. 498, 568-72.
  8. ^ William of Tyre, vol. 2, bk. 22, ch. 23, pp. 486-488.

Paschal II, né Ranierius (born in Bleda, near Forlì, Romagna - d. ... This article is about the church building in Jerusalem. ... Robert was a chronicler of the First Crusade. ... William of Tyre (c. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... The Palestine Pilgrims Text Society, also known as PPTS, provides a collection of medieval documents, primarily chronicles of individual pilgrims such as during the Crusades. ... Joshua Prawer (‎; November 22, 1917–April 30, 1990) was a notable Israeli historian and a scholar of the Crusades and Kingdom of Jerusalem whose work often attempted to portray Crusader society as a forerunner to later European colonialist expansion. ...

See also

This article is about the medieval crusades. ... This is a list of Kings of Jerusalem, from 1099 to 1291, as well as claimants to the title up to the present day. ... This a family tree of the kings of Jerusalem. ... The Crusader state of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, created in 1099, was divided into a number of smaller seigneuries. ... There were six major officers of the Kingdom of Jerusalem: constable, marshal, seneschal, chamberlain, butler, and chancellor. ... The Haute Cour (High Court) was the feudal council of the Kingdom of Jerusalem. ... As Peter Edbury says, one group of sources from the Latin East that have long excited the attention of scholars are the legal treaties often known collectively, if somewhat misleadingly, as the Assises of Jerusalem. ... Download high resolution version (454x1114, 156 KB)Crusader states, from Muirs Historical Atlas (1911), at http://www. ...

Sources

Primary sources

Fulcher of Chartres (born around 1059 in or near Chartres) was a chronicler of the First Crusade. ... William of Tyre (c. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion, because: If you disagree with its speedy deletion, please explain why on its talk page or at Wikipedia:Speedy deletions. ... Philip Khuri Hitti (1886 - 1978), born in Shimlan, Lebanon, was a Western scholar of Islam. ... Usamah ibn Murshid ibn Munqidh (also Osama, Usama, Ussama, or Usmah) (1095-1188), an Arab historian, politician, and diplomat, was one of the most important contemporary Arab chroniclers during the time of the Crusades. ... The autobiography of Usāmah ibn-Munqidh To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...

Secondary sources

  • Bernard Hamilton, The Leper King & His Heirs. Cambridge, 2000.
  • Carole Hillenbrand, The Crusades: Islamic Perspectives. Routledge, 2000.
  • P.M. Holt, The Age of the Crusades: The Near East from the Eleventh Century to 1517. Longman, 1989.
  • Benjamin Z. Kedar, Hans Eberhard Mayer & R. C. Smail, ed., Outremer: Studies in the history of the Crusading Kingdom of Jerusalem presented to Joshua Prawer. Yad Izhak Ben-Zvi Institute, 1982.
  • John L. La Monte, Feudal Monarchy in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1100-1291. Cambridge, Massachusetts, 1932.
  • Hans E. Mayer, The Crusades. Oxford University Press, 1965 (trans. John Gillingham, 1972).
  • Joshua Prawer, The Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem: European Colonialism in the Middle Ages. London, 1972.
  • Joshua Prawer, Crusader Institutions. Oxford University Press, 1980.
  • Jonathan Riley-Smith, The Feudal Nobility and the Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1174-1277. The Macmillan Press, 1973.
  • Jonathan Riley-Smith, The First Crusade and the Idea of Crusading. University of Pennsylvania, 1991.
  • Jonathan Riley-Smith, ed., The Oxford History of the Crusades. Oxford, 2002.
  • Steven Runciman, A History of the Crusades. Cambridge University Press, 1951-54.
  • Kenneth Setton, ed., A History of the Crusades. Madison, 1969-1989 (available online).
  • Steven Tibble, Monarchy and Lordships in the Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem, 1099-1291. Clarendon Press, 1989.
  • Jerusalem, Latin Kingdom of (1099-1291) - Article in the Catholic Encyclopedia

Carole Hillenbrand is professor of Islamic History at the University of Edinburgh. ... Oxford University Press (OUP) is a highly-respected publishing house and a department of the University of Oxford in England. ... Joshua Prawer (‎; November 22, 1917–April 30, 1990) was a notable Israeli historian and a scholar of the Crusades and Kingdom of Jerusalem whose work often attempted to portray Crusader society as a forerunner to later European colonialist expansion. ... Joshua Prawer (‎; November 22, 1917–April 30, 1990) was a notable Israeli historian and a scholar of the Crusades and Kingdom of Jerusalem whose work often attempted to portray Crusader society as a forerunner to later European colonialist expansion. ... Sir James Cochran Stevenson Runciman (7 July 1903 - 1 November 2000) was a British historian known for his work on the Middle Ages. ... The headquarters of the Cambridge University Press, in Trumpington Street, Cambridge. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
CATHOLIC ENCYCLOPEDIA: Latin Kingdom of Jerusalem (3155 words)
He was one of Jerusalem's most brilliant sovereigns, and thought to profit by the anarchy that prevailed in Egypt in order to acquire possession of that country, reaching Cairo twice (1167 and 1168); and, for the moment, having Egypt under his protectorate.
Incapable of defending his kingdom against Saladin, Guy was made prisoner at the battle of Tiberias (4 July, 1187), which was followed by the capture of Jerusalem (2 October), and purchased his liberty by yielding Ascalon to Saladin.
Alix of Champagne, Queen of Cyprus and daughter of King Henry I, claimed the regency on the ground of being Isabella of Brienne's nearest relative; and it was conferred upon her and her second husband Ralph, Count of Soissons, the imperial garrison, besieged in Tyre, being forced to capitulate.
Kingdom of Jerusalem - definition of Kingdom of Jerusalem in Encyclopedia (1613 words)
The Kingdom of Jerusalem was a short-lived country established in the 12th century by the First Crusade.
Baldwin successfully expanded the Kingdom, capturing the port cities of Acre, Sidon, and Beirut, and also exerted his suzerainty over the other Crusader States to the north - the County of Edessa (which he had founded), the Principality of Antioch, and the County of Tripoli.
The coat of arms of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, which has gone through several different varieties of a cross or (gold) on an argent (silver) field, is a famous violation of or exception to the rule of tincture in heraldry, which prohibits the placement of metal on metal or colour on colour.
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